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Theory of circulation
Water must flow through the heat absorptionsurface of the boiler in order that it be evaporated into
steam. Indrum type units (natural and controlled circulation) the water iscirculated from the drum
through the generating circuits and then back to the drum where the steam is separated and directed to

thesuper heater. The water leaves the drum through the down comersat a temperature slightly below
the saturation temperature. Theflow through the furnace wall is at saturation temperature.
Heatabsorbed in water wall is latent heat of vaporization creating amixture of steam and water.

Types of boiler circulating system:

Natural circulation system
Controlled circulation system
Combines circulation system
Natural circulation system
Water delivered to steam generator fromfeed heater is at a temperature well below the saturation
valuecorresponding to that pressure. Entering first the economizer it isheated to about 3040C below saturation temperature. Fromeconomizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the
circulationsystem. Water entering the drum flows through the down comer and enters ring heater at
the bottom. In the water walls a part of thewater is converted to steam and the mixture flows back to
thedrum. In the drum, the steam is separated, and sent to super
heater for super heating and then sent to the high pressure turbine.Remaining water mixes with the inc
oming water from theeconomizer and the cycle is repeated.The circulation in this case takes place onthe
thermo-siphon principle. The dowm comers contain relativelycold water whereas the riser tubes contain
a steam water mixture.Circulation takes place at such a rate that the driving force and thefrictional
resistance in water walls are balanced

As the pressure increases, the difference in density between water and steam reduces. Thus the
hydrostatic head available will not beable to overcome the frictional resistance for a flow
correspondingto the minimum requirement of cooling of water wall tubes.Therefore natural circulation
is limited to the boiler with drumoperating pressure around 175 kg/cm.
Controlled circulation system
Beyond 80 kg/cm of pressure, circulationis to be assisted with mechanical pumps to overcome the
frictionallosses. To regulate the flow through various tubes, orifice platesare used. This system is
applicable in the high sub-critical regions(200 kg/cm)
Combined circulation system
Beyond the critical pressure, phasetransformation is absent, and hence once through system isadopted.
However, it has been found that even at super critical pressure, it is advantageous to recirculate the
water through thefurnace tubes and simplifies the start up procedure. A typicaloperating pressure for
such a system is 260 kg/cm
The control system has following pumps:Chlorine pump-2(for chlorination of water)
HP pump-6(for boiling of water)
LP pump-3(for EP pump house)
Fire pump-(incase of fire breakdown)
TWS pump-3(for screening of water)
CRW pump-3(supply water for water treatment)
This house is known as control house because amount of water to be supplied for treatment is
controlled from this house with thehelp of these pumps. Generally 2 CRW pumps out of 3pumpsremains
open.similarly,1 FS ,2 LP,4 HP,1 TWS pumps remainsopen. If more water is needed then others pumps
are opened.
As the types of boiler are not alike their working pressure and operating conditions vary and so do the
typesand methods of water treatment. Water treatment plants used inthermal power plants are
designed to process the raw water towater with vary low in dissolved solids known as

"dematerializedwater". No doubt, this plant has to be engineered very carefullykeeping in view the type
of raw water to the thermal plant, itstreatment costs and overall economics
Actually, the type of demineralization processchosen for a power station depends on three
main factors:
The quality of the raw water.
The degree of de-ionization i.e. treated water quality
Selectivity of resins.
Water treatment process which is generally made up of two sections:
Pretreatment section
Demineralization section
Pretreatment section
Pretreatment plant removes the suspendedsolids such as clay, silt, organic and inorganic matter, plants
andother microscopic organism. The turbidity may be taken as of twotypes of suspended solids in water.
Firstly, the separable solids andsecondly the non separable solids (colloids). The coarsecomponents,
such as sand, silt etc, can be removed from the water by simple sedimentation. Finer particles however,
will not settle inany reasonable time and must be flocculated to produce the
large particles which are settle able. Long term ability to remainsuspended in water is basically a
function of both size and
specificgravity. The settling rate of the colloidal and finely divided(approximately 001 to 1 micron)
suspended matter is so slow thatremoving them from water by plain sedimentation is tank
shavingordinary dimensions is impossible. Settling velocity of finelydivided and collide particles under
gravity also are so small thatordinary sedimentation is not possible. It is necessary, therefore, touse
procedures which agglomerate the small particles into
larger aggregates, which have practical settling velocities. The term"Coagulation" and "flocculation"
have been used indiscriminately to describe process of turbidity removal. "Coagulation" means to bring
together the suspended particles. The process describes theeffect produced by the addition of
a chemical Al (SP) g to acolloidal dispersion resulting in particle destabilization by areduction of force
tending to keep particles apart. Rapid mixing
isimportant at this stage to obtain. Uniform dispersion of thechemical and to increase opportunity for pa
rticles to particlecontact. This operation is done by flash mixer in thec1ariflocculator. Second stage of
formation of settle able particlesfrom destabilized colloidal sized particles is termed a"flocculation".
Here coagulated particles grow in size by attachingto each other. In contrast to coagulation where the
primary force iselectrostatic or intrinsic, "flocculation" occurs by chemical bridging. Flocculation is
obtained by gentle and prolonged
mixingwhich converts the submicroscopic coagulated particle intodiscrete, visible & suspended particles.

At this stage particles arelarge enough to settle rapidly under the influence of gravityanomaly be
If pretreatment of the water is not done efficiently thenconsequences are as follows:
Si02 may escape with water which will increase the anionloading.
Organic matter may escape which may cause organic foulingin the anion exchanger beds. In the 'pretreatment plantchlorine addition provision is normally made to combatorganic contamination.

Cation loading may unnecessary increase due to addition of Ca(OH)2 in excess of calculated amount for
raising the pH of the water for maximum floe formation and also
AKOrDgmay precipitate out. If less than calculated amount of Ca(OH)2 is added, proper pH flocculation
will not beobtained and silica escape to demineralization section willoccur, thereby increasing load on
anion bed.
This filter water is now used for demineralizing purpose and is fed to cation exchanger bed, butenroute
being first dechlorinated, which is either done by passingthrough activated carbon filter or injecting
along the flow of water,an equivalent amount of sodium sulphite through some stroke pumps. The
residual chlorine which is- maintained in clarification plant to remove organic matter from raw water is
now detrimentalto action resin and must be eliminated before its entry to this bed. Normally, the typical
scheme of demineralization up to the .mark against an average surface water,is three bed system with a
provision of removing gaseous carbondioxide from water before feeding to Anion Exchanger. Now, let
us see, what happens actually in each bed when water is passedfrom one to another.Resins, which are
built on synthetic matrixof a styrene divinely benzene copolymer, are manufactured in sucha way that
these have the ability to, exchange one ion for another,hold it temporarily in chemical combination and
give it to a strongelectrolytic solution. Suitable treatment is also given to them insuch a way that a
particular resin absorbs only a particular group
of ions. Resins, when absorbing and releasing cationic portion of dissolved salts, is called cation, exchang
er resin and whenremoving anionic portion is called anion exchanger resin. presettrend is of employing
'strongly acidic cation exchanger resin andstrongly basic anion exchanger resin in a DM Plant of
modernthermal power station. We may see that the chemically activegroup in a cationic resin is SOx-H
(normally represented by RH)and in an anionic resin the active group is either tertiary amine
or quaternary ammonium group (normally the resin is represented byROH). The reaction of exchange
may be further represented as below The water from the ex-cation containscarbonic acid also
sufficiently, which is very weak acid difficult to be removed by strongly basic anion resin and causing
hindrance toremove silicate ions from the bed. It is therefore a usual practice toremove carbonic acid
before it is led to anion exchanger bed. Theex-cation water is trickled in fine streams from top of a tall
tower packed with, rasching rings, and compressed air is passed from the bottom. Carbonic acid breaks
into C03 and water
mechanically(Henry's Law) with the carbon dioxide escaping into theatmosphere. The water is accumula

ted in suitable storage tank below the tower, called degassed water dump from where the sameis led to
anion exchanger bed, using acid resistant pump.The ex-anion water is fed to the mixed bedexchanger
containing both cationic resin and anionic resin. This bed not only takes care of sodium slip from cation
but also silicaslip from anion exchanger very effectively. The final output fromthe mixed bed is Exiraordinarily pure water having less than0.2/Mho conductivity 7.0 and silica content less than 0.02 pm.
Anydeviation from the above quality means that the resins in
mixed bed are exhausted and need regeneration, regeneration of themixed bed first calls for suitable,
back washing and settling, so thatthe two types of resins are seperated from each other. Lighter
anionresin rises to the top and the heavier cation resin settles to the bottom. Both the resins are then
regenerated separately with alkaliand acid, rinsed to the desired value and air mixed, to mix the
resinagain thoroughly. It is then put to final rinsing till the desiredquality is obtained.It may be
mentioned here that there are two types of strongly basic anion exchanger. Type II resins are slightly
less basic than type I, but have higher regeneration efficiency than typeI. Again as type II resins are
unable to remove silica effectively,type I resins also have to be used for the purpose. As such, thegeneral
condition so far prevailing in India, is to employ type IIresin in anion exchangers bed and type I resin in
mixed bed (for the anionic portion).It is also a general convention to regenerate theabove two resins
under through fare system i.e. the caustic sodaentering into mixed bed for regeneration, of type I anion
resin, isutilized to regenerate type II resin in anion exchanger bed. Thecontent of utilizing the above
resin and mode of regeneration isnow days being switched over from the economy to a higher costso as
to have more stringent quality control of the final D.M.Water.
Internal Treatment
This final D.M effluent is then either led tohot well of the condenser directly as make up to boilers, or
beingstored in D.M. Water storage tanks first and then pumped for makeup purpose to boiler feed.As
the D.M. Water has a good affinity toabsorb carbon dioxide and oxygen, and both are extremely
harmfulto metal surfaces for their destruction like corrosion, these have
to be removed before it is fed to boiler. This is being done indesecrator. Still the residual oxygen which is
remaining in thewater is neutralized by a suitable doze of hydrazine, at the pointafter desecrator. To
have further minimum corrosion, the pH of feed water is to be maintained at around 9.0 for which
purposeammonia in suitable doze is added to this make up water at a pointalong with hydrazine as
stated above


Operating Principles
A steam turbine's two main parts are the cylinder andthe rotor.As the steam passes through
the fixed blades or nozzles itexpands and its velocity increases. The high-velocity jet of
steamstrikes the first set of moving blades. The kinetic energy of thesteam changes into
mechanical energy, causing the shaft to rotate.The steam then enters the next set of fixed
blades and strikes thenext row of moving blades.As the steam flows through the turbine, its

pressure andtemperature decreases, while its volume increases. The decrease in pressure and
temperature occurs as the steam transmits .energy tothe shaft and performs work. After
passing through the last
turbinestage, the steam exhausts into the condenser or process steamsystem.
The kinetic energy of the steam changes intomechanical erringly through the impact (impulse)
or reaction of thesteam against the blades.
Main Turbine
The 210MW turbine is a tandem compounded typemachine comprising of H.P. & I.P. cylinders.
The H.P. turbinecomprises of 12 stages the I.P. turbine has 11 stages & the L.P. hasfour stages
of double flow. The H.P. & I.P. turbine rotor are rigidlycompounded & the I.P. & the I.P. rotor by
lens type semi flexiblecoupling. All the three rotors are aligned on five bearings of whichthe
bearing no.2 is combined with thrust bearing.The main superheated steam branches off into
twostreams from the boiler and passes through the emergency
stopvalve and control valve before entering, the governing wheelchamber of the H.P. turbine.
After expanding in the 12 stages inthe H.P. turbine the steam returned in the boiler for
The reheated steam from the boiler enter I.P. turbine viainterceptor valves and control valves
and after expanding entersthe L.P. turbine stage via 2 numbers of cross over pipes.In the L.P.
stage the steam expands in axially oppositedirection to counteract the trust and enters the
placeddirectly below the L.P. turbine. The cooling water flowingthroughout the condenser tube
s condenses the steam and thecondensate collected in the hot well of the condenser.The
condensate collected is pumped by means of 3*50% duty condensate pumps through L.P.
heaters to
deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to boiler through H.P. heaters th
us forming a closed cycle.
Fresh steam from boiler is supplied to the turbinethrough the emergency stop valve. From the
stop valves steam issupplied to control valves situated on H.P. cylinders on the front bearing
end. After expansion through 12 stages at the H.P. cylinder steam flows back to boiler for
reheating and reheated steam from
he boiler cover to the intermediate pressure turbine trough twointerceptor valves and four
control valves mounted on the I.P.turbine.After flowing trough I.P. turbine steam enters the
middle part of the L.P. turbine through cross over pipes. In L.P. turbine theexhaust steam
condenses in the surface condensers welded directlyto the exhaust part of L.P. turbine. The

selection of extraction points and cold reheat pressurehas been done with a view to achieve
the highest efficiency. Theseare two extractions from H.P. turbine, four from I.P. turbine
andone from L.P. turbine. Steam at 1.10 to 1.03 g/sq cm Abs issupplied for the gland sealing.
Steam for this purpose is obtainedfrom deaerator through a collection where pressure of steam
isregulated.From the condenser condensate is pumped with the helpof 3*50% capacity
condensate pumps to deaerator through the low pressure regenerative equipments.
Feed water is pumped from deaerator to the boiler through the H.P. heaters by means of
3*50% capacity feed pumpsconnected before the H.P. heaters.
Main Components of Turbine:
Emergency Stop Valve
Steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine throughtwo emergency stop valves. The
emergency stop valve operated byhydraulic servomotor shuts off steam supply to the turbine
whenthe turbo set is tripped. The emergency stop valves connected
tothe four control valves through four flexible loop pipes of Chromium-Molybdenum-Vanadium
H.P. Cylinder
It is made of creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel castingmade of two halves joined at the horizontal
The horizontal joint is secured with the help of studsand nuts made of high creep resisting CrMo-V steel forgings.
Toensure H.P. tightness the studs are tightened by heat to a predetermined temperature with
the help of electric heater.
H.P. Rotor
The H.P. rotor has discs integrally forged with the shaftsand is mechanical forming single CrMo-V steel forging. A special process to prevent abnormal rotor deflection thermally
stabilizesthe rotor forging.
L.P. Rotor
It consists of shrunk fit discs on a shaft. The shaft is aforging of Cr-Mo-V steel while the discs are
of high strength Nisteel forging.The H.P. rotor is connected by rigid couplings whole theI.P.
rotor and L.P. rotor are connected by semi-flexible lens typecoupling. The rotors are
dynamically balanced to a very precisedegree.

Turbine Bearings
The three turbine rotors are supported on fine bearings.The second bearing from pedestal side
is a combined radial thrust bearing while all others are journal bearings.
Thrust Bearing
It is Mitchell type with bearing surface distributed over a number of bearing surfaces. They are
pivoted in housing on theside of I.P. rotor thrust collar.During operation on oil film is forced
between padsand thrust collar and there is a no metal-to-metal contact. A secondring of pads
on opposite side of thrust collar takes the axial thrustas may occur under abnormal conditions.
L.P. Heaters
Turbine is provided with non-controlled extractions
whichare utilized for heating the condensate from turbine bleedingsystem. There are four L.P. h
eaters. They are equipped withnecessary safety valves in steam space level indicator for visual
level indication of heated steam. Condensate pressure vaccumgauges are present
for measurement of steam pressure.
Gland Steam Cooler
Gland steam cooler has been provided to suck and coolthe air steam mixture from the gland
seats. It employs a smallejector for which the working medium is steam of low
parameters,which can be taken either from the deaerator or auxiliary source.The pressure and
temperature of this steam should of this steam isretrieved to the fullest possible extent as the
gland steam cooler isalso interposed in the condensate heating cycle thereby
improvingoverall efficiency of the cycle.
Condensate Pumps
The function of these pumps is to pumps out thecondensate to the desecrator through ejectors,
gland steam cooler,and L.P. heaters. These pumps have four stages and since thesuction is at a
negative pressure, special arrangements have
beenmade for providing sealing. This pump is rated generally for 160m3 hr. at a pressure 13.2
Feed Water System
The main equipments coming under this system are

Boiler Feed Pump

: Three per unit of 50% capaCity eachlocated in the '0' meter level in the TG bay.
High Pressure Heaters
: Normally three in number and aresituated in the TG bay.
Drip Pumps
: Generally two in number of 100% capacity eachsituated beneath the LP heaters.
Turbine Lubricating Oil System
: This consists of Main OilPump (MOP) Starting Oil Pump (SOP), AC standby oil pumpsand
emergency DC' oil pump and Jacking Oil Pump (JOP) (oneeach per unit).
Boiler Feed Pumps
This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven byan Electric motor through a hydraulic
coupling. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated by a suitable oil
lubricatingsystem with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubricationoil pressure falls
below a preset value.The high-pressure boiler feed pump is very
expensivemachine which calls for a very careful operation and skilledmaintenance. The safety
in operation and efficiency of the feed pump depends largely on the reliable operation and
maintenance.Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at thevery beginning
which can be easily removed without endangeringthe operator of the power plant and also
without the expensivedismantling of the high pressure feed pump.The feed pump consists of
pump barrel, into which ismounted the inside stator together with rotor. The hydraulic part is
enclosed by the high pressure cover along with the balancingdevice. The suction side of the
barrel and the space in the high pressure cover behind the balancing device are enclosed by the
low pressure covers along with the stuffing box casings. The
bracketsof the radial bearing of the suction side and radial and thrust bearing of the discharge
side are fixed to the low pressure
covers.The entire pumps are mounted on a foundation frame. Thehydraulic coupling and two
claws coupling with coupling guardsare also delivered along with the pump. Water cooling and
oillubricating are provided with their accessories.
Turbine Driven Boiler Feed Pump
The single cylinder turbine is of the axial flow type.The live steam flows through the emergency
stop valve and thenthrough the main Control Valves 5 nos. (Nozzle governing). Thesevalves
regulate the steam supply through the turbine in accordancewith load requirements. The

control valves are actuated by a lift bar which is raised or lowered via a lever system by the
relaycylinder mounted on the turbine casing axial thrust to the maximum extent. Since the axial
thrust varieswith the load, the residual thrust is taken up by the thrust bearing.The leak off
from the balancing piston is connected back to theturbine after 9th stage.The turbine is
provided with hydraulic andelectro-hydraulic governing system. A primary oil pump is used asa
speed sensor for hydraulic governing and shall Probes are used asa speed sensor for electro
hydraulic governing.Whenever steam is drawn from the cold reheat line
or auxiliary supply, steam flow is controlled by auxiliary controlvalve. During this period the
main control valves (4 nos.) willremain fully opened and the bypass valve across it will
remainclosed. (Bypass remains closed for a short period when change,over from IP steam to
CRH takes place).The steam exhaust for the BFP- Turbine is connected tothe main condenser
and the turbine glands are sealed by glandsteam axial thrust to the maximum extent. Since the
axial thrust varieswith the load, the residual thrust is taken up by the thrust bearing.The leak off
from the balancing piston is connected back to theturbine after 9th stage.The turbine is
provided with hydraulic andelectro-hydraulic governing system. A primary oil pump is used asa
speed sensor for hydraulic governing and shall Probes are used asa speed sensor for electro
hydraulic governing.Whenever steam is drawn from the cold reheat line
or auxiliary supply, steam flow is controlled by auxiliary controlvalve. During this period the
main control valves (4 nos.) willremain fully opened and the bypass valve across it will
remainclosed. (Bypass remains closed for a short period when change,over from IP steam to
CRH takes place).The steam exhaust for the BFP- Turbine is connected tothe main condenser
and the turbine glands are sealed by glandsteam.
High Pressure Heaters
These are regenerative feed water heaters operating
athigh pressure and located by the side of turbine. These aregenerally vertical type and turbine
bleed steam pipes are connectedto them.HP heaters are connected in series on feed
watersideand by such arrangement, the feed water, after feed pump entersthe HP heaters. The
steam is supplied to these heaters form the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated
valves. Theseheaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside.In the event f tube
rupture in any of the HPH and the level of thecondensate rising to dangerous level, the group
protection devicediverts automatically the feed water directly to boiler, thus bypassing all the
3 H.P. heaters
Following fittings are generally provided on the HP heaters
Gauge glass for indicating the drain level.
Pressure gauge with three way cock.

Air Vent cock.

Safety valve shell side.
Seal pot.
Isolating valves.
High level alarm switch.
Speed Governor
It is directly coupled to the turbine rotor
throughcoupling and has been designed to maintain automatically thespeed of the turbo set. It
is located with the front pedestals
Turbine Oil Lubricating System
This consists of main oil pump, starting oil pump emergencyD.C. oil pump and each per unit.
Gate Valve
Regulating Valve
Non-Return Valve
Safety Valve