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Skew detection has been an important part of the
document recognition system. A lot of techniques already exists
and has currently been developing for detection of skew of
scanned document images. This paper describes the skew
detection and correction of scanned document images written in
Assamese language using the horizontal and vertical projection
profile analysis and brings out the differences after
implementation of both the techniques.

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ISSN 2250-3153

Document Images Based on Horizontal and Vertical

Projection Profile Analysis

Bishakha Jain1, Mrinaljit Borah2

1

2

Jorhat Engineering College, Garmur,Jorhat,Assam.

document recognition system. A lot of techniques already exists

and has currently been developing for detection of skew of

scanned document images. This paper describes the skew

detection and correction of scanned document images written in

Assamese language using the horizontal and vertical projection

profile analysis and brings out the differences after

implementation of both the techniques.

Index Terms- Skew Detection,Skew Correction,Projectionprofile analysis.

I. INTRODUCTION

recognition system is skew detection and correction which

has to be used in scanned documents as a pre-processing stage in

almost all document analysis and recognition systems. The skew

of the scanned document image specifies the deviation of its text

lines from the horizontal axis. The skew of the document image

can be a global (all documents blocks have the same

orientation), multiple (documents blocks have a different

orientation) or nonuniform (multiple orientation in a text line)

[1]. A variety of skew detection and correction techniques are

available. Skew estimation approaches are classified into four

main categories according to the basic approach they adopt [2]. It

includes Hough transform [3], projection profile [4-7], nearest

neighbor clustering [9] and interline cross correlation [10].

The traditional projection profile approach was initially

proposed by Postl [4] and is based on horizontal projection

profile. According to this approach, a series of horizontal

projection profiles are calculated at a range of angles. The profile

with maximum variation refers the best alignment to the text

lines. At this stage, projection angle is the actual skew angle of

the skewed document. In order to reduce high computational

costs, several variations of this basic method have been

proposed. Baird [5] proposes a technique for selecting the points

to be projected: for each connected component the midpoint of

the bottom side of the bounding box is projected. The objective

function is to compute the sum of the squares of the profiles.

Ciardiello [6] projected selected sub-region (one with high

density of black pixels per row) of the document image; the

function is to maximize the mean square deviation of the profile.

Ishitani [7] uses a profile which is defined in a different style. A

cluster of parallel lines on the image is selected and the bins of

lines.These methods are limited to estimate skew angle within

10 to 15[8].

1.1.Introduction to Assamese script

The Assamese script is a writing system of the Assamese

language. It used to be the script of choice in the Brahmaputra

valley for Sanskrit as well as other languages such as Bodo (now

Devanagari), Khasi (now Roman), Mising (now Roman) etc. The

current form of the script has seen continuous development from

the 5th-century Umachal/Nagajari-kanikargaon rock inscriptions

written in an eastern variety of the Gupta script, adopting

significant traits from the Siddham Script along the way. The

present standard is identical to the Bengali script except for three

letters. The alphabet of the modern Assamese script consists of

11 vowels and 40 consonants. These characters are called as

basic characters. Writing style in Assamese is from left to right

and the concept of upper/lower case is absent in this script. It can

be seen that most of the characters of Assamese have a horizontal

line (Matra) at the upper part. From a statistical analysis we

notice that the probability that a Assamese word will have

horizontal line is 0.994. In Assamese script a vowel following a

consonant takes a modified shape. Depending on the vowel, its

modified shape is placed at the left, right, both left and right, or

bottom of the consonant. These modified shapes are called

modified characters. A consonant or a vowel following a

consonant sometimes takes a compound orthographic shape,

which is called as compound character. Compound characters

can be combinations of two consonants as well as a consonant

and a vowel. Compounding of three or four characters also exists

in Assamese. There are about 280 compound characters in

Assamese.

II. METHODOLOGY

The projection profile can be used as a suitable feature for

skew detection. We need to create a feature to describe which

one is more peaked for comparing peaks of projection profiles.

So employing a criterion function provides a numerical

description of the peaks. The projection profile analysis process

is as follows:

1. Rotate the binary input image to different angles and at any

angle do "a" and "b".

a. Obtain the projection profile.

b. Calculate criterion function.

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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014

ISSN 2250-3153

maximum value of criterion function.

The horizontal projection profile is based on the histogram of

black pixels along horizontal scan-lines. For a script with

horizontal text lines, the horizontal projection profile will have

peaks at text line positions and troughs at positions in between

successive text lines [9]. This concludes to the fact that any noise

and warp will ruin those peaks and troughs of the horizontal

projection histogram and the efficiency of this technique. On the

contrary a vertical projection method is robust to noise and warp

of the image. The sum of squares of the projection profile

elements as the value of the criterion function. This method also

works well for the languages where most of their letters include

at least one vertical line, such as languages with Latin alphabets.

The pseudo codes of both the algorithms are as follows:

2.1.Vertical Projection profile Analysis Algorithm:

1. Read the image data into a matrix and convert it to

grayscale.

2. This grayscale image is changed to black background

and white writing on comparison each pixels with 0.34

3. Searches for the first column with a white pixel, i.e.,

with a written pixel.

4. The entire image column-wise is stored in a variable

(Skew_input).

5. Each element of the input image matrix is added

column-wise to get the number of white pixels per

column and is stored in a variable Sum_col.

6. Sum of the squares of each Sum_col gives the value of

energy function for the skew angle.

7. Input Image is rotated by angle rot_angle and steps 5

and 6 are repeated for this angle to obtain the value of

energy function.

8. Input Image is rotated by angle (-)rot_angle and steps

5 and 6 are repeated for this angle to obtain the value of

energy function.

9. rot_angle = rot_angle 1.

10. Repeat steps 7, 8 & 9 till rot_angle != 0.

11. Find the angle for which the value of Energy function is

maximum.

12. This angle gives the skew angle.

13. To display as output the values of energy function for

each angle is displayed along with the bar graph for the

column values for the skew angle and the corrected

image segment.

2.2.Horizontal Projection profile Analysis Algorithm:

1. Read the image data into a matrix and convert it to

grayscale.

2. This grayscale image is changed to black background

and white writing on comparison each pixels with 0.34

3. Searches for the first column with a white pixel, i.e.,

with a written pixel.

4. One-Fourth of the image row-wise is stored in a

variable (Skew_input).

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Each element of the input image matrix is added rowwise to get the number of white pixels per column and

is stored in a variable Sum_row.

Sum of the squares of each Sum_row gives the value of

energy function for the skew angle.

Input Image is rotated by angle rot_angle and steps 5

and 6 are repeated for this angle to obtain the value of

energy function.

Input Image is rotated by angle (-)rot_angle and steps

5 and 6 are repeated for this angle to obtain the value of

energy function.

rot_angle = rot_angle 1

Repeat steps 7, 8 & 9 till rot_angle != 0

Find the angle for which the value of Energy function is

maximum.

This angle gives the skew angle.

To display as output the values of energy function for

each angle is displayed along with the bar graph for the

row values for the skew angle and the corrected image

segment.

The implementation of both the algorithms brings out the

following differences:

1. In the case of vertical projection profile analysis technique,

the written line is scanned vertically and then aligned to find the

maximum value of the objective function. But in the case of

horizontal projection profile analysis technique the written line is

scanned horizontally and then aligned to find the maximum value

of the objective function.

2. The result obtained for Vertical Projection Profile Analysis

Algorithm is not uniformly increasing showing that a little noise

can create skew detection errors in this case.

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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014

ISSN 2250-3153

angle

The angle of skew from this algorithm for the input image is -8 degrees.

Whereas the results obtained for horizontal projection profile analysis algorithm is uniformly increasing showing that it can give

accurate results for a little noisy image.

The angle of skew from this algorithm for the input image is

-6 degrees.

3. Due to the non-uniform variation of the objective

function in the vertical projection profile analysis technique, for

accuracy in result we have to process the complete image to get

better results. Whereas the uniform variation in the horizontal

projection profile analysis technique helps to get better results

with processing of even small portion of the written image.

4. The time complexity of the algorithm designed for

vertical projection profile analysis technique is higher than the

algorithm for horizontal projection profile analysis technique.

Vertical Projection Profile

Analysis

Working Principle:

1. The image is scanned

vertically column-wise for

number of white pixels for

each column.

Effect of Noise:

2. The resultant distribution of

values of the objective

function for various angles,

contains

multiple

peaks

Analysis

1. The image is scanned

horizontally row-wise for

number of white pixels for

each row.

2. The resultant distribution of

values of the objective

function for various angles,

contains a single peak value.

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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014

ISSN 2250-3153

peaks to produce errors.

Input Image data required:

3. To reduce effect of noise

and thus improve accuracy the

complete image is required to

be processed.

Time Complexity:

4. The time complexity of the

algorithm designed is high.

Angle obtained:

5.The angle obtained through

experimental results from this

algorithm is -8 degrees

greatly.

3. As the effect of noise on the

result

is

negligible

so

processing a section of the

image can also yield results

with high accuracy.

4. The time complexity of the

algorithm designed is less than

vertical projection profile

analysis.

5.The angle obtained through

experimental results from this

algorithm is -6 degrees.

IV. SIMILARITIES

Apart from thr differences observed there even exists some

similiarities between both the techniques of Projection profile

analysis.Some of them are stated below:

1. Projection profile based approaches are computationally

expensive as different projections are calculated at

different angles in a particular range.

2. Projection profile methods are limited to estimate skew

angle within 10 to 15.

3. The accuracy depends upon the angular resolution of the

projection profile.

4. Projection profile based approaches cannot deal with

noisy documents and broken characters.

implemented on input images of Assamese language. The skew

for the test images were estimated and corrected and the

performance was observed to be improved in the horizontal

projection profile from that in the vertical projection profile. It

was also observed that the horizontal profile technique could be

used for skew correction with images with some noise. However

the algorithm could only estimate skew if the angle is less than

15.

REFERENCES

O. Okun, M. Pietikinen, and J. Sauvola, Document skew estimation

without angle range restriction, International Journal on Document

Analysis and Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 132-144, 1999.

[2] K. Jung, K. I. Kim and A. K. Jain, Text information extraction in images

and video: a survey, Pattern Recogn vol. 37 issue 5, pp. 977- 997, 2004

[3] S. N. Srihari and V. Govindaraju, Analysis of textual images using the

Hough transform,. Mach Vis A, pp. 141153, 1989.

[4] W. Postl, Detection of linear oblique structures and skew scan in digitized

documents, Proc. 8th international conference on pattern recognition, pp.

687-689, 1986.

[5] H. S. Baird, The skew angle of printed documents, Proc. SPSE 40th

symposium hybrid imaging systems, Rochester, NY, pp 739743M,1987.

[6] G. Ciardiello, G. Scafuro, M. T. Degrandi, M. R. Spada and M. P

Roccotelli, An experimental system for office document handling and text

recognition, Proc. 9th international conference on pattern recognition, pp.

739743, 1988.

[7] Y. Ishitani, Document skew detection based on local region complexity,

Proc. 2nd international conference on document analysis and recognition,

Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 4952, 1993.

[8] J. Sadri, M. Cheriet, A new approach for skew correction of documents

based on particle swarm optimization, Proc. 10th international conference

on document analysis and recognition, ICDAR 09, pp. 10661070, 2009.

[9] L. Gorman, The document spectrum for page layout analysis, IEEE Trans

Pattern Anal Mach Intell vol. 15 issue 11, pp. 11621173,1993.

[10] T. Akiyama and N. Hagita; Automatic entry system for printed

documents, Publisher Elsevier Science, Pattern Recognition vol. 23 , issue

11, pp.1141 1154, 1990

[1]

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this work, we presented two algorithms for skew

detection & correction. Both the algorithms are based on

projection profile analysis, one based on vertical & other on

horizontal projection profile. The subjective & objective

evaluation of both these algorithms was executed and the results

AUTHORS

First Author Bishakha Jain, Sikkim Manipal Institute of

Technology, Majhitar, Sikkim.

Second Author Mrinaljit Borah, Jorhat Engineering College,

Garmur, Jorhat, Assam.

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