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A Thesis Presented to the
School of Architecture, Industrial Design & the Built Environment
Mapua Institute of Technology

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Architectural Design 09/ AR200/ AR200S


Presented by
Bustillo, Arlyssa Rica D.

Architect Junar Pakingan Tablan, uap, MSAE


Month Year


Chapter I.1: General Overview
With urbanization of cities increasing, population within the zone rises and new
structures, tourist spots and destinations are developed. Because of this, numerous travellers
seek shelter for them to stay in throughout their visit within a specific place. Many are then fond
of finding temporary homes or shelter such as hotels, bed and breakfast, or inns that would
assure their daily needs and necessities during their stay.
Pagkilatan being one of the 105 barangays of Batangas City having to be partly
urbanized area, is one of the great places where tourists can visit especially at times of seeking
relaxation, adventure, and spiritual rejuvenation. Although it is not really known today in the
industry of tourism, it is slowly progressing and is trying to find a title for it to be recognized.
Today, there already lies 7 beach resorts one being private and the rest is open to public. Its
shores have two types, white and black sand. It holds one of the richest marine ecology in
Batangas Province and is an ideal place for scuba diving. Aside from that, it was also chosen for
the location of an on-going construction of Monte Maria Shrine a statue of Mama Mary having
117 meters high which seems to be higher than the statue of liberty (96 meters). Other facilities
such as St. Joseph Chapel, Divine Mercy Chapel, and plenty more chapels will be found and
established there soon. Most of its land if not by having resident homes and resorts, is still virgin
having a typical variety of trees. The setting in this location is overlooking mountains and a sea
which offers the place a relaxing ambience and a venture with nature.
Due to the need for architecture to find stability with its environment, discovering an
innovation is a must for our future. As the Philippines having been experiencing distress from the
effects of climate change such as the sea level rise, flooding, droughts, erosion, coral bleaching,
among other impacts, architecture must think of a way to improve and implement tactics to face
the issue.
As said earlier, Pagkilatan is still in the process of development. With this, there is a
lack of shelter that would suffice the needs of the growing numbers of tourist that will visit and
experience its hidden beauty in the future. Proposing for a Resort Hotel Complex would be an

extraordinary idea to solve and respond to the needs of tourists and vacationers all over the
This Resort Hotel Complex is not just an ordinary one; it includes a great scale of
different facilities mixed into one place zip lines, horseback riding, Team building sites,
waterparks, scuba diving and many more. It would also be a benefit to the environment and its
economy instead of being damage since it will be designed and planned to maximize the nature it
exists in. Great number of trees would be saved from cutting due to having the portion of the site
becoming a functional farm that would profit the structure. Employees needed for this building
would be the people residing in the site for solving the solution of unemployment in the area. So
basically, targeting to blend architecture with nature and hoping for it to be beneficial to the
people and the environment is the key.

Background of the Study

Tourism is one of the most rapidly growing global industries and tourism forecasting
is becoming more important in providing awareness and support for future developments of the
Philippine tourism industry. In starting up a business, it is a must to adjust constantly to a
changing market. An accurate and reliable workload forecast is the foundation of any good
staffing plan. Taking the time to forecast and plan may result a good forecasting for a business.
It will help a business to better understand seasonal peaks and troughs, determine the actual
cost of sale, when to order new inventory, what is the best time to launch a new product, is it the
right time to develop a new product, or whether one needs additional staff and more.
The CALABARZON region has one of the most varied landscapes in the country. The
topographical features consist of flat coastal area and upland interior areas of plains, rolling hills,
and mountains. Rich in biodiversity and attractive natural environments, the region is a favourite
destination of the local tourist from nearby Metro Manila that is why it was decided to build a
business in the area which tourist will surely accept and love, which is in the depths of Batangas
The Batangas City aside from being the capital city of the Province of Batangas, it is
also the largest City in the province. It is popularly known as the Industrial Port City of

CALABARZON and classified as one of the most competitive cities in the country today. It is
presently classified as a Regional Growth Center and identified as one of the sites for the
Regional Agro-Industrial Center and Special Economic Zone as mandated by the Medium Term
Philippine Development Plan and the Ecozone Act of 1995.
As per the recent Census of 2010, the province of Batangas has 2,374,327 of
population. In Batangas City as per Census, the population in the year 2013 reaches 325, 532 for
both male and female in all ages. Below is a table showing the visitor arrival in the province of
Batangas and Batangas City in the year 2012 and the 1st quarter of 2013.

Table 1: Visitor arrival in the Province of Batangas and Batangas City

(Source: The Provincial Tourism and Cultural Affairs Office of Batangas)

Based on the above information, there has been an increase of 22.91% (or 9,862) in
visitors arrival in the city of Batangas from the year 2012 up to the 1st quarter of the year 2013.
For the province of Batangas, there has been an increase of 84.56% (or 807,812) from the year
2012 up to the 1st quarter of the year 2013. From this, the researcher can conclude that more
and more people are motivated to travel in the province of Batangas. By the time the proposed
Resort Hotel Complex will be finished; there will be more tourists who will visit the said area.
In conclusion, the researchers intention is to build a Resort Hotel Complex in Pagkilatan,
Batangas City which is the perfect spot for such structure. This will enhance the tourism in the
area thus it will also be a great way to impose and build another architecture master piece that
would be in harmony with the nature and will simply recognize inventive architecture methods of
our time.

Statement of the Problem

The primary purpose of this study is to determine and design a Resort Hotel Complex
that would be in harmony with the nature and the environment it is located in. More specifically,
it will attempt to answer:
1. In what way architecture affect our environment and by how will we be able to preserve
or lessen the damage architecture contribute towards nature?
2. What are the things needed to be considered to harmonize a Resort Hotel Complex with
its site and maximize a more natural and environmental response?

How will we implement an ecological response to the Design and Planning of the

Project Goals, Objectives and Strategies

The primary goal for this study is to have Resort Hotel Complex that would blend in
nature or the surroundings it is situated in. Thus, its objectives are to

Study and develop a design that would seek to be in harmony with the said site.

Investigate the current environment and situation of the site having been close to
bodies of water and is situated at the mountains.

Adopt materials that would be proper and responsive for the proposed structure to use.
The structure should be designed for durability and robustness to maximize the future
resilience of it. Use of materials and construction methods must be durable in the face of
climatic change.

Study the depths of resort hotels and how its proper and functional planning and
circulation goes.

Minimum damage to the environment and to the health and comfort of the users should
be imposed. Also considering the users needs shall be implied.

Take into considerations all the rules and regulations such as the National Building Code
of the Philippines (NBC), Department of Tourism (DOT), and the sites own legal rules.

Significance of the Study

The study shall be beneficial to the following areas / people:

Department of Tourism or DOT; for further advantage of construction of Hotels, Leisure

Farms and Resorts which would also benefit the countrys environment.

Hotel and Restaurant Management and Tourism students / professionals; for further
understanding of the surroundings and spaces they are working in.

Travelers / tourist or users of the hotel; for a more relaxing and environment-harmony
aura in their stay at the given structure.

To researchers; will not only benefit architectural students but rather all the researchers
who are in need of the data given which will act as their guide, perhaps the whole

Scope and Limitation

The study covers the intention of finding architecture which harmonizes both man
and nature. It shall discover new ways in designing Resort Hotel Complex reflecting the use of
better environment responses, design principles and natural systems. It shall also give innovative
ways to imitate the potential ecological and energy conservative issues the environment is
encountering and further then preserve and maintain the natural settings it is a part of.
This study will therefore only be limited in finding better solutions for a Resort Hotel
Complex by architectural design and planning including the adjacency of its spaces but not with
regards to issues of Hotel and Restaurant Managements. This will also cover the study of the site
and how it can maximize the potential of the resources the area has.

This study assumes that considering the nature of our environment and blending it
with architecture will deliver a first-class Resort Hotel Complex. Having a great awareness to its
surroundings, it can offer the needed rest and peace tourists desires for such vacation. It will also
be a great benefit to the economy it is situated it.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual intent of this research is creating a Resort Hotel Complex and how
this would be a benefit for the environment it is situated in and for the growth of the tourism in
the area.







Figure 1: Definition of problem and its
proposed solution










Figure 2: Direction/Phase of the Study


Definition of Terms
a) Hotel a building, edifice or premises or a completely independent part thereof, which is
used for the regular reception, accommodation or lodging of travellers and tourist and
the provision of services incidental thereto for a fee.
b) Resort any place or places with pleasant environment and atmosphere conducive to
comfort, healthful relaxation and rest, offering food, sleeping accommodation and
recreational facilities to the public for a fee or remuneration.
a) Department or DOT the Department of Tourism
b) NBC National Building Code of the Philippines

Chapter I.2: Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature
According to Merriam Webster, a hotel is an establishment which offers lodging and
usually meals, entertainment, and numerous personal facilities for the public. It is an abode that
has accommodations in which people can stay especially when they are traveling. On the other
hand, a resort is defined as a place providing leisure and entertainment particularly to
Encyclopaedia Britannica defined a Resort Hotel as a luxury facility that is
intentionally for vacationists and is typically sited adjacent to special attractions, such as beaches
and seashores, picturesque or historic areas, parks, or spas.
As said by the book entitled Hotel Design, Planning and Development, the first
evolution of resorts were seaside spas in ancient Greece and Rome. Thus it is also the most
popular of all types. But the types of resorts emerge depending on its location the prime
influence on the development. Resort amenities such as spas, sports and recreation facilities, and
related retail are provided in practically all hotels for required market flexibility and for they are
anticipated by most tourists.
The primary purpose of a resort is to offer an escape from ones everyday routine.
Environment which is greatly reminiscent of a specific place, time, or culture appeals to resort
travellers who want journeys that they cannot experience in their household. Thus successful
resorts emphasizes vernacular architecture and materials as their theme as a way of bringing
their guests to what their ideal version of their destination is. This involves cautious concern of
the local building styles and relationships to the geography. Another important detail is
landscaping for guests have a tendency to devote more time outside at these properties. This
contact with nature can be reinforced with development of landscaping and gardens within resort,
as well as maintaining the natural environmental features of the site and environs as the
dominant ones. In many cases, the resort should be considered as a nature park within which
tourist facilities are carefully located and designed. This results to the need of consideration to
details during the design phase to create a pleasing outdoor experience.

Thus, people seeking out resorts arent just vacationers. There are others, such as
the MICE segment (meetings, incentives, conventions, and events) who explore these properties
to simply draw the attention of participants and to just add impact to meetings and events.
In some resort situations, the opportunity for contact with local resident is also
important to plan for so that the resort is not an isolated enclave and tourists can learn about the
local culture and society, this contact can take place in the nearby towns and villages by
developing some resort attractions and use its recreational and commercial facilities.
Resorts are typically billed as an all- inclusive vacation because of the many attraction
and services typically available within the town. A resort is typically located close to attraction,
such as skiing or amusement park. It usually offers comfortable accommodation in addition to
restaurants, shopping services and sometimes even entertainment events, such as theatre or
stand-up comedy. If you decide to start up a resort business, you will need to have a plan to
ensure success.
As for Bryners in 2005 resorts where created as havens for relaxation of citizens. It
has been described as the human institution that is created solely for the pleasure of its users. He
also added that operators agree on three common factors underlying successful resorts and their
ability to attract guest: 1) Reputation of the resort, 2) Attractions of the destination, 3)
Recreation facilities offered by the resort
These influence the marketing and management of resorts as well as buildings and
facilities design, space allocation for guest rooms, storage, and recreation sports amusement,
entertainment public attractions, shopping health care and other special services added to guest
satisfaction quoted from the thesis Assessing Resort in Lemery Batangas by BS HRM students on
October 2011.
On the other hand, building hotels is another great way for resorts to have a much
more dwelling for the customers to choose from. Hotels must be planned carefully in order for
the Resort itself to be successful.
In our modern time today, architecture and design must also answer to the changes
in our lives, giving then more combined living and travel without losing in contact with nature. As
said in the article Three top trends in residential and hotel architecture, one must consider the

following 1) Mix it up - This implies to the structure as mixing up other building types such as
providing shopping areas, eating venues and other working facilities for a better function of
structure, 2) Global versus Local today hotel trends are more of combining both global and local
producing glocal for the travellers to experience both of the features and cultures of
international and native, lastly 3) Outside is inside this trend provides connection of the outside
environment and putting it inside thus connecting a more natural environment to satisfy and relax
the eyes of the customers.

Relates Studies / Projects

Local 01 - Taal Vista Hotel Tagaytay City
Taal Vista Hotel is a first-class accommodation certified by the Department of
Tourism which can be found in Tagaytay City. It is the landmark hotel of the place and is founded
in 1939. It features an extravagant mixture of timeless architecture and first-class up to date
amenities. It of course offers the finest sight of the magnificent Taal Lake and Volcano.

Figure 1: View of Taal Lake and Volcano from Taal Vista Hotel balcony
Having to be constructed in a style of English Tudor lodge, this hotel brag of its 261
luxurious guestrooms armed with sophisticated furnishings and conveniences. This includes a
mini-bar, Wi-Fi Internet connection and a mini-bar. Rooms feature verandas that overlook the
majestic lake. Other facilities such as restaurant, spa, swimming pool and conference rooms can
also be found inside the hotel for further satisfaction of the customers.


Figure 2: Taal Vista Hotel Exterior View

Figure 3: Taal Vista Hotel Deluxe Ridge Room

Figure 4: Taal Vista Hotel Conference Room

Figure 5: Taal Vista Hotel Caf Veranda

Among rolling greeneries and rich vegetation, the hotel displays tranquillity at its
finest in the most picturesque of settings. Having an extraordinary style, first-class service,
incomparable location and ideal cool climate, Taal Vista Hotel is your perfect haven in Tagaytay.

Local 02 Ariara Island Palawan

Architecture: Jorge Yulo; Interior Design: Khuan Chew Associates

Ariara is one of the many islands that make up the Philippines. It belongs to the
Calamian Islands which lie in Palawan. It can be accessed from Manila through a short hop by
helicopter or a domestic flight and then a transfer by boat.
Its architecture design is made by a Filipino architect named Jorge Yulo. The
structure has a style of contemporary and is built with the sense of sensitivity with the
environment it is in. The property offers a deluxe and spacious lodging for a number of 18
guests. Its accommodations are Jungle Villas, Beach Cottages and the Lodge Suite.

Figure 1: Seaside view of Ariara

Figure 2: Ariara Accommodation

Ariara being located in the part of Palawan Calamian Islands, it has its
characteristic of untouched by pollution, development or tourism. It is also claimed to be one of
the most bio diverse (terrestrial and marine) islands in the Philippines having becoming a
sanctuary for an enormous diversity of wildlife in both land and sea.

Foreign 01 - Burl Al Arab Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2000)

Architecture: W.S. Atkins; Interior Design: Khuan Chew Associates

Within having a period of just five years of construction, the emirate of Dubai has
formed an aspiring and luxurious project of the modern time. It became the midpoint of the
Arabian Riviera - a glittering complex of remarkable hotels, a leisure park and a marina, on a
shoreline formerly crawling with pirates. A well thought structure approach had converted this
small desert state into the tourist spot of the Middle East.

Figure 1: Jumeirah Beach Hotel on the left, Burj Al Arab on the right

A holiday paradise having to offer the natural attributes such as sand, sun and sea
were already existing in Dubai, and that the site meant that architecture will ultimately be telling
the story of the world of Arabian Nights. A massive, admired project on Jumeirah Beach - suitably
situated close to the capital and the international airport - was planned and carried out from 1994
onwards by the British Architects W.S. Atkins. Having 600 rooms and suites and an offshore
marina, this five-star Jumeirah Beach Hotel opened in 1997. It has a wave-shaped form which
complements the environment it is located in. Soon then, a theme park named Wild Wadi having
several adventures to offer was them completed and the first of the 19 guest villas in the
exclusive Beit Al Bahar complex were all ready for business. Lastly, the Burj Al Arab was then
built having to finish become the masterpiece of the project of the Arabian Tower.
'The proposals broke new ground in design and technology, with a tower shaped like
a billowing sail, reminiscent of an Arabic dhow, erected on a triangular island. The aim was to
create a hotel that will not just offer an unparalleled level of luxury and service but also become
an icon for Dubai.' as said by W.S. Atkins. The Burj Al Arab having an extraordinary construction
is erected on an artificial island being 280 metres (920 feet) off the shore. It stands on a 250
foundation pillars and has a height of 321 metres (1,050 feet).
Having to offer various facilities, the Burj Al Arab is now known as the worlds only 7
star hotel and is also the third tallest hotel in the world. It has two wings that seem to spread in
a V to form an enormous mast, while having the area between them being a huge atrium. It
has a helicopter platform that protrudes from the structure. Restaurants such as Al Muntaha sky
restaurant and Al Mahara restaurant can also be found inside having to offer such amazing view
of their unique location.

Figure 2: Al Muntaha Restaurant interior

located almost 198 metres above the ground

Figure 3: Al Mahara Restaurant interior which

can be accessed via simulated submarine14

The interior of the said structure used approximately 3,000 square metres (32,300
square feet) of gold leaf to embellish the public areas and the 202 suites, oriental grandeur and
luxury kitsch have scarcely ever been combined in more overconfident style. This denotes to a
result of a fun, pleasing to the eyes design.

Figure 4: Interior Suite

Figure 5: Conference Hall

Foreign 02 - Montage Hotel Beverly Hills, California

Architecture: HKS/Hill Glazier Studio; Developer: The Athens Group

Its developer is The Athens Group and operated by Montage Hotels & Resorts. The
Architect responsible for this is HKS/Hill Glazier Studio.
This Five-star Luxury Hotel is situated at the heart of Beverly Hills Triangle. Its concept
originated from the influence of Spanish Colonial Revival architecture. Although it is the modern
version of it composing plaster walls, terracotta-tiled roof with plaster columns, arches and
authentic Spanish tile details.

Figure 1: Montage Hotel arches, Spanish Details


Its interior finish work is high-end custom having hand-painted ceilings and classically
elegant furnishings which provide an ambience of a Spanish, Italian and Moroccan aesthetic.
The Project consists of 201 keys, a number of 20 condo units, a 20,000 square foot spa,
a 9,000 square feet of meeting space, restaurants and pool deck, a 33,000 square foot public
gardens, and a 1,172-car parking structure.

Figure 2: Montage Beverly Hills Exterior

Montage Beverly Hills earned a Gold Certification under the U.S. Green Building Councils
LEED for New Construction rating system. It holds as the first certified ultra-luxury hotel located
in Southern California for LEED for New Construction, and known as one of just four Gold certified
hotels worldwide.
This Project is a Public-Private Partnership. it is a prime example of city, developer,
architect and builder working together. Constructed on a 2.5-acre abandoned retail site, this
ambitious adaptive reuse project includes a 33,000-square-foot garden, which is the first public









retail/commercial building; and a four-level, 1,000-car parking structure directly beneath the
projects footprint.


Chapter I.3: Research Methodology

Research Design
The Research Design used in this study is a Descriptive type of Research. With this,
the site and the environment will be described systematically. The situations and the scenarios
encountered in the process will be explained accurately.

Population and Sampling

Population Universe: The population universe of this study is composed of random people that
can be potential users of the structure type. Out of all the individuals who visit Resorts and Hotels
regularly, a group of 80 people ranging from 16 years old and above would be picked to answer
the prepared survey made for this research.
Sampling Procedure: Quota Sampling is the strategy that had been used in finding data
throughout the study of this structure. This is used for the probable customers of the hotel resort.

Research Instruments
A Case Study, Survey and an Interview Method are the methods that had been used
in collecting and interpreting that data gathered for this Research. Visiting the given site, its
tourist spots and the resorts situated in it was a way to fully understand the environment of the
chosen site and to formulate ideas which would benefit the Proposed Resort Hotel Complex. A
Case Study regarding the Resort within the area is observed to comprehend the ways on how to
achieve an improved Resort setting and how to simply impose a Hotel in it. Survey within the
people and travellers that would affect the structure would be given for a better result of wants
and needs in the structure. Thus having to know what is the current trend or the most favorable
among the mass. Lastly, an interview with Professionals of the site such Architects known for
designing commercial facilities is done to entirely understand the situation of the given area and
to get answers that would be applied to the given structure.


A. Case Study: Kamantigue Beach and Diving Resort

Kamantigue Beach and Diving Resort is situated at Sitio Malao, Pagkilatan, Batangas City.
On its North lies the Mountain side of Pagkilatan, on its West lies another Resort named Matoko
Beach Resort, on its East is the residential houses and lastly on the South lies the Isla Verde
Passage. It is owned and managed by Engr. Danilo E. Bagon, who is presently the Barangay
Captain of the municipality, and his Family. It has a total land area of 5000sq.
This Resort offers a white sand beach with some natural rock formations on its shore. It
has clear pristine water with cool breeze of winds entering from the resorts vicinity.

Figure 1: South side of the Resort

(Isla Verde Passage View)

Figure 2: Natural Rock Formations

Upon entering the vicinity, there is no proper parking of cars that is provided for the
customers. Although there is an ample space available for parking, it is not properly utilized or
When going to the seashore to view and enjoy the scenery, the elderly encounters a
problem or a hard time from going down the stairs that is constructed to get to the shore since
the stairs are long, continuous, and does not have proper landings. This results to people
becoming tired from going up and down especially since the accommodation entrance is at the
upper portion. There is no other way reach the beach rather than the stairs.


Figure 3: Stairways heading to the seashore

Accommodations are well ventilated and offer a perfect view of nature. But on the
other hand, utility such as the restrooms inside the accommodations is placed at the middle part
of the plan which lacks proper ventilation and is a dismay in the position of the plan.
Improper placement of door swings may also be found inside the accommodation.
This denotes traffic within the given area. Some of the area also lacks enough space for people to
fully go through.

Figure 4: Restroom in the

middle of Function hall and
Accommodation without proper

Figure 5: Improper swing of door and lack of

proper space for people to go through


B. Survey: Given for probable customers of the Proposed Resort Hotel Complex



C. Interview:
Interviewing an Architect who knows or have lived in the selected area is a must to
be found for a better understanding of the sites environment especially the design considerations
that should be observed in the district. He/she has a much deeper knowledge of the site in the
field of architecture as well. It would be a great help to ask his/her opinion in the proposed
structure and request suggestions for further understanding and success of the proposed
Finding an Architect that had lived in the selected site took time and connection but
the researcher was eager enough in finding one. The Architect that was found is named as
Architect Maricel Espinosa, whom graduated at Batangas State University, Batangas City and is
now currently residing in Singapore having a Profession of handling Commercial buildings
establishment designs.


These where the questions that was asked to the interviewee:

Figure 6: Questionnaire asked in the interview with an

Architect who resided at the selected site


Chapter I.4: Summary of Findings and Analysis

Presentation of Collected Data
This Chapter focuses on the results of the data that were collected during the visit
within the site, the answered surveys and the responded interviews of the researcher.

A. Case Study: Kamantigue Beach and Diving Resort Result

Attractions last 2013 in Pagkilatan, Batangas City is divided into eight (8) spots.
Kamantigue Beach and Diving Resort ranks as third place in the market share of the attractions
and having it the first in all the Resort in the area. This data was gathered from a thesis last Oct
2013, entitled Rediscovery Barangay Pagkilatan: A Potential Ecotourism Destination.

Table 1: Market Share and Attractions in Barangay Pagkilatan

Data that was found in the Case Study of the Resort are the following:

Site Planning Problems; Lack of proper parking facilities must be considered and
established better for a greater improvement of the site. Deliberation of site planning
should be thought well in order to harmonize the structure with its environment.

Accessibility; Accessibility towards facilities must be well taken care of and must be
completely organized. This will show order in the amenities and would not hinder and
confuse people. Thus this would make the life of the users at ease.

Proper Ventilation in Spaces; this is another area that one needs to focus on especially in
designing a structure. Ventilation is a must in a bldg. for this character will be considered
among the comfortability the design would give to its users. Having lack of ventilation
offers the user to be irritated and wouldnt be in contact with the nature outside.

Adjacency of Spaces; proper setting of spaces is needed in a structure for it to be in well

circulation. This will not confuse the users thus will lessen the energy or the work needed
to get to a specific area or place if it is properly organized and is connected with one


B. Survey: The results of the survey that was given for probable customers of the Proposed
Resort Hotel Complex

A percentage of 43% of the female and 37% of the male answered the survey
having a total of 80 probable customers and having the female population being higher in

Ages varying from 16 21 with a percentage of 53% got the highest number of
people answering the survey, having ages 21 30 with a percentage of 16% the second, ages
31 40 with percentage of 15% the third, ages 41-50 with a percentage of 13% the fourth,
and ages 51 older with a percentage of 4% the last.

A population occupying the Philippines who answered the survey has an average
of 86% while individuals coming from different countries varied from 14% of the population.

Most of the people who answered the survey are students having a percentage of
48%, second are employed people having a percentage of 45% and lastly unemployed
individuals having a percentage of 8%.

A percentage of 78% people sometimes travel on vacation, 21% frequently travel

on vacation and only 1% does not travel on vacation.

A percentage of 78% answered their purpose being family vacation when

traveling becoming it the highest rate, leisure having a percentage of 16% for another
purpose as second and business related with a percentage of 6% the last.

Results say that 49% of the people would like to go on resorts in their free time,
36% on tourist spots, 13% on nature seeking sites and 3% on religious areas.

84% of the population would like hotels as accommodation in times of travelling,

9% in apartelle, and a percentage of 3% in motels and others.

Results in visiting Resort Hotels varies 80% as sometimes, 10% as always, 9% as

never and 1% as others.

Having a good accommodation, worth it cost, extra fun additional facilities and fine
service quality is looked into when choosing a Resort Hotel. This varies a rate of 78%.

A tie percentage of 46% is said to be experienced in an accommodation suites

the environment and a feel at home atmosphere. A percentage of 8% is voted for a themed


A population of 79% has already visited Batangas City, 10% wants to visit it and
11% have not yet gone to the area.

Most of the surveyed people visit Batangas only as sometimes having a 41%,
others being there always by 35% and not at all ranging at 24%.

A percentage of 70% would want to experience the amazing beach resorts in

Batangas City, 14% being in Monte Maria and experiencing a diving adventure and 3% are
others tourist spots and adventures.

Opinions of the surveyed people say that 69% of them are approved that putting
up a Resort Hotel Complex would benefit them. A percentage of 31% are quite unsure if they
would benefit.

90% of the surveyed people would want to see something new in the tourism
industry of Batangas and 8% are quite unsure.

C. Interview:
These are the results regarding the interview of Architect Espinosa:
1. Having to know the site, do you think it is a good idea to propose a Resort Hotel Complex?
- As Batangas City has been continuously growing, building, infrastructures, mall, schools, etc.
are all over the places. Every corner are started to get crowed and busy, especially coastal area.
Refinery oil plants are up and situated along the perimeter of Batangas Bay. With that on mind,
there is one place that categorized as the tourist spot by Batangas City zoning. And that is
Barangay Pagkilatan. This is the perfect place to get in touch with nature and take the
opportunity to escape from crowd.

2. What do you think are the three major things to be considered in designing a Resort Hotel
- Topographical elevation of the area, Access Road from City and Weather.

3. What strategy / concept would you suggest in building the said structure?
- overlooking view to the ocean is the great opportunity to create amazing concept. Keep the
structure simple with complete facilities but then enjoying the place in which thats I think
everyones reason to visit the place.

4. Do you think imposing Vernacular Architecture as a design in the said structure be a good
effect in it in the future?


- Definitely, Vernacular Architecture could be integrated as stylistic elements of design

intentionally incorporated for aesthetic purposes with structure functional objective. Keeping the
place the way it is would be the best key to be different from others and be recognized as
destination for new generation.

5. What other facilities/spaces or materials would you suggest in order for the proposed project
to be perceived as extraordinary thus be successful?
a. Fun, not only for olds but for kids. Beach may not be a good idea for kids to enjoy water, but
we can provide a huge shower place for them. It is open court with pole that sprinklers water
and everyone can enjoy it.
b. could be floating restaurant, not in water but in air.
c. train along the woods for anyone who wants to travel in the forest.

6. Do you think it is wise to base the design depending in the environment it is in?
- Yes, definitely environment will take a big role in initiating the design.

7. Who do you think should the targeted market be of the structure?

- The place is blessed with natural wealth which other city or country may not have. So, the
target market would be not only Filipinos from City, young and old, also foreigner from nearby

8. What do you think the structure should have in order for it to be extra-ordinary, be recognized
and still be in business despite of having a lot of resort rivals in the near future?
- The structure should have everyones need to accommodate the market at any time, condition
and generation. The place, I would say is the best location to see the sunrise and sunset. Its true
that you can see the view at any angle, but then having one place where everyone are gather
together to witness the sun, how it rises and the dimming time where it hides behind the
mountain, thats the best part where everyone could tell the uniqueness of this place from others.


Need Analysis
Upon gathering all the results and data of the research instruments, the researcher can
say that there is a need to build a Resort Hotel Complex in the area of Barangay Pagkilatan,
Batangas City due to the following reasons:

There is a great increase of 84.56% from the year of 2012 to the first quarter of 2013 of
tourist / visitor arrivals as said in The Provincial Tourism and Cultural Affairs Office of
Batangas. Thus, this results to a more number of tourists arriving in the next years to
come. A hotel is needed especially in Pagkilatan, Batangas City for a structure like this
does not exist in the area and there is a lack of dwelling or establishments for travellers
to stay in.

84% of the population in the survey prefer staying in hotels when travelling or on

The survey had a result that almost half of the population (49%) answered that they
prefer going to Resorts in times of vacations. On the other hand, a percentage of 36%
would rather prefer to go on tourist spots which Pagkilatan can also offer while having a
Resort facility being first.

Employment in the area is needed thus if having the Resort Hotel Complex, this would
benefit the people residing in the area to have work which is also just a distance to their

Qualitative or Quantitative Analysis

It was found out through the data gathered that Resorts are highly visited and is one
of the top options when it comes to having a vacation (especially in summer) rating 49% of the
surveyed population. Thus, tourist spots comes next having a 36% percentage. Batangas City,
having spontaneous landscapes and crystal clear bodies of water is said to be a perfect site to
establish a Resort Hotel Complex. Having the selected site as urbanizing, there is a tendency for
tourism and tourist to be in a much higher rate in the future. Tourist spots are also blossoming
within the areas and are catching the mass attention. Based towards the results within the area,


a Hotel is needed in the establishment since there is a high demand of dwelling for tourist that is

Chapter I.5: Conclusions and Recommendations

The researcher therefore concludes that it is reasonable and is vastly in demand to
construct a Resort Hotel Complex within the vicinity of Pagkilatan, Batangas City. The
respondents find the project a benefit for tourists like them especially having a hotel as means of
their accommodation. They also stated that when they travel, they usually reside and find hotels
that will make them feel comfortable as if they were just at their own houses. Contradicting to
the sites facilities today, there arent any Hotels to be found within the vicinity which tourists
today results to having a hard time in enjoying their stay in the area. Although there are resorts
found within the neighborhood, the lodging isnt enough to accommodate all the tourists who
would want to experience a decent vacation at a decent environment. Thus the respondents want
to find something new and different to see in the tourism of Batangas making it a great impact to
build a Resort Hotel Complex that would be new to the eyes of the people.

Having to build a Resort Hotel Complex, there are a lot of considerations that is
needed to take one attention into. Firstly, the environment and the site should be well thought of.
The effect of building a structure within the premises should be positive in terms with natural
surroundings and the residence of the area. The potentials of the nature having a vivid and
mountainous area with an overlooking seaside view should also be taken into consideration. The
architecture implied should also be well studied and would denote to help the growth of the
architecture field of our country. Also, planning and circulation of spaces of the facility should be
well organized. This would affect the comfortability and the emotions of the potential tourist.
Thus the facility must be large and enough to accommodate the growing population of tourism in



Chapter II.1: Rationale
The focus of this research is to further produce a Resort Hotel Complex that would be
an iconic structure and a landmark for the vicinity thus making it one of the places to be visited in
times of vacation. This would impact the industry of tourism and would find a new and different
architectural-tourism approach in the industry of Batangas. Using the potentials of the area, a
Marine Life Water Park will also be established because of the site being a Center of the Center of
Marine Shore-fish Biodiversity. A garden will also be put up for further relaxation of tourists thus
also using the sites potential.
The main use of a mixture of Vernacular and Tropical Architecture will the focal aim
of the researcher as for the design. Innovative ideas will be put up to attract numbers of
vacationist and tourists. This idea aims to develop the current Resort Hotel structures in our
premises and to put something unique and new out of its design.

Chapter II.2: Principles and Relevance to the Project

Principles of Vernacular Design
Spectacular Vernacular
Vernacular design is more than a collection of quotable styles and false nostalgiait
is a systematic method for creation that can guide one towards more sustainable practices.
Systems thinking are a leading development in contemporary design and those systems requiring
the least resources will best serve design on its path toward sustainability. Vernacular design
offers a valuable model as its aim is accomplishing the most with the least.
The vernacular process is a systematic framework for evolving concepts. A culture
steadily culminates these frameworks over time. Traditions then arise allowing vernacular
designers to reuse forms and methods for common tasks. Contemporary designers typically look
for a new or wholly unique solution to a given problem, which is counter-productive to creating
traditions. The concepts of constraint, durability, and thrift provide the foundation for the
vernaculars evolutionary model. The same principles applied to modern-day design practice offer
new and concrete ways for design to move forward.

A. Constraint
Indigenous builders use local climate, culture and materials to guide their processes
instead of years of formal schooling. The constraint of locality may limit formal elements,
materials, and size to vernacular builders, but making choices inside the presented constraints
allows for innovation to take place outside of initial expectations.
Constraints play a large part in sustainability. However, sustainability itself should be
the most important constraint on the design decisions we make. We can simply limit ourselves to
only the materials that meet our definitions of sustainable. But instead of simply making the
sacrifice to conserve materials, we should be inspired to develop new systems of designing in
which waste is no longer even an issue.
B. Thrift
Indigenous buildingswhether Viking longhouses, Amish barns, or American
bungalowsaim to get the most building for the least material, money, and time. Practicality is
the focus. A building starts with something small and necessary and is only added to as money,
time, and need allow.
We have lost sight of this in contemporary design. We often seek the cheapest
solutions monetarily, but we dont always seek the all-around least wasteful solutions.
We can also be thrifty with ideas and problem-solving, not just materials. Knowing
when to spend resources on new, untested ideas, and when to use something old, reliable, and
cheap is part of the sustainable designers job.
C. Durability
The long lifespan of buildings is part of what allows them to grow, adapt, and evolve.
With that comes consideration of material and maintenance. A Cape Cod house would never have
specialized additions put on if the main core of the building constantly needed repair because of
perishable parts.
Most of the materials used in vernacular building practices are by their very nature
durable: stone and large timbers. Ephemeral materials (such as straw, thatch, or wooden
shingles) are used in ways and in places that allow them to show their wear and provide for easy
repair and replacement. Some mainly aesthetic choices now made in current homes were once

made for issues of durability and longevitycheap brick is kept weather resistant by stuccoing
and hazard from fire is reduced by installing metal roofing.

Application Architecture in Tropical Design

Rule-Rule Tropical Architecture
The building has a tropical architectural principles need to be developed as a form of
environmentally-friendly building. Building with this principle can protect solar radiation,
preventing the temperature increase in the room, and have space for outside air.
Rules more tropical architecture refers to how resolve problematic as the blazing
tropical sun radiation, a relatively high temperature, high humidity (for tropical moist) and wind
speeds are relatively low so that the man who originally was not comfortable being outdoors,
being comfortable when in the tropical building. Climate plays an important role in the design and
planning of tropical building. Planners are required to use such considerations penghawaan
aspects, comfort, ventilation, orientation, heat penetration, and the reflection of sunlight to reach
the level of comfort. There are three actors in a tropical architecture that need to be analysed to
achieve a level of comfort, namely:
A. Climate

Sunlight (MRT)

Wind (vm/s)

Humidity (RH%)

Rainfall (mm/yr)

Temperature (TOC)

B. Modifier





C. Human Modifications
These are limited to clothing, food, activities and habits of humans.

As for how to manage / use of tropical climate (macro-and micro-climates) in the view of
architecture, among others:
A. Macro Climate

Opening a window on the north-south

Trees shrubs placed in the east, as wind in dry from March to September (not carrying
water vapour), so it was not humid. If you plant a tree in the west, should be enhanced
so as not to bring moist air into the room.

The east wall is opened, so that when December, the wind does not enter.

Bathrooms should be placed on the west course to dry (not humid).

The wind is passing good front / side (the position of the building is not back to the
wind). Wind from the bottom and top is not good.

B. Microclimate

Building orientation, can receive as little as possible in the hot summer time, and able to
withstand the heat as much as possible in the winter.

Ventilation (opening holes in space for the entry of penghawaan)

Sun shading (visors)

Controlling humidity

The use of building materials

The shape and size of the space

Setting vegetation must consider the principle of smooth flowing wind.

Materials and Building Materials Tropical

The selected building materials do not have to be fancy, expensive or imported
material. Indeed the use of appropriate materials, in accordance with the tropical climate and
mitigation issues, is an important foundation for building a healthy home.


Tropical Architecture Principles

The consideration of the weather, hydrography and ecosystems of the environment in

which buildings are built for maximum performance with the least impact.

The efficacy and moderation in the use of construction materials, giving priority to low
energy content compared to high energy.

The reduction of energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting and equipment,
covering the remainder of the claim with renewable energy sources.

The minimization of the building overall energy balance, covering the design,
construction, use and end of its life.

The fulfilment of requirements of hydrothermal comfort, safety, lighting and occupancy of


Sustainable Tropical Building Design Principles

Energy and emissions
1. Incorporate passive design measures to maximise the use of natural ventilation, cooling
and lighting.
2. Maximize energy efficiency and surpass minimum statutory requirements for energy
3. Strive for long-term sustainability and energy security by installing renewable energy
generation systems.
4. Maximize opportunities for public and active transport access to the building.
Water and wastewater
5. Maximize water efficiency and surpass minimum statutory requirements for water
6. Access alternative water sources to reduce consumption of potable water.
7. Phase out use of potable water in landscaping.
Indoor environment quality
8. Incorporate materials and fittings that are not harmful to the health, safety and wellbeing of building users.

9. Use air-handling and temperature control systems that provide a comfortable and healthy
indoor environment.
10. Ensure work areas have access to natural light and external views.
Waste and construction materials
11. Select materials with the lower embodied energy and environmental impacts.
12. Maximize reuse and recycling of construction and demolition waste.
13. Allow adequate space for recycling, waste storage and composting by building occupants.
Local environment
14. Restore habitat and improve community spaces surrounding buildings.
15. Minimize the impact during and post development on biodiversity, water and soil quality,
soil erosion and visual amenity.
Energy and Emissions
A. Passive Design
Passive design is design that works with the environment to exclude unwanted heat
or cold and take advantage of sun and breezes, therefore avoiding or minimising the need for
mechanical heating or cooling.
Passive design in the tropics means designing a building to make the most of natural
light and cooling breezes, and using shading, orientation and appropriate building materials to
reduce heat gain and storage.
The use of passive design principles in the tropics results in a building that is
comfortable, energy efficient and results in substantial savings in running costs of both cooling
and lighting.
B. Orientation
Understanding the daily and seasonal movements of the sun and the wind assists in
orientating a building for optimal efficiency and comfort.
Orientation concerns the position of the building on the site as well as the
arrangement of the rooms within it. In the tropics, a building should be oriented so that the


majority of walls and windows can easily be shaded from direct sun, while allowing maximum
airflow and input of natural light.

Figure 1: Passive Ventilation; Cross Section

Figure 2: Convection Air Flow

C. Maximizing breezes

Orient the building to make the most of prevailing winds.

Align vents, windows and doors to allow air flow through the building these should be
aligned in a reasonably straight line for maximum effectiveness.

Minimize internal obstacles or blockages such as internal walls in major flow through
areas to allow for unimpeded ventilation.

Raise the building off the ground to catch breezes.

D. Roof Ventilation
Ventilating the ceiling cavity of a building is an effective way of replacing
accumulated hot air with cool air from outside using convection.
It also reduces heat radiated from the ceiling cavity to the inner parts of the building.
Controls can be installed to stop ventilation during the cooler months if necessary.
Examples of roof ventilation systems include spinning vents placed on the roof top
which draw hot air out of the ceiling cavity by their spinning motion. Another type is a ridge vent,
a non-moving vent that can be placed at the highest ridge point of the roof. The ridge vent allows
hot air, which collects at the highest point, to flow out.


Both of these examples operate most effectively when vents are installed in building
eaves or in ceilings to allow cooler air to be drawn in through the eave vents, promoting greater
flow of air through the roof vent.

Figure 3: Roof Cavity Ventilation

E. Landscaping for a cool building

The hard surfaces of streets, driveways, parking areas and paving around buildings,
absorb heat and then re-radiate it, creating a hotter microclimate. The combined effect of hard
surfaces in our cities is known as the urban heat island effect. It is responsible for noticeable
increases in temperature in cities compared to surrounding areas.
Reducing the extent of paving and other hard surfaces that reflect and/ or store heat
and replacing these with vegetation will result in a cooler building and more enjoyable outdoor
areas. Planting areas around the building creates a cooler environment due to a plants ability to
transpire, or lose moisture, which cools the air.
External temperatures can be reduced by over 5C by using ground cover or lawn
instead of paving. Planting areas with dense vegetation and creating shaded areas will achieve
even greater temperature reductions. Air that is drawn into buildings via planted areas can have
significant cooling benefit.


Figure 4A: Shading and Landscaping

Figure 4B: Shading and Landscaping

F. Windows
Encouraging natural airflow is integral to passive design in the tropics. Windows are
an important way to encourage and direct air flow into a building.
For many commercial buildings, air-conditioning will be used throughout the year;
however buildings can be designed to operate without air-conditioning in cooler months. This
allows for greater flexibility in catering to the needs of building users, and will save energy and
money by switching air-conditioning off for part of the year.
Louvers and casement style windows allow building users to control how much
natural air enters the building. Well-placed louvers or windows, at floor level and at the highest
point of the room, create convection air flow which draws air into the building and creates
breezes to cool occupants.
In a tropical climate, windows should ideally be shaded from direct sunlight all year
round and should open to allow air flow. Where effective shading cannot be achieved, insulating
windows against heat transfer can reduce cooling costs. The following measures can help reduce
heat input through glass:

Tinted Glass

Reflective coatings

Advanced glazing technologies


G. Natural Lighting
Building should be designed to maximize the amount of natural light that enters the
building, particularly workplaces. This can lead to significant energy savings by reducing the need
for artificial lighting and has been shown to improve productivity.
In a naturally well-lit space, artificial lighting should not be required for general activities during
daylight hours. In larger buildings, task lighting may be required at work areas not directly near a
window, as windows are only effective for letting natural light into a building up to a distance of
4-5 metres. It is therefore recommended that light switching be designed to allow perimeter
lights to be adjusted separately from other lighting so that the benefits of natural light can be
The effectiveness of natural light can be improved by using light colours on walls,
floors and horizontal surfaces, and by aligning internal walls and ceilings to maximize light
reflection from light sources. The benefits of natural light must be balanced with strategies to
manage glare and heat gain. For this reason, all glass should be shaded from direct sun of
incorporate glazing technologies that reduce heat transfer.
In addition to windows, natural light access can be obtained through skylights, light
reflector and similar installations. Common solutions are below.



Light Shelves

Clerestory Windows

Light Tubes

Water and wastewater

A. Water Efficiency
All fixtures and fittings should be highly water efficient, with at least a 5 star rating.
The Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) scheme is a government initiative which
aims to ensure that products are clearly labelled with information about their water efficiency.
The WELS scheme gives a water efficiency rating of between 1 and 6 stars for each product, with


more stars meaning the product is more water-efficient. Products can be compared online on the
water ratings website.
B. Rainwater Tanks
Rainwater can be collected for indoor and outdoor use depending on the building
location and roof condition. It is now mandatory for commercial buildings to collect rainwater for
toilet flushing within the building. Consider exceeding these requirements and connecting tanks to
supply external taps for irrigation also.
C. Recycled Water
Recycled water can be used instead of drinking quality water for non-potable uses
such as irrigation, air-cooling towers and toilet flushing. Installing a recycled water supply is
therefore an effective method for reducing potable water consumption and reducing
environmental impacts.
Grey water (waste water from fixtures such as showers, basins and taps) can be
treated on site and used for toilet flushing and for the irrigation of landscaped areas. In some
areas reticulated recycled water is available. Over time, the amount of reticulated recycled water
available in the region will increase.
D. Managing Storm Water
In urban areas we have replaced vegetation with non-porous surfaces such as
concrete and metal. The majority of rain falling on urban areas cannot soak into the soil and is
instead diverted into storm water drainage systems which speed up the flow of the water and do
not allow for sediments and nutrients to be removed. Reducing storm water runoff by capturing
this water for use, or by filtering it through vegetation and soil, improves reef health and also
decreases our dependence on the mains water supply.
To most effectively manage storm water on site, efforts should be made to minimize
the amount of impervious (non-porous) surfaces and maximise the potential for filtration, storage
and infiltration, so that the least amount of water flows off-site into the storm water system.
Retaining storm water onsite temporarily stores surface runoff and releases it at a reduced rate to
receiving waters. This reduces peak storm flows through natural drainage systems and minimises
flooding potential.

The following design principles can be incorporated to reduce storm water runoff and
limit a buildings impact on water quality.

Avoid changes to topography, vegetation and landforms

Minimize impervious areas

Install rainwater tanks

Use green walls and green roofs

Use Water Sensitive Urban Design

Infiltration Trenches


Bio-retention systems

Create rain gardens

Figure 5: Workings of the infiltration trench

Chapter II.3: Application to the Project

The researched data that was collected and presented on the previous Chapter will
be the foundation in the design of the Proposed Resort Hotel Complex. It was perceived that the
designs such as vernacular and tropical be the fundamental scheme that will make up the
structure. Principles and considerations were discussed of the selected architectural innovations.
These data are found to enlighten and make the proposed structure be as unique and
environmentally effective as possible.
Principles where collected to further know its purpose, aims and how to imply it
within the structure. Thus, considering the constraint, durability and thrift in vernacular
architecture is a must. Tropical design on the other hand, aims to place the structure in harmony
with the environment and have it in a manner that the users will be comfortable enough within
the facility. It talks about sustainability and consideration to energy and emissions, water and
wastewater, indoor environment quality, waste and construction material and lastly, local



Chapter III.1: Site Selection Process
Criteria for Site Selection
The following are the Criteria that are needed to be considered in order to acquire a
site that is appropriate and will fit for the Proposed Structure:

Transportation and Accessibility; Can be easily accessed by the tourists/vacationers in

terms of different transportations such as by land, water or air.

Destination Characteristics; the supposed site has a positive characteristic or image for
the proposed structure.

Safety and Security; should as much as possible not be prone to disasters such as floods
or landslides.

Nature; has an exquisite view that would add up to the function of the Resort Hotel

Resort Quality; demand to be near a body of water

Available Technology; can provide adequate technology or communication that is needed

Size; should provide the desired scope that is necessary

Site Option Description (at least 3 sites)

Site Option 01





Matoco), Batangas City

Area: 105,388 square meters (Only a
portion of land was used)

(See Tax Declaration at Appendix)


Site Option 2
Location: Pagkilatan (formerly Barrio Matoco), Batangas City





Matoco), Batangas City

Area: 30,887 square meters

(See Tax Declaration at Appendix)

Site Option 03:

Location: Ilijan, Batangas City

Location: Ilijan, Batangas City

Area: 36,074 square meters
Land Type: for Pasture
(See Tax Declaration at Appendix)


Site Selection and Justification

The Sites where rated according to the Sites criteria being 5 the highest and 1 the lowest. These
were the results of the Site selection:

Among the three (3) sites that was selected and given the tax declaration or tct, the
first one was selected to be the site of the Resort Hotel Complex for it is huge enough to occupy
the facility and the needs of the Complex. Thus, it is also near the body of water and is ideal for
the Resort. This will also attract the visitors and travellers for its wonderful natural environment.
Although it is near residences, it is a good way for the economy of the people within
the vicinity for they can work there which will also be a less burden for it will be near their


Chapter III.2: Site Evaluation and Analysis

The Macro Setting

Batangas City or Lungsod ng
Batangas is known as the capital city of the
Province of Batangas. It is also said to be the







Batangas having a land area of more or less

28,541.44 hectares. It is divided up into 105
Barangays and has a population of 305,607

Figure 1: Batangas City Map Location

people as of the 2010 census.

The City of Batangas is mostly known as the Industrial Port City of CALABARZON. It
is also categorized as one of the many competitive cities today having a fast-track point in
trading, commercial and industrial activities in the neighbourhood. It also has a title of being a
Regional Growth Center and recognized as one of the locations for the Regional Agro-Industrial
Center and Special Economic Zone as authorized by the Medium Term Philippine Development
Plan and the Ecozone Act 1995.
It is 112.00 kilometres away from Manila and can be voyaged in about a span of two
(2) hours along the Southern Tagalog Arterial Road (STAR).

Physical and Geological Aspects

I. Location
The City of Batangas is geographically found at coordinates 13 degrees, 45 minutes
and 25.96 seconds north latitude and 121 degrees, 3 minutes and 29.2 seconds east longitude. It
is surrounded by San Pascual Municipality on the northwest; San Jose Municipality on the north;
Taysan, Lobo and Ibaan Municipalities on the east; and Batangas Bay on the south.


II. Terrain
The Rolling terrain of the City of Batangas varies from a slope of 0% to 30%. In
Barangay Talumpok Silangan, Mount Banoy which is approximately 968 meters above sea level is
the peak point of the City. On the other hand, the coastal barangays of the City which starts from
Sta. Rita Aplaya on the north to Ambulong on the south has a level of nearly 0% to 3% slope. On
the other hand, the east part has a slope that increases from 8% to 30% beyond the Barangays
of Mabacong, Simlong and Pinamucan Ibaba. Lastly, having a slope of 30% is the Matuco Point
located at the southwest tip of the City.
At the South portion of the City, Verde Island is situated having six (6) Barangays
which has a slope stretching from 3% to 30%.

Table 1: Slope and Land Area Percentage Distribution

III. Climate Condition
The City of Batangas is commonly coolest on the months of December to January
having a temperature reaching from 22C to 26C. In May, from the mean temperature this then
rises and achieves a maximum of 36C. Lastly, the month of October results the steady fall of
The driest periods in Batangas City occur from January to April with a typical monthly
rainfall of less than 50 mm per month. The maximum rain periods on the other hand happen
during the months of June to September having an average of monthly rainfall of 275 mm per


IV. Water Resources

The City is composed by numerous streams that converge at the Calumpang River
which then flows to Batangas Bay. This river is a perennial body of water having a catchment
area of around 472.00 sq. kilometers.
Batangas City also has several springs which serve the needs of nearby citizens for
their water supply necessities. These springs can be found in the barangays Talumpok Kanluran
at Silangan, Cumba, Sto. Domingo, Talahib Pandayan, Talahib Payapa, Ilijan, Malibayo Bilogo,
Haligue Kanluran, Haligue Silangan, Maruclap and Conde Itaas.
V. Soil Types and Locations
Batangas Citys land area is composed of seven (7) forms of soil Taal Sandy Loam,
Hydrosoil, Calumpang Clay Loam, Ibaan Clay Loam, Ibaan Loam, Ibaan Loam (Gravely Phase),
and Sibul.

Table 2: Types of Soil, Location and Agricultural Potentials of Batangas City


Socio-Economic Condition
I. Population
The City of Batangas has a projected population of 325,532 with a population growth
rate of 2.13% as said by the CY 2010 POPCEN of the National Statistics Office (NSO). Having the
smallest population is an urban Barangay, Barangay 17 having a population of 111. While the
highest population having 18, 460 is Barangay Sta. Rita Karsada.
The City also has an urban population of 179,565 and a rural population of 145,967
representing 55% and 45% of the total population of the City.
The male to female population of the city has an average ratio of 0.99:1.00 having
the female being the slightly higher one. From the 105 barangays the city has, a number of fiftyone (51) barangays have a higher male population while fifty-four (54) barangays have a higher
female population and lastly, two (2) barangays named as Mahacot Silangan and Malitam has an
equivalent male female population.
Having a land area of 28,541.44 hectares and a population of 325,532 as said earlier,
the population density is computed to be 11.17 per persons per hectare or 1,117 persons per
square kilometre.
II. Labor Force
The city has a total labor force participation of 104,520 which has 86.9% employed
and 13.1% not employed based on the National Statistics Office (NSO) latest data as of April

Table 3: National Statistics Office Labor Force Data

III. Education
Education in Batangas City isnt just for the people residing in it but is also a benefit
for the whole Region IV-A (CALABARZON). The learning institutions inside the city offer all level
of education.


As of SY 2013-2014, there is about 8,161 pre-schoolers in Batangas City having 111

day care centers constructed in the different portions of the city. The elementary level has an
estimated 43,535 students with about 83 public elementary schools and 35 private elementary
schools. The secondary level has a total of 25,043 student population having 20 public secondary
schools and 17 private secondary schools. College Schools within area are also numerous namely
Batangas State University, Lyceum of the Philippines University, University of Batangas,
Westmead International School, Saint Bridget College, Colegio ng Lungsod ng Batangas, Golden
Gate Colleges and STI College having a total of 21,885 enrolled students.
VI. Finance
As of the year 2013, the Approved Annual Budget equaled to 1,254,050,000.00
pesos. 31.70% was allotted for Personal Services, 39.33% was allotted for Maintenance and
Other Operating Expenses, 12.06% went to Capital Outlays, 7.81% was allotted for Special
Purpose Lump sum Appropriation and 9.10% was allocated for Programs and Projects of the City
VII. Tourism, Visual Appeals and Attractions

Figure 2: Tingga Falls Daang

Ibaan, Batangas City

Figure 3: Mahabang Buhangin Isla

Verde, Batangas City

Figure 4: Tinalunan Isla Verde,

Batangas City

Figure 5: Ilijan Falls Barangay

Ilijan, Batangas City


Figure 6: Basilica de Immaculada

Concepcion Batangas City

Figure 7: Plaza Mabini Batangas


Figure 8: Laurel Park Batangas


Figure 9: Mt. Banoy Batangas City

Figure 10: Hotel Pontefino Batangas City

Figure 11: Days Hotel Batangas


Figure 12: F. Baylosis Restaurant

Batangas City


Transportation and Utilities

III. Transportation System
A. Land Transportation
The transportation within the city by land is accessible with the use of public buses,
public jeepneys, tricycles, privately owned cars, and vans. If voyaging to nearby provinces or off
to Manila, there is a public utility bus that one can get such as the Batangas Star Express, RRCG
Transit, Supreme Transit Liner, Ceres Transport, ALPS, JAM Transit, DLTB Co., N. Dela Rosa Liner
Inc., and many more.

Figure 13: Grand Terminal, Batangas City

B. Air Service
The City of Batangas does not have any existing Airport within the area. Although,
helicopters that lands or take of in the vicinity of the city uses the Quezon Memorial Stadium, the
Batangas National High School ground, the PPA facilities or the Camp General Miguel Malvar (PNP
Provincial Office Compound) situated in barangay Alangilan.
C. Water Transportation
The Batangas Port having to be below the management of the Philippine Port
Authority is currently known as the most up-to-date and user friendly seaport in our country
today. The port also now serves its adjacent island provinces such Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro
Oriental, Romblon and Palawan as well as some parts of the CALABARZON and MIMAROPA


Figure 13: Batangas City PIER

VI. Utility Systems

A. Water Supply
The Water Supply System of the City of Batangas is managed by its own system,
Batangas City Water District (BCWD) under Presidential Decree No. 128. It was created under the
commands of the Local Water Utilities Authority (LWUA) which serves financial and technical
assistance to the water district. Its average water supply/production capacity per month for the
year of 2013 is 567,804 cubic meters whereas the average demand/consumption capacity per
month is 318,756 cubic meters.
B. Power Supply
The power supply of the 105 barangays uses 3 categories: ninety-nine (99)
barangays are served by the Manila Electric Company (MERALCO), other portions of barangays
San Jose Sico, Talahib Pandacan, and Talumpok Silangan are served by the Batangas Electric
Cooperative II (BATELEC II) and lastly, the six (6) barangays situated in Verde Islands depends
on diesel fired power generators and solar energy devices for their daily electricity needs.
C. Communication
Batangas City offers eight (8) radio stations having seven (7) FM and one (1) AM
frequencies, specifically the DWAM Spirit FM, Baycomms Radio (DWEY-FM), Lyceum Campus
Radio (FM), BSU Campus Radio107.4 FM, Radyo Natin 91.9 FM, UB Campus Radio, DWAL 95.9
FM and the DWAW-AM.
The landline phone services in the city are composed of The Philippine Long Distance
Telephone Company (PLDT), Bayan Telecommunication, Digitel Mobile Philippines and Globe

Telecom Incorporation. On the other hand, the mobile phone services in the city are served by
Smart, Globe Telecom and Sun Cellular.
The Batangas Citys Internet service providers is composed of six (6) namely, the
Smart Communication Inc., Digitel Telecommunications Philippines Inc., PLDT Company, Innove








The Micro Setting

Pagkilatan is a barangay located in the City of Batangas that is within the premises
situated in the province of Batangas. Its projected population distribution is estimated with the
total population of 1,407 cited by National Statistics Office Batangas.
Pagkilatan holds one of the richest marine ecology in Batangas Province which is an
ideal place for scuba diving and snorkeling. Its shores are surrounded by pebbles and have two
types white and black sand which is identical in Puerto Galera. Also, from afar, one can see the
spectacular view of Verde Island and the nearby municipalities of Tingloy and Mabini.

Physical and Geological Aspects

I. Location
Pagkilatan is geographically found at coordinates 13 degrees, 38 minutes and 8
seconds north latitude and 121 degrees, 2 minutes and 51 seconds east longitude. Its
geographical location is Batangas, Region 4, Philippines, Asia. It is surrounded by Batangas City,
Lumangbayan, Victoria, and Oriental Mindoro.
It also has a land area of 355.2922 HAS cited by Office of the City Assessor and City Planning and
Development Office Batangas City


II. Terrain
The Rolling terrain of Pagkilatan has a slope of 30% located at the south west tip of
the city. The estimated terrain elevation above sea level is 73 meters, 239.5 feet, and 2874.02
III. Climate Condition
Pagkilatan has a similar climate condition with the City of Batangas since it is a part
of it. Pagkilatan is commonly coolest on the months of December to January having a
temperature reaching from 22C to 26C. In May, from the mean temperature this then increases
and achieves a maximum of 36C. Lastly, the month of October results the steady fall of
The driest periods in Batangas City occur from January to April with a typical monthly
rainfall of less than 50 mm per month. The maximum rain periods on the other hand happen
during the months of June to September having an average of monthly rainfall of 275 mm per
VI. Soil Types and Locations
Pagkilatans type of soil is Ibaan Loam or also known as Gravely Phase which is a
residual soil representing the decomposition products of the underlying volcanic tuff material. It is
dark brown, very friable, mellow and easy to cultivate. The subsoil is dark, loamy in texture, and
becomes heavy and waxy at a depth of 75 centimeters or more. Its agricultural potentials are
coconut, atis, cacao, and coffee.

Socio-Economic Condition
I. Population
Pagkilatan is one of the 105 barangays located in the City of Batangas and part of the
Luzon group of islands. Its projected population distribution is estimated with the total population
of 1,407 which consist of 698 male and 709 female as of CY 2013 cited by National Statistics
Office Batangas.


II. Education
There is only one school in Pagkilatan which is Pagkilatan Elementary School that
teaches students in grades one to six in Batangas City, Batangas of Calabarzon (Region IV-A).
The school has 8 instructional rooms and 2 non-instructional rooms, which are all powered by a
power grid. For the S.Y. 2013 to 2014, it has 218 students, and the class size is around 27
students. The school has an equal number of 109 male and female students. Felisa R. Sulit is in
charge of the school, acting as the school's Head Teacher S.Y. 2013-2014.

Transportation and Utilities

III. Transportation System
A. Land Transportation
The transportation by land is accessible with the use of private car, hired jeepneys or
other vehicles. If traveling from Manila to Batangas City with the use of public transportation,
there is a public utility bus at Buendia Terminal either in Jam, DLTB, Alps, or Ceres. The public
utility bus will arrive at the Batangas City Public Terminal. From there on, the only accessible
transportation is a jeepney. The Batangas Balagtas jeepney going to the terminal of Solid
Baybay in the New Market is the next stop. Another jeepney will be used as means of
transportation that will travel to Batangas - Dela Paz Pulot jeepney or Batangas - Ilijan jeepeney
which will pass by Pagkilatan.
B. Air Service
Pagkilatan has no existing Airport within the area.
C. Water Transportation
As for water transportation, people from Isla Verde, Tingloy, Puerto Galera and other
nearby islands can dock directly to Pagkilatan by hired motorized boat or small ferry boats. The
minimum travel time would be 20 minutes. For the fare, there is no specified rate because usually
boats are hired. The approximate fares are as follows: 1) From Isla Verde Php 90/head, 2) from
Tingloy Php 150/head, and 3) from Puerto Galera Php 150/head.


And for tourists who will be coming from Puerto Galera, Mindoro and Romblon Island
via Batangas Port, the following table shows the name of the shipping line, fare rate, and

Shipping Lines

Lines, Inc.

07:30 AM
10:30 AM
12:00 NN
01:30 PM
03:30 PM
12:00 MN
04:00 AM
07:30 AM
8:30 AM
10:30 AM
12:00 NN
02:00 PM
4:00 PM
07:30 PM
10:00 PM

Lines, Inc.

02:00 PM
Friday, &



Usage Fee


PHP 230

PHP 30

PHP 50

PHP 310

1st class
2nd class
PHP 360

1st class
PHP 510
PHP 30


2nd class
PHP 390

3rd class
PHP 240

3rd class
PHP 270

First class
PHP 1,446

First class
PHP 1,476

PHP 1,255
PHP 954

PHP 30


PHP 1,285
PHP 984

VI. Utility Systems

A. Water Supply
The Water Supply System of the City of Batangas is managed by its own system,
Batangas City Water District (BCWD) under Presidential Decree No. 128. It was created under the
commands of the Local Water Utilities Authority (LWUA) which serves financial and technical
assistance to the water district. Its average water supply/production capacity per month for the
year of 2013 is 567,804 cubic meters whereas the average demand/consumption capacity per
month is 318,756 cubic meters.


Related Laws and Ordinances

P. D. 1096 - National Building Code of the Philippines and Its Implementing Rules and
P.D. 1185 - Fire Code of the Philippines and Its Implementing Rules and Regulations
B.P. 344 - Accessibility Law and Its Implementing Rules and Regulations
R.A. 1378 - National Plumbing Code of the Philippines and Its Implementing Rules and
R.A. 184 - Philippine Electrical Code
Department of Tourism


Chapter III.3: Site Development Option

Site Analysis
Size and Location




Road Networks and Transportation





Pagkilatan, Batangas City. It is bounded by the

The selected site can be accessed through one (1)

existing two-way road.

Pagkilatan River by the east and the Isla Verde

Passage on the south.
Sun Path Diagram

Wind Path Analysis


Noise Analysis

SWOT Analysis

The area of the site is enormous

Environment is rich in great views of mountain and seaside

The site is near tourist spots Monte Maria, Isla Verde Passage


Accessibility of the site

Risk of Tsunamis is prone

Slopes restriction of planning structure


Improve the economy and tourism of the district

Be an icon to the Vicinity


Neighboring sites such as other resorts


Proposed Site Development Plan

Scheme 01

Scheme 02


Transfer Certificate of Title of Site 01 and Site 02




Tax Declaration of Site 03