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Chapter 1: The Supervisor as Manager

Objectives
1. Describe the primary role of a supervisor in the hospitality industry.
2. Explain the different levels of supervision, and identify first-line supervisors on an
organizational chart.
3. Define the terms authority and responsibility.
4. Explain the difference between exempt employees and nonexempt employees.
5. Outline the supervisor' s obligations and responsibilities to owners, customers, and
employees.
6. Describe briefly the important functions of management.
7. Explain the challenge of applying common management theories in the hospitality work
environment.
8. Compare and contrast the major theories of people management as they relate to hospitality
employees.
9. List examples of technical, human, conceptual, and personal skills used by hospitality
supervisors.

Summary
This chapter examines the supervisor's role as a manager. The supervisor is responsible for
managing personnel and their work. A supervisor in the hospitality industry has obligations to
his superiors, to the employees he or she oversees, and to the guests. If a supervisor takes proper
care of his employees, they will take care of the guests and the superiors will be satisfied. As a
manager, the supervisor will plan, organize, lead, and control/evaluate, among other functions.
Many theories of people management have been postulated from scientific management, to
human relations theory, to participative management and total quality management. Often a
blend of these management styles, called humanistic management, will be useful in the
foodservice industry. To manage effectively a supervisor will need managerial skills in the form
of technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills. He or she also must be able to manage
himself or herself using personal skills. A new supervisor must be ready to make personal
sacrifices and develop the qualities needed to successfully manage others. If they do so, they will
find supervision stimulating and rewarding.

Outline
1. The Supervisor's Role (p.4)

A supervisor is any person who manages people making products and/or performing
services. A supervisor is responsible for the output of the people supervised - the quality
and quantity of the products and services. A supervisor is also responsible for meeting
employee needs, and can ensure producing goods and services only by motivating and
stimulating employees to do their job properly. (p.5)

First-line supervisors manage hourly employees. (p.5)

Organizational Charts (p.5)

Concepts:
o Line functions (individuals directly involved in producing goods and services
(p.5)
o Staff functions (advisors such as HR or Training) (p.6)
o Authority (right and power to make decisions and actions) (p.6)
o Responsibility (obligation to carry out duties) (p.7)
o Nonexempt employees (covered by federal and state wage and hour laws such as
minimum wage and overtime) (p.9)
o Exempt employees (not covered by federal and state wage and hour laws) (p.9)
o Working supervisors (supervisor who spends part of workday performing doing
work of hourly employees) (p.8)
2. Obligations and Responsibilities of a Supervisor (p. 9)

The supervisor in the middle (Figure 1.5) (p.12)


o Represents management to workers
o Represents workers and work to management
o Represents the enterprise to the customers

Boomerang management - reverting from the management point of view to the worker's
point of view (p.13)
A supervisor has obligations to owners - their profit, systems, and goals (p.13)

A supervisor has obligations to guests - providing the products and services they come
for(p.14)

A supervisor has obligations to employees (p.15)


o Positive work climate, respect for the individual, communication, and belonging
(p.15)
o Different needs of generation X, Y, and Z (p.17)
o There is a growing diversity in hospitality employees (p.17)
So who is number one? If the manager/supervisors take care of the employees, the
employees will take care of the customers, and the profits will take care of themselves.
(p.18)

3. Functions of Management (p.19)


A manager is a person who directs and controls an assigned segment of the work in a
business; a supervisor is a manager. (p.19)
Four main functions of management: (p.19)
1. Planning (looking ahead to chart goals and the best courses of action, determining
who, what, why, when, where, and how work will be done)
2. Organizing (putting together the money , personnel, equipment, materials, and
methods for maximum efficiency to meet goals)
3. Leading (interacting and guiding employees about getting certain goals and plans
accomplished; involves communicating, motivating, delegating, instructing,
supporting, developing, and mentoring employees)
4. Controlling and evaluating (monitoring and evaluating results in terms of goals
and standards previously agreed upon, and taking corrective action)
Management theory can be useful , even in a crisis. The problem is how to apply it. In the
hospitality industry, __ the situation changes every 20 to 48 seconds, and the unexpected
usually happens. Mai1aging becomes the ability to adjust actions and decisions to given
situations according to the demands of those situations - flex style of management (doing
what will be most effective in terms of the situation, your workers, and yourself. (p.19)
4. Theories of People Management (p.22)
Scientific management, according to the work of Fredrick Taylor, has four features:
(p.23)
o Standardization of work procedures and methods
o Careful selection of competent people
o Constant supervision
o Incentive pay
Using standardization and principles of work simplification, scientific management led
to the new field of industrial engineering. Give examples of standardization
(standardized recipes) and benefits. (p.23)
The human relations theory (1930s and 1940s) was an outgrowth of studies made at
Hawthorne plant of Western Electric, in which the focus shifted from work to people.
Human relations theme is that happy employees will be productive. (p.25)
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a participative process that empowers all levels of
employees to work in groups to establish guest service expectations and determine the
best way of meeting or exceeding those expectations. (p.26)
In participative management ( 1960s and 1970s), workers participate in the decisions that
concern them, resulting in improved work climate and increased commitment. (p.26)
Humanistic management is a combination of the scientific, human relations, and
participative systems adapted to the needs of the situation, the workers, and the
supervisor's leadership style. (p.26)
Another form of ROI - return on individuals. (p.27)
3

5. Managerial Skills (p.27)


Technical skill is the ability to do the tasks of the people you supervise. (p.27)
Human skill is the ability to handle people successfully, and involves attitude, sensitivity,
and self-awareness. (p.28)
Conceptual skill is the ability to see the whole picture and the relationship of each part to
the whole. (p.29)
Personal skills and qualities: (p.30)
o Self-management (be an opportunity thinker instead of an obstacle thinker)
o Strong self-image
o Belief that employees will perform well
o Flexibility and creativity
o High energy levels
o Ability to work under much pressure

True or False
On the following questions, answer whether the statement provided is true or false .

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

F 1. Happy employees are the most productive of all workers.


F 2. Supervision means carrying out your responsibilities by getting work done through
others.
F 3. Conceptual skill is the ability to see and deal with the whole picture.
F 4. It is the supervisor's duty to take the workers' side in any conflicts with
management.
F 5. Studies of outstanding top executives have found they all have certain traits: drive
for power, imagination, and charisma.
F 6. To be successful as a supervisor you should know how to accomplish the tasks that
your employees perform.
F 7. Good working relationships with employees can be developed by treating people as
individuals.
F 8. To most hourly workers the supervisor represents the company.
F 9. A first-line supervisor managing hourly workers is not considered a true manager.
F 10. Budgeting is an example of planning.

Key Term Review


On the following questions fill in the blank with the most appropriate key term.

1. A(n)
possesses the rights and powers needed to make decisions and take the
requisite actions to get the job done.
2. _ _ _______ focus on why a situation is impossible and retreat from it.
4

3. If a manager reverts from a management point of view to a worker' s point a view they are
practicing - - - - - - - 4. _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ concentrate on constructive ways to deal with challenging situations.
5. The ability to see the whole picture and relationship of each part as a whole is a

6. The type of diagram that shows the levels of management and lines by which authority and
responsibility are transmitted is a _ _ _ _ _ _ __
7.
is a term used for measuring and evaluating results to goals and
standards that were previously agreed upon.
8. Putting together money, personnel, equipment, materials, and methods for maximum
efficiency to meet an enterprise' s goals is known as _ _ _ _ _ _ __
9. Meshing the work of individuals, work groups, and departments to produce a smoothly
running operation is _ _ _ _ _ _ __
10. _ _________ is a system that includes the workers in making decisions that
concern them.
11. A logical process used to identify causes and solutions to problems is called

12. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is looking ahead to chart the best course of future action.


13.
, also known as controlling, is a term used for measuring and
evaluating results to goals and standards that were previously agreed upon.
14. Using a logical process to identify causes and solutions to problems (decision-making) or to
make decisions is known as - -- - -- - - 15. Employees that are not covered by wage hour laws and do not earn overtime pay are called

16.
is determining personnel needs and recruiting, evaluating, selecting,
hiring, orienting, training, and scheduling employees.

17. The ability to manage people through respect for them as individuals, sensitivity to their
needs and feelings, self-awareness, and good person-to-person relationships is a

18.
- - - - - - - - - involves many skills, such as communicating, motivating, delegating,
and instructing.
19. One who directs and controls an assigned segment of the work in an enterprise is known as a

20. Personnel who are not directly involved in producing goods and services but advise those
who do are known as - - - - - - - - - 21. The ability to perform the tasks of the people supervised is known as a

22. Employees paid on an hourly basis who are covered by federal and state wage and hour laws
and therefore guaranteed a minimum wage are known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
23. A supervisor who manages hourly employees is called a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __
24. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a supervisor who takes part in the work task itself in addition to
superv1s1t1g.
25. The three types of skills: technical, human, and conceptual are known as

26. The obligation to carry out certain duties and activities is called

27. A
- - - - - - - - - - - - supervisor is one who works alongside his or her
employees.
28. People born between the years of 1966 and 1976 are referred to as

29. The fastest growing minority groups in the U.S . are _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ and

30. Elton Mayo is known for his theory of management called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Concept Review Multiple Choice Questions


On the.following questions circle the choice that best answers the question.
1. The person who is responsible for the management of hourly employees is the:
a. kitchen manager
b. first-line supervisor
c. working supervisor
d. none of the above
2. The type of management that is associated with Frederick Taylor is called:
a. humanistic management
b. participative management
c. scientific management
d. boomerang management
3. The theory that emphasizes the importance of workers as individuals is:
a. human relations
b. participative managerhent
c. scientific management
d. total quality management
4. Which of the following would be categorized under staff functions?
a. the supervisor
b. human relations
c. training directors
d. band c
5. When faced with a challenging situation __________ concentrate on constructive
ways of dealing with the circumstances, whereas
focus on why the
situation is impossible and retreat.
a. opportunity thinkers, obstacle thinkers
b. structured, obstacle thinkers
c. obstacle thinkers, opportunity thinkers
d. opportunity thinkers, structured
6. Staffing requires which of the following?
a. evaluating and selecting employees
b. recruiting and determining personnel needs
c. orienting and training employees
d. all the above

7. A person who is responsible for the quantity and quality of the products and services, meeting
employee needs, and is responsible for the output of the people supervised is known as a(n):
a. employee
b. training Director
c. first-line supervisor
d. supervisor
8. The ability to perform the tasks of the people supervised is known as:
a. a technical skill
b. understanding
c. boomerang management
d. human ability
9. Being directly involved with the production of goods and services is called:
a. an exempt employee
b. a part of line functions
c. , a nonexempt employee
d. all of the above
10. A participative process that empowers all level of employees to work in groups to establish
guest service expectations is known as:
a. humanistic management
b. participative management
c. scientific management
d. total quality management
11. If you are a manager you:
a. are not responsible for the output of the people you supervise
b. are an exempt employee
c. direct and control assigned segments of work
d. all of the above
12. Low productivity and few customers could signify:
a. a challenging work climate
b. a poor work climate
c. a focus on work
d. none of the above
13. The skill(s) that a manager needs is/are:
a. technical
b. conceptual
c. human
d. all the above

14. One who is focused on work and is in close contact with the people they supervise is:
a. a first-line supervisor
b. a kitchen manager
c. at the highest level of authority and responsibility
d. known as a working supervisor
15. Joe, a supervisor at the local sandwich shop is trying to reduce daily tasks to the fewest
possible motions. Joe is attempting to utilize:
a. his human skills
b. work simplification
c. a more challenging work climate
d. a and b
16. Obligations and responsibilities of a supervisor include:
a. building a winning team
b. communicating effectively
c. motivating your team
d. all of the above
17. In order to effectively manage others you must:
a. be able to yell loudly
b. be able to manage yourself
c. do their job better than they do
d. always put the customer first
18. The term work simplification refers to:
a. giving new employees the easiest jobs
b. doing simple jobs first
c. finding the most efficient way to do a job
d. involving employees in the decision making process
19. ROI, classically meaning Return On Investment, may also be used to mean:
a. Return On Individuals
b. Record Observe Investigate
c. Recognize Our Intelligence
d. Regulation Of Inventory
20. The flex style of management refers to:
a. always changing how you manage to keep your employees on their toes
b. calling on theory, experience, and talent depending on the situation
c. controlling every facet of an employee's workday
d. switching between being a manager one day and a regular employee the next

Discussion Questions
1. If you were the supervisor of a restaurant, which of the management theories described in this
chapter would your management technique
most
likely fall
under?
Why?

2. Explain the tasks of the supervisor in the middle. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3. Which of the managerial skills describe in this chapter do you feel is the most important?
Why?..
-----------------------------~

4. Discuss the differences between exempt and nonexempt employees.

------

5. If the managers/supervisors take care of the employees, the employees take care of the
customers, who do you think is number one? Explain why. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IO

Matching Questions
I.

Standardization of work procedures, tools, and conditions of


work

A. Responsibility

2.

A system that includes employees in making decisions that


concern them

B. Authority

3.

The ability to perform the tasks of the people supervised

C. Conceptual Skill

4.

The ability to see the whole picture and the relationship of


each part of the whole

D. Participative
Management

5.

Possessing the rights and powers to make the decisions and


take the requisite actions to get the job done

E. Technical Skills

6.

The duties and activities assigned to a given job or person,


along with an obligation to carry them out

F. Scientific
Management

11

Chapter 2: The Supervisor as Leader


Objectives
1. Identify typical hourly jobs in foodservice and lodging establishments.
2. Outline the demographics of the labor pool typically hired for hourly jobs in the hospitality
industry.
3. Explain the concept and of leadership.
4. Describe the characteristics of leadership.
5. Compare and contrast the concepts of formal authority and real authority.
6. Compare and contrast Theory X and Theory Y management styles.
7. Describe and give examples of leadership styles-autocratic, bureaucratic, democratic,
laissez-faire, situational, transactional, and transformational.
8. Outline leadership practices.
9. Develop your own leadership style .

Summary
Chapter 2 describes the supervisor' s role as a leader. Great leaders of the past have had many
leadership traits in common such as personal drive, a desire to influence others, and selfconfidence. Leaders have power, the capacity to influence the behavior of others. A leader is
someone who people follow voluntarily. There are different styles of leadership, and which one
is appropriate will depend on the leader and the situation. A supervisor must have vision and
awareness to develop his or her own style of leadership. As a leader, a supervisor may have a
chance to be a mentor. A mentor is a leader, role model, and a teacher to someone less
experienced.

Outline
1. You and Your Employees (p.40)
Eight percent of American employees work in foodservice . (p.40)
Many young people find their first job in foodservice or possibly hotel. (p.40)
The hospitality industry is staffed mainly with part-time, short-term people "only
working here until..." (p.40)
2. Characteristics of Leaders (p.41)
Fourteen traits of leadership: justice, judgment, dependability, initiative, decisiveness,
tact, integrity, enthusiasm, bearing, unselfishness, courage, knowledge, loyalty, and
endurance (known by the acronym JJ DIDTIEBUCKLE). (p.41)
A person' s drive shows that they are willing and able to exert exceptional effort to
achieve a goal. (p.41)
Leaders have a desire to influence others. (p.41)
12

Theory X and Theory Y (p.48)


o Theory X: workers are lazy, must be coerced, controlled, and puni shed (p.48)
o Theory Y: workers will work willingly to meet objectives they feel committed to
(p.48)
Situational leadership explains that leadership style should be adapted to the situation
using a mix of directive behavior and supportive behavior. (p.49)
o Directing style (high on directive and low on supportive behaviors) (p.49)
o Coaching style (lots of directive behavior and many supportive behaviors) (p.49)
o Supportive style (high on supportive behaviors, low on directive behaviors) (p.50)
o Delegating style (low on directive and supportive behaviors) (p.50)
Transactional leadership (p.50)
o Appeal to worker's self-interest (p.50)
o Maintain the status quo (p.50)
o Motivated by the exchange process, work for pay (p.52)
Transformational leadership (p.52)
o Appeal to workers' higher-order needs (interesting and challenging jobs,
development, and empowerment) (p.52)
o Appealing to higher-order needs gains loyalty (p.53)
Practices of leaders (p.53)
o Leaders vary in values, styles and priorities. (p.53)
o Effective leaders have some things in common. (p.53)
Ask, " What needs to be done?", not "What do I want?"
Ask, " What can I do to make a difference?"
Put the organizations ' goals first
Tolerant of diversity, intolerant of low performance
Not afraid of having strong associates
Worked to be the kind of person they would give respect to
Empowerment (giving employees additional responsibility and authority over their
decisions, resources, and work) (p.54)

5. Developing Your Own Style (p.54)


Use what works best for you in terms of: (p.5 5)
o Your personality
o The employees you supervise
o The situations you face
Vision and awareness (p.55)
o Vision must be realistic and credible (p.55)
o Need awareness of yourself, your workers, and the big picture (p.55)

14

Employee engagement (p.56)


o Engage employees by building as culture of trust, connection, growth, and
service. (p.56)
o Companies with highly engaged employees show consistent growth. (p.56)

6. Ethics (p.57)
A set of moral principles or rules of conduct that provide guidelines for morally right
behavior. (p.57)
Stephen Hall suggests five questions to decide how ethical a decision is: (p.57)
o Is the decision legal?
o Is the decision fair?
o Does the decision hurt anyone?
o Have I been honest with those affected?
o Can I live with my decisions?
7. The Supervisor as Mentor{p.57)
A mentor is an experienced and proficient person who acts as a leader, role model, and
teacher to those less experiences and less skilled. (p.57)
The relationship between a supervisor and employee often resembles a teacher and a
student. (p.58)

Sometimes a mentor is just an example of professional behavior with minimal or no


interaction with the worker. (p.58)

15

True or False
On the following questions, answer whether the statement provided is true or false .
T
T
T

F
F
F

F
F
F
F
F

T
T
T
T

I. A directing style is high on directive and low on supportive behaviors.


2. Most leaders are born, not made.
3. The best way to develop your own leadership style is to copy someone successful
whom you admire.
The
best way to maintain your authority over your workers is to lay down the law in
4.
no uncertain terms.
5. Workers generally prefer a boss who is one of the gang and is lenient about
enforcing the rules.
6. Most of the hourly jobs in the hospitality industry are skilled or semiskilled.
7. There are more women working than ever before.
8. The employee turnover rate in the hospitality industry is high.
9. MBWA is an advanced business degree.
10. Fear is the most effective technique for controlling people's performance.

Key Term Review


On the following questions fill in the blank with the most appropriate key term.
1. The use of promised rewards plus punishment to motivate performance is known as using a

2. A_ _ _ _ _ style is marked by highly supportive behaviors with an employee.


3. Employees grant supervisors ________ in order to make decisions and carry them
out.
4. If you use the
employees, guests, and peers.

technique, you spend a significant amount of time with

5.
assumes that people dislike and avoid work, prefer to be led, avoid
responsibility, lack ambition, want security, and must be threatened with punishment to get them
to do their work.
6. An experienced and proficient person who acts as a leader, role model, and teacher to those
with less experience is called a _ _ _ _ _ __
7. A
style is low on directive and supportive behaviors because
responsibility is turned over to an employee.
16

8. A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ style uses a lot of directive and few supportive .behaviors with an


employee.
9. A set of moral principles or rules of conduct is called _ _ _ _ __ _
10. If a manager uses a lot of directive and supportive behaviors, he or she ts usmg a

11 . Direction and control of the work of others through the ability to elicit voluntary compliance
is called - - -- - -12. A _ _ _ _ _ _ manager believes that work is as natural as play and people will work
towards objectives that they are committed to without threat.
13.
organization.

is the authority granted by virtue of a person's position within an

14. Behaving in an authoritarian or domineering manner is also known as being _ _ _ _ __


15. Tim has _ _ __ , or the capacity to influence the behavior of others.
16. A manager that believes they need to lay down the law in definite terms, such as cursing,
shouting, and threatening in order to arouse the proper degree of fear to motivate the worker is
usmg a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
17. Goals should be relevant to the mission, specific and clear, challenging yet achievable, made
in collaboration with employees, and written down with the strategies and_ _ _ _ _ _ __
of how to meet the goals.
18. A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _motivates workers by appealing to their self-interest.
19.
is the articulation of the mission of the organization in such an
appealing way that it vividly conveys what it can be like in the future. It instills a common
purpose, self-esteem, and a sense of membership in the organization.
20. In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ there is an adaptation of leadership style to the needs of a
situation.
21 . A
normally has three parts: First, a statement of overall purpose,
second, a statement explaining the values employees are expected to maintain in the daily
decision-making process, third, a declaration of the major goals that management believes is
essential to attain the goals.
17

22. The person in charge based on the organization chart is called a - - - - - - - - 23. To give employees additional responsibility and authority to do their jobs is granting them

24. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a person who is in charge because he or she has the support of the
employees.
25. A pattern of interaction that a supervisor uses

111

directing subordinates is called

Concept Review Multiple Choice Questions


On the.following questions circle the choice that best answers the question.
1. The. leadership style known as laissez-faire:
a. delegates authority to the employees
b. delegates power to the employees
c. delegates some authority and power to the employees
d. delegates all authority and power to the employees
2. A method of motivating by giving rewards for a good performance and punishing for a poor
performance is called:
a. reward and punishment
b. situational leadership
c. transactional leadership
d. coaching
3. Situational leadership:
a. adapts to the employee
b. adapts to the situation
c. adapts to the supervisor
d. none of the above
4. In your typical full service restaurant you:
a. will not have much turnover
b. will lose some of your hourly employees
c. will generally lose all of your hourly employees in one year
d. none of the above
5. A style that is marked by highly supportive behaviors with an employee is called a:
a. delegating style
b. coaching style
c. supporting style
d. directing style

18

6. The type of leader that motivates employees by appealing to their personal interests is:
a. a transformational leader
b. a transactional leader
c. a team player
d. an authoritarian leader
7. Jeff has the support of the employees and therefore is in charge. Jeff is a:
a. formal leader
b. supervisor
c. informal leader
d. none of the above
8. Doing the right things right is:
a. being a leader
b. being a manager
c. being effective and efficient
d. all of the above
9. The manner of interactio1i. the supervisor uses with employees in directing and controlling the
work is their:
a. charisma
b. leadership style
c. managerial skills
d. motivational skills
10. Based on an organizational chart Tom is in charge. Tom is a(n):
a. exempt employee
b. formal leader
c. informal leader
d. a and c
11. Nancy motivates her employees by appealing to their needs, such as providing meaningful,
interesting, and challenging jobs. She also acts like a coach and a mentor. Nancy practices:
a. transactional leadership
b. formal leadership
c. informal leadership
d. transformational leadership
12. The type of style that causes adversary relationships to develop, breeds resentment, low
morale, and personnel problems is known as a:
a. delegating style
b. coaching style
c. transformational style
d. fear-and-punishment leadership style

19

13. Authority granted by a person' s position within an organization is called:


a. informal
b. permanent
c. formal
d. semi-formal
14. Brian always uses a lot of directive and supportive behaviors when trying to motivate his
employees. Brian has developed a(n) :
a. delegating style
b. coaching style
c. authoritarian style
d. transformational style
15. MB WA stands for:
a. Management By Watching from Afar
b. Masters in Business for Woman in Academics
c .. Management and Business Wage Act
d. Management By Walking Around
16. Which example represents an ethical decision?:
a. You hire your inexperienced nephew instead of a more experienced candidate because
you want to help your family.
b. While touring a potential supplier' s facility, you are offered tickets to a sporting event,
which you gladly accept.
c. You promote the more qualified employee even though you are good friends with one of
the other candidates.
d. You agree to purchase from a vendor who has higher prices because they will sponsor
your child's baseball team.
17. The mentor relationship can be described as:
a. that of a teacher and student
b. an example of professional behavior with little to no interaction
c. either of the above
d. neither of the above
18. Which of the following is not among the traits that distinguish effective leaders from
nonleaders?
a. driven
b. egotistical
c. honest
d. knowledgeable

20

19. What percent of the workforce in the hospitality industry is part-time, short-term?
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 70%
d. 95%
20. Which of the following is not a behavior of effective leaders?
a. They are not afraid to offend people as they climb the corporate ladder.
b. They ask, " What can I do to make a difference?"
c. They are tolerant of diversity of people in the workplace.
d. They glory in the strength of their associates.

Discussion Questions
1. Explain some of the characteristics of leaders and name some situations that will reveal their
importance.

2. Explain the difference between Theory X and Theory Y. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3. Define leadership style. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

4. Give some examples of the nature ofleadership. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

5. According to the text what steps should one take to develop their own style?_ _

21

Matching Questions
Match the leadership style to the description. Each leadership style may be used more than once.
A. Autocratic
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

B. Bureaucratic

C. Democratic

__ Strictly by the book


_ _ Shows little concern about others' opinions
_ _ Collaborates opinions when decision-making
_ _ Hands-off approach
Is a concerned coach of the team
_ _ Relies on rules and regulations
_ _ Turns over control; delegates authority
_ _ Wants to share responsibilities
_ _ Acts like he/she is a police office
_ -_ Dictates tasks to be accomplished
_ _ Style works well when employees are self-motivated
_ _ Appropriate when employees are permitted no discretion

22

D. Laissez-Faire

Chapter 3: Planning, Organizing, and Goal Setting


Objectives
1. Explain how planning at different levels provides the framework for other functions of
superv1s10n.
2. Outline the steps of the planning process.
3. Describe the features of an effective plan.
4. List and describe different types of plans and their uses.
5. Discuss the special problems of planning for change and explain techniques for overcoming
resistance to change.
6. Describe how hospitality supervisors can best plan their time on the job.
7. Explain how effective organizing contributes to a department's maximum success.
8. List examples of hospitality supervisors' goal setting.

Summary
This chapter focuses on planning, organizing, and goal setting. Planning is the act of looking
ahead to chart the best course of future actions. The planning process involves defining the goal,
gathering data to forecast the future , developing courses of action, deciding on which course of
action is appropriate, carrying out that plan, and evaluating the results. A good plan will provide
a workable solution, is comprehensive, minimizes the degree of risk, is specific and is flexible.
There are several types of plans for different purposes: standing plans, single-use plans, and
contingency plans. Often you will need to make a plan for a change. Employees will resist
change and you must plan how to deal with that resistance. A good manager will plan his or her
time. With so many demands on a supervisor's time, it is important to prioritize activities to be
efficient. Organizing the workplace to run efficiently is the goal of effective planning.

Outline
1. The

Nature of Planning (p.68)


The management process (Figure 3-1) (p.68)
Planning (looking ahead to chart the best courses of future action). (p.68)
Levels of planning (p.69)
o Top management makes long-range strategic plans.
Strategic planning (long-range planning to set organizational goals,
strategies, tactics, and policies to meet or exceed the goals)
o Middle management makes annual plans to implement strategic plans.
o For supervisors, the planning period is typically a week, day or shift
o The plans deal with getting the daily work done.

23

The Planning Process (p. 70)


o Define the goal and how to meet it
o Collect and evaluate data
o Develop alternative courses of action
o Decide on the best course of action
o Carry out the plan
o Control and evaluate the results
Forecasting (p.71)
o Forecasting is predicting what will happen in the future on the basis of data from
the past and present
o Forecasting in the hospitality industry can be tricky and should be based on
intelligent analysis
The Risk Factor (p.71)
o Risk is a degree of uncertainty about what will happen in the future
o Use forecasting to reduce the risk

o Have a Contingency Plan to reduce the risk (p. 72)


Contingency Plan is an alternative plan for use in case the original plan
does not work out
Qualities of a Good Plan (p.73)
o A good plan provides a workable solution to the original problem and meets the
stated objectives
o A good plan is comprehensive
o A good plan minimizes the degree of risk necessary to meet the objectives
o A good plan is specific
o A good plan is flexible
2. Types of Plans and Planning (p.73)
Standing Plans (An established routine or set of procedures used in a recurring situation)
(p.73)
o Management by Exception is training employees so the supervisor needs only
oversee that workers are meeting that standards and then deal with unexpected
events that the standing plan doesn't cover (p.74)
o Hospitality operations must have standing plans for dealing with matters affecting
health and safety (p.76)
o Company rules, procedures, and policies are another form of standing plan (p.76)

24

Single-Use Plans (A plan developed for a single occasion or purpose) (p.77)


o Single use plans can be made for trivial one time things, or may be for situations
that have effects that last for years
o A budget is one kind of single-use plan (p.78)
Budget (an operational plan for the income and expenditure of money for
a given period)
Preparing budgets requires the use of forecasts
Day-By-Day Planning (p.79)
o Planning the day's work is top priority for a first-line supervisor
o Make it routine to plan the day in advance
Schedules (p. 79)
o Gantt Chart is a bar graph showing the activity and the timing of each activity
(p.79) (Figure 3.5 - p.80)
o Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a diagram of a sequence of
activities to complete a project (p.80) (Figure 3.6 - p.81)
Critical Path is the least amount of time for the activities to occur (p.81)
o Management by Goals (Employees jointly set goals for their departments and then
plan strategies to meet or exceed the goals) (p.81)
Goal specificity - specific and measurable (p.81)
Participation - goals are set jointly by managers and workers (p.82)
Time limit - deadline for goal to be accomplished (p.82)
Who will do what? - determine who does what to accomplish goals (p.82)
Performance feedback - self-evaluation is best (p.82)

3. Planning for Change (p.82)


Planning a change that affects the work must be done carefully and thoroughly (p.82)
How workers respond to change: resistance, insecurity, anxiety, resentment of personal
losses, rumors (p.82)
How to deal with resistance (p.83)
Resistance to change is a reaction by employees to changes in their work
environment that may be accompanied by feelings of anxiety, insecurity, or loss
o Establish open communication: facts, discussion, venting of feelings.
o Emphasize advantages, but avoid overselling.
o Involve workers in planning and carrying out change.
Example of planning for change (p.84)
4. Planning Your Own Time (p.89)
Track your time use (Figure 3.8 - p.91), then analyze it (p.90)
Get rid of activities that waste time such as too much socializing, inability to say no, poor
organizing, procrastination, and allowing interruptions (p. 90)
25

Set priorities- divide them into musts and shoulds (80% of your results come from 20%
of your efforts.) (p.92)

Plan your day with a calendar (Figure 3.9 - p.93) (p.92)


Set aside regular periods of time without interruption for interviews, etc. (p. 92)
Initiate long-range solutions to your time problems (p.92)

5. Organizing for Success (p.94)

Organizing (putting together the money, personnel, equipment, materials, and methods
for maximum efficiency to meet the enterprise's goals) (p.95)
How to improve departmental organization (p. 95)
o Step 1: Clarify how you and your job fit into the organization (p.95)
o Step 2: Investigate possible sources of organizational problems:
Chain of command (unity of command, span of control) (p.95)
Job content and procedures (p.95)

Training (p.96)
Evaluation and controls (p. 96)
Standing plans (p. 96)

Plan what you will do to improve the organization and efficiency of your operations
(p.96)

True or False
On the following questions, answer whether the statement provided is true or false.
T
T

F
F

T
T
T
T

F
F
F
F

1. The planning process is closely related to the decision-making process.


2. Organizing is limited to top management; the supervisor simply administers the
organization he/she has been given.
3. Risk is the degree of certainty about the future.
4. A contingency plan is a standing plan for reducing risk.
5. A single-use plan is a standing plan used for one repeating task .
6. Most workers in routine jobs welcome changes that affect them because change
gives them relief from boredom.
7. The final questions in the planning process concern feasibility, risk versus benefit,
economy, and goal setting.
8. During certain parts of the day in the hospitality industry, the job controls the
supervisor and it is futile to plan this time.
9. The hospitality supervisor's day is so unpredictable that there is no point in
planning ahead at all.
10. In the hospitality industry, adjusting your plans as you carry them out is part of the
planning process.

26

Key Term Review


On the.following questions.fill in the blank with the most appropriate key term.

1.

diagram

of

sequence

of

activities

to

complete

project

1s

called

2. A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is an operational plan for the income and expenditure of money by the


department for a given period .
3. Setting everything up to run efficiently is known as

-----------

4. If the situation recurs every day and people are trained in the procedures, the supervisor's need
to manage is reduced to seeing that the workers meet the standards set and to dealing with the
unexpected event that the plan does not cover. This is known as

- - - - - - - -- -

5. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the lines of authority and responsibility.


6. _ _ _ _ __ _ ____ means looking ahead to chart the best courses of future action.
7. A principle of organization that states there is a limit to the number of employees one person
can supervise effectively is called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
8. You can reduce the risk by having an alternative plan m reserve, 1s known as
a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
~

9. Established routines, formulas, blueprints, or a set of procedures that are designed to be used
in a recurring or repetitive situation is known as a

----------

10. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __. !aiming includes setting organizational goals, objectives, and


policies and determining strategies, tactics, and programs for achieving the objectives.

11 . The first essential for dealing with _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a climate of open


communication and trust.
12. To _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , you find out what happened in the past and what is happening
today.
13. A primary principle of organization that each person should have only one boss is known as

27

14. The future is always more-or-less unce1tain. You reduce the degree of uncertainty,
the
, when you collect the relevant data and apply it to your forecast.
15. A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a one-time plan developed for a single occasion or purpose.
16. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a bar graph diagram showing the activity and the timing of
each activity.
17. With
employees jointly set goals for their
departments and then plan strategies as to how to meet or exceed the goals.
18.
is a diagram of a sequence of activities to complete a
project. It shows the time for each activity and plans for activities that can be done ahead of time
or simultaneously.
19. the least amount of time required for all the activities to occur is called the

20. A goal that is specific and is measurable has _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Concept Review Multiple Choice Questions


On the following questions circle the choice that best answers the question.
1. The Gantt chart is a(n):
a. bar graph diagram showing lines of command
b. organizational chart showing lines of command
c. bar graph diagram showing the activity and the timing of each activity
d. diagram of a sequence of activities to complete a project
2. Management by Objectives (MBO) employees:
a. jointly set goals for their departments
b. plan strategies as to how to meet or exceed the goals
c. do not have a say in the goal setting process
d. a and b
3. According to the text, the final step in improving departmental organization is:
a. investigate possible sources of organizational problems
b. evaluate the situation
c. plan for improvement
d. follow up

28

4. Strategic planning:
a. does not provide a workable solution and does not meet the stated objectives
b. is-long range planning to set organizational goals, objectives, and policies to determine
strategies, tactics, and programs for achieving them
c. cannot be adapted to a change in the situation
d. is a one-time plan developed for a single occasion or purpose
5. The least amount of time required for all the activities to occur and is called the:
a. critical path
b. time path
c. critical time
d. goal setting
6. According to the text the first step in improving departmental organization is:
a. investigate possible sources of organizational problems
b. clarify how you and your job fit into the organization
c. evaluate the situation
d. plan for improvement
7. While at work, the manager only watches to be sure that the staff is carrying out their
responsibilities. This is managing by:
a. exception
b. exemplification
c. exemption
d. excavation
8. According to the text the first step in planning a change is to:
a. define your problem and set your objectives
b. gather data from the past, present, and probable future in order to forecast what
alternatives are most likely to succeed and reduce risks
c. implement the plan
d. generate alternative plans, evaluate the pros and cons of each, and assess their risks and
benefits
9. Which of the following are ways to deal with resistance to change?
a. establish open communication: facts, discussion, venting of feelings
b. emphasize advantages, but avoid overselling
c. involve workers in planning and carrying out change
d. all the above
10. A Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a(n):
a. diagram of a sequence of activities to complete a project
b. bar graph diagram showing lines of command
c. bar graph diagram showing the activity and the timing of each activity
d. organizational chart showing lines of command

29

11. The first step in organizing is to:


a. find out where poor organization is causing problems
b. plan what you will do to improve the organization and efficiency of your operation.
c. find out what you need to know about your job
d. generate alternatives
12. Gathering of data to forecast the future:
a. distinguishes planning from other forms of decision-making
b. is used in all facets of decision-making
c. creates an absence of problems to be solved
d. all the above
13. You can reduce risk when planning repetitive work by having which of the following? :
a. consulting plan
b. single-use plan
c. standing plan
d. contingency plan
14. Wliich of the following is not a quality of a good plan?:
a. A good plan is flexible.
b. A good plan is specific.
c. A good plan takes risks.
d. A good plan is comprehensive.
15. Company rules, procedures, and policies are an example of what type of plan?
a. consulting plan
b. single-use plan
c. standing plan
d. contingency plan
16. What is a good use for a single-use plan?
a. a major change
b. a repetitive task
c. as a backup plan
d. to define company procedures
17. Which of the following is not a key ingredient in Management by Goals?
a. goal specificity
b. time limits
c. performance feedback
d. managers must personally set every goal
18. What is the correct order of the management process?
a. Planning -7 Organizing -7 Leading -7 Decision Making -7 Control
b. Control -7 Organizing -7 Planning -7 Decision Making -7 Leading
c. Decision Making -7 Organizing -7 Leading -7 Planning -7 Control
d. Control -7 Planning -7 Decision Making -7 Organizing -7 Leading

30

19. Why do people resist change?


a. They fear a loss in status, fewer hours, or more work.
b. People are more comfortable with the familiar, even if they do not like their jobs.
c. They think they will have to learn new things or work with new people.
d. All of the above are reasons why people fear change.
20. Why is it important to forecast before planning?
a. Since you have no idea of what happened in the past you must guess what will occur in
the future .
b. If conditions are the same, things that happened in the past will likely happen in the
future.
c. Forecasting is a method of planning for future events without having to gather data.
d. Forecasting is not important to planning.

Discussion Questions
1. Explain standing plans and give three examples of them. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

2. List the five steps in the planning process. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

3. What is forecasting and why is it important? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

4. Describe the risk factor.

------------------------~

5. Describe how hospitality supervisors can best plan their time on the job.

31

Chapter 4: Communicating Effectively


Objectives
1. List and describe various types of communication.
2. Diagram the communication process and analyze common breakdowns at each step in the
process.
3. Explain how effective communication skills are important to success as a hospitality
supervisor.
4. Describe personal characteristics that affect communication skills.
5. List examples of non-verbal communication.
6. Discuss common obstacles to good communication and recommend tactics to avoid them.
7. Compare and contrast effective and ineffective listening practices.
8. Illustrate the use of effective communication skills in directing employees.
9. Outline common pitfalls of business writing and list guidelines for avoiding them.
10. List guidelines for effective business meetings.

Summary
Chapter 4 covers how to communicate effectively as a supervisor. Good communication is very
important and follows a process of transmitting and receiving a message. There are several
obstacles to good communication, some stemming from the giver of a message and some from
the receiver. One of the most important aspects of communication, and one that is frequently
neglected, is good listening. Bad listening practices will negatively impact your ability to
communicate, but good listening skills are leamable. Communicating well is vital to directing
people, a major function of a supervisor. You must send clear messages, get the message
accepted, and make a positive impact. Following the proper steps to giving instructions will
ensure that they are received well. Other types of communication in the workplace include
computer-aided communication, social media, business writing and meetings.

Outline
1. Good Communications and Their Importance (p. l 02)
Communication is the sending and receiving of messages. (p. l 02)
Communication may be verbal or written. (p. l 02)
Types of communication. (p.102)
o Interpersonal communication (the sending and receiving of messages between
individuals). (p.102)
o Organizational communication (the sending of messages from the top of the
organization down-usually the same message to everyone). (p.102)

32

Two-way or open communication (when messages move freely back and forth
from person to person). (p.103)
o Interviewing (conversation with the purpose of obtaining information). (p.103)
o Small group communication (communication that takes place when group
members attempt to influence one another, as in a meeting). (p.103)
o Mass communication (messages sent out to many people through such media as
newspapers, magazines, books, radio, and television). (p.103)
The communication process (Figure 4-1). (p.104)
Why communication is so important. (p.105)
o Sending messages is the major part of the supervisor's job: directing, informing,
training, giving feedback, interviewing, hiring, firing, disciplining, relating to
subordinates. (p.105)
o Poor communication causes problems: waste, crises, gaps in service, higher costs,
frustration, anger, resentment, poor morale, high turnover. (p. l 06)
o Listening is very important and somewhat neglected. Your employees want you to
listen because they want to give ideas and information. (p. l 07)
o Listening to customers is also important, hearing and handling complaints and so
on. (p.107)
2. Obstacles to Good Communication (p.107) (Figure 4-2) (p.108)
How the communicators affect the message. (p.107)
o Differences in background, education, experience, intelligence, attitudes,
opinions, values (p.107)
o Prejudices (p. l 09)
o Differences in perception (p.109)
o Assumptions and expectations (p. l 09)
o Emotions (p.110)
o Atmosphere of trust/distrust (p.110)
o Verbal, listening, and reading skills, hearing ability (p.110)
How symbols can obscure the meaning. (p.110)
o Words are often misinterpreted. (p.110)
Many words have multiple meanings. (p.110)
Your workers may have minimal or no knowledge of English. (p.111)
o Nonverbal messages and body language may not match speaker's words. (p.111)
Problems in sending the message. (p. 112)
o Timing is bad. (p.112)
o Receiver's attention is elsewhere. (p.113)
o Message sent to wrong person. (p.113)
o Message sent using the wrong means. (p.113)
o Failure to send the message. (p.113)

33

Problems in receiving the message. (p.114)


o Symbols, perceptions, attitudes, assumptions, ability, etc., may obscure meaning.
o Receiver not interested in message, nothing's in it for me.
o Message or delivery triggers negative reaction.
Removing obstacles to communication. (p.114)
d There are many obstacles to communication
o We need to remove these obstacles to communicate effectively

3. Listening (p.115)
Listening is paying complete attention to what people have to say, hearing them out, and
staying interested and neutral. (p.115)
Bad listening practices. (p.115)
o Going off on tangents, tuning out, being distracted or preoccupied. (p.115)
o Reacting emotionally. (p.116)
o Cutting off the flow: telling the speaker what to do, preaching, giving advice,
analyzing, blaming, sympathizing, and belittling the problem. (p.116)
How to listen (p.118)
o Give your undivided attention (p.118)
o Hear the person out (p.118)
Active listening (encouraging the speaker to continue talking by giving
interested but neutral responses that show you understand the speaker's
meaning and feelings).
o Look for the real message (p.118)
o Keep emotions out of the communication (p.119)
o Maintain your role (p.120)
Good listening is not a skill that is learned quickly, but the payoffs are real (p.121)
4. Directing People at Work (p.122)
Directing (assigning tasks, giving instructions, training, and guiding and controlling
performance)
Sending clear messages (p.122)
o A clear message is one that is specific, explicit, complete, undeJstandable, and
meaningful.
To get your messages accepted, you need to: (p.123)
o build trust
o make sure the message has meaning and interest to the receivers
o make sure it includes reasonable instructions that are possible to carry out
Making a positive impact (p.123)
o Put yourself on the employee's level and talk to them person to person
o When a message is given with emotion, the emotion is communicated, not the
message.
34

Emotional Intelligence (EI) (p.125)


o EI quotient (EQ) is the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships
effectively
o Critical components of EI (p.125)
Self-awareness
Self-regulation
Motivation
Empathy
Social skill
Giving Instructions (p.126)
o Plan what you are going to say, whom you will say it to, and when, where, and
how you will say it. (p.126)
Oral instructions are better for simple instructions
Written are better for complex or precise instructions
o Establish a climate of acceptance (p.127)
Quiet surroundings are better for communication
Tailor your communication to the receiver
o Deliver the instructions (p.128)
Delivery is critical: gestures, inflection, tone, and facial expression all
come into play
Maintain comfortable communication zones
Personal space - two to three feet
Social distance - four to seven feet
Public distance - seven to 25 feet
o Verify that the instructions were understood (p.129)
o Follow up (p.129)
Computer and telephone aided communications (p.129)
o Technology has revolutionized the way we communicate
o Email, texting, voice-mail, and faxes all can be effective means to communicate
(p.130)
Social Media (p.130)
o Can be used to deliver communication to outside the company or within the
company

5. Business Writing (p.131)


Common pitfalls (p.131)
o Too long, too wordy (p.131)
o Too vague (p.131)
o Too much jargon (p.132)
o Poorly organized (p.132)

35

o Purpose is not clear (p.132)


o Sloppy, misspellings (p.132)
o Too negative (p.132)
o Indirect, beats around the bush (p.132)
Tips for better business writing (p.132)
o Pay attention to who the reader will be and write from his or her perspective.
o Organize your thoughts so that your writing is better organized and better able to
communicate.
o Use simple words to communicate your message. Stay away from jargon, slang,
big words, as they only clutter up your message and the reader may not
understand them.
o Get to the point quickly. Trim all unnecessary words. Be specific about what you
want to communicate. Avoid vague terms and expressions.
o Be positive and upbeat. Even when you have to give bad news, provide some
good news.
o Write as though you were talking. Be natural.
o Write clearly. Proofread your writing for clarity.
o Show how the reader will benefit from reading your written communication.
o Keep the document as short as possible.
o Always check your document for correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and
neatness.
6. Meetings (p.132)
Meetings have a bad reputation, derived from badly run meetings (p.132)
Effective meetings can accomplish a lot (p.133)

True or False
On the following questions, answer whether the statement provided is true or false.
T

T
T
T

F 2.
F 3.
F 4.

5.

T
T

F
F

6.

8.

1.

7.

One of the big differences between a supervisor's job and a worker's job is the
supervisor's constant need to make decisions.
In the hospitality industry, it is easy to develop the habit of instant decision-making.
Even in an emergency, it is wise to take at least five minutes to decide what to do.
No matter how unimportant a decision may seem, it is wise to spend at least five
minutes in making it.
A managerial decision is a conscious or unconscious choice among alternative
courses of action to achieve a goal.
A group decision is always better than an individual decision.
In problem solving, the first step is to decide what to do about the symptoms of the
problem.
It is a mistake to try to solve people's personal problems for them.
36

T
T

F 9. Win-win problem solving is a participative approach to a mutual problem.


F 10. In looking for solutions to problems, it is easy to mistake the symptoms for the
cause.

Key Term Review


On the following questions fill in the blank with the most appropriate key term.

1. __________is often defined as a conversation with a purpose.


2. The general term that sums up the sending and receiving of messages is known as

3. A message may go from one person to another, as when the sous chef tells the soup cook what
soups to prepare for lunch; or when one person says to another, "It's nice to have you back, we
missed you." This is known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _refers to messages sent out to many people through newspapers,
magazines, books, radio, television, and other media.
5. When messages move freely back and forth from one person to another, or up the ladder as
well as down, we say that we have good _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6. Four to seven feet is - - - - - - - - - 7. Research has established that there are unexpressed zones of comfortable communication
between people these are known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
8. You encourage. At appropriate times you grunt ("unnh," "ummmm," "uh-huh"), you say "Oh"
and "Yes," and you nod your head. This is known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
9. Seven to twenty-five feet is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
10. In
influence one another.

three or more group members communicate in order to

----------~

11. A written statement of topics to be discussed at a meeting is called a(n) _ _ _ _ __


12. Since we cannot transmit messages directly by telepathy, we use various ______ to
express our meaning

37

13. One of your major functions as a supervisor is


: assigning tasks,
giving instructions, telling people how to do things, and guiding and controlling performance.
14. _________means paying complete attention to what people have to say, hearing
them out.
15. People can deliberately use signs, gestures, and _ _ _ _ _ _ _to convey specific
meanmgs.
16. The sending of messages from the top of an organization down is known as

17. The area within close proximity of a person that ''belongs" to that person and should not be
invaded is that person's
-----------~

18.

are private, organization-wide networks, similar to web sites, to which


only people in the organization have access.

19.
is communication without words, as with signs, gestures,
facial expressions, or body language.
20.

rovides Internet connections through wireless frequencies that


are run through routers, enabling wireless connectivity within a specific range of the routers.

21.

is the free movement of messages back and forth between


supervisor and worker and up the channels of communication as well as down.

22. An
is the same as an intranet, except that it allows access to specific
people outside the company, such as guests or suppliers.

Concept Review Multiple Choice Questions


On the following questions circle the choice that best answers the question.

1. Joan has a tendency to get very close to people when she is talking to them. At times, she
comes within two feet of the person she is communicating with, making them uncomfortable.
Joan's distance is:
a. outside the person's personal space
b. within public distance
c. within social distance
d. in the other person's personal space
38

2. When messages move freely back and forth from one person to another, or up the ladder as
well as down, we say that we have good:
a. two-way communication
b. personal communication
c. open communication
d. a and c
3. When working with people who are ambitious and experienced which of the following would
be most appropriate when giving instructions?:
a. phrase the instructions as if you were talking to someone who has never done the task
b. phrase the instructions as suggestions
c. none of the above
d. all of the above
4. Supervisors are involved in:
a. organizational communication
b. small-group communication
c. interpersonal communication
d. all the above
5. A message may go down the corporate ladder from the president of the company to the
general manager to the food and beverage director to the executive chef to the sous chef to the
station cooks to the cooks' helpers. This is an example of:
a. organizational communication
b. interpersonal communication
c. open communication
d. two-way communication
6. The first phase in steps for giving instructions is:
a. Make sure the instructions are accepted.
b. Plan what, to whom, when, where, and how.
c. Verify that the instructions are understood.
d. Deliver the instructions.
7. Research has established that there are unexpressed zones of comfortable communication
between people known as:
a. communication zones
b. personal zones
c. social zones
d. public zones
8. To get your messages accepted you should:
a. make sure it includes reasonable instructions
b. make sure the message has meaning and interest
c. build trust
d. all the above

39

9. Four to seven feet is an okay distance to give instructions from. This is known as:
a. public distance
b. social distance
c. personal space
. d. communicative space
10. Symbols, attitudes, and assumptions that obscure meaning are:
a. problems in receiving the message
b. problems in sending the message
c. a and b
d. none of the above
11. Hearing the person out, looking for the real message, and maintaining your role as a
supervisor are all:
a. ways to listen
b. ways to give positive feedback
c. ways to verify instruction
d; none of the above
12. Seven to 25 feet is too far to give instructions from unless you are at a public meeting. This is
known as:
a. public distance
b. social distance
c. personal space
d. communicative space
13. Listening:
a. is the most neglected communication skill
b. is the most used communication skill
c. is not an important communication skill in management
d. band c
14. The last phase in steps for giving instructions is:
a. make sure the instructions are accepted
b. followup
c. verify that the instructions are understood
d. deliver the instructions
15. Nodding one's head indicates, "I agree with you" or "I hear you." A smile says "I want to be
friendly" and invites a return smile. Amorous glances extend invitations. Shaking one's fist
means, "I'm dead serious and don't you dare provoke me any further." These are examples of:
a. nonverbal communication
b. body language
c. a and b
d. small-group communication

40

16. In addition to interpersonal and organizational communication, what other types of


communication might a supervisor be involved in?
a. interviewing
b. small-group communication
c. mass communication
d. all of the above
17. How can symbols such as words obscure the meaning of a message?
a. many words have several meanings
b. many words are vague
c. it is easy to find the correct words to express yourself
d. aand b
18. What is a mixed message?
a. When a boss tells you one thing, and another boss tells you something different
b. When your boss tells you to do something, then later tells you to do the opposite
c. When a verbal message tells you one thing, but the nonverbal communication gives the
opposite meaning
d. When two messages are communicated at the same time
19. Which pairing of body language and nonverbal communication is correct?
a. Leaning far forward, head thrust forward, hands spread on table - nervous
b. Sitting forward on edge of chair, arms open, legs uncrossed - accepting
c. Shaking fist - defensive
d. Crossed arms, locked ankles - threatening
20. To get a message through, the best means of sending it is to:
a. announce it in a meeting where few people will hear it correctly
b. send it in a memo that few people will read correctly
c. post it to a bulletin board where no one will read it
d. tell people individually so most hear, but some will be offended at hearing it last

Discussion Questions
1. Discus the different techniques of how to listen described in the text. - - - - - - -

2. List the guidelines for effective business meetings. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

41

3. List the five steps on how to give instructions when directing people at work.

4. Discuss three of the benefits of good listening described in the text. _ _ _ _ _ _ __

5. Discuss four ways to remove obstacles to communication. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Matching Questions
Answers may be used more than once
1.

2.

3.
4.

Unexpressed areas in which people are comfortable


communicating with each other under various situations
The distance at which conversation is impersonal
The distance within which a person feels uncomfortable
allowing others to come closer unless invited
The distance that is comfortable for having a conversation

5.

For Americans, 2-3 feet

6.

For Americans, 4-7 feet

7.

For Americans, 7-25 feet

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A. Personal Space
B. Social Distance
C. Public Distance
D. Communication
Zones

Chapter 5: Equal Opportunity Laws and Diversity


Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Define equal opportunity in the workplace.


Describe the equal opportunity laws.
Explain what every leader needs to know about equal opportunity.
Outline EEO and the hiring process.
Apply the principles of diversity to the workplace.
Describe steps that increase positive cross-cultural interaction.
Give examples of leading diversity issues positively.

Summary
Chapter 5 explores equal opportunity laws and diversity. Providing for equal opportunity in the
workplace is important in the hospitality industry. Equal opportunity is based on diversity and
inclusion. There are numerous laws ensuring that no individual or group is denied the respect
they deserve. These laws impact how employees are hired to make sure that discriminatory
practices are avoided. Ensuring diversity in the workplace will contribute to a thriving
workplace. A way to encourage diversity is to develop cross-cultural interaction, increasing
personal awareness, and recognizing and practicing cross-cultural interaction.

Outline
1. Equal Opportunity in the Workplace (p.142)

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC): (p.141)


o Established in 1978
o Responsible for leading and coordinating the efforts of federal departments and
agencies to enforce all laws relating to equal employment opportunity without
regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or handicap.
The Equal Opportunity and Diversity Office provides: (p.142)
o Education and training the public about equal opportunity and diversity
o Advocacy for diversity
o Support for companies' initiatives toward equal opportunity and diversity (p.143)
o Consultation on best strategies for Equal Opportunity and Diversity recruitment
o Conflict mediation and resolution
o Monitoring employers' equity and affirmative action goals
o Reviewing compliance with state and federal regulations
o Processing and resolving complaints
Inclusion (p.143)
o Include everyone regardless of gender, marital status, race, national origin,
religion, age, disability, sexual orientation, weight and looks
43

2. Equal Employment Opportunity Laws: (p.143)


Equal Pay Act of 1963 (p.145)
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII (p.145)
A_ge Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (p.145)
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (p.146)
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (p.146)
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) (p.146)
The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (p.147)
3. EEO Laws and the Hiring Process (p.147)
Job requirements or qualifications (i.e., those regarding education and work experience)
must be relevant to the job, nondiscriminatory, and predictive of job performance. (p.14 7)
Any type of pre-employment test must be valid, reliable, and relevant to the job. (p.14 7)
4. Equal Opportunity in the Workplace: What Leaders Need to Know (p.150)
Q&A: Race, Ethnicity, Color - What Practices are Discriminatory? (p.150)
o Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on race,
color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Interviewing (p.150)
o Inappropriate questions should be avoided
5. Diversity (p.150)
By 2020 almost one in three Americans will have African, Asian, Latino, or Native
American ancestry. By 2050 almost one in two! (p.151)
Foodservice industries employ more Hispanics and African Americans than other
industries. (p.151)
6. Why Does Cultural Diversity Matter? (p.153)
When a group or segment is excluded or oppressed, all of us are denied.
For businesses and communities to thrive, each of us needs to be aware and sensitive to
all members of the community.
7. Developing Cross Cultural Interaction (p.154)
Diversity is not a challenge, but an opportunity.
Shifting demographics make practicing diversity more than just a P.C. idea.
8. How to Increase Personal Awareness (p.155)
Be careful about being culture bound: believing that your culture and value system are
the best, the one and only.
Learn various facts about other cultures.
You can learn about other cultures in various ways: reading, attending cultural
fairs/festivals, and interacting with individuals from other cultures.
44

9. How to Recognize and Practice Cross-Cultural Interaction (p.15 5)


Problem areas to overcome include: (p.156)
o The tendency not to listen carefully or pay attention to what others are saying
o Speaking or addressing others in ways that alienate them or make them feel
uncomfortable
o Using or falling back on inappropriate stereotypes to communicate with people
from other cultures
To be an effective supervisor in a culturally diverse workforce, you must be able to:
(p.156)
o Recognize the different ways that people communicate
o Be sensitive to your own employees' cultural values
o Adapt accordingly
Some examples of cultural differences: (p.156)
o Body Language
o Personal Space
o Eye Contact
10. Leading Cultural Diversity in the Workplace (p.158)
Supervisors and managers who are not able to handle diversity in the workforce are a
liability. (p.15 8)
Poor supervision can cost companies dearly in many ways. (p.158)
Recognize, respect, and capitalize on the different backgrounds in our society in terms of
race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. (p.158)
Diversity, or sensitivity, training is now commonplace in the corporate world. (p.159)
11. Establishing a Diversity and Inclusion Program (p.160)
Develop a mission statement that includes diversity and inclusion.
Develop goals for diversity and inclusion for each key operating area.
Develop objectives/strategies to show how the goals will be met.
Develop measurements to monitor progress towards the goals.
Monitor progress toward goal accomplishment.
12. Managing Diversity Issues Positively (p.161)
Guidelines: (p.161)
o Get to know your employees.
o Treat them equitably but not unjformly.
o Watch for signs of harassment. i
o Foster a work climate of mutual respect.
o Encourage and recognize diversity.

45

Be aware of:
o Gender Issues (p.161)
o Cultural Issues (p.162)
o Religious Issues(p.162)
o Age Issues(p.162)
o Physically and/or Mentally Challenged Issues (p.162)

True or False
On the following questions, answer whether the statement provided is true or false.

T
T
T

F
F
F

T
T

F
F

T
T

F
F

1. The ADEA applies to all people 18 years of age and older.


2. It is estimated that 43 million Americans have a disability.
3. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 allows employees to take an unpaid
leave of absence from work for up to 12 weeks per year.
4. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was established in 1989.
5. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employment discrimination
based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
6. When managing a diverse group, do not treat each employee the same.
7. Only one in eight Americans has African, Asian, Hispanic, or Native American
ancestry.
8. Culture bound means you believe that your culture and value system are the best, the
one and only.
9. Reasonable accommodation, which is legally required, refers to any change or
adjustment to a job or the work environment that will enable someone with a
disability to perform essential job functions.
10. One of the slowest growing segments of the U.S. population is that of minority
groups.

Key Term Review


On the following questions, fill in the blank with the most appropriate key term.

1. The
Act makes it illegal for you to discriminate in recruiting,
hiring, or terminating based on a person's national origin or citizenship status.
2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ refers to the behaviors, beliefs, and characteristics of a particular group.
3. Tom always goes the extra mile to make all his new employees feel welcome. According to
the text, Tom is practicing _ _ _ _ __

46

4. The
allows employees to take an unpaid leave of absence
from work for up to 12 weeks per year for the birth or adoption of a child, a serious health
condition of a child, a serious health condition of a spouse or parent, or the employee's own
serious health condition
5. The
makes it unlawful for you to discriminate against a
woman on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.
6. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ separates and distinguishes individuals from groups.
7. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is responsible for enforcing EEO laws.
8. The
makes it unlawful to discriminate against applicants on
the basis of religion, disabilities, skills, and color.
9. The - - - - - - - -bans forced retirement.
10. The
requires equal pay and benefits for men and women
working in jobs requiring substantially equal skills, effort, and responsibilities under similar
working conditions.
11. The failure of an employer to take reasonable and appropriate safeguards when hiring
employees to make sure that they are not the type to harm guests or other workers is

12. An Act that makes it unlawful to discriminate in employment matters against Americans who
have a disability is the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
13. - - - - - - - - - - - - - share a common and distinctive culture.
14. A group of people related by common descent is referred to as a _ _ _ _ __
15. - - - - - - - - - means that you believe that your culture and value system are the
best, the one and only.

47

Concept Review Multiple Choice Questions


On the following questions, circle the choice that represents the best answer.

1. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the:


a. Civil Rights Act of 1964
b. Employment Act of 1967
c. Discrimination Act of 1978
d. Reform and Control Act of 1986
2. Tests must be related to successful performance on the job. According to the text, this is the
concept of:
a. reliability
b. relevance
c. validity
d. consistency
3. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, ___ percent of foodservice employees are
foreign-born.
a. five
b. 12
c. 20
d. 32
4. The population of the U.S. is becoming more diverse every day. By 2020, _ _ out of _ _
Americans will have African, Asian, Latino, or Native American ancestry.
a. three, three
b. one, two
c. two, 10
d. one, three
5. To be an effective supervisor you must be able to:
a. recognize the different ways that people communicate
b. be sensitive to your own employees' cultural values
c. adapt your own supervisory style to the cultures of your associates accordingly
d. all the above
6. Title VII does not require you to hire, promote, or retain employees who are not qualified.
law does provide for you to hire a person of a particular gender if it is based on what is
a. diversity sampling
b. bona fide occupational qualification
c. bona fide gender qualification
d. diversity occupation qualification

48

7. The starting point for EEO laws was probably passage of the:
a. Age Discrimination in Employment Act
b. Immigration Reform and Control Act
c. Civil Rights Act
d. Equal Pay Act
8. The Immigration Reform and Control Act:
a. makes it illegal for you to discriminate in recruiting, hiring, or terminating based on a
person's national origin or citizenship status
b. imposes penalties for hiring unauthorized aliens
c. requires employers to verify that the people they hire are eligible to work in the United
States
d. all the above
9. Which of the following presidents sent comprehensive Civil Rights legislation to Congress?:
a. Clinton
b. Kennedy
c. Carter
d. Reagan
10. When managing diversity issues you should not:
a. treat all of your employees equitably
b. listen to what employees have to say
c. foster a climate of mutual respect
d. treat all of your employees uniformly
11. The act that makes it unlawful to discriminate against applicants on the basis of religion,
disabilities, skills, and color is the:
a. Immigration Reform and Control Act
b. Equal Pay Act
c. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII
d. Age Discrimination in Employment Act
12. Which allows employees to take an unpaid leave of absence from work for up to 12 weeks
per year?:
a. Immigration Reform and Control Act
b. Equal Pay Act
c. The Family Medical Leave Act
d. Age Discrimination in Employment Act

49

13. Reasonable accommodation refers to:


a. any change or adjustment to a job or the work environment if it is requested by all
employees
b. any change or adjustment to a job or the work environment that will enable someone with
a disability to perform essential job functions
c. a change that imposes a hardship on the operation of the business
d. a and b
14. Discrimination lawsuits and high turnover rates are most likely to be the result of:
a. accommodation
b. delegation
c. an upbeat work climate
d. poor superv1s10n
15. The IRCA requires employers to verify that the people they hire are eligible to work in the
United States. This is done by:
a. completing an I-9 Employment Eligibility Verification form within three days after hire
b. completing an I-9 Employment Eligibility Verification form within a year after hire
c. completing an I-9 Employment Eligibility Verification form within four weeks after hire
d. none of the above
16. Which law prohibits discrimination in hiring, promoting, or terminating because of
pregnancy and also classifies pregnancy as a temporary medical disability?:
a. Equal Pay Act of 1963
b. Family Medical Leave Act of 1993
c. Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
d. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
17. Which question would not be permissible to ask during an interview?:
a. Are you over the age of 21? Gob requires serving alcohol)
b. What religion do you belong to? Gob is seven days a week)
c. What foreign languages do you speak? Gob requires speaking to international customers)
d. Can you lift up to 50 pounds? Gob requires moving 50 lb bags of flour)
18. Which of the following question might be permissible to ask during an interview?:
a. Have you ever been convicted of a crime?
b. Do you have any disabilities?
c. What country were you born in?
d. How old are you?
19. Which of the following is an issue you should keep in mind when managing diversity?:
a. gender issues
b. age issues
c. religious issues
d. all of the above

50

20. There are several ways you can make sure a physically or mentally disabled person is
comfortable working for you. Which of these is not a good thing to do?:
a. Speak directly to the employee
b. Tell all the other employees about the disabled persons disability
c. Treat the disabled person the same as other employees
d. Makv accommodations that allow the disabled person to perform their job

Discussions Questions
1. Define and discuss diversity and its importance.

2. What are some of the consequences of not understanding diversity?

3. EEO laws make it unlawful to discriminate against applicants or employees with respect to
what?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

4. Understanding the legal requirements of EEO in the workplace is important for what three
reasons?
.''

5. Discuss two of the general guidelines of managing diversity issues positively and why they are
important to you?

51