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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Rationale of the Study
Language plays a vital role in literature because it conveys meaning
through written words that the author employed in the production of a literary
piece. Hence, English language is a big help in understanding any work of
literary art because it allows a literary work to be understood by reading,
analyzing, and interpreting it critically appealing to all human emotions.
Literature has two divisions: poetry and prose. Prose consists of
sentences and paragraphs without any metrical structures such as novels,
dramas, and short stories. It has various elements: plot, setting, characters,
conflict, literary devices, point of view and theme. On the other hand, poetry
consists of verses, lines and stanzas with metrical structure such as ballad, epic
and folk songs. Also, it is composed of different elements namely: meter, rhyme,
rhythm, voice, tone, figures of speech and theme. Both prose and poetry convey
ideas, thoughts and emotions but each of these has different artistic form of
writing.
One of the forms of prose is short story. It is a concise prose narrative that
is brief and has single setting giving complete treatment of its character and
subject (www.global.britannica.com). This characteristic shows that short story is
a good reading material because it allows the reader to glean easily the
meaningful events and the authors style of writing unlike novels that deals with

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complex plot, and characters putting the readers in the state of confusion due to
its complexity. The form of short story encourages a thorough and continuous
analysis of linguistic concepts for it does not involve metrical structure like
poems.
Furthermore, Filipino readers have been reading foreign writers not
considering the fact that many Filipino writers have contributed a lot of quality
literature in English.

It can be said that Philippine literature in English has

achieved a stature that has made it phenomenal since the inception of English in
Philippine culture. Subsequently, the works of Filipino writers are comparable of
some best works in the world (Kahayon et al. 3).
Carlos Bulosan is one of the most prominent Filipino writers of essays,
poems, and fiction. As a major figure of American, Asian-American, and
Philippine literary canons (www.kritikakultura.ateneo.net), he provides a point of
departure into a brief examination of different methodologies of reading Filipino
agency and subjectively in Asian-American studies. Bulosans writings expound
his mission in redefining the Filipino American experience and mark his growth
as a writer. One of these is The Laughter of My Father, a satirical indictment of
Philippine class society which has theme based on the lives of common Filipino
people (www.coconutblogspot.com). All of his writings are presented and
delivered in thorough use of language such as simple choice of words; clear and
detailed manner of writing. Carlos Bulosans short stories would lead to
continuous investigation of the linguistic concepts because he uses simple
words, forms, plot and simple variety of sentences.

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A lot of misinterpretations are frequently present in reading and analyzing
a literary text. This is often manifested when students are tasked to give their
interpretations in the class. They tend to give a mere shallow summary of the
story not bearing in mind the ways the writer used in writing.
Some students find it hard to interpret a short story because they do not
merely tackle on the conceptual components of the language. They fail to
consider the structures that are involved in composing a short story which often
leads to the confusion of the students with regards to authors style of writing.
One fails to investigate the linguistic concepts specifically its structure and form
within a story so that it can be easily exhaust both implicit and explicit meaning
on what the author imposes. One cannot set aside the form and structure of the
story because it affects the content itself. It is where the need to study the
stylistic properties that is involved in a literary piece for one can grasp easily the
universal meaning in relation with the worldview of the author.
Indeed, this study analyzed the relationship between language and
literature through investigating the linguistic concepts and literary devices that will
serve as revealing the universal themes in Carlo Bulosans selected stories. This
would lead to the proposal of lesson guides for the teachers of languages,
literature and communication department in order to lessen students weakness in
analyzing a literary text using English language.

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Theoretical Background of the Study
This study theorizes that Carlos Bulosans short stories: My Father Goes
to Court, My Fathers Tragedy, and The Soldier reveal linguistic concepts and
literary devices that help shape their universal themes.
Likewise, this study is anchored on Linear Grammar Theory, Seven
Functions of Language, and Formalistic Theory.
Linear Grammar Theory posits the idea on the structure of the sentence.
It treats linear pattern such as the choice of each successive category is
dependent upon the category immediately following it. According to Pesirla (4) as
qtd.in Erana, this successive segmentation analysis of a sentence is called
Immediate Constituent Analysis. It will be analyzed as to how it falls to its parts of
speech. This is designed to determine how small constituents or part of the
sentence.
According to Saussure (15), language is fundamentally an instrument of
communication. He asserts that each language at each moment of its existence
presents a certain form of organization; this is certainly not the effect of a function
that preexisted communication for language can have no function other than
communication. Based on this idea, language is reinforced by a detailed
examination of the actual role of linguistic activity in the evolution of languages.
Moreover, it is not true that the function of language is a cause of disorganization
leading to the grammatical leveling.

Carlos Bulosans My Father Goes to Court, My Fathers Tragedy, and The


Soldier reveal Linguistic Concepts, Literary Devices, and Universal Themes

Linear Grammar
Theory

Language Functions

Sentence
Patterns

Linguistic
Concepts

Formalistic Theory

Language
Functions

Literary
Devices
D Devices

THEME

Figure 1: A Schematic Presentation of Theoretical Background of the Study

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Furthermore, structural linguistic linear grammar structure consisting of
individual words one after another in a line. It has also a hierarchical structure
made up of layers of word groups. These aspects of sentence show the relation
between the sentence and its component elements. Immediate Constituent
Analysis it generally refers to the relationship between a construction and its
constituents (www.course.cug.cn). This analysis divides sentences until each
constituent will consist of only a word or meaningful part of a word
(www.britannica.com).
In the study conducted by Erana (3) on the selected Parables in the Bible
the study arrived on the conclusion that

sentence patterns grant the hidden

meanings of symbols in the parables, such as the revelation of the values


centered on human character. Also, Erana asserts that Linear-Grammar Theory
focuses on the structure of the sentence. It treats the sentence as an
alternatively series of slots to be filled by words of the category appropriated to
its slot.
Moreover, every grammatical part constitutes the establishment of the
sentence which is called the surface structure. It shows the proper phonological
information in order to express ideas; thoughts or meanings that correspond to
the actual spoken sentences (Yule 98-99). It allows one to understand how the
single word underlies an abstract representation. Primarily, this theory proposes
eight

basic

sentence

S+TV+DO,S+TV+IO+DO,
There+Be+S.

patterns

such

as,

S+TV+DO+OCa,

S+Vi,

S+LV+Ca,

S+TV+DO+OCn,

S+LV+Cn,
and

the

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The first pattern is S+Vi, where S is the subject being followed by Vi as
intransitive verb. The subject is the doer of the action or the focus of the
sentence. Intransitive verbs do not take objects because the verb itself completes
the meaning of the sentence. Sentences with intransitive verbs follow the S+Vi
pattern. Just like in the sentence that follows: David swam. Notice that the verb
swam can stand alone. It does not need an object. However, it can be followed
by modifiers. These modifiers may be single words, phrases or clauses. Another
example is, The baby slept in this crib. In this sentence, The baby is the subject
which is the doer of the intransitive verb slept being modified by in his crib as
adverbial phrase.
The second pattern is S+LV+Ca, where S is the subject followed by LV or
a linking verb and its Ca or adjective complement. The subject is the doer of the
verb or the focus of the sentence. Linking verbs link up a subject with an
adjective, noun, or a pronoun in the predicate. These words may be used as
linking verbs: am, is, are, was, were, have been, will be, appear, remain, smell,
sound, taste, seem, become, feel, grow, and look. An adjective complement
provides a clear description of the subjects characteristics. For instance, in the
sentence He felt proud and happy, it shows that He is the subject being
followed by a linking verb felt connecting adjective complement proud and happy
that describes the subject.
The third pattern is S+LV+Cn, where S is the subject which followed by
LV or linking verb and Cn as noun complement. The only difference is in
S+LV+Cn its linking verb takes a noun or a pronoun for its complement. The

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complement of a linking verb that is a noun or pronoun is called noun
complement that renames the subject. For example, in the sentence They are
my friends, it shows that They is the subject being followed by a linking verb are
connecting the noun complement my friends that renames the subject.
The fourth sentence pattern is S+TV+DO where S is the subject followed
by TV or transitive verb and its DO or direct object. The subject is the doer and
focus of the sentence. Transitive verbs need an object to complete its meaning.
The object refers to a thing or a person acted upon or the receiver of the action
done by the subject. Direct object is a noun, noun phrase, nominal clause or
pronoun that is acted upon by the action of transitive verb. It answers the
question what & who? For example, in the sentence The teacher gave a
sermon, it shows that The teacher is the subject and the doer of the transitive
verb gave that takes the direct object a sermon. It answers to the question: what
did the teacher give?
The fifth sentence pattern is S+TV+IO+DO, where S is the subject
followed by TV as transitive verb, IO as indirect object and DO as the direct
object. Sometimes transitive verbs may take two objects these are direct object
and indirect object. Direct object is the object acted upon by the action of the
transitive verb while indirect object receives the action of the direct object. The
indirect object is placed between the transitive verb and the direct object Indirect
object answers the questions to whom or for whom? For example, in the
sentence The teacher gave the student a sermon, it shows that The teacher/
teacher is the subject of the sentence being followed by the transitive verb gave

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and the indirect object the students that answers the question To whom did the
teacher gave the sermon?, a sermon is the direct object of this sentence that
receives the action gave.
S+TV+DO+OCa and S+TV+DO+OCn patterns are quite similar with the
fifth sentence pattern, S+TV+DO the only difference is that these patterns
consider objective complement as part of the sentence. Objective complement
could be a noun or an adjective. These are words that follow, describe and
renames the direct object that completes the whole thought of a sentence.
Adjective complement describes the direct object while noun complement
renames the direct object. For example, in the sentence The class elected
Nadine president, it shows that class is the subject followed by a transitive verb
elected and Nadine as its direct object where president is the noun complement
that renames Nadine being the direct object. For example, in the sentence The
child made her mother happy, it follows the sentence pattern S+TV+DO+OCn. In
this sentence The child or child is the subject followed by the transitive verb
made and her as its direct object where happy is the adjective complement that
describes her which is the direct object in the sentence.
The last pattern is There+Be+S , where there comes first and followed by
a Be-verb and the S as subject. This pattern is called expletive where the
sentence starts with There followed by be verbs such as am, is, was, and were
ending with the subject. For example, in the sentence, There was a girl named
Angela, it shows that There comes first followed by the linking verb was which
connects There and a girl as the subject.

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In relation to this study, Linear Grammar Theory is utilized in identification
of the visual representation on the surface structure which offers an extrinsic
meaning through labeling the different parts of the sentence in connection with
their underlying structure. This theory will satisfy the first sub-problem which
deals with the sentence patterns.
Seven functions of language by Halliday sees language as sets of
interrelated system that stresses its social nature, and that attempts to account
for grammatical, in terms of their communicative functions (Nunan 218). It is an
approach to language developed mainly by M.A.K Halliday in the U.K during
1960s, and later in Australia. This theory sees linguistics functions as part of the
surface structures that aims to represent the complex language systems that
connects form and function. It looks at language in terms of form and meaning
but pays very close attention to the linguistic level at which the analysis takes
place. This denotes that grammar is capable of making meaning through words.
For instance, when a writer wrote his own piece through language, it implicates
ideas by expressions consist sets of system. Obviously, this system clearly offers
the writers style of expressing ideas. For example, when the language is used to
express it involves meaning. The writer unconsciously uses his linguistic choice
especially the instinct to change the word order for more appropriate use.
On the other hand, some of the most interesting observations are made
not in terms of the components of language but in terms on how language is
used even how pauses are used (Yule 141). For example: In newspaper
headlines such as Trains collide, two die. This example shows that one can

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directly comprehend the situation according to the connection where the 1 st event
is related to the occurrence of the next event. A reader can also make sense of
notices like No shoes, no service, on shop windows in summer, understanding
that a conditional relation exists between the two parts. This implies that as
language user one is capable of more than simply recognizing the correct from
incorrect forms or structures of language but one also can cope with fragments.
Therefore, a reader has the ability to create complex discourse interpretations of
fragmentary linguistic messages (Yule 142).
The above examples focus on Discourse Analysis. This analysis is
concerned on the study of language in texts and conversation which is presented
beyond the sentence. It provides a context within the grammatical components
such as its functional and semantic meanings that determines the text into its
explicit formal elements in connection to its situation and environment
(www.beaugrande.com). It allows one to make an explicit interpretation as its
intended

functions

of

the

language

presented

in

the

sentence

(www.wyxy.snnu.edu.cn).
Moreover, the seven functions of language by Halliday are suitable to use
for this research to extract the given functions of the sentences upon inferring it
through the deep structure. It takes a functional orientation on several levels.
This means that a focus on what language does is more important than looking
at how it does. Halliday (13) insists that to understand the quality of texts one
must associate the connection between its meanings for what it does and why it
is valued as it is.

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He set standards in representing the complex language system.
Consequently, results in naming the seven functions of language: Instrumental,
Regulatory, Interactional, Personal, Representational, Heuristic, and Imaginative.
The first function is instrumental language function. This function is
used to fulfill a need on the part of the speaker. It is directly concerned with
obtaining food, drink and comfort. In relation to writing it is also to satisfy needs,
as in the letter of order or letter of invitation. For example, in the sentence I am
hungry, the speaker expresses a need to eat.
Second function, regulatory language is used to influence the behavior
of others. This function is used to persuade, to command, and to request other
people to do the things the speaker wants. It controls the behavior of others
through giving directions and rules. In writing, it is to control the behavior of
others as in directions and rules. For example, in the sentence Clean up your
mess, the speaker commands someone a task that needs to be done.
Third function, interactional language is used to develop social
relationships and ease the process of interaction. In writing it is concerned with
the dimension of talk such as conversation and dialogues of the characters in the
story as in courtship letters and dialogue journals. For example, in the sentence
What are you doing? the speaker interacts to someone by asking what he/she
is doing.
Fourth function, personal language function is used to express the
personal preferences and identity of the speaker. It is sometimes referred to as

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the here I am! function announcing oneself to the world. It is also to express
personal opinions, as in letter to editor. For example, in this sentence I am
currently residing in Cebu City, the speaker expresses his own identity.
Fifth function, representational language function is used to examine, to
relay, to request, and to narrate information. It is to convey information as the
speaker sees or hears in the environment. In writing, it is to convey information,
as in reports on fields of specialization and scientific breakthroughs. For
example, in the sentence She dances gracefully, the speaker narrates on what
he sees in his environment.
Sixth function, heuristic language function is used to learn and
experience the environment. This is manifested when the child uses language to
learn such as questions and answers or the kind of running commentary that
frequently accompanies children play. It is also used to seek information and to
find out about things such as in learning logs for students programs and
interviews in writing. For example, in the sentence I wonder why she said that;
what is so annoying about tapping a pencil? the speaker used the language in
learning his environment.
Lastly, imaginative

language function

is used to explore the

imagination. In writing it is to use language imaginatively, for example narrating


stories and jokes in imagining environment. For example, in the sentence I think
that I will become rich someday, the speaker used the language on visualizing
or imagining about his future (www.francisgilbert.co.uk).

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The Seven Functions of Language by Halliday, in relation to this study is
utilized in the identification of the intrinsic meaning that evolved in the sentence
through extracting the given function of language. This theory will satisfy the
second sub-problem about determining the dominant language function of Carlos
Bulosans selected short stories.
Also related to this study is the study on Carla M. Pacis Red Velvet Sofa
conducted by Carlo Sangutan. The study of Sangutan considered language
functions as an important ingredient in making meanings in a literary piece.
According to Sangutan combining the structure, the functions and the elements,
recondite meaning are now derived from the stories and this enables readers to
understand what concept the story conveys.

Formalistic Theory holds that a text is created of definite structural


elements. This theory focuses on the formalistic elements which composes a
story. These elements enable one to see the real beauty of the authors style of
writing. The elements that are being used in composing the genre of short story
must be analyzed detached from other influences such as biographical and
historical contexts.

According to Adam (4), formalistic theory gives emphasis on the literary


form rather than the content itself. It focuses on objective analysis of structure,
elements, devices, techniques and the artistic way of writing that composed a
literary work (www.iep.utm.edu.com). Kharbe (7) also stated that the form itself
should be as effective as to bring out the entire meaning. The form of literary art

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depends on the effective use of language as a medium which creates artistry in
writing.

Furthermore, a literary device is one of the objective components in


analyzing the form of a literary text. It refers to the typical structures used by
writers

in

their

works

in

conveying

messages

to

the

readers

(www.literarydevices.net). Also, it refers to the techniques used by writers in


unfolding the events of a story. These are tools in understanding on how a
particular story imposes information. These allow the readers to appreciate, to
interpret, and to analyze a literary work comprehensively.

One of these literary devices is Epiphany. It is also defined as a moment


of insight, discovery, or revelation by which a characters life is greatly altered
(Kennedy et al. 1473). This is characterized when a character was experiencing
a sudden realization in the decision he made which alter his perspectives in life.
In the autobiographical novel Stephen King by James Joyce, the epiphany is
manifested in several situations. Epiphany is presented in the situation when
Stephen took another path in his life. Upon spending his life of being as a priest,
Stephen suddenly realized that he would not waste his entire life as a priest. By
then, he is experiencing a moment of insight that he wanted to live in the real
world and to be creative like an artist. He sees in his mind the picture of art
where some boys are diving from the rocks and following the attractive girls
standing in the water.

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The above situations reveal the manifestation of epiphany because it
reflects an emotional moment of insight which marks a realization leading to a
transformation of Stephens life (www.literarydevices.net).
In the study made by Denise Hopkins (62) on free indirect discourse and
epiphany in Flannery O Connor stories he arrived at the conclusion that
OConnors stories are focused on the perception and reality. The conflict
dramatizes a characters thoughts in narrating the story which employed an
epiphany through a shift in perspective evidences on his thoughts and
prejudices. Thiss characters perspective is shaken on or proved to be in need of
shaking as the story moves towards some epiphanic events.
Similarly, in the study of Donschikowski (6), it revealed that the story is
concerned with some failure or deception, which results in realization and
disillusionment. The epiphany was best shown when the young boys psychic
discrepancy between the real and the ideal in life.
Another literary device is Eucatastrophe. It was coined by J.R.R Tolkien,
the author of The Lord of The Rings. For Tolkien, eucatastrophe is the antonym
for catastrophe which is the sudden occurrence of something bad, whereas
eucatastrophe is the sudden occurrence of something good. Within the story, that
meant that a bad situation was suddenly turned into a good situation
(winterfell.blogs.com).In short, the meaning of eucatastrophe is a sudden and
favorable resolution of events in a story a happy ending (www.enotes.com). For
example, J.R.R Tolkien eucatasrophe, at the end of The Lord of the Rings,

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Gollum forcibly takes away the Ring from Frodo suggesting that Sauron would
eventually take over Middle Earth. However, Gollum celebrates too eagerly and
clumsily and falls into the lava, whereby the ring is destroyed and with it Saurons
power. In a way, Gollum does what Frodo and the Fellowship of the ring intended
to do through the whole plot of the trilogy, which was to throw the ring into the
lake of fire in the heart of Mount Doom.
The next literary device is Flashback. It is an interruption in the story
wherein a writer inserts past events in order to provide background on the current
events of a narrative (www.literarydevices.net). This literary device allows
readers to gain an insight to the characters motivation and to provide a
background into the current conflict. Dream sequences and memories are
methods used to present flashbacks. This is used to convey the readers an
information regarding the characters background and give them an idea of the
characters motives for doing certain things later in the story. Therefore, a
flashback in the story deepens inner conflict. It provides stimulus for the conflict
and allows the reader to sympathize even with the villain. Another function of
flashbacks in a narrative is to increase tension. A mere mention of the past event
makes readers wish to know the secrets. For example, in the story Arthur Millers
Death of a Salesman, the author uses flashback to narrate Willy Lomans
memories from the past. Flashback is revealed on the scene where Willy talked
with his dead brother while playing cards with Charley. He relives a past
conversation in the present. This demonstrates a character that is physically
living in the present but mentally living in the memories and events of the past.

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Subsequently, foreshadowing is a literary device used for arranging
events and information in a narrative through giving hints and clues that prepare
for events will occur later in the story (www.foreshadowing.org).

It creates

suspense and prepares the reader for what will happen next, that makes final
outcomes seem inevitable (Morner and Rausch 87). In the story, The Necklace
by Maupassant, there are couples of scenes in the story that depicts
foreshadowing. The first scene is when Madame Forrestier lends her necklace to
Mathilde. The next scene would be when the couple was facing a crisis when
they lost the necklace. The necklace foreshadows the greediness; envy; and
difference between social classes (www.gradesower.com).
As quoted in Fe Abellanas study (73) foreshadowing was used by Goethe
in the classic Faust, a tragedy in two parts. The literary device is used at the
prologue of the tragedy where Goethe gives the readers a clue what would
happened in the story. It started when the devil Mephistopheles appear in the
throne of God and proposes that the confused and dissatisfied Faust is given to
him to test his faith.
In line with the aforementioned theories and related studies, the present
study analyzes the linguistic concepts and literary devices that helped shape the
universal themes in Carlos Bulosans select short stories as basis to propose
lesson guides.

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Statement of the Problem
This study analyzed the linguistic concepts and literary devices that help
shape the universal themes in Carlos Bulosans select short stories: My Father
Goes to Court, My Fathers Tragedy, and The Soldier as basis to propose lesson
guides.
Specifically, this study answered the following research questions:
1. What dominant linguistic concepts can be extracted in the selections in
terms of:
1.1 sentence patterns; and
1.2 language functions?
2. What dominant literary devices are revealed by the aforementioned in
terms of:
2.1 epiphany,
2.2 eucatastrophe
2.3 flashback; and
2.4 foreshadowing?
3. What universal themes are shaped by these linguistic concepts and
literary devices?
4. Based on the findings, what lesson guides can be proposed?

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Significance of the Study
The conduct of this study will be significant to a number of personalities:
teachers, students, researchers, and aspiring Filipino writers.

Teachers. This study will serve as a guide for them of interpreting a short
story through analyzing the linguistics concepts such as sentence patterns,
language functions and literary devices that are used in the story. Teachers can
easily facilitate the potentials of their students in thinking critically particularly in
analyzing and interpreting a literary piece by teaching them the relationship
between language and literature. This study enables the teachers to determine
their students difficulties and weaknesses in terms of giving interpretations in a
short story.

Students. This study will assist them of interpreting a short story critically
and thoroughly. It will broaden their skills in interpreting; analyzing and
determining the central message that is implied in a short story through
investigating the linguistics concepts and literary devices.

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Researchers. The result of this research study can be fed into another
research undertaking, and can be used as a replicate of a follow-up study or
similar study. Subsequently, the school will stand to benefit from this study since
the result will play a vital role to the empowerment of the traditional assessment
practices system of the school.
Aspiring Filipino Writers. This study is important for them as the result
will give them feedback on the relationship between language and literature. It
will let them note the role of language in conveying messages in a short story.
Their skills of thinking critically, creatively, will be more developed in interpreting
a short story.
Moreover, it is to obtain knowledge and form desirable attitudes for
understanding the purpose and nature between language and literature.

Scope and Limitations of Study


This study is limited only to the discovery of the role of language in
literature in Carlos Bulosans selected short stories: My Father Goes to Court, My
Fathers Tragedy, and The Soldier. Subsequently, it focuses solely on Carlos
Bulosans linguistic concepts, and literary devices that help shape the themes of
the stories as basis to propose lesson guides.

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Research Methodology
Method Used. Along all the assumed arguments, this investigation is
focused only on the selected short stories. This study utilizes the qualitative
method of research. Qualitative research is a term used for a range of research
strategies that has roots in the research of the social sciences such as
anthropology and sociology (Zulueta et al. 111). It involves collecting data within
natural settings, and the key data collecting instruments are the researches
themselves. The data of this research are verbal and not numerical. The basic
purpose of qualitative research is to describe, to interpret, to verify, and to
evaluate. The qualitative researcher analyses the data rationally rather than
statistically. Also the important contributions of qualitative researchers are their
ability to identify and to interpret patterns of human responses as a result of their
knowledge, experiences, and theoretical orientations to education. The document
reviews on, My Father Goes to Court, My Fathers Tragedy, and The Soldier,
serve as the main tool for data collection.
This study extensively uses the two components of Discourse Analysis:
the surface structure and the deep structure. Surface structure is the actual
organization of every parts of the sentence with its various constituents
specifically its syntactic features in order to express the thought of the written
story. It leads to answer the sub problem in number one on what sentence
patterns can be extracted from the stories. These sentence patterns will be
scrutinized through Immediate Constituent Analysis in order to provide
information about its constituent structure of the sentence that will serve as

23
bridge to answer the language functions by extracting deep structures which is
the abstract underlying forms that determines the meaning of the sentences
covered by these linguistic expressions.
This study uses content analysis as a research technique deals with the
document materials that are already existing and available. It has been defined
as Content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic, and
quantitative description of the manifest content of communication (Berelson, p.
18). Through these it will help to attain the literary devices used in the stories.
Sources of Data. The references used in this study are all found in some
published and unpublished materials such as books and theses, and with some
reliable academic online journals from the World Wide Web.
Data-gathering Procedure
This study aims to discern the role of language in literature in Carlos
Bulosans selected short stories. Subsequently, it focuses only to the study of
Carlos Bulosans linguistic concepts, and literary devices as basis to propose
lesson guides. The research follows these phases:
Phase One: This phase focuses on linguistic aspects. The whole story of
each literary text are being read and observed. Likewise, analyzing the sentence
patterns will be performed as to what it does belongs, then, every word of the
sentence will be executed through Immediate Constituent analysis, by executing
the IC process, reader can go beyond the meaning of the sentence or the so-

24
called, the deep structure. Subsequently it may offer the different notions of
seven functions of language according to Halliday.
Phase Two: This phase touches on literature, after determining the
language functions literary devices in the selected short stories are considered to
unfold the universal themes enclosed in the stories.
Phase Three: Once the investigation process is done, the aim is to see
how the revealed linguistic concepts and literary devices create the universal
themes in the short stories.
Phase Four: Finally, the last step is steered as what lesson guides can be
proposed.
Definition of Terms
In order to avoid uncertainty, the following terms are defined:
Linguistic Concepts refer to the study of language where ideas are
formed by mentally combining its characteristics in a literary text. It consists of
language functions and sentence structures of the selected stories of Carlos
Bulosan.
Language Functions are the most relevant to create and to
communicate knowledge among humans (www.reference.com). It was a
portrayal on how language is used to express in its nature. It was on how
language is used in order to give information or ideas. It presented the various
functions of language, similarly persuading and informing.

25
Sentence Patterns are the grammatical structure of English that
describe how the nature of speech should be (www.ask.com). It was also known
as syntax. It was usually the word order of the sentence. These explained how
the words in a sentence convey its idea.
Literary Devices refer to the specific aspects of literature in the sense of
universal function as an art form which expresses ideas through analysis
(answers.yahoo.com). These were the typical structure used by writers to convey
messages in a simple manner to the reader. These devices were techniques that
shaped the writers literary styles. These were the writers way in unfolding the
events in a story. These help the reader to fully exhaust the intended thought that
is in a story.
Epiphany is a revelation of such power and insight that altered the
entire world view of the thinker who experienced it (www.web.en.edu). It is
considered as the sudden realization and decision-making of the character. This
literary device is often used at the end part of the story in which all the wrong
doings by a major character is now being lamented. It is also known as sudden
realization.
Eucatastrophe is an opposite of tragedy and the highest function of
the fairy-moment in a story. It is a moment in a story when the reader got the
piercing glimpse of events and heart's desire moment that passed outside the
frame that needed the very web of the story (www.calledtocommunion.com). It is

26
a literary device that let the writer twist the flow of the story from bad a situation
to good a situation.
Flashback is a strong memory in the past event that covered
suddenly into a persons mind (www.merriam-webster.com). It is referred as a
sudden interruption of chronological sequence by interjection of events of earlier.
It was a literary device used by the author for a sudden reoccurrence from past
events in the current moment.
Foreshadowing is an advanced sign or warned of what was to
come in the future (www.vocabulary.com). A literary device is used on giving
hints or clues of the events that may occur in the later part of the story. It served
as an indication for the readers of the future events in a story. This literary device
is to give clues or hints that would occur later in the story.
Universal Theme is described as the few ideas about nature of all men
and women or about the relationship of human beings to each other or to the
universe implied by a work of fiction (www.nortuberge.us). It is the central
message that was found in the collection of stories. It is the uniformity or
commonality of the theme within the selected fictions.

27
Chapter 2
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the dominant sentence patterns of Carlos Bulosans


select fiction; My Father Goes to Court, My Fathers Tragedy, and The Soldier.
After which, the foremost sentence patterns of each story will be performed
through Immediate Constituent Analysis to arrive in identifying the language
functions. Subsequently, it presents also the analysis of the literary devices:
Epiphany, Eucatastrophe, Flashback, and Foreshadowing of the select fictions of
Carlos Bulosan to extract the universal themes of the stories.
Frequency of Occurrences in Sentence Patterns in Select Stories
This section shows the dominant sentence patterns from the selected
short stories of Carlos Bulosan.
Table 1
Frequency of Sentence Pattern Occurrences in the Three Selected Stories
My Father Goes

My Fathers

to Court

Tragedy

S+TV+DO

78

104

67

S+IV

64

66

54

S+LV+Ca

17

S+LV+Cn

S+TV+IO+DO

S+TV+DO+OCa

There+Be+S

Sentence Patterns

The Soldier

28
Table 1 presents the dominant sentence pattern in the three selected
stories of Carlos Bulosan.

As shown above, consistently the most dominant sentence pattern among


Bulosans selected stories is S+TV+DO sentence pattern. S+TV+DO sentence
pattern is found on 78 sentences in the story My Father Goes to Court; while on
the story My Fathers Tragedy 104 sentences possess this sentence pattern. On
the story The Soldier there are 67 sentences which employ this sentence pattern.
This is illustrated by a sentence from the story The Soldier:

S
Subj

Pred

Pr LV Det N Pp N
He got a box of candies
S TV
DO
The analysis of tree diagramming proves that this sentence follows the
S+TV+DO sentence pattern. The subject is he labeled as a pronoun followed by
the transitive verb got and a box of candies as its direct object where a is
labeled as determiner; box as noun; of as preposition and candies as noun that
receives the action done by the subject.
Bulosans stories use another sentence pattern these are S+Vi, S+LV+Ca,
S+LV+Cn, S+TV+IO+DO and There+Be+S. S+Vi sentence pattern is found on
64 sentences in the story My Father Goes to Court, while on the story My
Fathers Tragedy 66 sentences posses this pattern, on the story The Soldier 54

29
sentences that employs this sentence pattern. This pattern is shown on the
sentence from the story My Father Goes to Court:

S
Subj

Pred

Det Adj N
IV
The rich man arrived.
S
IV
The tree diagram proves that this sentence follows the S+Vi sentence
patter. The subject is man labeled as a noun being a followed by arrived an
intransitive verb.

Another sentence pattern is, S+LV+Ca sentence pattern this pattern is


found on 8 sentences in the story My Father Goes to Court, while on the story My
Fathers Tragedy 17 sentences posses this pattern, on the story The Soldier 8
sentences that employs this sentence pattern. This pattern is shown on the
sentence from the story The Soldier:

S
Subj
Pr
It
S

Pred
LV Adj
is
great.
LV
Ca

S+LV+Ca is seen in this sentence with the help of tree diagramming. The
subject is It labeled as pronoun followed by the linking verb is and has the
adjective complement great labeled as adjective.

30
A different sentence pattern is, S+LV+Cn sentence pattern is found on 4
sentences in the story My Father Goes to Court, while on the story My Fathers
Tragedy 6 sentences posses this pattern, on the story The Soldier 1 sentences
that employs this sentence pattern. This pattern is shown on the sentence from
the story The Soldier:

S
Subj

Pred

Pr LV adv adj Pp N
It was almost full of coins.
S LV
Cn
S+LV+Cn is seen in this sentence with the help of tree diagramming. The
subject is It labeled as a pronoun being followed by the linking verb was
proceeded by almost as adverb, full as adjective, of as preposition and coins
as noun complement labeled as noun.
A sentence holds the pattern S+TV+DO+OCa in the story My Father Goes
to Court, while S+TV+IO+DO and There+Be+S sentence patterns did not appear
on the story My Father goes to Court while on the stories My Fathers Tragedy
and The Soldier has 2 sentences for each of these patterns.
The data being showed above implied that Carlos Bulosan constantly
uses S+TV+DO pattern in his stories. The writer allows the readers to know the
clear details of actions that took place in the story. These are expressed through
the use of direct object receiver of the actions. These explained the characters
actions in the story.

31
This implication is supported by the study of Sangutan. His study also
revealed most dominant sentence pattern literary piece Red Velvet Sofa by Carla
M. Pacis is S+TV+DO. He stated that the story impliedly shows to its reader that
it clearly explains the actions which take place in the story. It is expressed
through the use of direct objects which are known to be the receivers of the
actions. Direct objects help to express what the characters are really doing.
Frequency of Occurrences of Language Functions in Select Stories
This section shows the tabulation of the language function used in the
three selected stories of Carlos Bulosan.
Table 2
Frequency of Language Function Occurrences in the Three Selected Stories.
Language

My Father Goes

My Fathers

Functions

to Court

Tragedy

Representational

72

150

90

Interactional

17

22

Regulatory

Personal

Imaginative

The Soldier

Table 2 presents the dominant language function in the three selected


stories of Carlos Bulosan.
As shown on the table above, Bulosans selected short stories dominantly
use the representational language function. Representational function of
language is found on 72 sentences in the story, My Father Goes to Court; while

32
on the story, My Fathers Tragedy 150 sentences have this function. In the story,
The Soldier there are 90 sentences employing the representational function of
language. This is illustrated by a sentence from the story My Father Goes to
Court:
Father saw her in time.
N
TV Pr Prep N
In this sentence the speaker relays information based on what he sees in
his environment; that the father saw his daughter in time, where in the Immediate
Constituent Analysis father is labeled as noun, saw as the intransitive verb, her
as pronoun, in as preposition and time

as noun. This sentence has the

representational function because it merely conveys the information as seen by


the speaker.
Bulosans stories use another function of language these are interactional,
regulatory and personal. Interactional function of language is found on 17
sentences in the story My Father Goes to Court, while on the story My Fathers
Tragedy 6 sentences posses this function, on the story The Soldier 22 sentences
that employs the interactional function of language. For instance in the sentence:
Yes sir, I said.
Adv N Pro TV

The speaker of the sentence I labeled as pronoun interacting with


someone by saying Yes sir where yes is labeled as adverb and sir as noun.
This sentence is classified under interactional language function because the
speaker develops a social relationship through interacting with another character.

33
Regulatory function of language is found on 5 sentences in the story My
Father Goes to Court, while on the story My Fathers Tragedy 6 sentences
posses this function, on the story The Soldier 6 sentences that employs the
regulatory function of language. It is illustrated in the sentence:

Go up
to your room, Marcella.
`TV Prep Prep Pr
N
N

The speaker in this sentence is commanding Marcella labeled as noun to


go up in her room, where go labeled as transitive verb, up as preposition to as
preposition, your as pronoun, room as noun and Marcella as noun. This
sentence belongs to regulatory language function because the speaker is telling
a command to Marcella, prior to his desire.
Another function of language found in Bulosans stories is the Personal
function of language. Personal function of language is found on 7 sentences in
the story My Father Goes to Court, while on the story My Fathers Tragedy 2
sentences posses this function, on the story The Soldier 5 sentences that
employs the personal function of language. For example,

I
Pr

would like to wring that cocks neck.


Aux-V TV Prep
N
C
N
N

The speaker in the sentence I labeled as pronoun expresses his personal


preferences that she would like to wring that cocks neck where would like is
labeled as transitive verb, to as preposition, wring as noun, that as conjunction
and cocks neck as noun. This sentence is categorized under personal

34
language function because the speaker expresses his own personal opinion
towards something.

There is only one sentence that has an imaginative language function in


the story The Soldier and Instrumental and Heuristic language functions did not
appear in the three selected short stories: My Father Goes to Court, My Father
Tragedy and The Soldier.

All of these data imply that Carlos Bulosan is accustomed of incorporating


representational language functions in his selected short stories in order for it to
be more realistic and informative. Bulosans linguistic concepts are embodied by
simplicity. His dominant use of the language functions show a result to prove
qualities in his text implied certain facts that contribute to the meaning of the
sentence structure.
This implication is supported by Jackobsons in which he also analyze the
function of language for a given unit specifying to which function can be present
or absent and the characters of these function including the hierarchical relations
and any other relations that may operate between them.
Literary Devices and Universal Themes on the Three Selected Stories
This section shows the revealed linguistic concepts and the literary
devices as aid in shaping the universal themes of Bulosans selected short
stories.

35

36
Table 3 presents the literary devices gleaned from the analysis of the
revealed language functions and sentence patterns in the three selected stories
of Carlos Bulosan. As shown on the table the dominant literary device is
flashback. Likewise, Bulosan uses other literary devices specifically epiphany,
eucatastrophe, and foreshadowing.
My Father Goes To Court
As shown on the table, flashback and eucatastrophe are the literary
devices used by Carlos Bulosan in the story My Father Goes to Court. The first
literary device used in the story My Father Goes to Court is Flashback, it is
illustrated in the sentence, When I was four, I lived with my mother and brothers
and sisters in a small town on the island of Luzon. Flashback is shown in this
sentence wherein the writer of the story inserts a past event in order to provide
background according to the setting of the current events in a story. In the
sentence it is said that their family used to live in a small town in the Island of
Luzon which provides background of the current setting of the story.

This

sentence however does not follow the dominant sentence pattern S+TV+DO but
rather the S+Vi sentence pattern, and bears the Personal language function.
Another literary device used by Carlos Bulosan is eucatastrophe. It is
shown in the sentence Fathers farm had been destroyed in 1910 by one of our
sudden Philippine flood, so several years afterwards we all lived in town though
he preferred living in the country. This sentence is eucatastrophic because it
turns a bad situation into a favorable one. The story is about a poor family who
lost their farm in the countryside making it hard for them to live so they ought to

37
live in a town. This sentence however does not follow the dominant sentence
pattern S+TV+DO but rather the S+Vi sentence pattern, but it bears the dominant
language function representational.
These linguistic concepts and literary devices helped shape the universal
theme of the story My Father Goes to Court which is Money cannot buy
happiness.
The story took place in a small town in the island of Luzon. There was a
poor family who had a rich man and his family as their next door neighbor. The
poor family had lived in town because they have lost their farm in the countryside
which was their only means of living. Every day the rich mans servant would
always cook delicious foods while the poor mans family would always hang
through their windows and inhale its aroma into their beings. The story would
then reach its point of climax when the rich mans family grew anemic, sick, thin,
and pale while the poor mans family was happy, robust, bright, and their faces
were rosy. The rich man had noticed that the poor mans family had always hang
around their windows to steal the spirit of his food and wealth he filed a complaint
stating that for years the poor mans family had been stealing his spirit of wealth
and food. The day has come for the poor man to face the court. Then in the court
they had explained their side of the complaint.
The poor family lived in the best of their spirits despite the fact that they
have just lost their farm which is their only means of living while the rich mans
family grew sick and unhappy which only proves that wealth cannot always bring
happiness.

38
The universal theme, Money cannot buy happiness, is depicted in the
story My Father Goes to Court of Carlos Bulosan, when the poor mans family
manages to enjoy life and be happy despite of all the obstacles and trials they
have experienced.
My Fathers Tragedy
In the story My Fathers Tragedv there are three literary devices used.
These are epiphany, flashback, and foreshadowing. The literary device epiphany
is exemplified in the sentences, Where did you get this lovely chicken? father
said. The drumstick fell from his mouth. It rolled into space between the splits
and fell on the ground. Our dog snapped it up and ran away. Fathers face broke
in great agony. The given sentences show the fathers realization that his
chicken Burick was cooked and served during dinner. Upon asking his wife about
the chicken, suddenly the drumstick fell from his mouth as an indication that it
was his chicken Burick. Fathers face broke as he rushed outside the house.
Thus, it means that the particular scene is categorized under epiphany because
of the sudden realization of the father. However, the following sentences follow
the pattern S+LV+Cn and S+IV and function as representational language.
Moreover, another device that the author used is flashback. In the
sentence, Its fathers Kanaway, who had won a house for us some three before
had commanded me to give it to the choicest rice, follows the S+LV+Ca and
functions as representational. The sentence denotes past happening that took in
the present event of the characters in the story members in the family had to give
the choicest rice for Burick.

39
Lastly, the literary device used by Carlos Bulosan is foreshadowing. In the
sentence I would like to wring that cocks neck, said the mother. This particular
scene is categorized under foreshadowing for the fact that it gives hint to the
readers what will happen next in the story. Thus, it follows the sentence pattern
S+TV+DO and functions as personal language.
These linguistic concepts and literary devices helped shape the universal
theme of the story My Fathers Tragedy which is Every problem has its own
solution.
The universal theme Every problem has its own solution is portrayed in
the story My Fathers Tragedy of Carlos Bulosan, when the familys rice field was
destroyed by locusts that came from the neighboring towns. After, the family
found an option to plant string beans as an alternative ways in living, but a fire
burned the whole plantation. Then, there were rumors of famine in the town. The
fathers fighting cock, Burick was practically the only healthy living thing for the
fact that it is fathers Kanaway who had won a house to them three years before.
Wherein peasants and rich men would spend their money on food rather than
gamble their money going to the cockpit.
Moreover, it was this impasse that father would not do anything but just
sat and took care of Burick dreaming it would be the solution of making him rich.
Sometimes, he only slept with Burick until the cock would wake him up. The
mother of story embody the typical Filipino housewife who is very patient towards
every problem that she encounters in life while the father will do everything just to
feed her family in a decent way. But the day came when the mother cannot take

40
it anymore no matter how many indications he had given to her husband to live in
a simple way with no illegal activities involved. Yet, the father did not listen to his
wife still continuing his vices. The father of the story leaves his wife no choice but
to kill his chicken to make him realize that it will take him nowhere but only leads
addiction in gambling.
The universal theme is therefore, Every problem has its own solution
because both mother and father seek ways to provide food on the table for the
family. The father look for their food in an illegal way by the help of his cock
Burick through gambling, while the mother went from house to house in the
neighborhood pounding rice from some people and hauling drinking water for
others just to save their scarcity.
The Soldier
In the story The Soldier literary devices of flashback and epiphany are
used. The flashback literary device is revealed from the sentences, There was a
time when she had come home from school and cried to him. It seemed that she
had met a boy that time.
The above sentences reveal the literary device flashback because these
sentences denote past events occurrence which are inserted in the current
situation of the story where Marcellas father is commanding his daughter to go
up in her room. She looked up at her father and his father also looked at her.
They were both staring at each other for a moment then suddenly Marcellas
father recalled the memories when Marcella got home from school and cried to
him because of a boy she just met. Hence, these sentences provide background

41
on the current events in the story by allowing the readers to gain characters
motivation and their conflict. These above sentences follow the dominant
S+TV+DO sentence pattern and There+Be+S sentence pattern.

Also, these

sentences use the dominant representational language functional.


The epiphany is revealed from the sentences, He could see in her eyes
the light that once glowed warmly in his eyes; the immortal light that has shown
in the lands and times. If only I could go back at the beginning, he thought.
The revelation of epiphany is supported from the several instances. First
when the mother and her daughter argued prior to the visit of a Filipino soldier in
their house. Upon hearing their argumentation, the father felt concern and
commanded his daughter to go up in her room. Both the father and his daughter
looked at each other wherein the father saw in her daughters eyes the light that
once glowed warmly in his eyes. Then, the father suddenly realized in his thought
that If only I could go back at the beginning. These situations prove that the
character had a sudden realization or moment of insight prior to the current
events in relation with his previous decisions in life. The above sentences follow
the dominant S+TV+DO sentence pattern and S+IV sentence pattern. Also,
these sentences use the dominant representational language function and
personal language function.
These linguistic concepts and literary device helped shape the universal
theme of A race does not define ones personality in the story The Soldier.
The story took place in the living room where the mother and her daughter
were arguing with each other. They were arguing about a Filipino soldier who will

42
visit their house. The mother was mad and she looked at her daughter with
horror. When the father heard them he interrupted and commanded his daughter,
to go up to her room. Marcella looked at her father the way she had always
looked at him when she is begging for appreciation. While looking at his
daughters eyes, the father saw the light that once glowed warmly. For the
second time around he commanded his daughter to go up to her room. Marcella
knew that she was defeated so she jumped from the chair and went to her room
sobbing and kicking the air. Marcellas father asked his wife, where Marcella met
the soldier. Marcellas mother answered in the public library then she cried with
horror upon hearing a favorable comment from his husband. Suddenly, the door
bell rang out loud. Both Marcellas mother and father welcomed and entertained
the Filipino soldier. Marcellas father asked about the station where the Filipino
soldier was assigned. They shared their experiences and principles as soldiers.
The young man said that some soldier fought for democracy but he shared that
though it was fought for democracy somewhere in the ideals were gobbled up by
powerful men.

After he knew the young mans experiences and principles as a

soldier, he began to feel something in common with the young man when he was
a soldier. He differentiated that he did not have the chance to clarify his beliefs
compared to the young man. Then he felt a yearning to confide something
personal surging through him. The father asked if the soldier had ever lived in the
country and affirmed. The soldier shared his experiences and preferences for
living ten years ago in the city. After their long conversation, he informed the
Filipino soldier that Marcella was ill and would not be able to see him. Upon this,

43
he bade goodbye and left the candies and the book on the table wishing Marcella
to get well soon. Marcellas father offered to accompany the young man to the
street and upon walking together with the young man the father confided that
what the soldier had said is what the father had always wanted to say. The
soldier was glad to hear about it and Marcellas father gave his hand eagerly to
the Filipino soldier wishing him good luck The Filipino soldier solely walked into
the night for going home.
The universal theme, A race does define ones personality is revealed
when Marcellas mother refused and contradicted the visit of a Filipino soldier in
their house. Both Marcellas mother and her father deprived the Filipino soldier to
be entertained by Marcella. They lied by saying that Marcella cannot entertain
the Filipino soldier because she is ill. They discriminated the Filipino soldier
merely because he was a Filipino.
PROPOSED LESSON GUIDES
The proposed lesson guides will be used as an intervention to remediate
students in some class lessons, not only in grammar class but also in literature
class. This will help students to enhance their analytical skills when reading or
investigating stories that interests them. Using this reason significantly will be,
therefore, bases to propose three lesson guides as this study also consider three
literary pieces as an undertaking of the course requirement.

44

LESSON GUIDE: 1
Topic: Language Functions on My Father Goes to Court
Objectives:
a. Determine the representational language function;
b. State the importance of representational language function; and
c. Construct a sentence that functions as representational.
Procedure:
1. The students are tasked to read one sentence in the story.
2. Students will be asked on what he understands upon reading it.
3. Then, he will identify the language functions used in the sentence.
Evaluation:
The students are given two minutes to create their own example of language
function of representational.

45

LESSON GUIDE: 2
Topic: Theme
Objectives:
a. Identify the theme of the story My Fathers Tragedy;
b. Grasp the relationship of the theme in decision-making; and
c. Present a short scene from the story.
Procedure:
1. The students will be asked to share their past experiences in life.
2. They will be questioned on how they dealt it.
3. Out of what they have read, they are tasked to determine the theme of the
story My Fathers Tragedy.
Evaluation
Students are tasked to perform that present the theme of the story My
Fathers Tragedy.

46

LESSON GUIDE: 3
Topic: S+TV+DO pattern
Material: Copy of the story The Soldier
Objectives:
a. Identify the sentences with S+TV+DO pattern on Carlos Bulosan The
Soldier;
b. Glean the importance of S+TV+DO pattern in writing; and
c. Construct at least five sentences following S+TV+DO pattern.
Procedures:
1. The students are tasked to read the short story The Soldier.
2. They will be asked on what sentence patterns are following in the story.
3. They will be ranked the sentence patterns to get the most dominant
pattern.
4. Lastly, they will make three sentences that follow the most dominant
sentence pattern.
Evaluation
The class is given a short quiz of ten items in determining the sentence
patterns which will be written on the board.

47
Chapter 3
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study on Carlos Bulosan Select
Fiction: My Father Goes to Court, My Fathers Tragedy, and The Soldier with its
finding, conclusion, and recommendations.
Summary of Findings
After the analysis of data, the researchers arrived at the following findings:
1.

Carlos Bulosans short stories dominantly reveal S+TV+DO pattern

& representational language function;


2.

The dominant sentence pattern and language function help reveal

the literary devices such as epiphany, eucatastrophe, flashback and


foreshadowing; and
3.

The linguistic concepts and literary devices helped shape the

universal themes of his select fiction; Money cannot buy happiness of


the story My Father Goes to Court. My Fathers Tragedy revealed a
universal theme Every problem has its own solution. The Soldier
revealed a universal theme of A race does not define ones personality.

48
Conclusion:

In line of the findings of this study, it is concluded that Carlos


Bulosans Select fictions revealed linguistic concepts and literary devices
that helped shape the universal themes.

Recommendations:
In the light of the aforementioned findings and conclusion, the
following are recommended:
1. that stories of other Filipino writers be studied by determining the kinds
of sentences according to structure in analogy the author style and its
language functions;
2. that the elements of short story shall be discussed exhaustively in the
class in order to grasp its significance on imparting knowledge of the
writers style in writing;
3. that universal themes be extracted through the analysis of kinds of
sentence according to structure, language functions and elements of
story; and
4. that the proposed lesson guides be implemented and tried out by the
faculty of languages, literature, and communication department.

49

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50
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www.ask.com/question/definition-of-the-sentence-patterns
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www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/283528/imediate-constituent-analysis
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Date of access: January 14, 2014
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Date of access: January 25, 2014

52
www.ask.com/question/definition-of-sentence-pattern
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www.calledtocommunion.com/2009/12/tolkien-on-death-and-eucatastrophe/)
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Date of access: January 25, 2014

53

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A

54
My Father Goes to Court
By: Carlos Bulosan
When I was four, I lived with my mother and brothers and sisters in a small
town on the island of Luzon. Fathers farm had been destroyed in 1910 by one of
our sudden Philippine floods, so several years afterwards we all lived in the town
though he preferred living in the country. We had as a next door neighbor a very
rich man, whose sons and daughters seldom came out of the house. While we
boys and girls played and sang in the sun, his children stayed inside and kept the
windows closed. His house was so tall that his children could look in the window
of our house and watched us played, or slept, or ate, when there was any food in
the house to eat. Now, this rich mans servants were always frying and cooking
something good, and the aroma of the food was wafted down to us from the
windows of the big house. We hung about and took all the wonderful smells of
the food into our beings. Sometimes, in the morning, our whole family stood
outside the windows of the rich mans house and listened to the musical sizzling
of thick strips of bacon or ham. I can remember one afternoon when our
neighbors servants roasted three chickens. The chickens were young and tender
and the fat that dripped into the burning coals gave off an enchanting odor. We
watched the servants turn the beautiful birds and inhaled the heavenly spirit that
drifted out to us. Some days the rich man appeared at a window and glowered
down at us. He looked at us one by one, as though he were condemning us. We
were all healthy because we went out in the sun and bathed in the cool water of
the river that flowed from the mountains into the sea. Sometimes we wrestled
with one another in the house before we went to play. We were always in the
best of spirits and our laughter was contagious. Other neighbors who passed by
our house often stopped in our yard and joined us in laughter. As time went on,
the rich mans children became thin and anemic, while we grew even more
robust and full of life. Our faces were bright and rosy, but theirs was pale and
sad. The rich man started to cough at night; then he coughed day and night. His
wife began coughing too. Then the children started to cough, one after the other.
At night their coughing sounded like the barking of a herd of seals. We hung
outside their windows and listened to them. We wondered what happened. We
knew that they were not sick from the lack of nourishment because they were still
always frying something delicious to eat. One day the rich man appeared at a
window and stood there long time. He looked at my sisters, who had grown fat in
laughing, then at my brothers, whose arms and legs were like the molave, which
is the sturdiest tree in the Philippines. He banged down the window and ran
through his house, shutting all the windows. From that day on, the windows of
our neighbors house were always closed. The children did not come out
anymore. We could still hear the servants cooking in the kitchen, and no matter

55
how tight the windows were shut, the aroma of the food came to us in the wind
and drifted gratuitously into our house. One morning a policeman from the
presidencia came to our house with a sealed paper. The rich man had filed a
complaint against us. Father took me with him when he went to the town clerk
and asked him what it was about. He told father the man claimed that for years
we had been stealing the spirit of his wealth and food. When the day came for us
to appear in court, father brushed his old Army uniform and borrowed a pair of
shoes from one of my brothers. We were the first to arrive. Father sat on a chair
in the center of the courtroom. Mother occupied a chair by the door. We children
sat on a long bench by the wall. Father kept jumping up from his chair and
stabbing the air with his arms, as though we were defending himself before an
imaginary jury. The rich man arrived. He had grown old and feeble; his face was
scarred with deep lines. With his was his young lawyer. Spectators came in and
almost filled the chairs. The judge entered the room and sat on a high chair. We
stood in a hurry and then sat down again. After the courtroom preliminaries, the
judge looked at the father. Do you have a lawyer? he asked. I dont need any
lawyer, Judge, he said. Proceed, said the judge. The rich mans lawyer jumped
up and pointed his finger at Father. Do you or do you not agree that you have
been stealing the spirit of the complaints servants cooked and fried fat legs of
lamb or young chicken breast you and your family hung outside his windows and
inhaled the heavenly spirit of the food? I agree. Father said. Do you or do you
not agree that while the complaint and his children grew sickly and tubercular
and you and your family became strong of limb and fair in complexion? I agree.
Father said. How do you account for that? father got up and paced around,
scratching his head thoughtfully. Then he said, I would like to see the children of
complaint, judge. Bring in the children of the complaint. They came in shyly.
The spectators covered their mouths with their hands, they were so amazed to
see the children so thin and pale. The children walked silently to a bench and sat
down without looking up. They stared at the floor and moved their hands
uneasily. Father could not say anything at first. He just stood but his chair and
looked at them. Finally he said, I should like to cross examine the complaint.
Proceed. Do you claim that we stole the spirit of your wealth and became a
laughing family while your became morose and sad? Father said. Yes. Do
you claim that we stole the spirit of your food by hanging outside your windows
when your servants cooked it? Father said. Yes. Then we are going to pay
you right now, Father said. He walked over to where we children were sitting on
the bench and took straw hat off my lap and began filling it up with centavo
pieces that he took out of his pockets. He went to Mother, who added a fistful of
silver coins. My brothers threw their small change. May I walk to the room
across the hall and stay there for a few minutes, judge? Father said. As you

56
wish. Thank you, father said. He strode into the other room with the hat in his
hands. It was almost full of coins. The doors of both room were wide open. Are
you ready? Father called. Proceed. The judge said. The sweet tinkle of the
coins carried beautifully in the courtroom. The spectators turned their faces
toward the sound with wonder. Father came back and stood before the
complaint. Did you hear it? he asked. Hear what? the man asked. The spirit
of the money when I shook this hat? he asked. Yes. Then you are paid,
Father said. The lawyer rushed to his aid. The judge pounded his gravel. Case
dismissed. He said. Father strutted around the courtroom the judge even came
down from his high chair to shake hands with him. By the way, he whispered, I
had an uncle who died laughing. You like to hear my family laugh judge?
Father asked. Why not? Did you hear that children? father said. My sisters
started it. The rest of us followed them soon the spectators were laughing with
us, holding their bellies and bending over the chairs. And the laughter of the
judge was the loudest of all.

57
APPENDIX B
My Fathers Tragedy
By: Carlos Bulosan
It was one of those lean years of our lives. Our rice field was destroyed by
locusts that came from the neighboring towns. When the locusts were gone, we
planted string beans, but a fire burned the whole plantation. My brothers went
away because they got tired of working for nothing. Mother and my sisters went
from house to house, asking for something to do, but every family was plagued
by some kind of disaster. The children walked in the streets looking for the fruit of
the acacia trees that fell to the ground. The man hung on the face around the
market and watched the meat dealers hungrily. We were all suffering from lack of
proper food.
But the professional gamblers had money. They sat in the fish house in
the station and gave their orders aloud. The loafers and other by-standers
watched them eat boiled rice and fried fish with their silver spoons. They never
used forks because the prongs stuck between their teeth. They always cut their
lips and tongues with the knives, so they never asked for them. If the water was
new and he put the knives on the table, they looked at each other furtively and
slipped them in their pockets. They washed their hands in one big wooden bowl
of water and wiped their mouths with the leaves of the arbor trees that fell on the
ground. They hung on the fence around the public market waiting for men who
had some money.
The rainy season was approaching. There were rumors of famine. The
grass did not grow and our carabao became thin. Fathers fighting cock, Burick,
was practically the only healthy living thing in our household. Its fathers
Kanaway, who had won a house for us some three years before and fathers had
commanded me to give it the choicest rice. He took the soft-boiled eggs from the
plate of my sister Marcela, who was sick with meningitis that year. He was
preparing Burick from something big. But the great catastrophe came to our
town. The peasants and most of the rich men spent their money on food. They
had stopped going to the cockpit for fear of temptation; if they went at all, they
just sat in the gallery and shouted at the top of their lungs. They went home with
their heads down, thinking of the money they would have won.
It was this impasse that father sat every day with his fighting cock. He
would not go anywhere. He would not do anything, he just sat there caressing
Burick and exercising his legs. He spat at his hackes and rubbed them, looking
faraway with a big dream. When mother came home with some food, he went to
the granary and sat there till evening. Sometimes he slept there with Burick, but

58
at dawn the cock would woke him up with its majestic crowing. He crept into the
house and fumbled for the cold rice in the pot under the stove. Then he put the
cock in the pen and slept on the bench the whole day.
Mother was very patient. But the day came when she kicked him off the
bench. He fell on the floor face down, looked up at her, and then resumed his
sleep. Mother took my sister Francisca with her. They went from house to house
in the neighborhood, pounding rice from some people and hauling drinking water
for other. They came home with their share in a big basket that mother carried on
her head.
Father was still sleeping on the bench, when they arrived. Mother told my
sister to cook some of the rice. She dipped up a cup in the jar and splashed the
cold water on Fathers face. He jumped up, looked at Mother with anger, and
went to Buricks pen. He gathered the cock in his arms, and climbed down the
porch. He sat on a log in the back yard and started caressing his fighting cock.
Mother went on with her washing. Francisca fed Marcela with some boiled
rice. Father was still caressing Burick Mother was mad at him.
Is that all you can do? she shouted at him.
Why do you say that to me? Father said. Im thinking of some ways to become
rich.
Mother threw a piece of wood at the cock. Father saw her in time. He
ducked and covered the cock with his body. The wood struck him and first; it cut
a hole in the base of his head. He got up and examined Burick. He acted as
though the cock were the one that was hurt. He looked up at mother and his face
was pitiful.
Why dont you see what are you doing? he said, hugging Burick.
I would like to wring that cocks neck. Mother said.
Thats his fortune, I said.
Mother looked sharply at me. Shut up, idiot! she said. You are more becoming
your father every day.
I watched her moved foolishly. I thought she would cry. She tucked her
skirt between her legs and went on with her work. I ran down the ladder and went
to the granary, where father treating the wound on his head. I held the cock for
him.

59
Take good care of it son, he said.
Yes sir, I said.
Go to the river and exercise its legs. Come back right away. We are going to
town.
I ran down the street with the cock, kicking the pigs and dogs that went in
my way. I plunged into the water with my clothes and swam with Burick. I put
some water in my mouth and blew it into his face. I ran back to our house
slapping the water off my clothes. Father and I went to the cockpit.
It was Sunday, but there were many loafers and gamblers at the place.
There were peasants and teachers. There was a strange man with black fighting
cock. He had come from one of the neighboring towns to seek his fortune in our
cockpit.
His name was Burcio. He held our cock above his head and closed one
eye, looking sharply at Buricks eyes. He put it on the ground and bent over it,
pressing down the cocks back with his hands, Burcio was teasing Buricks
strength. The loafers and gamblers formed a ring around them watching Burcios
left hand expertly moving around Burick.
Father also tested the cock of Burcio. He threw it in the air and watched it
glide smoothly to the ground. He sparred with it. The black cock pecked at his
legs and stopped to crow proudly for bystanders. Father picked it up and sparred
its wings, feeling the rough hide beneath the feathers.
The bystanders knew that a fight was about to be matched. They counted
the money in their pockets without showing it to their neighbors. They felt the
edges of the coins with amazing swiftness and accuracy. Only a highly magnified
magnifier could have recorded the tiny clink of the coins that fell between deft
fingers. The caressing rustle of the paper money was inaudible. The peasants
broke from the ring and hid behind the coconut trees. They unfolded their
handkerchiefs and hands and returned to the crowd. They waited for the final
decision.
Shall we make it this coming Sunday? Burcio asked.
Its too soon for my Burick, father said. His hand moved mechanically into his
pocket. But it was empty. He looked around his cronies.
But two of the peasants caught fathers arm and whispered something to
him. They slipped some money in his hand and pushed him toward Burcio. He

60
tried to estimate the money. He knew right away that he had some twenty-peso
bills. A light of hope appeared in his face.
This coming Sundays all right, he said.
All at once the man broke in the wild confusion. Some went to Burcio with
their money; other went to father. They were not bettors but investors. Their
money would back up the cocks at the cockpit.
In the late afternoon, the fight was arranged. We returned to our house
with some hope. Father put Burick in the pen and told me to go the fish ponds
across the river. I ran down the road with mounting joy. I found a fish pond under
a camachile tree. It was the favorite haunt of snails. I filled my hat snails and
shrimps. Then I went home. Mother was cooking something good. It smelled the
moment I entered the gate. I rushed into the house and spilled some of the snails
on the floor. Mother was at the stove. She was stirring the ladle in the boiling pot.
Father was still sleeping on the bench. Francisca was feeding Marcela with hot
soup. I put the snails and shrimps in a pot and sat on the bench.
Mother was cooking chicken with some bitter melons. I sat wondering
where she got it. I knew that our poultry in the village was empty. We had no
poultry in town. Father opened his eyes when he heard the bubbling pot. Mother
put the rice on a big wooden platter and set it on the table. She filled our plates
with chicken meat and ginger. Father got up suddenly and went to the table.
Francisca sat by the stove. Father was reaching for the white meat in the platter
when mother slapped his hand away. She was saying grace. Then we put our
legs under the table and started eating. It was our first taste of chicken in a long
time. Father filled his plate twice and ate very little rice. He usually ate more rice
when we had only salted fish and some leaves of trees. We ate grass most of
the time. Father tilted his plate ad ate his soup noisily as though he were drinking
wine. He put the empty plate near the pot and asked for some chicken meat.
It is a good chicken, he said.
Mother was very quiet. She put the breast in a plate and told Francisca to
give it to Marcela. She gave me some bitter melons. Father put his hand in the
pot and fished out a drumstick. Where did you get this lovely chicken? father
said. The drumstick fell from his mouth. It rolled into space between the bamboo
splits and fell on the ground. Our dog snapped it up and ran away. Fathers face
broke in great agony. He rushed outside the house. I could hear him running
toward the highway. My sister continued eating, but my appetite was gone. What
are you doing son? mother said. Eat your chicken.

61
APPENDIX C
The Soldier
By: Carlos Bulosan
They were arguing in the living room.
Youve invited him to come here? the mother asked/
Why not? the daughter said. Hes nice and intelligent.
The mother looked at her daughter with horror. A soldier? she said. A Filipino
soldier? the father came from the kitchen with a glass of wine in one hand and a
bottle in the other.
He heard his wife and daughter arguing when he came home but had gone
straight to his room as though he were unconcerned. At the dinnder table, his
wife and daughter had been very solemn. At the end of the dinner, his wife had
looked strangely at the girl. The daughter had rushed to the living-room and she
threw herself into a chair. He looked at his wife then, long, questioning he
purpose. Their argument had already touched him. He had looked at his wife
through the years of their life together, trying to put his thought together.
Would you like your daughter to bring a Filipino here? she asked him. He had
merely looked at her with great patience of a husband who had worked dutifully
for the years to have a decent home.
Would you? She cried. He had walked to the living-room without answering her.
He had stood near the chair where the girl is weeping. He had wanted to
understand her. He had bent over to touch her suddenly ha had straightened up,
stood for a while, eager, then walked to the kitchen for the bottle of wine.
Now he came out of the kitchen with a glass of wine in one hand and the bottle in
the other.
Go up to your room, Marcella. He said.
The girl looked up at her father the way she had always looked at him that way.
There was a time when she had come home from school and cried to him. It
seemed that she had met a boy that time. If it were not for him, she would have
neglected her studies that year.
She looked now at her father as though all years were crowding in upon her,
challenging his victories and deep convictions. He could see in her eyes the light
that once glowed warmly in his eyes; the immortal light that has shone in the
other lands and times.

62
If only I could go back t the beginning, he thought. Instead, he said to his
daughter, Go up to your room now, Marcella.
She knew that she was defeated. She jumped from the chair and fled across the
room and rushed up the stairway. She slammed the door and flung herself upon
the bed, sobbing and kicking the air.
Martha, he said to his wife looking up stairs. Where did she met him?
In the public library.
He walked to his chair and sat down. Well, he must be a nice boy. Walter! she
cried with horror. He made a motion to go to her, hesitated, sat back and shook
his head. Then he got up and walked to the table for his pipe.
Suddenly, the doorbell rang out loud.
Thats probably him right now, he said.
She brushed the tears from her eyes. The bell rang again. The man walked to
the door and opened it. A Filipino soldier was standing in the light rain. He got a
box of candies.
Is this Miss Marcella Robertss house? he asked.
Yes, the man said, hesitant, pondering. Then he said, Come on in. The soldier
walked into the house and stood on the threshold for a moment, the cold of night
outside still clinging heavily on him. The man closed the door and took the
soldiers cap, walking over to the far corner of the room where his wife was
waiting.
You are Marcellas mother? the soldier asked.
Yes, she said.
I thought so, the soldier said. You look exactly as I thought you would, only you
are much younger.
The man gave him a chair. He stood waiting for the young man to speak. The
book and the box candies were still in his lap.
Where is your station? the man asked.
Fort Ord, the soldier said.
How is it out there?

63
It is great. He said. Nice bunch of fellows in that camp. I like the place. Ive
been studying seriously.
The was still standing before the soldier, fumbling deliberately with his pipe.
It was in first war, he started and stopped.
There was a sudden interest in the young mans voice. Were you? he said,
jumping to his feet.
Ive served ten months in France.
Then you understand the feeling of a soldier. They say the other was fought for
democracy. Some of those who fought in it say its a lie. I dont interpret that way,
though. It was fought for democracy all right, but somewhere in the ideals were
gobbled up by powerful men.
The man was beginning to feel that he had something in common with the
soldier. The only difference was when he was a soldier he did not have the
chance to clarify his beliefs. He was glad that at last, some twenty-five years
later, he had met another soldier who, though born in another part of the world,
could have been himself; bringing with him the bright hopes he had fought or in
that other war.
He walked back to his chair and sat down, facing the soldier. He glanced at his
wife swiftly. Looking back at the soldier, he felt a yearning to confide something
personal surging through him.
Have you ever lived in this city before? he asked.
Yes, the soldier said. Ten years ago. But most people I knew are gone. This
afternoon o walked around looking at the new stores and buildings. I stopped at
the newsstands and touched the magazines and newspapers. I like this city very
much indeed. Life itself reacts in the city streets. Ten years ago I used to stand in
the station watching people, and always there was a powerful yearning in me to
o away. Someday, I used to say to myself, Ill go away and never come back,
But I never went away. I remember when I was a little boy, my father and I used
to go to the mountains just for the sheer of joy of walking ling distances. Im like
my father, who had a yearning for far away places. It took a war to take me away,
though. I may not come back to all this wonderful place, he stopped and looked
around the house with a strange affection and sincerity, as though he were
storing up the bright image of the room in his mental world. He appreciated all of
it.

64
The man stirred in his chair Marcella is ill and she cant come down, he said.
Ill? the soldier said, frightened.
She has the flu, but shell be alright.
I hope shell be alright.
well tell her that you called, the mother said.
Thank you Mrs. Roberts, he said. He walked across the room and put the book
and box of candies on the table. Ill leave these candies for Marcella. This small
book of poem is written by a Filipino who lived in this city. He was the first of my
people to write a book in English.
The man felt the strong pride in the soldiers voice. Well give them to her, he
said.
Tell her to get well soon, the soldier said. Tell her not to get flu anymore. Tell
her the weather is dangerous this year.
He walked to the door and the man followed him.
Goodnight, Mrs. Roberts, he said, and stepped out of the house.
Ill walk with you to the street, the man said.
The rain had stopped falling and there was a misty moonlight in the trees. There
was a fresh smell in the air. The man and the soldier stood under a wide arc of
light in the street.
Im glad you feel that way sir, the soldier said.
The man gave his hand eagerly. Good luck young man, he said.
The Filipino soldier walked into the night. He did not look back to see that the
man was watching him walking away.

65
My Father Goes to Court
(Sentence Patterns Analysis)
No
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Sentences
When I was four, I lived with my mother and brothers and sisters
S IV
in a small town on the Island of Luzon.
Fathers farm had been destroyed in 1910 by one of our sudden
S
IV
Philippines floods, so several years afterwards we all lived in the
town though he preferred living in the country.
We had as a next door neighbor a very rich man, whose sons
S LV
Cn
and daughters seldom came out of the house.
While we boys and girls played and sang in the sun, his children
stayed inside and kept the windows closed.
S
IV
TV
DO
OC
His house was so tall that his children could look in the window
S LV
Cn
of our house and watch us played, or slept, or ate, when there
was any food in the house to eat.
Now, this rich mans servants were always frying and cooking
S
TV
something good, and the aroma of the food was wafted down to
DO
S
IV
us from the windows of the big house.
We hung about and took all the wonderful smells of the food into
S
TV
DO
our beings.
Sometimes, in the morning, our whole family stood outside the
S
IV
windows of the rich mans house and listened to the musical
TV
DO
sizzling of the strips of bacon and ham.
I can remember one afternoon when our neighbors servants
S
TV
DO
roasted three chickens.
The chickens were young and tender and the fat that dripped into
S
LV
Ca
the burning coals gave off an enchanting odor.
TV
DO
We watched the servants turn the beautiful birds and inhaled the
S
TV
DO
TV

Sentence
Patterns
SVi

SVi

SLVCn
SVi;
STVDOO
C
SLVCn

STVDO;
SVi

STVDO

SVi;
STVDO

STVDO
SLVCa;
STVDO

STVDO;

66

12.

13.
14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.
20.

21.
22.
23.

24.
25.
26.

heavenly spirit that drifted out to us.


DO
Some days the rich man appeared at a window and glowered
S
IV
IV
down at us.
He looked at us one by one, as though he were condemning us.
S
TV DO
We were all healthy because we went out in the sun and bathed
S LV
Ca
in the cool water of the river that flowed from the mountains into
the sea.
Sometimes we wrestled with one another in the house before we
S
TV
DO
went to play.
We were always in the best of spirits and our laughter was
S
IV
S
LV
contagious.
Ca
Other neighbors who passed by our house often stopped in our
S
IV
yards and joined us in laughter.
TV DO
As time went on, the rich mans children became thin and anemic
S
LV
Ca,
while we grew even more robust and full of life.
Our faces were bright and rosy, but theirs was pale and sad.
S
LV
Ca
S
LV
Ca
The rich man started to cough at night; then he coughed day and
S
TV
DO
S
IV
Night
His wife began coughing too.
S
TV
DO
Then the children started to cough, one after the other.
S
TV
DO
At night their coughing sounded like the barking of a herd of
S
IV
seals.
We hung outside their windows and listened to them.
S IV
TV
DO
We wondered what happened.
S
TV
DO
We knew that they were not sick from the lack of nourishment
S TV
DO
because they were still frying something delicious to eat
.

STVDO

SVi;
SVi
STVDO
SLVCa

STVDO

SVi;
SLVCa

SVi;
STVDO

SLVCa
SLVCa;
SLVCa
STVDO;
SVi
STVDO
STVDO
SVi

SVi;
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO

67
27.

28.

29.

30.

31.
32.

33.

34.
35.

36.

37.

38.
39.
40.
41.

One day the rich man appeared at a window and stood there long
S
IV
IV
time.
He looked at my sisters, who had grown fat in laughing, then at
S
TV
DO
my brothers, whose arms and legs were like the molave, which is
the sturdiest tree in the Philippines.
He banged down the window and ran through his house, shutting
S
TV
DO
TV
DO
all the windows.
From that day on, the windows of our neighbors house were
S
IV
always closed.
The children did not come out anymore.
S
IV
We could still hear the servants cooking in the kitchen, and no
S
TV
DO
matter how tight the windows were shut, the aroma of the food
S
came to us in the wind and drifted gratuitously into our house.
IV
IV
One morning a policeman from the predencia, came to our house
S
IV
with a sealed paper.
The rich man had filed a complaint against us.
S
TV
DO
Father took me with him when he went to the town clerk and
S
TV DO
asked him what it was about.
He told father the man claimed that for years we had been
S TV DO
stealing the spirit of his wealth and food.
When the day came for us to appear in court, father brushed his
S
TV
old Army uniform and borrowed a pair of shoes from one of my
DO
TV
DO
brother.
We were the first to arrive.
S LV
Cn
Father sat on a chair in the center of the courtroom.
S
IV
Mother occupied a chair by the door.
S
TV
DO
We children sat on a long bench by the wall.
S
IV

SVi;
SVi

STVDO

STVDO;
STVDO

SVi
SVi

STVDO;
SVi;
SVi

SVi

STVDO
STVDO

STVDO

STVDO;
STVDO

SLVCn
SVi
STVDO
SVi

68
42.

43.
44.

Father kept jumping up from his chair and stabbing the air with
S
TV
DO
his arms, as though we were defending himself before an
imaginary jury.
The rich man arrived.
S
IV
He had grown old and feeble; his face was scarred with deep
S
LV
Ca
S
IV
lines.

STVDO

SVi
SLVCa;
SIV

45.

With his was his young lawyer.

46.

The spectators came in and almost filled the chairs.


S
IV
TV
DO
The judge entered the room and sat on a high chair.
S
TV
DO
IV
We stood in a hurry and then sat down again.
S
IV
IV
After the courtroom preliminaries, the judge looked at the father.
S
TV
DO
Do you have a lawyer? he asked.
TV S
DO
S IV
I dont need any lawyer, Judge, he said.
S
TV
DO
S IV
Proceed, said the judge.
DO
TV
S
The rich mans lawyer jumped up and pointed his finger at Father.
S
IV
TV
DO
Do you or do you not agree that you have been stealing the spirit
of
TV S
DO
the complaints servants cooked and fried fat legs of lamb or
young chicken breast you and your family hung outside his
windows and inhaled the heavenly spirit of the food?

SVi;
STVDO
STVDO;
SIV
SVi
SVi

I agree. Father said.


S IV
S
IV
Do you or do you not agree that while the complaint and his
TV S
S
TV DO
children grew sickly and tubercular and you and your family
became strong of limb and fair in complexion?
I agree. Father said.
S IV
S IV
How do you account for that? father got up and paced around,
S TV
DO
S
IV
IV
scratching his head thoughtfully..

SVi;
SVi

47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

55.
56.

57.
58.

STVDO
STVDO;
SIV
STVDO;
SVi
STVDO
SVi;
STVDO

STVDO

STVDO;
STVDO
SVi;
SVi
STVDO;
SIV;
SIV

69
59.
60.
61.
62.

63.

64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.

70.
71.
72.

73.
74.
75.

76.
77.
78.

The he said, I would like to see the children of complaint, judge.


S TV
DO
Bring in the children of the complaint.
TV
DO
They came in shyly.
S
IV
The spectators covered their mouths with their hands, they were
S
TV
DO
S
TV
so amazed to see the children so thin and pale.
DO
The children walked silently to a bench and sat down without
S
IV
IV
looking up.
They stared at the floor and moved their hands uneasily.
S
TV
DO
TV
DO
Father could not say anything at first
S
TV
DO
He just stood at his chair and looked at them.
S
IV
S IV
TV
DO
Finally he said, I should like to cross examine the complaint.
S TV
DO
Proceed.
(S)
IV
Do you claim that we stole the spirit of your wealth and became
S TV
DO
a laughing family while yours became sad? Father said.
S IV
Yes.
Do you claim that we stole the spirit of your food by hanging
S TV
DO
outside your windows when your servants cooked it?Father said.
S
IV
Yes.
Then we are going to pay you right now, Father said.
S
TV
DO
S IV
He walked over to where we children were sitting on the bench
S
IV
and took straw hat off my lap and began filling it up with centavo
TV
DO
TV DO
pieces that he took out of his pockets.
He went to Mother, who added a fistful of silver coins.
S IV
As you wish.
Thank you, Father said.
S
IV

STVDO
STVDO
SVi
STVDO;
STVDO
SVi;
SVi
STVDO;
STVDO
STVDO
SVi;SVi;
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
STVDO;
SVi

STVDO;
SVi

STVDO;
SVi
SVi;
STVDO;
STVDO

SVi

SVi

70
79.

80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92
93
94.
95.

96.
97.
98.

He strode into the other room with the hat in his hands.
S TV
DO
It was almost full of coins.
S LV
Cn
The doors of both room were wide open.
S
LV
Cn
Are you ready? Father called.
LV S
Ca
S
IV
Proceed. The judge said.
(S)
IV
S
IV
The sweet tinkle of the coins carried beautifully in the courtroom.
S
IV
The spectators turned their faces toward the sound with wonder.
S
TV
DO
Father came back and stood before the complaint.
S
IV
Father came back and stood before the complaint.
S
IV
IV
Did you hear it? he asked.
S TV DO S
IV
Hear what? the man asked.
(S) TV DO
S
IV
The spirit of the money when I shook this hat? he asked.
S IV
Yes.
Then you are paid, Father said.
S IV
The lawyer rushed to his aid.
S
IV
The judge pounded his gravel.
S
TV
DO
Case dismissed. He said.
IV
S IV
Father strutted around the courtroom the judge even came down
S
IV
from his high chair to shake hands with him.
By the way, he whispered, I had an uncle who died laughing.
S
IV
You like to hear my family laugh judge? Father asked.
DO
S
TV
Why not? Did you hear that children? father said.
S IV

STVDO

SLVCn
SLVCa;
SVi
SVi;
SVi
SVi
STVDO
SVi
SVi;
SVi
STVDO;
SVi
STVDO;
SVi
SVi
SVi
SVi
STVDO
SVi;
SVi
SVi
SVi
STVDO
STVDO;
SVi

71
99.
100

101

My sisters started it.


S
TV DO
The rest of us followed them soon the spectators were laughing
S
TV DO
with us, holding their bellies and bending over the chairs.
And the laughter of the judge was the loudest of all.
S
LV
Ca

STVDO
STVDO

SLVCa

72
My Fathers Tragedy
(Sentence Patterns Analysis)
No.
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

13.

14.

Sentences
It was one of those lean years of our lives.
S LV Cn
Our rice field was destroyed by locusts that came from the
S
IV
neighboring town.
When the locusts were gone, we planted string beans, but a fire
S
TV
DO
S
burned whole plantation.
TV
DO
My brothers went away because they got tires of working for nothing.
S
IV
Mother and my sisters went from house to house, asking for
S
IV
something to do, but every family was plagued by some kind of
S TV
DO
disaster.
The children walked in the streets looking for the fruit of the acacia
S
IV
tree that fell to the ground.
The man hung on the face around the market and watched the meat
S TV
DO
dealers hungrily.
We were all suffering from lack of proper food.
S LV
Ca
But the professional gamblers had money
S
LV Ca
They sat in the fish house in the station and gave their orders aloud.
S IV
TV
DO
The loafers and other by-standers watched them eat boiled rice and
S
TV
DO
fried fish with their silver spoons.
They never used forks because the prongs stuck between their teeth
S
TV DO
They always cut their lips and tongues with the knives, so they never
S
TV
DO
S
asked for them.
IV
If the water was new and he put the knives on the table, they looked
S TV
DO
S
TV

Sentence
Patterns
SLVCn

SVi
STVDO;
STVDO

SVi

SVi;
STVDO

SVi

STVDO

SLVCa
SLVCa
SVi
STVDO
STVDO

STVDO
STVDO;
SVi

STVDO;
STVDO

73

15.

16.

17.
18.
19.

20.

21.

22.
23.
24.
25.

26.

27.
28.

29.
30.

at each other furtively and slipped them in their pockets.


DO
They washed their hands in one big wooden bowl of water and wiped
STVDO
S
TV
DO
their mouths with the leaves of the arbor tree that fell on the ground.
They hung on the fence around the public market waiting for men
STVDO
S TV
DO
who had some money.
The rainy season was approaching.
SVi
S
IV
There were rumors of famine.
There+Be+
There
Be
S
S
The grass did not grow and our carabao became thin.
SVi;
S
IV
S
LV
Ca
SLVCa
Fathers fighting cock, Burick, was practically the only healthy living
SLVCn
S
LV
thing in our household.
Cn
Its fathers Kanaway, who had won a house for us some three years
S LV
Cn
STVDO
before and father had commanded me to give it the choicest rice.
He took the soft-boiled eggs from the plate of my sister Marcela, who
STVDO
S TV
DO
was sick with meningitis that year.
He was preparing Burick from something big.
STVDO
S TV
DO
But the great catastrophe came to our town.
SVi
S
IV
The peasants and most of the rich men spent their money on food.
STVDO
S
TV
DO
They had stopped going to the cockpit for fear of temptation; if they
STVDO;
S
TV
DO
SVi
went at all, they just sat in the gallery and shouted at the top of their
SVi
S
Vi
Vi
lungs.
They went home with their heads down, thinking of the money they
STVDO
S
TV DO
would have won.
It was this impasse that father sat every day with his fighting cock.
SLVCa
S LV
Ca
He would not go anywhere.
SLVCa
S
LV
Ca
He would not do anything, he just sat there caressing Burick and
SLVCa
S
LV
Ca
exercising his legs.

74
31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.
37.
38.

39.
40.

41.
42.
43.

44.

45.
46.
47.

He spat at his hacks and rubbed them, looking faraway with a big
S IV
dream.
When mother came home with some food, he went to the granary
S IV
and sat there till evening.
Sometimes he slept there with Burick, but at dawn the cock would
S IV
DO
S
TV
woke him up with its majestic crowing.
DO
He crept into the house and fumbled for the cold rice in the pot
S IV
TV
DO
under the stove
Then he put the cock in the pen and slept on the bench the whole
S TV
DO
IV
day.
Mother was very patient.
S
LV
Ca
But the day came when she kicked him off the bench.
S IV
He fell on the floor face down, looked up at her, and then resumed
S
TV
DO
his sleep.
Mother took my sister Francisca with her.
S
TV
DO
They went from house to house in the neighborhood, pounding rice
S
IV
from some people and hauling drinking water for other.
They came home with their share in a big basket that mother carried
S
TV DO
on her head.
Father was still sleeping on the bench, when they arrived.
S
IV
Mother told my sister to cook some of the rice.
S
TV
IO
DO
She dipped up a cup in the jar and splashed the cold water on
S
TV
DO
Fathers face.
He jumped up, looked at Mother with anger, and went to Buricks
S
IV
pen.
He gathered the cock in his arms, and climbed down the porch.
S
TV
DO
IV
He sat on a log in the backyard and started caressing his fighting
S TV
DO
TV
DO
cock.

SVi

SVi

SVi;
STVDO

SVi;
STVDO
STVDO;
SVi
SLVCa
SVi
STVDO

STVDO
SVi

STVDO

SVi
STIODO
STVDO

SVi

STVDO;
SVi
STVDO

75
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.

Mother went on with her washing.


S
IV
Francisca fed Marcela with some boiled rice.
S
TV DO
Father was still caressing Burick.
S
TV
DO
Mother was mad at him.
S
LV Ca
Is that all you can do? she shouted at him.
TV S
DO
S
IV
Why do you say that to me? Father said.
S TV
DO
S
IV
Im thinking of some ways to become rich.
S
TV
DO
Mother threw a piece of wood at the cock.
S
TV
DO
Father saw her in time.
S
TV DO
He ducked and covered the cock with his body.
S
TV
TV
DO
The wood struck him first; it cut a hole in the base of his head.
S
TV DO
S TV DO
He got up and examined Burick.
S
TV
DO
He acted as though the cock were the one that was hurt.
S IV
He looked up at mother and his face was pitiful.
S
IV
S LV Ca
Why dont you see what are you doing? he said, hugging Burick.
DO
S TV
I would like to wring that cocks neck. Mother said.
S
TV
DO
S
IV
Thats his fortune, I said.
DO
S TV
Mother looked sharply at me.
S
IV
Shut up, idiot! she said.
DO
S TV
You are more becoming your father every day.
S LV
Ca
I watched her moved foolishly.
S TV DO
I thought she would cry.
S TV
DO
She tucked her skirt between her legs and went on with her work.
S
TV
DO
IV

SVi
STVDO
STVDO
SLVCa
STVDO;
SVi
STVDO;
SVi
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO;
STVDO
STVDO;
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
SVi;
SLVCa
SVi;
STVDO
SVi;
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
STVDO
SLVCa
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO;
SVi

76
71.

72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.

79.
80.
81.
82.
83.

84.

85.
86.

87.

88.

89.

I ran down the ladder and went to the granary, where father treating
S TV
IV
the wound on his head.
I held the cock for him.
S TV
DO
Take good care of it son, he said.
DO
S TV
Yes sir, I said.
DO
S TV
Go to the river and exercise its legs.
IV
TV
DO
Come back right away.
IV
We are going to town.
S
IV
I ran down the street with the cock, kicking the pigs and dogs that
S IV
went in my way.
I plunged into the water with my clothes and swam with Burick.
S IV
IV
I put some water in my mouth and blew it into his face.
S TV
DO
TV
DO
I ran back to our house slapping the water off my clothes.
S IV
Father and I went to the cockpit.
S
IV
It was Sunday, but there were many loafers and gamblers at the
S LV Cn
There Be
S
place.
There were a strange man with black fighting cock.
There Be
S
He had come from one of the neighboring towns to seek his fortune
S
IV
in our cockpit.
His name was Burcio.
S
LV Cn
He held our cock above his head and closed one eyes, looking
S TV
DO
sharply at Burciks eyes.
He put it on the ground and bent over it, pressing down the cocks
S IV
IV
back with his hands, Burcio was teasing Buricks strength.
S
TV
DO
The loafers and gamblers formed a ring around them watching
S
TV
DO
Burcios left hand expertly moving around Burick.

STVDO;
SVi
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi;
STVDO
SVi
SVi
SVi

SVi
STVDO;
STVDO
SVi
SVi
SLVCn;
There+
Be+S
There+
Be+S
SVi

SLVCn
STVDO

SVi
SVi
STVDO
STVDO

77
90.
91.
92.
93.

94.

95.
96.

97.

98.

99.
100
101

102
103
104

105
106
107
108

Father also tested the cock of Burcio.


S
TV
DO
He threw it in the air and watched it glide smoothly to the ground.
S TV DO
He sparred with it.
S IV
The black cock pecked at his legs and stopped to crow proudly for
S
IV
IV
bystanders.
Father picked it up and sparred its wing feeling the rough hide
S
TV DO
TV
DO
beneath the feathers.
The bystanders knew that a fight was about to be matched.
S
TV DO
They counted the money in their pockets without showing it to their
S
TV
DO
neighbors.
They felt the edges of the coins with amazing swiftness and
S TV
DO
accuracy.
Only a high magnified magnifier could have recorded the tiny clink of
S
TV
the coins that fell between deft fingers.
DO
The caressing rustle of the paper money was inaudible.
S
LV
Ca
The peasants broke from the ring and hid behind the coconut trees.
S
IV
TV
DO
They unfolded their handkerchiefs and hands and returned to the
S
TV
DO
IV
crowd.
They waited for the final decision.
S
TV
DO
Shall we make it this coming Sunday? Burcio asked.
S TV
DO
S
IV
Its too soon for my Burick, father said.
DO
S TV
His hand moved mechanically into his pocket.
S
IV
But it was empty.
S LV Ca
He looked around his cronies.
S
IV
But two of the peasants caught fathers arm and whispered
S
TV
DO
TV

STVDO
STVDO
SVi
SVi; SVi

STVDO,
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO

STVDO

STVDO

SLVCa
SVi,
STVDO
STVDO,
SVi
STVDO
STVDO,
SVi
STVDO
SVi
SLVCa
SVi
STVDO;
STVDO

78
something to him.
DO
109 They slipped some money in his hand and pushed him toward
S
TV
DO
Burcio.
120 He tried to estimate the money.
S TV
DO
121 He knew right away that he had some twenty-peso bills.
S IV
122 A light of hope appeared in his face.
S
IV
123 This coming Sundays all right, he said.
DO
S TV
124 All at once the man broke in the wild confusion.
S IV
125 Some went to Burcio with their money; other went to father.
S
IV
S
IV
126 They were not bettors but investors.
S
LV
Cn
127 Their money would back up the cocks at the cockpit.
S
TV
DO
128 In the late afternoon, the fight was arranged.
S
IV
129 We returned to our house with some hope.
S
IV
130 Father put Burick in the pen and told me to go the fishponds across
S TV DO
TV IO
DO
the river.
131 I ran down the road with mounting joy.
S
TV
DO
132 I found a fishpond under a camachile tree.
S TV
DO
133 It was the favorite haunt of snails.
S LV
Cn
134 I filled my hat snails and shrimps.
S TV
IO
DO
135 Then I went home.
S TV DO
Mother was cooking something good.
136
S
LV
Ca
137 It smelled the moment I entered the gate.
S TV
DO S TV
DO
138 I rushed into the house and spilled some of the snails on the floor.
S IV
TV DO

STVDO

STVDO

SVi
SVi
STVDO
SVi
SVi, SVi
SLVCn
STVDO
SVi
SVi
STVDO,
STVIODO
STVDO
STVDO
SLVCn
STVIODO
STVDO
SLVCa
STVDO;
STVDO
SVi;
STVDO

79
139 Mother was at the stove.
S
IV
140 She was stirring the ladle in the boiling pot.
S
TV
DO
141 Father was still sleeping on the bench.
S
LV
Ca
142 Francisca was feeding Marcela with hot soup.
S
TV
DO
143 I put the snails and shrimps in a pot and sat on the bench.
S TV
DO
144 Mother was cooking chicken with some bitter melons.
S
TV
DO
145 I sat wondering where she got it.
S TV
DO
146 I knew that our poultry in the village was empty.
S TV
DO
147 We had no poultry in town.
S TV
DO
148 Father opened his eyes when he heard the bubbling pot.
S
TV
DO
149 Mother put the rice on a bog wooden platter and set it on the table.
S TV
DO
150 She filled our plates with chicken meat and ginger.
S
TV
DO
151 Father got up suddenly and went to the table.
S
IV
IV
152 Francisca sat by the stove.
S
IV
153 Father was reaching for the white meat in the platter when mother
S
TV
DO
slapped his hand away.
154 She was saying grace.
S
LV
Ca
155 Then we put our legs under the table and started eating.
S TV
DO
TV
DO
156 It was our first taste of chicken in a long time.
S LV
Cn
157 Father filled his plate twice and ate a very little.
S
TV
DO
158 He usually ate more rice when we had only salted fish and some
S
TV
DO
leaves of trees.
159 We ate grass most of the time.
S TV DO

SVi
STVDO
SLVCa
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi, SVi
SVi
STVDO

SLVCa
STVDO;
STVDO
SLVCn
STVDO
STVDO

STVDO

80
160 Father tilted his plate and ate his soup noisily as though he were
S
TV
DO
TV
DO
drinking wine.
161 He put the empty plate near the pot and asked for some chicken
S TV
DO
meat.
162 Its a good chicken, he said.
DO
S TV
163 Mother was very quiet
S
LV
Ca
164 She put the breast in a plate and told Francisca to give it to Marcela.
S TV
DO
165 She gave me some bitter melons.
S TV IO
DO
166 Father put his hand in the pot and fished out a drumstick.
S
TV
DO
167 Where did you get this lovely chicken? father said.
S
IV
168 The drumstick fell from his mouth.
S
IV
169 It rolled into space between the bamboo splits and fell on the ground.
S IV
170 Our dog snapped it up and ran away.
S
TV
DO
171 Fathers face broke in great agony.
S
IV
172 He rushed outside the house.
S IV
173 I could hear him running toward the highway.
S
TV DO
174 My sister continued eating, but my appetite was gone.
S
TV
DO
S
LV Ca
175 What are you doing son? mother said.
S
IV
176
Eat your chicken.
(S) IV

STVDO;
STVDO
STVDO

STVDO
SLVCa
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
SVi
SVi
STVDO
SVi
SVi
STVDO
STVDO;
SLVCa
SVi
SVi

81
The Soldier
(Sentence Patterns Analysis)
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.
11.

12.
13.
14.

15.
16.

17.
18.

Sentences
They were arguing in the living room
S
IV
Youve invited him to come here? the mother asked.
S
TV DO
S
IV
Why not? the daughter said.
S
IV
He s nice and intelligent.
S LV
Ca
The mother looked at her daughter with horror.
S
IV
A soldier? she said.
S IV
A Filipino soldier?
The father came from the kitchen with a glass of wine in one hand and a
S
IV
bottle in the other.
He heard his wife and daughter arguing when he came home but had gone
S TV
DO
straight to his room as though he were unconcerned.
At the dinner table, his wife had looked strangely at the girl.
S
IV
The daughter had rushed to the living-room and she threw herself into a
S
IV
S TV
DO
chair.
He looked at his wife then, long, questioning the purpose.
S IV
Their argument had already touched him.
S
TV
DO
He had looked at his wife through the years of their life together, trying to
S
IV
put his thought together.
Would you like your daughter to bring a Filipino here? she asked him.
S TV DO
He had merely looked at her with great patience of a husband who had
S
IV
worked dutifully for the years to have a decent home.
Would you? she cried.
S IV
He had walked to the living-room without answering her.
S
IV

Sentence
Patterns
SVi
STVDO;
SVi
SVi
SLVCa
SVi
SVi

SVi

STVDO

SVi
SVi;
STVDO
SVi
STVDO
SVi

STVDO
SVi

SVi
SVi

82
19.
20.
21.

22.

23.
24.

25.
26.
27.
28.

29.

30.
31.
32.
33.

34.

35.
36.
37.

He had stood near the chair where the girl is weeping.


S
IV
He had wanted to understand her.
S
IV
He had bent over to touch her suddenly had straightened up, stood for a
S
IV
IV
while, eager, then walked to the kitchen for the bottle of wine.
Now, he came out of the kitchen with a glass of wine in one hand and the
S
IV
bottle in the other.
Go up to your room, Marcela. He said.
IV
S IV
The girl looked up at her father the way she had always looked at him that
S
IV
way.
There was a time when she had come home from school and cried to him.
There Be
S
It seemed that she had met a boy that time.
S TV
DO
If it were not for him, she would have neglected her studies that year.
S
TV
DO
She looked now at her father as though all years were crowding in upon
S
IV
her, challenging his victories and deep convictions.
He could see in her eyes the light that once glowed warmly in his eyes;
S
TV
DO
the immortal light that has shown in the other lands and times.
S
IV
If only I could go back to the beginning, he thought.
DO
S TV
Instead, he said to his daughter, Go up to your room now, Marcella.
S TV
DO
She knew that she was defeated.
S
TV
DO
She jumped from the chair and fled across the room and rushed up the
S
IV
stairway
She slammed the door and flung herself upon the bed, sobbing and kicking
S
TV
DO
TV
DO
the air.
Martha, he said to his wife looking upstairs. Where did she met him?
DO
S TV
S TV DO
In the public library.
He walked to his chair and sat down.
S IV

SVi
SVi
SVi
SVi
Svi

SVi;
SVi
SVi

There+Be+
S
STVDO
STVDO
SVi

STVDO

STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi

STVDO;
STVDO
STVDO;
STVDO
SVi

83
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.

53.

54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.

Well, he must be a nice boy.


S
LV
Ca
Walter! she cried with horror.
S
IV
He made a motion to go to her, hesitated, sat back and shook his head.
S TV
DO
Then he got up and walked to the table for his pipe.
S IV
IV
Suddenly, the doorbell rang out loud.
S
IV
Thats probably him right now, he said.
DO
S TV
She brushed the tears from her eyes.
S
TV
DO
The bell rang again.
S IV
The man walked to the door and opened it.
S
IV
A Filipino soldier was standing in the light rain.
S
IV
He got a box of candies.
S TV
DO
Is this Miss Marcella Roberts house? he asked.
DO
S TV
Yes, the man said, hesitant, pondering.
DO
S TV
Then he said, Come on in.
S TV
DO
The soldier walked into the house and stood on the threshold for a
S
IV
moment the cold of night outside still clinging heavily on him.
The man closed the door and took the soldiers cap, walking to the far
S TV
DO
TV
DO
corner of room where his wife was waiting.
You are Marcellas mother? the soldier asked.
DO
S
TV
Yes, she said.
DO S TV
I thought so, the soldier said.
DO
S
TV
You look exactly as I thought you would, only you are much younger.
S
IV
The man gave him a chair.
S TV IO
DO
He stood waiting for the young man to speak.
S
TV
DO

SLVCa
SVi
STVDO
SVi;
SVi
SVi
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
SVi
SVi
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi

STVDO;
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi

STVIODO
STVDO

84
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.

69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.

78.

79.

The book and the box of candies were still in his lap.
S
IV
Where is your station? the man asked.
DO
S
TV
Fort Ord, the soldier said.
DO
S
TV
How is it out there?
IV S
It is great. He said.
S LV Ca S IV
Nice bunch of fellows in that camp.
I like the place.
S TV
DO
I ve been studying seriously.
S
IV
He was still standing before the soldier, fumbling deliberately with his
S
IV
pipe.
It was in first war, he started and stopped.
S TV
DO S
IV
There was a sudden interest in the young mans voice.
There Be
S
Were you? he said, jumping to his feet.
DO
S TV
Ive served for ten months in France.
S
LV
Ca
Then you understand the feeling of a soldier.
S
TV
DO
They say the other was fought for democracy.
S TV
DO
Some of those who fought in its say its a lie.
I dont interpret that way, though.
S
TV
DO
It was fought for democracy all right, but somewhere in the ideals
S
IV
were gobbled up by powerful men
The man was beginning to feel that he had something in common
S
TV
DO
with the soldier.
The only difference was when he was a soldier he did not have the
S
LV
Cn
S
TV
chance to clarify his beliefs.
DO

SVi
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
SLVCa;
SVi
STVDO
SVi
SVi

STVDO;
SVi
There+
Be+ S
STVDO
SLVCa
STVDO
STVDO

STVDO
SVi

STVDO

SLVCn;
STVDO

85
80.

81.
82.
83.

84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.

90.
91.
92.

93.
94.
95.

96.
97.
98.

He was glad that at last, some twenty-five years later; he had met
S LV Ca
another soldier who, though born in another part of the world, could
have been himself; bringing with him the bright hopes he had fough
or in that other war.
He walked back to his chair and sat down, facing the soldier.
S
IV
He glanced at his wife swiftly.
S
TV
DO
Looking back at the soldier, he felt a yearning to confide something
S TV
DO
personal surging through him.
Have you ever lived in this city before? he asked.
DO
S TV
Yes, the soldier said.
D
S
TV
Ten years ago.
But most people I knew are gone.
S
LV Ca
This afternoon I walked around looking at the new stores and buildings.
S IV
I stopped at the newsstands and touched the magazines and
S
IV
TV
DO
newspapers.
I like this city very much indeed.
S TV
DO
Life itself reacts in the city streets.
S
IV
Ten years ago I used to stand in the station watching people, and
S TV
DO
always there was powerful yearning in me to go away.
Someday, I used to say to myself, Ill go away and never come back
S TV
DO
But I never went away.
I remember when I was a little boy, my father and I used to go to the
S
TV
DO
mountains just for the sheer of joy walking along distances.
Im like my father, who had a yearning for faraway places.
S
IV
It took a war to take me away, though.
S TV DO
I may not come back to all this wonderful place, he stopped and
S
TV
DO
S
IV
looked around the house with a strange affection and sincerity, as though
he were storing up the bright image of the room in his mental world.

SLVCa

SVi
STVDO
STVDO

STVDO
STVDO

SLVCa
SVi
SVi;
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
STVDO

STVDO

STVDO
SVi
STVDO
STVDO;
SVi

86
99.
100

101
102
103
104
105
106

107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118

119

He appreciated all of it.


S
TV
DO
The man stirred in his chair. Marcella is ill and she cant come down
S
IV
DO
he said.
S TV
Ill? the soldier said, frightened.
DO
S
TV
She has the flu, but shell be alright.
S TV
DO
I hope shell be alright.
S TV
DO
Well tell her that you called, the mother said.
DO
S
TV
Thank you Mrs. Roberts, he said.
DO
S TV
He walked across the room and put the book and box of candies on
S IV
TV
DO
the table.
Ill leave these candies for Marcella.
S TV
DO
This small book of poem is written by a Filipino who lived in this city.
S
IV
He was the first of my people to write a book in English.
S LV
Ca
The man felt the strong pride in the soldiers voice.
S TV
DO
Well give them to her, he said.
DO
S TV
Tell her to get well soon, the soldier said.
DO
S
TV
Tell her not to get flu anymore.
IV
Tell her the weather is dangerous this year.
S
LV Ca
He walked to the door and the man followed him.
S IV
S
TV
DO
Goodnight, Mrs. Roberts, he said, and stepped out of the house.
DO
S TV
Ill walk with you to the street, the man said.
DO
S TV
The rain had stopped falling and there was a misty moonlight in the
S
TV
DO
There Be
S
trees.
There was a fresh smell in the air.
There Be
S

STVDO

SVi;
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi;
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
SLVCa
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
SVi
SLVCa
SVi;
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO
STVDO;
There+ Be
+S
There+ Be+
S

87
120
121
122
123
122

The man and the soldier stood under a wide arc of light in the street.
S
IV
Im glad you feel that way sir, the soldier said.
DO
S
TV
The man gave his hand eagerly. Good luck young man, he said.
S TV
DO
DO
S TV
The Filipino soldier walked into the night.
S
IV
He did not look back to see that the man was watching him walking
S
IV
away.

SVi
STVDO
STVDO;
STVDO
SVi
SVi

88
Immediate Constituent Analysis
Legend:
D

determiner

noun

Pn

pronoun

Adj.

adjective

Adv.

adverb

PP

prepositional

conjunction

AV

action verb

HP

helping verb

LV

linking verb

BV

be verb

Aux-v auxiliary verb

89
My Father Goes to Court
(Immediate Constituent Analysis)
When I was four, I lived with my mother and brothers and sisters in a small town
adv. pn BV adj. pn AV pp pn
n
c
n
c
n pp art. adj n
on the island of Luzon. Fathers farm had been destroyed in 1910 by one of our
pp Det. n pp n
n
HV
AV
pp n pp adj. pp pn
Philippine floods, so several years afterwards we all lived in the town though he
adj.
n
c
adv. n
adv.
pn adj. AV pp Det. n
c
pn
preferred living in the country. We had as a next door neighbor a very rich man,
AV
AV pp Det. n
pn aux-v c art. adj. n
n
art. adv. adj. n
whose sons and daughters seldom came out of the house. While we boys and
pn
n
c
n
adv AV pp pp Det. n
c pn n
c
girls played and sang in the sun, his children stayed inside and kept
n
AV c
AV pp Det. n pn
n
LV pp
c AV
the windows closed. His house was so tall that his children could look in the
Det. n
AV
pn n
LV adv adj. pn pn
n aux-v AV pp Det.
window of our house and watched us played, or slept, or ate,when there was any
n pp pn n
c
AV
n AV c AV c AV adv pn Be-V Det.
food in the house to eat. Now, this rich mans servants were always frying and
n pp Det. n pp AV adv. pn adj. n
n
BV
adv. AV
c
cooking something good, and the aroma of the food was wafted down to us from
AV
pn
adj. c Det. n pp Det. n BV AV
pp pp pn pp
The windows of the big house. We hung about and took all the wonderful smells
Det.
n
pp Det. adj. n
pn AV pp
c AV adj. Det. adj.
n
of our beings. Sometimes, in the morning, our whole family stood outside
pp pn
n
adv. ppDet. n
pn adj.
n
AV
pp
the windows of the rich mans house and listened to the musical sizzling of thick
Det.
n
pp Det.adj.
n
c
AV pp Det. adj.
AV pp adj.
strips of bacon and ham. I can remember one afternoon when our neighbors
n pp n
c
n pn aux-v
AV
adj.
n
adv. pn
n

90
servants roasted three chicken. The chickens were young and tender and the fat
n
AV
adj.
n
Det.
n Be-V adj.
c adj. c Det.adj
that dripped into the burning coals gave off an enchanting odor. We watched the
c
AV pp Det.
adj. n AV pp Det.
adj.
n pn
AV Det.
servants turn the beautiful birds and inhaled the heavenly spirit that drifted out to
n
AV Det. adj
n c
AV Det. adj.n pn AV pp pp
us.Some days the rich man appeared at a window and glowered down at us. He
n adj n Det. adj n
AV ppart n
c
AV
pp pp n pn
us one by one, as though he were condemning us. We were all healthy because
pn adj. pp adj.
pp pn Be-V
AV
pn pn BV adj. adj.
c
we went out in the sun and bathed in the cool water of the river that flowed from
pn AV pp pp Det. n c
AV pp Det. adj. n pp Det. n c
AV pp
the mountains into the sea. Sometimes we wrestled with one another in the
Det.
n
pp Det. n
adv. pn AV
pp adj.
pn
pp Det.
house before we went to play. We were always in the best of spirits and our
n
c
pn AV pp AV pn LV adv. pp Det. adj. pp n
c pn
laughter was contagious. Other neighbors who passed by our house often
n
BV
adj.
adj.
n
pn
AV pp pn
n

adv.

stopped in our yard and joined us in laughter. As time went on, the rich mans
AV
pp pn n
c
AV pn pp n
c n
AV pp Det. adj. n
children became thin and anaemic, while we grew even more robust and full of
n
LV adj. c
adj.
c pn LV adj adv. adj. c adj. pp
life. Our faces were bright and rosy, but theirs was pale and sad. The rich man
n pn n BV
adj. c adj. c adj. LV adj. c adj. Det. adj n
started to cough at night; then he coughed day and night. His wife began
AV pp AV pp n
c
pn
AV
n c
n
pn n

AV

coughing too. Then the children started to cough, one after the other. At night
n
adv. c Det.
n
AV pp AV
adj. pp Det.adj. pp n
their coughing sounded like the barking of a herd of seals. We hung outside their
adj.
n
AV adj. Det.
n pp art. n pp n
pn AV
pp adj.

91
windows and listened to them. We wondered what happened. We knew that they
n
c
AV pp pn pn
AV
c
AV
pn AV
c pn
were not sick from the lack of nourishment because they were still always frying
BV adv. adj. ppDet. adj. pp
n
c
pn Be-V adv. adv. AV
something delicious to eat. One day the rich man appeared at a window and
pn
adj. pp AV adj. n Det. adj. n
AV pp art.
n

stood there long time. He looked at my sisters, who had grown fat in laughing,
AV
adv adj. n pn AV pp pn n
pn HV AV adj. pp n
then at my brothers, whose arms and legs were like the molave, which is the
c pp pn
n
pn
n
c
n Be-V adj. Det. n
pn LVDet
sturdiest tree in the Philippines. He banged down the window and ran through his
adj.
n pp Det.
n
pn AV
pp Det. n
c AV pp pn
house, shutting all the windows. From that day on, the windows of our neighbors
n
AV adj.Det. n
adj pn n pp Det.
n
pp pn n
house were always closed. The children did not come out anymore. We could
n BV
adv.
AV Det. n HV adv. AV pp adv.
pn HV
still hear the servants cooking in the kitchen, and no matter how tight the
adv. AV Det. n
n
pp Det.
n
c adj. n adv. adj.Det.
windows were shut, the aroma of the food came to us in the wind and drifted
n
Be-V adj. Det.
n pp Det. n
AV pp n pp Det. n c AV
gratuitously into our house. One morning a policeman from the predencia came
adv.
pp pn
n adj.
n
art.
n
pp Det.
n
AV
to our house with a sealed paper. The rich man had filed a complaint against us.
pp pn n
pp art. adj.
n
Det. adj. n HV AV art.
n
pp pn
Father took me with him when he went to the town clerk and asked him what it
n
AV pn pp pn adv. pn AV pp Det. n
n c
AV pn c pn
was about. He told father the man claimed that for years we had been stealing
LV
pp pn AV
n
Det. n
AV
c pp n
pn
HV
AV
the spirit of his wealth and food. When the day came for us toappear in court,
Det. n pp pn n
c
n
adv. Det. n AV pp n pp AV pp n

92
father brushed his old Army uniform and borrowed a pair of shoes from one of
n
AV pn adj. adj.
n
c
AV art. n pp n pp adj. pp
my brothers. We were the first to arrive. Father sat on a chair in the center of the
pn
n
pn Be-V Det. adj.pp AV
n AV pp art. n pp Det. n ppDet
courtroom. Mother occupied a chair by the door. We children sat on a long bench
n
n
AV art. n pp Det. n pn
n AV pp art. adj. n
by the wall. Father kept jumping up from his chair and stabbing the air with his
pp det. n
n
AV
n pp pp pn
n c
AV Det. n pp pn
arms, as though we were defending himself before an imaginary jury. The rich
n
c
pn Be-V
AV
pn
pp Det.
adj.
n Det. adj.
man arrived. He had grown old and feeble; his face was scarred with deep lines.
n
AV pn HV AV adj. c adj. pn n HV
AV pp adj. n
With his was his young lawyer. Spectators came in and almost filled the chairs.
pp pn BV pn adj.
n
n
AV pp c
adv. AV Det. n
The judge entered the room and sat on a high chair. We stood in a hurry and
Det. n
AV Det. n
c AV pp art. adj. n
pn AV pp art. adj. c
then sat down again. After the courtroom preliminaries, the judge looked at the
c AV pp
pp
pp Det.
n
n
Det. n
AV ppDet.
father. Do you have a lawyer? he asked. I dont need any lawyer, Judge, he
n
AV pn AV art. n
pn AV pnAV adv. AVadj. n
n
pn
said. Proceed, said the judge. The rich mans lawyer jumped up and pointed his
AV
AV
AV Det. n
Det. adj. n
n
AV pp c
AV pn
finger at Father. Do you or do you not agree that you have been stealing the
n pp n
AV pn c AV pn adv. n
c pn
HV
AV Det.
spirit of the complaints servants cooked and fried fat legs of lamb or young
n pp Det.
n
n
AV
c AV adj. n pp n c adj.
chicken breast you and your family hung outside his windows and inhaled the
adj.
n
pn c pn
n
AV
pp
pn
n
c
AV Det.
heavenly spirit of the food? I agree. Father said. Do you or do you not agree
adj.
n pp Det. n pn AV
n AV AV pn c AV pn adv. AV

93
that while the complaint and his children grew sickly and tubercular and you and
pn
c Det.
n
c pn
n
LV adj. c
adj.
c pn c
your family became strong of limb and fair in complexion? I agree. Father said.
Pn
n
LV adj. pp n c adj. pp
n
pn AV
n
AV
How do you account for that? father got up and paced around, scratching his
adj. AV pn
n
pp pn
n AV pp c AV
pp
AV
pn
head thoughtfully. Then he said, Iwould like to see the children of complaint,
n
adv.
c pn AV pn aux-v AV pp AV Det. n
pp
n
judge. Bring in the children ofthe complaint. They came in shyly. The
n
AV pp Det.
n
pp Det.
n
pn
AV pp adj.

Det.

spectators covered their mouths with their hands, they were so amazed to see
n
AV
pn
n
pp pn
n
pn Be-V c
AV pp AV
the children so thin and pale. The children walked silently to a bench and sat
Det.
n
c adj. c adj. Det. n
AV
adv. pp art. n
c AV
Down without looking up. They stared at the floor and moved their hands
pp
pp
adj. pp pn
AV pp Det. n
c
AV
pn

uneasily. Father could not say anything at first. He just stood but his chair and
adv.
n aux-v adv. AV
pn
pp adj. pn adv AV c pn n
c
looked at them. Finally he said, I should like to cross examine the complaint.
AV pp pn
adv. pn AV pn aux-v AV pp
n
Det.
n
Proceed. Do you claim that we stole the spirit of your wealth and became a
AV
AV pn
AV c pn AV Det. n pp pn n
c
LV art
laughing family while your became morose and sad? Father said. Yes. Do you
adj.
n
c
pn
LV
adj. c adj.
n
AV adv AV pn
claim that we stole the spirit of your food by hanging outside your windows when
AV pn pn AV Det. n pp pn n pp AV
pp
pn
n
adv.
your servants cooked it? Father said. Yes. Then we are going to pay you right
pn
n
AV pn
n
AV adv
c pn Be-v AV pp AV pn adv
now, Father said. He walked over to where we children were sitting on the
adv
n
AV pn AV
pp pp adv. pn
n
BV AV pp Det.

94
bench and took straw hat off my lap and began filling it up with centavo pieces
n
c AV adj. n pp pn n c HV
AV pn pp pp
adj.
n
that he took out of his pockets. He went to Mother, who added a fistful of silver
c pn AV pp pp pn
n
pn AV pp n
pn AV art. adj. pp adj.
coins. My brothers threw their small change. As you wish. Thank you, father
n
pn
n
AV pn adj.
n
c pn n
AV pn
n
said. He strode into the other room with the hat in his hands. It was almost full of
AV pn AV pp Det. adj.
n pp Det. n pp pn n pn BV adv. adj. pp
coins. The doors of both room were wide open. Are you ready? Father called.
N Det. n pp adj. n Be-V adj. n BV pn n
n
AV
Proceed. The judge said. The sweet tinkle of the coins carried beautifully in the
AV
Det. n AV Det. adj. n pp Det. n
AV
adv. ppDet.
courtroom. The spectators turned their faces toward the sound with wonder.
n
Det.
n
AV pn n
pp Det. n pp
adj.
Father came back and stood before the complaint. Did you hear it? he asked.
n
AV adv. c
AV
pp Det. n
AV pn AV pn pn AV
Hear what? the man asked. The spirit of the money when I shook this hat? he
n pn
Det. n AV
Det. n pp Det. n
adv. pn AV pn n
pn
asked. Yes. Then you are paid, Father said. The lawyer rushed to his aid. The
AV
adv.
c pn BV AV
n
AV Det. n
AV pp pn n Det.
judge pounded his gravel. Case dismissed. He said. Father strutted around the
n
AV
pn n
n
AV
pn AV
n
AV
pp Det.
courtroom the judge even came down from his high chair to shake hands with
n
Det. n adv. AV pp pp pn adj. n pp AV
n
pp
him. By the way, he whispered, I had an uncle who died laughing. You like to
pn pp Det. n pn AV
pn HV art. n
pn AV
n
pn AVpp
hear my family laugh judge? Father asked. Why not? Did you hear that
AV pn n
AV
n
n
AV
pn adv. AV pn AV pn
children? father said. My sisters started it. The rest of us followed them soon the
n
n AV pn
n
AV pn Det. n pp n
AV
pn adv.Det.

95
spectators were laughing with us, holding their bellies and bendingover the
n
BV
n
pp n
AV pn
n
c
AV
pp Det.
chairs. And the laughter of the judge was the loudest of all.
n
c Det.
n
pp Det. n
BV Det. adj. pp n

96
My Father Tragedy
(Immediate Constituent Analysis)
It was one of those lean years of our lives. Our rice field was destroyed by
pn BV adj. pppn adj. n pppn n
pn n n BV
AV
pp
locusts that came from the neighboring towns. When the locusts were gone, we
n
c AV pp Det.adj.
n
c Det. n
BV AV pn
planted stringbeans, but a fire burned the whole plantation. My brothers went
AV
adj.
n
c art. n AV
Det. adj.
n
pn
n
AV
away because they got tired of working for nothing. Mother and my sisters went
adv.
cpn AV AVppnpp adv.
n
c pn
n
AV
from house to house, asking for something to do, but every family was plagued
pp
n pp n
AV pppnpp AV c adj.
n
BV
AV
by some kind of disaster. The children walked in the streets looking for the fruit
ppadj.n pp n
Det.
n
AV pp Det. n
AV pp Det. n
of theacacia trees that fell to the ground. The man hung on the face around the
pp Det. adj. n pn AV pp Det. n
Det. n
AV pp Det. n
pp
Det
market and watched the meat dealers hungrily. We were all suffering from lack
n
c
AV
Det. adj.
n
adv.
pn BV pn Adj pp n
of proper food.
pp adj. n
But the professional gamblers had money. They sat in the fish house in the
c Det.
adj.
n
LV
n
pn AV pp Det. adj. n
pp Det
station andgave their orders aloud. The loafers and other by-standers watched
n
c
AV pn
n
adv. Det. n
c adj.
n
AV
them eat boiled rice and fried fish with their silver spoons. They never used forks
pn AV adj. n c adj. n
pp pn adj.
npn
adv. AV n
because theprongs stuck between their teeth. They always cut their lips and
c
Det. n
AV
pppn
n
pn
adv. AV pn n c
tongues with the knives, so they never asked for them. If the water was new and
n
pp Det. n
c pn adv. AV pp pn c Det. n LV n c

97
he put the knives on the table, they looked at each other furtively and slipped
pn AV Det. n
pp Det. n pn AV pp adv. adj.
adv.
c AV

them in their pockets. They washed their hands in one big wooden bowl of water
pn pp pn n
pn
AV
pn n
pp adj. adj. adj.
n pp n
and wiped their mouths with the leaves of the arbor trees that fell on the ground.
c AV
pn
n
pp Det. n pp Det. adj. n
c AV pp Det. n
They hung on the fence around the public market waiting for men who had some
pn
AV
pp Det. n pp Det. adj. n
AV pp n pn LV adj
money.
n
The rainy season was approaching. There were rumors of famine. The grass did
Det. adj.
n
HV
AV
adv BV
n pp n
Det. n auxV
Not grow and our carabao became thin. Fathers fighting cock, Burick, was
adv. AV c
pn
n
LV adj.
n
adj.
n
n BV
practically theonly healthy living thing in our household. Its fathers Kanaway,
adv.
Det. adv. adj.
AV
n pppn
n
pnLV n
n
who had won a house for us some three years before and fathers had
pn HV AV art. n
pp n adv. adj. n
pp
c
n

HV

commanded me to give it the choicest rice. He took the soft-boiled eggs from the
AV
pnpp AVpn Det. adj. npn AV Det. adj.
n
pp Det
plate of my sister Marcela, who was sick with meningitis that year. He was
npppn
n
nc
BV adj. pp
n
pn n pn HV
preparing Burick from something big. But the great catastrophe came to our
AV
n
pp adj
adj. c Det. adj.
n
AV pp pn
town. The peasants and most of the rich men spent their money on food. They
n Det.
n
c adj. pp Det. adj. n
AV pn n
pp n
pn
had stopped going to the cockpit for fear of temptation; if they went at all, they
AV
AV pp Det. n pp n pp
n
pp pn AV pp pn pn
just sat in the gallery and shouted at the top of their lungs.They went home with
advAVpp Det. n
c
AV
pp Det.adj. pppn n
pn AV
n
pp
their heads down, thinking of the money they would have won.

98
pn

pp

adj. pp Det.

pn aux-v HV AV

It was this impasse that father sat every day with his fighting cock. He would not
pn LV pn
n
c
n AV adv. npppn adj. n
pn aux-v adv
go anywhere. He would not do anything, he just sat there caressing Burick and
AV adv.
pn aux-v adv AV adv. pnadv AV advAV
n
c
exercising his legs. He spat at his hackes and rubbed them, looking faraway with
AVpn n pn AVpppn n
c
AV
pn
adj.
adv.
pp
a big dream. When mother came home with some food, he went to the granary
art. adj. n c
n
AV
n
pp adj. npn AV pp Det. n
and sat there till evening. Sometimes he slept there with Burick, but at dawn the
c AV adv adv. n
adv.
pn AVadvpp n
c pp n Det.
cock would woke him up with its majestic crowing. He crept into the house and
n aux-v AV pnpppppn adj.
AV
pn AVpp Det. n
c
fumbled for the cold ricein the pot under the stove.Then he put the cock in the
AV pp Det. adj. nppDet.npp Det. n
c pn AV Det. n ppDet
pen and slept on the bench the whole day.
n c AV pp Det. n
Det. adj. n
Mother was verypatient. But theday came when she kicked him off the bench.
n
BV adv. adj.c Det. n AV c
pn AV pnpp Det. n
He fell on thefloor face down, looked up ather, and then resumed his sleep.
pn AVpp Det. nnpp
AV
pppppn c adv. AV
pn n
Mother took my sister Francisca with her.They went from house to house in the
n
AV pn adj.
npppnpn AV pp
n pp n pp Det.
neighborhood, pounding rice from some people and hauling drinking water for
n AV
n pp adj. n
c
AV
adj.
n pp
other. They came home with their share in a big basket that mother carried on
adj. pn AV
n
pppn
n ppart.adj. n
pn
n
AV pp
her head.
pn n
Father was still sleeping on the bench, when they arrived. Mother told my sister
n
BV adv. adj. pp Det. n
cpn AV
n
AV pn n

99
to cook some of the rice. She dipped up a cup in the jar and splashed the cold
pp AV adj. pp Det. n pn AV pp art. nppDet n c
AV Det. adj.
water on Fathers face. He jumped up, looked at Mother with anger, and went to
n pp
n
npn AV
pp AV pp n
ppn c AV pp
Buricks pen. He gathered the cock in his arms, and climbed down the porch. He
nnpn
AV
Det. npppn n
c
AV
pp Det. n
pn
sat ona log in the back yard and started caressing his fighting cock.
AV pp art. n pp Det. adj. n
c
AV
npn adj.
n
Mother went on withher washing. Francisca fed Marcela with some boiled rice.
n
AV pppppn AV
n
AV
n
pp adj. adj. n
Father was still caressingBurickMother wasmad at him.Is that all you can
n
BV adv. AV
n
n
BV adj. pppn LV pn n pn aux-v
do? she shouted at him.Why do you say that to me? Father said. Im thinking
AV pn AV pppnpn AV pn AV pnpppn
n
AV pnLV AV
of some ways to become rich.Mother threw a piece of wood at the cock. Father
pp adv. npp LV
adj.
n
AV art. adj. pp n pp Det. n
n
saw her in time. He ducked and covered the cock with his body. The wood struck
AV pnpp n pn AV c
AV Det. npppn n
Det. n
AV
him at first; it cut a hole in the base of his head. He got up and examined
pnpp n pn AV art. adj. pp Det. n pppn n
pn AV pp c
AV
Burick. He acted as though the cock were the one that was hurt. He looked up at
npn AV
c
Det. n
BV Det. adj. pn LV adj. pn AV pppp
mother and his face was pitiful.
n
c pn n LV adj.
Why dontyou see what are you doing? he said, hugging Burick.
pn AV advpn AV pn BV pn AV
pn AV
AV
n
I would like to wring that cocks neck. Mother said.
pn aux-v AV pp AV pn
n
nn
AV
Thats his fortune, I said.
Pn LV pn
n
pn AV

100
Mother looked sharply at me. Shut up, idiot! she said. You are more becoming
N
AV
adv. pppn
AVpp n
pnAV pn BV adj.
AV
your father every day.
Pn n
adv. n
I watched her moved foolishly.I thought she would cry. She tucked her skirt
pn AV
pn
AV
adv. pn AV
pn aux-v AV pn
AV pn

between her legs and went on with her work. I ran down the ladder and went to
pppn n c AV pppppn n pn AV pp Det. n
c AV pp
the granary, where father treating the wound on his head. I held the cock for
Det. npn
n
AV
Det. npppn n pn AV Det. n pp
him.Take good care of itson, he said.Yes sir, I said.Go to the river and
pn
AV adj. n pppn n
pn AVadv n pn AV AVpp Det. n c
exercise its legs. Come back right away. We are going to town.
AVpn n
AV n
adv. pn BV AV pp n
I ran down the street with the cock, kicking the pigs and dogs that went in my
pn AV pp Det. n
pp Det. nAV Det. n c n
pn AV pppn
way. I plunged into the water with my clothes and swam with Burick. I put some
npn AV
pp Det. npppn
n
c
AV pp
n pn AV adj.
water in my mouth and blew it into his face. I ran back to our house slapping the
n pppn n
c AV pnpppn n pnAVpppn n
AV

water off my clothes. Father and I went to the cockpit.


N pppn
n
n
c pnAV pp Det. n
It was Sunday, but there were many loafers and gamblers at the place. There
pn LV
n
c pn BV adj.
n
c
n pp Det. n
pn
.
.
were peasants and teachers. There was a strange man with black fighting cock.
LV
n
c
n
pn BV art. adj.
n pp adj.
adj.
n
He had come from one of the neighboring towns to seek his fortune in our
pn HV AV pp adj. pp Det.
adj.
n
pp AV pn
n
pppn
cockpit.Hisname was Burcio. He held our cock above his head and closed one
npn
n BV
n
pn AV pn n
pppn n
c
AV adj.

101
eye, looking sharply atBurickseyes. He put it on the ground and bent over it,
n
AV
adv. pp
n
npn AVpn pp Det. n
c AV pppn
pressing down the cocks back with his hands, Burciowas teasing Buricks
AV
pp Det. n
adv. pppn
n
n
BV
AV
n
strength. The loafers and gamblers formed a ring around them watching Burcios
n
Det. n
c
n
AV art. npppn
AV
n
left hand expertly moving around Burick.
adj. n adv.
AVpp
n
Father also tested the cock of Burcio. He threw it in the air and watched it glide
nadv AV Det. n pp n
pn AV pnpp Det. n c
AV pn AV
smoothly to the ground. He sparred with it. The black cock pecked at his legs
adv. pp Det.
npn
AV
pppn Det. adj. n
AV pppn n
and stopped to crow proudly for bystanders. Father picked it up and sparred its
c AV
pp
n
adv. pp
n
n
AV pnpp c
AV pn
wings, feeling the rough hide beneath the feathers.
n
AV Det. adj.
n
pp
Det. n
The bystanders knew that afight was about to be matched. They counted the
Det.
n
AV pn art. n BV adv. pp Be-Verb
pn
AV Det.
money in their pockets without showing it to their neighbors. They felt the edges
npppn
n
pp
AV pnpppn
n
pn AV Det. n
of thecoins with amazing swiftness and accuracy. Only a highly magnified
pp Det. n pp
adj.
n
c
n
adj. art. adv.
adj.
magnifier could have recorded the tiny clink of the coins that fell between deft
n
aux-v HV
AV
Det. adj. n pp Det. npn AV
pp adj.
fingers. The caressingrustle of the paper money was inaudible. The peasants
n
Det.
adj.
n pp Det.adj.
n
BV adj.
Det. n
broke fromthe ring and hid behind the coconut trees. They unfolded their
AV pp Det. n
c AV pp
Det. adj.
n
pn
AV

handkerchiefs andhands and returned to the crowd. They waited for the final
n
c
n
c
AV
pp Det. n
pn AV pp Det. adj

pn

102
decision.Shall we make it this coming Sunday? Burcio asked.Its too soon for
n aux-v pn AV pnpn AV
n
n
AV pnLVadv. pp
myBurick, father said. His hand moved mechanically into his pocket. But it was
pn
n
n AV pn n
AV
adv.
pppn
n
c pn LV
empty. He looked around his cronies.But two of the peasants caught fathers
adj. pn AV
pppn n
c adj. pp Det.
n
AV
n
arm and whispered something to him. They slipped some money in his hand and
n c
AV
n pppnpn
AV
adj.
n pppn n c
pushed him toward Burcio. He tried to estimate the money. He knew right away
AV pnpp
n
pnAV pp AV Det. n
pn AV
that he had some twenty-peso bills.A lightof hope appeared in his face.
pnpn LV adv.
adj.
n art. n pp n
LV
pppn
n
This coming Sundays all right, he said.Allat once the man broke in the wild
pn adj.
n
adj. npn AV n pp adj. Det. n
AV pp Det. n
confusion. Some went toBurciowith their money; other went to father. They
nn
AV pp n
pppn
n
adj. AV pp n
pn
werenot bettors but investors. Their money would back up the cocks at the
BV adv.
n
c
npn
n
aux-v n pp Det. n ppDet
cockpit.
n

In thelate afternoon, the fight was arranged. We returned to our house with
pp Det. adj.
n
Det. n BV
adj.
pn
AV pppn n
pp
some hope. Father put Burick in the pen and told me to go the fish ponds across
adv. nn AV
n pp Det. n c AV pnpp AV Det. adj. n
pp
the river. I randown the road with mounting joy. I found a fish pond under a
Det. npn AV pp Det. n pp
adj.
n pn AV art. adj. n pp art
camachiletree. It wasthe favorite haunt of snails. I filled my hat snails and
adj.
npn BV Det. adj
n pp n
pn AV pn n
n
c
shrimps. Then I went home.
n
c pn AV n

103
Mother was cooking something good. It smelled the moment I entered the gate. I
n
BV AV pn
adj. pn AV Det.
npn AV Det. n pn
rushed into the house and spilled some of the snails on the floor. Mother was at
AV
pp Det.
n
c
AV
adj. pp Det. n pp Det. n
n
LV pp
the stove. She wasstirring the ladle in the boiling pot. Father was still sleeping
Det. npn BV
AV Det. n pp Det. adj. nn
BV adv. AV
on the bench. Francisca was feeding Marcela with hot soup. I put the snails and
pp Det. nn
BV AV
n
pp adj. npn AV Det. n
c
shrimps in a pot and sat on the bench.Mother was cooking chicken with some
n pp art. n
c AV pp Det. nn
BV AV
n
pp adj.
bitter melons. I sat wondering where she got it. I knew that our poultry in the
adj. n
pn AV AV
cpn AV pnpn AV pnpn n ppDet
village was empty. We had no poultry in town. Father opened his eyes when he
n BV adj. pn LV adv. n
pp n
n
AV pn n
pnpn
heard the bubbling pot.Mother put the rice on a big wooden platter and set it on
AV Det. adj.
nn
AV Det. n pp art.adj. adj.
n
c AVpnpp
the table. She filledour plates with chicken meat and ginger. Father got up
Det. npn AV pn
n pp
adj.
n c
n
n
AV pp
suddenly and went to the table. Francisca sat by the stove. Father was reaching
adv.
c AV pp Det. nn AV pp Det. n
n
BV AV
for thewhite meat in the platter when mother slapped his hand away. She was
pp Det. adj. n pp Det. npn
n
AV pn n
adv. pn BV
saying grace. Then weput our legs under the table and started eating.
AV
n
c pn AVpn n
pp Det. n
c
AV
adj.

It was our first taste of chicken in a long time. Father filled his plate twice and ate
pn BV pn adj. n pp
n pp art. adj. nn
AV pn n
adj. c AV
very little rice. He usually ate more rice when we had only salted fish and some
adv. adj. npn adv. AV adj. npnpn LV adv. adj n c
adj.
leaves of trees. Weate grass most of the time. Father tilted his plate and ate
npp
n
pn AV
n
adj. pp Det. n
n
AV pn n
c AV

104
his soupnoisilyas thoughhe were drinking wine. He put the empty plate near
pn n
adv.
cpn HV
LV
n
pn AV Det. adj. n pp
the pot and asked for some chicken meat.It is agood chicken, he said.
Det. n c
AV pp adv. adj. npn BV art. adj.
n
pn AV
Mother was very quiet. She put the breast in a plate and told Francisca to give it
n BV adv. npn AV Det. n pp art. n
c AV
n
pp AV pn
to Marcela. She gave me some bitter melons. Father put his hand in the pot and
pp n
pn AV pn adj. adj. n
n
AV pn n pp Det. n c
fished out a drumstick.Where did you get this lovely chicken? father said. The
AV adv. art. npn AV pn AV pn adj.
nn
AV Det.
drumstick fell from his mouth. It rolled into space between the bamboo splits and
n
AV pppn n
pn AV pp
n
pp
Det. adj.n c
fell on the ground. Our dog snapped it up and ran away. Fathers face broke in
AV pp Det. npn n
AV
pn pp c AV adv.
n
n
AV pp
great agony. He rushed outside the house. I could hear him running toward the
adj. npn AV
pp Det. n pn aux-v AV pn
AV
ppDet
highway. My sister continued eating, but my appetite was gone. What are you
npn n
AV
n
c pn
n
BV adj.
pn BV pn
doing son? mother said. Eat your chicken.
AV n
n
AV AVpn
n

105
The Soldier
(Immediate Constituent Analysis)
They werearguing in the living room.Youve invited him to come here? the
pn BV
AV pp Det.
npn HP AV
pnpp AV adv Det.
mother asked.Why not?the daughter said. He s nice and intelligent.The
n
AV
pn adv. Det.
n
AV pn BV adj c
n
Det.
motherlooked at her daughter with horror. A soldier? she said. A Filipino
n
AV pppn
n
pp n
art. npn AV art. adj
soldier? the father came from the kitchen with a glass of wine in one hand and a
n
Det. n
AV pp Det. n
pp art. n pp n pp adj. n c art.
bottle in the other. He heard his wife and daughter arguing when he came home
n pp Det.
pn AV pn n
c
n
AV
c pn AV n
but had gone straight to his room as though he were unconcerned. At the dinner
caux-v n
pppn n
c pnBVadjpp Det. n
table, his wife and daughter had been very solemn. At the end of the dinner, his
npn n c
n
aux-v
adv. adjpp Det. n pp Det. n
pn
wifehad looked strangely at the girl. The daughter had rushed to the living-room
naux-v
adv. pp Det. n Det.
naux-vpp Det.
n
and she threw herself into a chair. He looked at his wife then, long, questioning
cpn AV pnpp art. npn AV pppn n
c
adj.
adj.
he purpose. Their argument had already touched him. He had looked at his wife
pn
n
pn
n HV
adv. AV pnpn
aux-v pppn n
throughthe years of their life together, trying to put his thought together. Would
pp Det. npp
n adv. AV pp AV pn
n
adv aux-v
you likeyour daughter to bring a Filipino here? she asked him. He had merely
pnAVpn
n
pp AV art. nadvpn AV pnpnAV adv.
looked at her with great patience of a husband who had worked dutifully for the
AV pppnpp adj.
n pp art. npn
aux-v
adv. ppDet
years to have a decent home. Would you? She cried. He had walked to the
n pp AV art. adj.
n
aux-v pnpn AV pn
AV pp Det.

106
living-room without answering her. He had stood near the chair where thegirl is
n
pp
adj.
pnpn HV AV pp Det. n
c Det. n LV
weeping. He had wanted to understand her. He had bent over to touch her
adj. pnHV AV
pp
AV
pnpn
AV pppp AV pn
suddenly he had straightened up, stood for a while, eager, then walked to the
adv. pnHV AV
AVpp art. adv adj.
c
AV pp Det.
kitchen for the bottle of wine. Now he came out of the kitchen with a glass of wine
n pp Det. npp n advpn AV
ppDet. n
pp art. n pp n
in one hand and the bottle in the other. Go up to your room, Marcella. He said.
pp adj. n
c Det. n pp Det. pn AV pppn n
npn AV
The girl looked up at her father the way she had always looked at him that way.
Det. n
AV pppppn n
Det. n pn HV adv AV pppnpn n
There wasa time when she had come home from school and cried to him. It
pn
LV art. n
pnpnHV AV
n
pp
n
c AV pp n pn
seemed that she had met a boy that time.Ifit were not for him, she would have
AV pnpnHVAV art. n pn n pppn BV adv. pppnpnaux-v
neglected her studies that year. She looked now at her father as though all years
AV pn
n
pn n
pn AV advpppnpnc pn
n
were crowding in upon her, challenging his victories and deep convictions. He
BV AV
pppppn
adj.
pn
n
c adj.
n
pn
could see in her eyes the light that once glowed warmly in his eyes; the immortal
HV AV pppn n Det. npn adj. AV
adv. pppn n
Det. adj.
light that has shone in the other lands and times. If only I could go back tothe
n pnHV AV pp Det.
n
c
n pppnHV AV advppDet
beginning, he thought. Instead, he said to his daughter, Go up to your room
n
pnAVadvpn AV pppn
n
AV pppn n
now, Marcella. She knew that she was defeated. She jumped from the chair and
adv n
pn AV pnpnBV
AV
pn
AV
pp Det. n c
fled across the room and rushed up the stairway. She slammed the door and
AV
pp
Det. n
c
AV pp Det. npn
AV Det. n c

107
flung herself upon the bed, sobbing and kicking the air.Martha, he said to his
AV
pnpp
Det. n
AV c
AV Det. n
npn AV pppn
wife looking up stairs. Where did she met him? In the public library. He
n
AV pp
n
c
AV pn AV pnpp Det. adj.
n
pn
walked to his chair and sat down. Well, he must be anice boy. Walter! she
AV pppn n
c AV pp
adv. pn aux-v
art. adj. n
npn
cried with horror. He made a motion to go to her, hesitated, sat back and shook
AV pp
n
pn AV art. n ppAVpppn
AV
AV
c
AV
his head. Then he got up and walked to the table for his pipe. Suddenly, the
pn
n
c pn AVpp c
AV pp Det. npppn n
adv.
Det.
doorbell rang out loud. Thats probably him right now, he said. She brushed the
n
AV
adj. pn LV adv. pnadvpn AV pn
AV Det.
tears from her eyes. The bellrang again. The man walked to the door and
npppn n
Det. n AV adv
Det. n
AV pp Det. n
c
opened it. A Filipino soldier was standing in the light rain. He got a box of
AV pn art. adj.
n BV
AV pp Det. adj. npn AV art. adjpp
candies. Is thisMiss Marcella Robertss house? he asked.
n
LV pn
n
npn AV
Yes, the man said, hesitant, pondering. Then he said, Come on in. The soldier
adv Det. n AV
adj.
adj.
cpn AV
AVpppp Det. n
walked into the house and stood on the threshold for a moment, the cold of night
AV
pp Det. n
c AV pp Det. n
pp art. n
Det. adj. pp n
outside still clinging heavily on him. The man closed the door and took the
ppadv adj.
adv. pppn Det. n
AV Det. n
c AV Det.
soldiers cap, walking over to the far corner of the room where his wife was
nAVpppp Det. adj. n
pp Det. n
cpn n HV
waiting. You are Marcellas mother? thesoldier asked. Yes, she said. I
AV
pn BV
n
n
Det. n
AV advpn AV pn
thought so, the soldier said. You look exactly as I thought you would, only you
AV c Det. n
AV
pn AV adv. pppn AV pn aux-v adj. pn

108
are much younger. The man gave him achair. He stood waiting for the young
BV adj.
n
Det. n
AV pn art. npn
AV
pp Det. adj
man to speak. The book and the box candies were still in his lap. Where is your
n pp AV Det. n
c Det. adj. n
BV adv.pppn n
pn LV pn
station? the man asked. Fort Ord, the soldier said. How is itout there? It is
n
Det. n AV
n
Det. n
AV
pn LV pnpppnpnLV
great. He said. Nice bunch of fellows in that camp. I like the place. Ive been
adj. pn AV adj. npp n
pppn n pn AV Det. n pnauxv
studyingseriously.
adj.
adv.

Hewasstill standing beforethe soldier, fumbling


pn
LV adj.
adj.
pp
Det.
n

adj

deliberately with his pipe. It was in first war, he started and stopped. There was
adv. pppn n
pn LV pp adj. n pn AV
c
AV
pn HV
a sudden interest in the young mans voice. Were you? he said, jumping to his
art. adj.
nppDet. adj.
n
BV pnpn AV
AVpppn
feet. Ive served ten months in France. Then you understand the feeling of a
npnauxv adj. npp n
c pn
n
Det. n ppart
soldier. They say the other was fought for democracy. Some of those who fought
npnAVDet. adj. BV AV pp
n
adj. pppnpn
AV
init say its a lie. I dontinterpret that way, though. It was fought for
pppn AVpn BV art n pn AV adv. AVpn n
c
pn BV AV

pp

democracy all right, but somewhere in the ideals were gobbled up by powerful
n adv. c
adv.
pp Det. n BV AV
pppp
adj.
men.
n
The man was beginning to feel that he had something in common with the
Det. n HV
adj. pp AV pnpn LV
n
pp n
ppDet
soldier. The only difference was when he was a soldier he did not have the
n Det. adj.
n
BV
cpn LV art. npnauxvadv.auxvDet.
chance to clarify his beliefs. He was glad that at last, some twenty-five years
npp
AV pn n
pn BV adj. pnpp adj. adj.
adj.
n

109

later, he had met another soldier who, though born in another part of the world,
adj. pn HV AV adj.
npn
c
n pp adj. n pp Det. n
could have been himself; bringing with him the bright hopes he had fought or in
aux-v LV
pn
AVpppn Det. adj.
n pn HV AV c pp
that other war.
pn adj. n
He walked back to his chair and sat down, facingthe soldier. He glanced at his
pn AV adv. pppn n
c AV pp
adj. Det. n
pn
AV pppn
wife swiftly. Looking back at the soldier, he felt a yearning to confide something
n adv.
adj. adv. pp Det. npn AV art.
adj. pp
AV
n
personal surging through him.
adj.
adj.
c
pn
Have you ever lived in this city before? he asked. Yes, the soldier said. Ten
auxvpnadv.auxvpppn n advpn AV
adv. Det. n
AV adj.
years ago. But mostpeople I knew are gone. This afternoon I walked around
n
adj. c adj. npn AV BV AV adj
n
pn AV
adv.
looking atthe new stores and buildings. I stopped at the newsstands and
AVpp Det. adj.
n
c
n
pn AV
pp Det.
n
c
touched the magazines and newspapers. I like this city very much indeed. Life
AV Det.
n
c
n
pn AV adj n adv. adj adv. n
itself reactsinthe city streets. Ten years ago I used to stand in the station
pn AV pp Det. adj. n
adj. n
adv. pn AV pp AV pp Det. n
watching people, and always there was a powerful yearning in me to go away.
AV n
c
adv.
adv BV art. adj.
npppnpp AV adv.
Someday, I used to say to myself, Illgo away and never come back, But I
adv. pn AV ppAVpppnpnauxvAVadv. c adv.
AV adv. c pn
never went away. I remember when I was a little boy, my father and I used to go
adv. AV adv. pn AV
cpn LV art. adj. n pn n c pn A pp AV
to the mountains just for the sheer of joy of walking long distances. Im like my
pp Det.
n
adv. pp Det. nppadj.pp n
adj.
n
pnauxVAVpn

110
father, who had a yearning for faraway places. It took awar to take me away,
nc HV art. n. pp adv.
npn AV art. n pp AV pn adv.
though.Imay not come back to all this wonderful place, he stopped and
cpnaux-v adv AV adv.pp adj. adj
adj.
n
pn
AV
c
looked around the house with a strange affection and sincerity, as though he
AV
adv. Det. n
pp art. adj.
n
c
n cpn
werestoring up the bright image of the room in his mental world. He appreciated
BV
AV pp Det. adj. n pp Det. npppn adj.
n pn
AV
all of it. The man stirred in his chair Marcella is ill and she cant come
adj. pppn Det. n
AV ppadj n
n BV adj. c pnaux-vadv
AV
down, he said.
pppn AV
Ill? thesoldier said, frightened.She has the flu, but shellbe alright.
adj. Det.
n
AV
adj.
pn LV Det. n c pn aux-v AV
I hope shell be alright.well
pn
AVpn aux-v AV adv.

adv.

tell her that you called, the mother said.


pn aux-v AV pn cpn AV Det. n
AV

Thank you Mrs. Roberts, he said. He walked across the room and put the book
npn
n
pn AV pn AV
pp Det. n
c AV Det. n
and box of candies on the table. Ill leave these candies for Marcella. This
c adj. pp n
pp Det. n pnaux-vAVadj
n
pp
n
adj
smallbook of poem is written by a Filipino who lived in this city. He was the first
adj.
npp n BV AV pp art. n
c AV pppn n pn LV Det.adj
of my people to write a book in English.
ppadj
n pp AV art. n pp
n
The man felt the strong pride in the soldiers voice. We ll give them to her,
Det. n AV Det. adj.
n pp Det.
n
pn aux-v AV pnpppn
he
pn

said. Tell her to get well soon, the soldier said. Tell her not to get flu
AV AVpn pp AV adv. adv. Det. n
AV AVpn adv. pp AV n

anymore.
adv.
Tell her the weather is dangerous this year. He walked to the door and the man

111
AV pn Det.

BV

adj.

adj

pn

AV

pp Det. n

c Det. n

followed him. Goodnight, Mrs. Roberts, he said, and stepped out of the house.
AV
pn
n
npn AV c
AV ppppDet. n
Illwalk with you to the street, the man said. The rain had stopped falling
pn aux-v AV pppnpp Det. n
Det. n AV Det. n
aux v
AV
andthere was a misty moonlight in the trees. There was a fresh smell in the air.
cadv BV art. adj.
n
pp Det. nadv BV art. adj. n pp Det. n
The man and the soldier stood under a wide arc of light in the street. Im glad
Det. n
c Det.
n
AV
pp art. adj. n pp n ppDet. n pn LV adj
youfeel that way sir, the soldier said. The man gave his hand eagerly. Good
pn AV pn n n Det. n
AV Det. n AV pn n
adv.
n
luckyoung man, he said. The Filipino soldier walked into the night. He did not
adj. adj. npn AV Det. adj.
n
AV pp Det. npnauxv adv.
lookback to see that the man was watching him walking away.
auxv adv. pp AV c Det. n BV
AV
pnAV adv.

112
Language Functions Analysis on Carlos Bulosans short story: My Father Goes
to Court
No.
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

15.
16.
17.

Sentences
When I was four, I lived with my mother and brothers and
sisters in a small town on the island of Luzon.
Fathers farm had been destroyed in 1910 by one of our
sudden Philippine floods, so several years afterwards we all
lived in the town though he preferred living in the country.
We had as a next door neighbor a very rich man, whose
sons and daughters seldom came out of the house.
While we boys and girls played and sang in the sun, his
children stayed inside and kept the windows closed.
His house was so tall that his children could look in the
window of our house and watched us played, or slept, or
ate, when there was any food in the house to eat.
Now, this rich mans servants were always frying and
cooking something good, and the aroma of the food was
wafted down to us from the windows of the big house.
We hung about and took all the wonderful smells of the
food into our beings.
Sometimes, in the morning, our whole family stood outside
the windows of the rich mans house and listened to the
musical sizzling of thick strips of bacon or ham.
I can remember one afternoon when our neighbors
servants roasted three chickens.
The chickens were young and tender and the fat that
dripped into the burning coal gave off an enchanting odor.
We watched the servants turn the beautiful birds and
inhaled the heavenly spirit that drifted to us.
Some days the rich man appeared at a window and
glowered down at us.
He looked at us one by one, as though he were
condemning us.
We were all healthy because we went out in the sun and
bathed in the cool water of the river that flowed from the
mountains into the sea.
Sometimes we wrestled with one another in the house
before we went to play.
We were always in the best spirits and our laughter was
contagious.
Other neighbors who passed by our house often stopped in
our yard and joined us in laughter.

Language
Functions
Personal

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Personal
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113
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

27.
27.

28.
29.
30.
31.

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

As time went on, the rich mans children became thin and
anemic.
Our faces were bright and rosy, but theirs was pale and
sad.
The rich man started to cough at night; then he coughed
day and night.
His wife began coughing too.
The children started to cough, one after the other.
At night their coughing sounded like a herd of seals.
We hung outside their windows and listened to them.

Representational

We wondered what happened.


We knew that they were not sick from the lack of
nourishment because they were still always frying
something delicious to eat.
One day the rich man appeared at a window and stood
there long time.
He looked at my sister, who had grown fat in laughing, then
at my brothers, whose arms and legs were like molave,
which is the sturdiest tree in the Philippines.
He banged down the window and ran through his house,
shutting all the windows.
From that day on, the windows of our neighbors house
were always closed.
The children did not come out anymore.
We could still hear the servants cooking in the kitchen, and
no matter how tight the windows were shut, the aroma of
the food came to us in the wind and drifted gratuitously into
our house.
One morning a policeman from the predencia came to our
house with a sealed paper.
The rich man had complaint against us.
Father took me with him when he went to the town clerk
and asked him what it was about.
He told father the man claimed that for years we had been
stealing the spirit of his wealth and food.
When the day came for us to appear in court, fathers
brushed his old Army uniform and borrowed a pair of shoes
from one of my brothers.
We were first to arrive.
Father sat on a chair in the center of the courtroom.
Mother occupied a chair by the door.
We children sat on a long bench by the wall.
Father kept jumping up from his chair and stabbing the air
with his arms, as though we were defending himself before
an imaginary jury.

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114
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.

54.
55.

57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.

70.
71.

The rich man arrived.


He had grown old and feeble; his face was scarred with
deep lines.
With his was his young lawyer.
Spectators came in and almost filled the chairs.
The judge entered the room and sat on a high chair.
We stood in a hurry and then sat down again.
After the courtroom preliminaries, the judge looked at the
father.
Do you have a lawyer? he asked.
I dont need any lawyer, Judge, he said.
Proceed, said the judge.
The rich mans lawyer jumped up and pointed his finger at
father.
Do you or do you not agree that you have been stealing
the spirit of the complaints servants cooked and fried fat
legs of lamb or young chicken breast you and your family
hung outside his windows and inhaled the heavenly spirit of
the food?
I agree. Father said.
Do you or do you not agree that while the complaint and
his children grew sickly and tubercular and you and your
family became strong of limb and fair in complexion?
I agree. Father said.
How do you account for that? father got up and paced
around, scratching his head thoughtfully.
Then he said, I would like to see the children of the
complaint, judge.
Bring in the children of the complaint.
They came in shyly.
The spectators covered their mouths with their hands; they
were so amazed to see the children so thin and pale.
The children walked silently to a bench and sat down
without looking up.
They stared at the floor and moved their hands uneasily.
Father could not say anything at first.
He just stood but his chair and looked at them.
Finally he said, I should like to cross examine the
complaint.
Proceed.
Do you claim that we stole the spirit of your wealth and
became a laughing family while yours became morose and
sad? father said.
Yes.
Then we are going to pay you right now, father said.

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Interactional
Personal
Regulatory
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Interactional

Interactional
Interactional
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Inteactional
Regulatory
Regulatory
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Personal

115
72.

He walked over to where we children were sitting on the


bench and took straw hat off my lap and began filling it up
with centavo pieces that he took out of his pockets.
73. He went to Mother, who added a fistful of silver coins.
74. My brother threw their small change.
75. As you wish.
76. Thank you, father said.
77. He strode into the other room with the hat in his hands.
78. It was almost full of coins.
79. The doors of both rooms were wide open.
80. Are you ready? father called.
81. Proceed. The judge said.
82. The sweet tinkle of the coins carried beautifully in the
courtroom.
83. The spectators turned their faces toward the sound with
wonder.
84. Father came back and stood before the complaint.
85. Did you hear it? he asked.
86. Hear what? the man asked.
87. The spirit of the money when I shook this hat? he asked.
88. Yes.
89. Then you are paid, Father said.
90. The lawyer rushed to his aid.
91. The judge pounded his gravel.
92. Case dismissed. He said.
93. Father strutted around the courtroom the judge even came
down from his high chair to shake hands with him.
94. By the way, he whispered. I had an uncle who died
laughing.
95. You like to hear my family laugh judge? Father asked.
96. Why not?
97. Did you hear that children? father said.
98. My sisters started it.
99. The rest of us followed them soon the spectators were
laughing with us, holding their bellies and bending over the
chairs.
100 And the laughter of the judge was the loudest of all.
.

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Personal
Interactional
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Interactional
Regulatory
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Interactional
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Personal
Interactional
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116
Language Functions Analysis on Carlos Bulosans Short Story: My Fathers
Tragedy
No.
Sentences
Language
Functions
1.
It was one of those lean years of our lives.
Representational
2.
Our rice field was destroyed by locusts that came from the Representational
neighboring towns.
3.
When the locusts were gone, we planted string beans, but a fire Representational
burned the whole plantation.
4.
My brothers went away because they got tired of working for Representational
nothing.
5.
Mother and my sisters went from house to house, asking for Representational
something to do, but every family was plagued by some kind of
disaster.
6.
The children walked in the streets looking for the fruit of the acacia Representational
trees that fell to the ground.
7.
The man hung on the face around the market and watched the Representational
meat dealers hungrily.
8.
We were all suffering from lack of proper food.
Representational
9.
But the professional gamblers had money.
Representational
10. They sat in the fish house in the station and gave their orders Representational
aloud.
11. The loafers and other by-standers watched them eat boiled rice Representational
and fried fish with their silver spoons.
12. They never used forks because the prongs stuck between their Representational
teeth.
13. They always cut their lips and tongues with the knives, so they Representational
never asked for them.
14. If the water was new and he put the knives on the table, they Representational
looked at each other furtively and slipped them in their pockets.
15. They washed their hands in one big wooden bowl of water and Representational
wiped their mouths with the leaves of the arbor trees that fell on the
ground.
16. The rainy season was approaching.
Representational
17. There were rumors of famine.
Representational
18. The grass did not grow and our carabao became thin.
Representational
19. Fathers fighting cock, Burick, was practically the only healthy living Representational
thing in our household.
20. Its fathers Kanaway, who had won a house for us some three Representational
choicest rice.
21. He took the soft-boiled eggs from the plate of my sister Marcela, Representational
who was sick with meningitis that year.
22. He was preparing Burick from something big.
Representational
23. But the great catastrophe came to our town.
Representational
24. The peasants and most of the rich men spent their money on food.
Representational

117
25.

26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

They had stopped going to the cockpit for fear of temptation; if they
went at all, they just sat in the gallery and shouted at the top of
their lungs.
They went home with their heads down, thinking of the money they
would have won.
It was this impasse that father sat every day with his fighting cock.
He would not go anywhere.
He would not do anything, he just sat there caressing Burcik and
exercising his legs.
He spat at his hackes and rubbed them, looking faraway with a big
dream.
When mother came home with some food, he went to the granary
and sat there till evening.
Sometimes he slept there with Burick, but at dawn the cock would
woke him up with its majestic crowing.
He crept into the house and fumbled for the cold rice in the pot
under the stove.
Then he put the cock in the pen and slept on the bench the whole
day.
Mother was very patient.
But the day came when she kicked him off the bench.
He fell on the floor face down, looked up at her, and then resumed
his sleep.
Mother took my sister Francisca with her.
They went from house to house in the neighborhood, pounding rice
from some people and hauling drinking water for other.
They came home with their share in a big basket that mother
carried on her head.
Father was still sleeping on the bench, when they arrived.
Mother told my sister to cook some of the rice.
She dipped up a cup in the jar and splashed the cold water on
Fathers face.
He jumped up, looked at Mother with anger, and went to Buricks
pen.
He gathered the cock in his arms, and climbed down the porch.
He sat on a log in the back yard and started caressing his fighting
cock.
Mother went on with her washing.
Francisca fed Marcela with some boiled rice.
Father was still caressing Burick.
Mother was mad at him.
Is that all you can do? she shouted at him.
Why do you say that to me? Father said.
Im thinking of some ways to become rich.
Mother threw a piece of wood at the cock.

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Personal
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118
55.
56.
57.
58..
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.

Father saw her in time.


He ducked and covered the cock with his body.
The wood struck him and first; it cut a hole in the base of his head.
He got up and examined Burick.
He acted as though the cock were the one that was hurt.
He looked up at mother and his face was pitiful.
Why dont you see what are you doing? he said, hugging Burick.
I would like to wring that cocks neck. Mother said.
Thats his fortune, I said.
Mother looked sharply at me.
Shut up, idiot! she said.
You are more becoming your father every day.
I watched her eyes moved foolishly.
I thought she would cry.
She tucked her skirt between her legs and went on with her work.
I ran down the ladder and went to the granary, where father
treating the wound on his head.
I held the cock for him.
Take good care of it son, he said.
Yes sir, I said.
Go to the river and exercise its legs.
Come back right away.
We are going to town.
I ran down the street with the cock, kicking the pigs and dogs that
went in my way.
I plunged into the water with my clothes and swan with Burick.
I put some water in my mouth and blew it into his face.
I ran back to our house slapping the water off my clothes.
Father and I went to the cockpit.
It was Sunday, but there were many loafers and gamblers at the
place.
There were peasants and teachers.
There was a strange man with black fighting cock.
He had come from one of the neighboring towns to seek his fortune
in our cockpit.
His name was Burcio.
He held our cock above his head and closed one eye, looking
sharply at Burciks eyes.
He put it on the ground and bent over it, pressing down the cocks
back with his hands, Burcio was teasing Buricks strength.
The loafer and the gamblers formed a ring around them watching
Burcios left hand expertly moving around Burick.
Father also tested the cock of Burcio.
He threw it in the air and watched it glide smoothly to the ground.
He sparred with it.

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Interactional
Personal
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Regulatory
Interactional
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Regulatory
Interactional
Regulatory
Regulatory
Regulatory
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119
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128

The black cock pecked at his legs and stopped to crow proudly for
bystanders.
Father picked it up and sparred its wings, feeling the rough hide
beneath the feathers.
The bystanders knew that a fight was about to be matched.
They counted the money in their pockets without showing it to their
neighbors.
They felt the edges of the coins with amazing swiftness and
accuracy.
Only a highly magnified magnifier could have recorded the tiny
clink of the coins that fell between deft fingers.
The caressing rustle of the paper money was inaudible.
The peasants broke from the ring and hid behind the coconut trees.
They unfolded their handkerchiefs and hands and returned to the
crowd.
They waited for the final decision.
Shall we make it this coming Sunday? Burcio asked.
Its too soon for my Burcik, father said.
His hand moved mechanically into his pocket.
But it was empty.
He looked around his cronies.
But two of the peasants caught fathers arm and whispered
something to him.
They slipped some money in his hand and pushed him toward
Burcio.
He tried to estimate the money.
He knew right away that he had some twenty-peso bills.
A light of hope appeared on his face.
This coming Sundays all right, he said.
All at once the man broke in wild confusion.
Some went to Burcio with their money; other went to father.
They were not bettors but investors.
Their money would back up the cocks at the cockpit.
In the late afternoon, the fight was arranged.
We returned to our house with some hope.
Father put Burick in the pen and told me to go the fish ponds
across the river.
I ran down the road with mounting joy.
I found a fish pond under a camachile tree.
Mother was cooking something good.
It was the favorite haunt of snails.
I filled my hat snails and shrimps.
Then I went home.
Mother was cooking something good.
It smelled the moment I entered the gate.

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I rushed into the house and spilled some of the snails on the floor.
Mother was at the stove.
She was stirring the ladle in the boiling pot.
Father was still sleeping on the bench.
Francisca was feeding Marcela with hot soup.
I put the snails and shrimps in a pot and sat on the bench.
Mother was cooking chicken with some bitter melons.
I sat wondering where she got it.
I knew that our poultry in the village was empty.
We had no poultry in town.
Father opened his eyes when he heard the bubbling pot.
Mother put the rice on a big wooden platter and set it on the table.
She filled our plates with chicken meat and ginger.
Father got up suddenly and went to the table.
Francisca sat by the stove.
Father was reaching for the white meat in the platter when mother
slapped his hand away.
Then we put our legs under the table and started eating.
It was our first taste of chicken in a long time.
Father filled his plate twice and ate very little rice.
He usually ate more rice when we had only salted fish and some
leaves of trees.
We ate grass most of the time.
Father titled his plate and ate his soup noisily as though he were
drinking wine.
He put the empty plate near the pot and asked for some chicken
meat.
It is a good chicken, he said.
Mother was very quiet.
She put the breast in a plate and told Francisca to give it to
Marcela.
She gave me some bitter melons.
Father put his hand in the pot and fished out a drumstick.
Where did you get this lovely chicken? father said.
The drumstick fell from his mouth.
It rolled into space between the bamboo splits and fell on the
ground.
Our dog snapped it up and ran away.
Fathers face broke in great agony.
He rushed outside the house.
I could hear him running toward the highway.
My sister continued eating, but my appetite was gone.
What are you doing son? mother said.
Eat you chicken.

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121
Language Functions Analysis on Carlos Bulosans short story: The Soldier

No.
1.
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8.

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Sentences
They were arguing in the living room.
Youve invited him to come here? the mother asked
Why not? the daughter said.
Hes nice and intelligent.
The mother looked at her daughter with honor.
A soldier? she said. A Filipino soldier?
The father came from the kitchen with a glass of wine in
one hand and a bottle in the other.
He heard his wife and daughter arguing when he came
home but gone straight to his room as though he were
unconcerned.
At the dinner table, his wife and daughter had been very
solemn.
At the end of the dinner, his wife had looked strangely at
the girl.
The daughter had rushed to the living-room and she threw
herself into a chair.
He looked at his wife then, long, questioning he purpose.
Their argument had already touched him.
He had looked at his wife through the years of their life
together, trying to put his thought together.
Would you like your daughter to bring Filipino here? she
asked him.
He had merely looked at her with great patience of a
husband who had worked dutifully for the years to have a
decent home.
Would you? She cried.
He had walked to the living-room without answering her.
He had stood near the chair where the girl is weeping.
He had wanted to understand her.
He had bent over to touch her suddenly he had
straightened up, stood for a while, eager, then walked to
the kitchen or the bottle of wine.
Now he came out of the kitchen with a glass of wine in one
hand and the bottle in the other.
Go up to your room, Marcella.
He said.
The girl looked up at her father the way she had always
looked at him that way.
There was a time when she had come home from school

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27.
28.
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30.

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and cried to him.


It seemed that she had met a boy that time.
If it were not for him, she would have neglected her studies
that year.
She looked now at her father as though all years were
crowding in upon her, challenging his victories and deep
convictions.
He could see in her eyes the light that once glowed warmly
in his eyes; the immortal light that has shown in the other
lands and times.
If only I could go back at the beginning, he thought.
Instead, he said to his daughter, Go up to your room now,
Marcella.
She knew that she was defeated.
She jumped from the chair and fled across the room and
rushed up the stairway.
She slammed the door and flung herself upon the bed,
sobbing and kicking air.
Martha, he said to his wife looking up stairs.
Where did she met him?
In the public library.
He walked to his chair and sat down.
Well, he must be a nice boy.
Walter! she cried with horror.
He made a motion to go to her, hesitated, sat back and
shook his head.
Then he got up and walked to the table for his pipe.
Suddenly, the doorbell rang out loud.
Thats probably him right now, he said.
She brushed the tears from her eyes.
The bell rang again.
The man walked to the door and opened it.
A Filipino soldier was standing in the light rain.
He got a box of candles.
Is this Miss Marcella Robertss house? he asked.
Yes, the man said, hesitant, pondering.
Then he said, Come on in.
The soldier walked into the house and stood on the
threshold for a moment, the cold of night outside still
clinging heavily on him.
The man closed the door and took the soldiers cap,
walking over to the far corner of the room where his wife
was waiting.
You are Marcellas mother? the soldier asked.
Yes, she said.

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123
58.
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82.

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I thought so, the soldier said.


You look exactly as I thought you would; only you are
much younger.
The man gives him a chair.
He stood waiting for the young man to speak.
The book and the box candies were still in his lap.
Where is your station? the man asked.
Fort Ord, the soldier said.
How is it out there?
It is great, he said.
Nice bunch of fellows in that camp.
I like the place.
Ive been studying seriously.
The man still standing before the soldier, fumbling
deliberately with his pipe.
It was in first war, he started and stopped.
There was a sudden interest in the young mans voice.
Were you? he said, jumping to his feet.
Ive served ten months in France.
Then you understand the feeling of a soldier.
They say the other was fought for democracy.
Some of those who fought in it say its a lie.
I dont interpret that way, though.
It was fought for democracy all right, but somewhere in the
ideals were gobbled up by powerful men.
The man was beginning to feel that he had something in
common with the soldier.
The only difference was when he was a soldier he did not
have the chance to clarify his beliefs.
He was glad that at last, some twenty-five years later, he
had met another soldier who, though born in another part
of the world, could have been himself; bringing with him
the bright hopes he had fought or in that other war.
He walked back to his chair and sat down, facing the
soldier.
He glanced at his wife swiftly.
Looking back at the soldier, he felt a yearning to confide
something personal surging through him.
Have you ever lived in this city before? he asked.
Yes, the soldier said.
Ten years ago.
But most people I knew are gone.
This afternoon o walked around looking at the new stores
and buildings.
I stopped at the newsstands and touched the magazines

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92.
93.
94.

95.
96.

97.
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99.

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and newspapers.
I like this city very much indeed.
Life itself reacts in the city streets.
Ten years ago I used to stand in the station watching
people, and always there was a powerful yearning in me to
go away.
Someday, I used to say to myself, Ill go away and never
come back, but I never went away.
I remember when I was a little boy, my father and I used to
go to the mountains just for the sheer of joy of walking long
distances.
Im like my father, who had a yearning for faraway places.
It took a war to take me away, though.
I may not come back to all this wonderful place, he
stopped and looked around the house with a strange
affection and sincerity, as though he were storing up the
bright image of the room in his mental world.
He appreciated all of it.
The man stirred in his chair Marcella is ill and she cant
come down, he said.
Ill? the soldier said, frightened.
She has the flu, but shell be alright.
I hope shell be alright.
Well tell her that you called, the mother said.
Thank you Mrs. Roberts, he said.
He walked across the room and put the book and box of
candies on the table.
Ill leave these candies for Marcella.
This small book of poem is written by a Filipino who lived
in this city.
He was the first of my people to write a book in English.
The man felt the strong pride in the soldiers voice.
Well give them to her, he said.
Tell her to get well soon, the soldier said.
Tell her not to get flu anymore.
Tell her the weather is dangerous this year.
He walked to the door and the man followed him.
Goodnight, Mrs. Roberts, he said, and stepped out of the
house.
Ill walk with you to the street, the man said.
The rain stopped falling and there was a misty moonlight in
the trees.
There was a fresh smell in the air.
The man and soldier stood under a wide arc of light in the
street.

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122.
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Im glad you feel that way sir, the soldier said.


The man gave his hand eagerly.
Good luck young man, he said.
The Filipino soldier walked into the night.
He did not look back to see that the man was watching him
walking away.

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126

CURRICULUM VITAE

127
Marremie V. Casulucan
09305315286
cmarremie@yahoo.com
Personal Information:
Date of Birth:
Religion:
Marital Status:

February 18, 1993


Roman Catholic
Single

Educational Attainment
Elementary: Babag Elementary School
2004-2005
Babag, Dagohoy, Bohol
Secondary: San Isidro Technical Vocational High School
2009-2010
San Isidro Pilar, Bohol
Tertiary:

Cebu Technological University Main Campus


2010-2014
R. Palma St., Cebu City

Academic Awards
2011 2012: Deans Lister of CTU
2012 2013: Deans Lister of CTU
Organization
2010 2014: Society of Linguistic Majors (SLiM)
Seminars/ Trainings Attended
TESOL International Conference
Cebu Doctors University/ Cebu International Convention Center
North Reclamation Area, Mandaue City
August 13-14, 2014

128
Karla A. Chua
09329357798
c_klang@yahoo.com
Personal Information:
Date of Birth:
Religion:
Marital Status:

July 31, 1993


Roman Catholic
Single

Educational Attainment
Elementary: Valencia Baptist Christian Academy
2004-2005
Valencia City, Bukidnon
A&E ALS
2008
Lahug, Cebu City
Secondary: Don Vicente Rama Memorial Nationa High School
2009-2010
Basak, Cebu City
A&E ALS
2010
Lahug, Cebu City
Tertiary:

Cebu Technological University Main Campus


2010-2014
R. Palma St., Cebu City

Academic Awards
2009 2010: 5th honorable mention of DVRMNHS
2010 2011: Deans Lister of CTU
Organization
2010 2014: Society of Linguistic Majors (SLiM)

129
Romaine Aria D. Mangubat
09434574786
maine0218@gmail.com
Personal Information:
Date of Birth:
Religion:
Marital Status:

February 18, 1993


Roman Catholic
Single

Educational Attainment
Elementary: Barrio Luz Elementary School
2004-2005
Archbishop Reyes Avenue, Cebu City
Secondary: University of Southern Philippines Foundation
2009-2010
Salinas Drive Lahug, Cebu City
Tertiary:

Cebu Technological University Main Campus


2010-2014
R. Palma St., Cebu City

Academic Awards
2010 2011: Deans Lister of CTU
2011 2012: Deans Lister of CTU
2012 2013: Deans Lister of CTU
Organization
2010 2014: Society of Linguistic Majors (SLiM)
Seminars/ Trainings Attended
TESOL International Conference
Cebu Doctors University/ Cebu International Convention Center
North Reclamation Area, Mandaue ,City
August 13-14, 2014