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A Thesis Presented to the

School of Architecture, Industrial Design & the Built Environment
Mapua Institute of Technology

Presented by

Kasala, Janeille Aloha B.


Architect Junar Pakingan Tablan, uap, MSAE


Part 1: The Problem and Its Background

Chapter 1.1 General Overview

The Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands with a total area of 300,000 sq km. As of
the year 2014, it has a current population of approximately 100 million people. Out of the total population
census, at least 12-15% (percent) or 12-15 million inhabitants comprises the 110 ethnic tribes and
cultural minorities.
The Indigenous Peoples (IPs) are rich in natural resources and cultural biodiversity. Although
some of them are now in varying states of extinctiondue to the rising colonization and urbanization
brought about by the modern era, other communities have been able to maintain their traditional lifestyle
and culture. When it comes to survival, most of the IndigenousPeoples depend only on
traditionalfarmingand hunting utilizing their ancestral domains whether in upland or coastal areas.
However,most of these traditional cultivationsites have been threatened because they donot have legal
recognition over their lands, thus limiting their abilityto freely conduct their livelihood activities and are
denied access to other naturalresources in their communities.
Most IP settlements are remote, without access to basic services, and are characterized by high
incidence of morbidity, mortality and malnutrition. They are in extreme poverty and consideredas the
poorest and the most disadvantaged social group in the country. Illiteracy and unemployment are much
higher among them than the rest of the population. Their communities do not have electricity, basic
sewage system, and infrastructures. They are deprived of sustaining their basic human needs in terms of
health, education and security.

Chapter 1.1.1 Introduction

You cannot simply put something new into a place. You have to absorb what you see around you, what
exists on the land, and then use that knowledge along with contemporary thinking to interpret what you
see. Tadao Ando

Architecture has always played a significant role in the creation of global architecture that gave
birth to globalization, hence, it is possible that it is also the key player in rebuilding the cultural and
architectural identity of developing countries that neglected their identities.
The IP communitiesare in deep need of revitalization. Since they depend only on their natural
environment to survive, the community they live in must be sustainable and efficient. Community
developmentas well asfacilities like schools and health center are certainly the keys to solve the present
issues in the IP communities. A healthy community design and sustainable settlement development
strategy will improve the living condition of the IPs. Through architecture, their current conditions can be
developed and improved by providing them a sustainable plan for development in terms of a culture
sensitive design.The restoration and development of any community is always influenced by the defining

relationships between existing ideas, traditions, values, and culture.

Chapter 1.1.2 Background of the Study

Twenty thousand years ago, the Philippine archipelago has been inhabited by aboriginals which
later gave birth to the tribe of Negritos. Negritos are divided into twenty nine ethno linguistic population
and one of them is the Agta. The Agta tribe has been dominating the Northern part of Luzon. Among
them is the Agta of Sierra Madre, also known as Dumagat. The Agtas resembles the physical features of
Aetas, kinky hair, dark complexion and big round eyes. They have been an object of ridicule by other
people because of their physical features, thus, they tend to isolate themselves from the society. They
are semi-nomadic and hunter gatherers in nature. They have a relatively simple and egalitarian social
organization. Despite the occurring colonization and globalization, they have retained their way of living
and culture.

Chapter 1.1.3 Statement of the Problem












Philippinesociety. They experience neglect and discrimination in the provision of basic socialservices by

the Government. It is proven by the 2008 budget that shows regions with the highestconcentrations of
indigenous peoples get the smallest allocations from the nationalGovernment (CAR 1.22 per cent,
CARAGA 1.38 per cent, Region IX 1.58 percent). Thus, social service provision in indigenous
territories is far below that of the restof the country (ADB 2001).The lack of budget has resulted in
generally poorer living conditions and higherincidence of poverty in regions where indigenous peoples are
found or concentrated.
According to UNICEF, the majority of the illiterates in the Philippines are the indigenous and tribal
people who live in remote and upland areas. Generally inhabiting mountainous and isolated regions, the
tribal people in the country receive less attention and support from the national government. They lack
even the most basic of educational facilities, such as school supplies, books, school buildings and even
Furthermore, the general health situation in regions and provinces with the largest
concentrations ofindigenous peoples is below the national average.Health and nutrition problems, which
should be preventable and treatable, continue topersist. This is due to the continued absence or lack of
basic health personnel, facilities,resources and information in these extremely poor upland groups.
As stated by Early and Headland, the Agta are not highly defensive of their cultural ways. They
know their subordinate position and seek to survive in it with little thought of preserving their traditional
culture. Due to the economic and political dominance of non-agta populations and the continued
environmental degradation which deprives them from their cultural identity and subsistence, in time, they
will either end up physically extinct or turn into enculturated and depopulated tribal Filipinos who are
poor, illiterate and impotent.
Indigenous Peoples cultural survival has always been threatened by the uprising modernity and
globalization. Ethnic minorities are presently experiencing a tribal extinction paradigm all over the
country, even in the world. To stop and prevent this, resilience oriented views must be adopted by IP
communities in order to embrace changes without dissolving and destroying their culture. Hence, all
problems mentioned earlier calls for a sustainable and resilient community development for the IP
communities. Philippine IPs homelands are very rich resource areas in terms of their physical, biological

and cultural resources yet they lack the infrastructures that they need in order to fulfill their basic

Chapter 1.1.4 Project Goals, Objectives, and Strategies

Chapter Goals
Theprimary goal of the study is to address the current problems and condition of the Agta and
Dumagat tribe of Isabela in terms of designing a new and innovative facility that will contribute to the
preservation and advancement of their biological and cultural diversity. The study intends to develop
sustainable strategies that will effectively alter the living conditions of the IP community by creating
sustainable spaces that are self-sufficient and aims to improve their community through sociological,
environmental, and economical practices.

Chapter Objectives

The main objective of the studyis to develop a sustainable and resilient community that is culture

Empowerment of indigenous tribes

Create culturally appropriate ways of training and formation for indigenous children, youth,
community leaders, and development workers

Produce Indigenous citizens that are equipped to contribute to the development of IP


Protect culture and way of life

Chapter Strategies

utilize and employ local materials and infrastructure/mechanical systems, conserve, utilize,
enhance and rejuvenate the local natural environment

provide a locally supported approach to community, cultural and human development

empowering of the local population

cultural and community grid pattern development will be given priority keeping in mind the
present cultural values of the community.

local materials and available labor that provides jobs for the community

educational infrastructure to thereby strengthen the community

Chapter 1.1.6 Significance of the Study

The study creates a significant impact in the dissolving cultural heritage of the Philippines. It will
create a deeper understanding and better appreciation of tribal life and culture which creates
opportunities for both Agta and non-Agta people. It will lead to the empowerment of IPs in taking pride
of their culture and in educating ethnic minorities in the country.

Chapter 1.1.7 Scope and Limitation

The study will be limited on a case study to be conducted in the different Agta communities of
Sierra Madre in Isabela and the gathering of data from peoples views along with their opinions on the
current problems the tribe is facing base from experiences. The study covers the development of an IP
community which will establish a community center with educational and health care facilities.
This study will focus on exploringdifferent architectural solutions in formulating the design
concept for a sustainable living within the Dumagat community.
The study will not cover the cost estimation of the project.

Chapter 1.1.7 Assumption

The study will give a deeper understanding of the culture of the Dumagat tribe. It will conduct a
thorough analysis of their social structure which will be integrated in the design phase. The social
structure of a community is the determining factor of a sustainable environment.

Through the study, it

will prove that architecture can be the answer to the empowerment of cultural minorities that loses its
identities due to the globalization of today and by sustaining their basic necessities in a traditional and
practical way.

Chapter 1.1.8Conceptual Framework






Definition of terms:
Indigenous Peoples (IPs) Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a
historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories,
consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing on those territories, or
parts of them.
Sustainability involving methods that do not completely use up or destroy natural resources
Culture a way of thinking, behaving, or working that exists in a place or organization
Tradition a way of thinking, behaving, or something that has been used by the people in particular
group, family, society for a long time.
Anthropology the study of human races, origins, societies and cultures
Ethnology a science that deals with the division of human beings to races and their origin, distribution,
relations and characteristics
Globalization the act or process of globalizing
Urbanization the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more and more
people begin living and working in central areas

Chapter I.2 Review of Related Literature

Chapter I.2.1 Related Literature

Chapter I.2.1.1Situation of Indigenous Education in the Philippines
The country has more than 110 ethnic tribes and cultural communities whose cultures and
traditions are in varying states of extinction. These vanishing ancestral traditions and customary laws
used to define social relationships and values and promoted efficiency of economic activities.
Unfortunately, environmentally devastating socio-economic ventures, large-scale indiscriminate
mining and industrial logging have brought incalculable damage to their primary source of livelihood and
cultural sanctuary. The consequent destruction of their environment resulted in the further degradation of
ancestral cultures which are largely shaped by the indigenous people's interaction with the natural
This resulting loss of their cultural identities, coupled with the devastation of their environment,
have resulted in the serious economic displacement and cultural disempowerment of these communities.
Tribal communities in various geographical areas are thus among the most impoverished and
marginalized sectors of Philippine society (ACPC 2005).

Chapter I.2.1.2 Schools for Indigenous Knowledge and Traditions

Among the organizations in the country that promoted indigenous learning is the Asian Council
for Peoples Culture (ACPC). It was ACPC that came up with the SIKAT Programme. SIKAT is the Filipino
word for rising and at the same time the acronym for Schools for Indigenous Knowledge and
Traditions. The combination of both meanings expresses well what the SIKAT programme is all about. It
envisions a system at par with mainstream education, founded on the ways of life, traditions and culture
of indigenous peoples, as a stepping stone to promote sincere development of the communities (Meneses
The idea for the development of a culturally-responsive education was first expressed in 1999 by
several of the indigenous leaders present in one of ACPCs trainings. ACPC decided to facilitate the

building of a national network of indigenous community educators who would develop and promote a
dynamic and culturally responsive curriculum for indigenous communities. This inter-tribal council of
elders launched the movement for the promotion of indigenous education. They then put forth a
document the Kalinga Declaration which envisions:
"Indigenous education founded on the lifeways, traditions, worldview, culture and spirituality of
the native community is a basic right of all indigenous people. It is a pathway of education that
recognizes wisdom embedded in indigenous knowledge." (ACPC 2004)
Since the Kalinga Declaration, ACPC facilitated teacher trainings, curriculum development workshops,
tribal leaders forum and other activities to prepare the communities and their indigenous teachers for the
establishment of their Schools for Indigenous Knowledge and Traditions.

Chapter I.2.1.3 Ethnic Dumagat school to be built in Sierra Madre

According to an article stated by, Raymund Catindig (December 11, 2011), The Department of
Education (DepEd) Regional Office disclosed it will establish a specialized elementary school in the realm
of the Sierra Madre that will cater to ethnic Dumagat children. This was disclosed by Regional Director
Benito Tumamao citing the remote and isolated coastal municipality of Palanan, Isabela, the location for
the specialized school. As this developed Ifugao Congressman Teddy Baguilat, House chair for the ethnic
communities, wind up his weeklong assessment visit to Palanan in further securing recommendations in
implementing cultural-focused education. Tumamao said DepEd will hire Dumagat teachers and local
tribal intellectuals to educate their young. Tumamao said young Dumagat children are mostly
discouraged to attend school since they are not in equal footing with other children in the poblacion
areas. Ethnic children will be given specialized Dumagat instructions to sustain their cultural traits.

Chapter I.2.2 Review of Related Studies

Chapter I.2.2.1 Foreign Case Study
Chapter I. Ta Phin Community House

Architects: 1+1>2
Location: T Phn, Sa Pa District, Lao Cai province, Vietnam
Project Architects: Hoang Thuc Hao, Pham Duy Tung, Nguyen Thi Minh Thuy
Project Manager: Red Dream Project
Project Year: 2012
Photographs: Courtesy of 1+1>2

The project site is at Unit 1, Xa Seng village, Ta Phin commune, 17km far from center of Sapa
town, a popular tourism attraction in the north of Vietnam. The project is a multi-functional community
house, which will contribute to the local economic growth, enhance tourism development and maximize
the local potentials. The project is also developed toward sustainable development for the local

community by preserving natural resources and environment, as well as enhancing the local cultural
diversity and traditional handicrafts. The action program will include training strategies for local people in
sustainable agriculture, tourism, and project management.

The community house will be incorporated with an herb garden, and will include a working
space, an exhibition room for local handicraft product, a small library, a communication center, as well as
a studio for training program. All the above activities have been supported and advised by not only the
local people but also the authorities and other community associations.


The building form is inspired by the traditional red-scarf of the Dao minority woman, as well as the form
of the mountainous topography of Sapa. The building uses local labor and material such as stone,
recycled wood, adobe brick and other sustainable green technologies such as: rain-water filter system,
solar energy, 5 compartment septic tanks, energy saving fireplaces, utilizing extra heat from the

The location of the community house has also been well considered: It is in the center of the commune,
next to the elementary school and public rice milling station, therefore it can maximize the use of all the
above center and is easy to be recognized by tourists.

The community house has just been opened for a short time, however it is getting many
compliments and supports from the local community. We do hope that in future, the same idea will be
applied for other communities, especially for minority communes.

Site Plan

Floor Plan

Concept Diagram

Materials Diagram

Population Analysis

Tourist Analysis

Chapter I.2.2.2 Local Case Study

Chapter I. Tboli School of Indigenous

Knowledge & Traditions (Lembanig

Poblacion, Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines)

Geographical Location:
Lake Sebu is located at the South Western part of the province of South Cotabato. It is
approximately 44 kilometers away from Koronadal City. Lake Sebu is bounded on the North by the
Municipality of Surallah, on the Southwest by the Municipality of Tboli town and in the West by
Palimbang of the Province of Sultan Kudarat.

Climate and Rainfall:

The Climate of Lake Sebu belongs to the fourth type where rainfall is evenly distributed
throughout the years. Lake Sebu temperature is relatively cool like that is Baguio City. The dry season
usually falls during the month of March to April. However shower usually occurs during afternoon
between the month of February and May.
Land Area: 89,138 Hectares

The Terrace of Lake Sebu is predominantly rugged.

Tboli School of Indigenous Knowledge & Traditions was started to cater the educational needs
of the Tboli pupils whose parents cannot afford to send them to public or private schools. It consist of
Grade 1 to 6.
Helobung community dance troop was directly involved in the implementation of SIKAT Tboli
through coordination and partnership with the ACPC-SIKAT school year 2002-2003. For SY 2003-2004
Department of Education, Region X11 Division of South Cotabato urge the group to comply with the
requirement for school Government Permit to Operate. Though Helobung had extended effort by all
means, yet Department of Education needs SEC Registration where SIKAT Tboli

will be granted to


September 2003, the school was about to close due to its illegal operation.

There were series of

consultations, meeting and planning being made where 15 school Board members and Helobung work
hand in hand to continue SIKAT Tboli operation.

It was then that Kesetifun Cultural Care

Foundation,Inc. (KCCFI) willing to help Helobung for SIKAT Tboli legal operation.

SY 2002-2003, Helobung managed the whole SIKAT Operation. School Principal took charge of
the day to day activities of the school.
SY- 2003-2004, re-organization was made due to the needs and for legality of the school.
Kesetifun Cultural Care Foundation,Inc. (KCCFI) extended services to Helobung for SIKAT Tboli. The
foundation assisted the school by providing pertaining documents needed for the Government Permit to
Operate, since Hoboing is not qualified as SIKAT implementing organization.
SY- 2004-2014, in the past school years many changes and improvements had been made with
the buildings. The teaching cabability of the teacher where also enhanced thru series of several trainings
and seminars. Enrollment has increased from 100 to now 136 puples.

SY- 2005-2006, Rhealyn Baay graduated from Sikat School after finishing grade 6 and is since
June 2012 studying at the University of the Philippines taking up Performing Arts
SY- 2010-2011, the school rank 2nd place during the national achivement test for grade 6 in all
the private schools in South Cotabato.

Since Tboli School of Indigenous Knowledge & Traditions is considered as an infant Indigenous
school, Helobung established a networking linkages inside and outside the country. They were able to
raise funds for the teachers salary, feeding (lunch program) and construction of Grade One and Two


Indigenous Education is a pillar of empowerment and progress. Justice, peace and prosperity will
be regained by communities strengthen by their own wisdom and indigenous youth will face and reach
out to the national and global community with dignity and confidence in their knowledge.

What is Indigenous Education?

Indigenous Education revitalizes cultures and traditions that are gradually eroding, nurtures native life
ways, defends ancestral domain and promote self-determination.

The T boli School

Is born from our belief that education is strong pillar for employment. It transmits knowledge
crucial to the survival of our tribes. The School encourages students to learn in our own languages,
maintain our strong positive values, sustain community life cycles and events and protect or identity and

rights as indigenous people, in establishing community-own culturally responsive schools, we create

linking pathways for the promotion of indigenous education among various tribes across the country.

T boli School Learners

Our children must be given the opportunity to be custodians of the knowledge, skills, values, and
tradition that are unique to our indigenous culture. In inheriting this responsibility, our children will be
involved in nurturing, maintaining and transmitting knowledge fof future generation. The T boli School
children will thus learn to value their heritage, contribute to sustaining the natural resources of the land
and serve their communities with dedication.

Learning Pathways
In science, history, mathematics, language, culture and values are geared towards the
development premised of indigenous worldview. An indigenous Curriculum is innovative, challenging, and
holistic and revolves around just and fruitful relation with fellow members of the community, the
environment, and the great creator.

Ways of Learning
Are experiential, integrative, and relevant with clear and purposeful goals, respond to the social
needs and livelihood of the community and affirm the identity of the youth as indigenous Filipinos.

The Sponsorship Program aims to assist the school operation through feeding/lunch program,
classroom constructions and Teachers salaries. The school provides information of individual pupils and
teachers. Twice a year the school submits

accomplishment reports to the sponsors and benefactors

about the program. Sponsors directly send their donations officially address to the school. Non-sponsored
Tboli pupil may also benefited from those pupils who are sponsored, because they share their foods
which the school gives three free lunch a week during school days.

Since the school is 100% serving the indigent Tboli school children whose parents are designers
and makers of Tboli arts and crafts, the school established a Handicrafts program to help and assist the

school in additional operational expenses. The program helps the parents, pupils and youth to develop
their individual skills, and provides marketing of their products.

This programs aims to help the school for references. Collection of Tboli music, dances and
compilation of Tboli beliefs and practices, short stories, songs, chants will help the teachers integrate
their lessons according to the subjects taught in school.
The program provides concrete information about the Tboli people and their cultures and
traditions. Researchers may consult the school administrators.

The concept of the Tboli school is an indigenous school owned by the community itself.
Arts and CraftsProject
The Handicraft Livelihood of SIKAT is an income-generating project which help the livelihood and
the promotion of indigenous Arts and Crafts.
Philosophy and Objectives:
The Handicraft Livelihood Project of SIKAT is geared toward the promotion of the indigenous Arts
and Crafts giving livelihood to the tribal peoples at the same time preserving their identity and culture.


Other tourist attraction include Tboli Arts and Crafts that provide shopping opportunities for
souvenirs collection are found in the urban areas.

The gaiety of the Helobung Festival is full of fire ritual and rhythm brought by a fusion of ethnic
instruments, music and dancers that likewise attracting tourists, usually held on the Foundation
Anniversary of Lake Sebu in the second week of November.

Chapter I. Tboli School of Indigenous Knowledge &


Pamulaan Center









dedicated to the indigenous peoples in the Philippines. The first of its kind in the country,





















and development workers. The Center hopes to produce graduates equipped with knowledge










IP communities.
The term Pamulaan is a lumad-Matigsalog word meaning seedbed. We use the term to













of their life and culture.

The logo depict the programs approach to learning which is integrative and wholistic
- one that develops the IP faculties and abilities to the fullest.
The young plant depicts the continuing growth offered by education. The leaves of the new
plant symbolizes the five major aspects of human life: Social, Political, Economic, Cultural,
and Spiritual; areas to hone and cultivate in all learners.

Education for Self-Reliance and Community Service

PAMULAAN aspires to be instrumental in the empowerment, life-long learning, formation and
community building of the Indigenous People in the Philippines. It aims to strengthen the IPs capabilities
as they journey towards self-governance and meaningful development.

Indigenous Peoples Education System

PAMULAANs 8 Elements of an Indigenous Peoples Education System
1. Valuing Indigenous Education (PHILOSOPHY)
2. Promoting Cultural Integrity (CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT)
3. Valuing Land and Environment (CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT)
4. Employing Holistic and Integrative Learning Process (CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT)
5. Enhancing Creative and Analytical Thinking (APPROACH & METHODOLOGY)
6. Promoting the Value of Service and Volunteerism (APPROACH & METHODOLOGY)
7. Promoting Peace and Community Building (POLICIES & GUIDELINES)
8. Promoting Empowerment and Peoples Participation (MANAGEMENT, MONITORING & EVALUATION)

Early Childhood Development Program
A two-year program for pre-school indigenous children. Centers of interest based on the point of view of
the child and his/her cultural background have been organized into program components.

Elementary and High school Program

Formal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs using an enriched (indigenized) Department of
Education curriculum and management. It operates on the principle of respect for, and recognition of the
indigenous peoples life and culture.

Tertiary Education
A laddered approach to educational study, it offers full-time degree courses as well as short-term training
courses on:
- Bachelor of Science in Social Entrepreneurship
- Bachelor of Science in Education
- Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Technology
- Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology
- Bachelor of Arts in Peace Education

Capability Building and Skills Training

The training touches the following:

- Learning Pathways and IP Education
- Cultural Awareness and Sensitivity
- Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan
- Peace Education and Community Building
- Leadership, Governance and Values Formation
- Environment and Resource Management
- Sustainable Agriculture
- Basic Health and Sanitation
- Community and Organizational Development
- Program and Financial Management

Local Educators Advancement Program

It provides on-going formation and training program for facilitators, educators, para-teachers, education
managers and IP education council on IP education systems and management.

Indigenous Peoples Leadership on Enterprise and Development (IP-LED) is a leadership and capacity
building program which hopes to respond to the growing need of creating sustainable development
mechanisms for Indigenous Peoples communities in the Philippines.

The Living Heritage of Philippine Indigenous People

The Center holds a chronicle of the indigenous peoples history their rich heritage, culture,
values, aspirations, language, customs, and even the challenges they continue to face.
Conducts research, studies, documentation and publication of indigenous knowledge systems, stories,
history, folk tales, songs, and arts. It also develops and publishes educational/learning materials for both
the formal and non-formal education programs. Conducts on-going research on relevant IP education
programs and practices.
Through this place, they hope to reach out to the world as one people, the Filipino Indigenous

Community Service-Learning & Volunteer Program

It is a venue for students to serve and work with various indigenous communities and
organization both in non-government and government. It provides ample opportunities for indigenous
students to share what they learn in school and as well as discover new learning and insights from the
communities they serve.

Chapter I.3Research Methodology















communitiesempowerment and development, an intricate and trustworthy study is needed. It is

important to evaluate the perception of the tribe, elders, government, non-government workers and
youth volunteers to determine their insights on a sustainable and resilient environment.
The research method that will be used is a descriptive research study. This method will be used
to gather information with the use of surveys and interviews that will be used in the assessment of the
IPs on sustaining their needs in terms of the needed facilities. This method will aid the researcher to
analyze and discern the behavior of the people within the community and to have a deep understanding
of their culture.

Chapter I.3.1Research Design

The main focus of this study is on contemporary Agta livelihood strategies and naturalresource
use under circumstances of social and environmental change. It is not just the sum of these activities,
but the way they interact inorder to gain maximum livelihood, social security and literacy. Social change
is to be understood as three processes that take placesimultaneously. First, it refers to non-Agta
population expansion into Agta territory.Second, it refers to change within Agta society. Lastly, it refers to
the changing policysituation with respect to environmental management and indigenous rights.

Chapter I.3.2 Research Instruments



This survey seeks to answer the feasibility of establishing a community center with learning and healthcare facility
for the Dumagat tribe of Isabela.
Address *

Gender *
Age *






Are you a government official or a volunteer? *
Please specify your organization.

Government official


Name of organization *
Write N/A if none

Where among the Dumagat communities have you been to? *

How do you perceive the Dumagat community? *


Have adequate facilities

Organized and planned


None of the above
What do you think are the principal factors that contribute illiteracy among Dumagats?*
Choose at least two only


Lack of school and facilities

Lack of teachers and volunteers

Problem in site accessibility

What do you think are the facilities needed most by the Dumagats? *
Choose at least three only

Housing or Permanent Settlement

School or Learning Center

Health Center

Facilitites for Livelihood Programs

Recreational Facilites (Basketball courts, playgrounds, etc.)

How do you describe the settlements of the Dumagats? *

Resembling the traditional bahay-kubo

Use of traditional materials (heath-kugon, wood, etc)

Built on stilts

Have window openings

Do you think Dumagats can adapt to a permanent settlement today, despite their nomadic
practices? *

Absolutely yes



No, I don't think so
Do you think Dumagats can learn alternative livelihood programs? *

Absolutely yes



No, I don't think so
What is the most possible and most suitable livelihood program for the Dumagats? *
Choose at least one or two only.

Agriculture or Farming


Handicraft making and weaving

Do you think the Dumagats can retain their culture despite the modernization today? *



I don't know

Do you think establishing a self-sustaining community is possible for the Dumagats? *

Absolutely yes



No, I don't think so
Education is the key to the empowerment of the Dumagat's community and culture. *

I strongly agree

I agree

I disagree

No comment
Do you think a cultural community center with learning and healthcare facility for the Dumagat
tribe of Isabela would be helpful for the empowerment and development of their community and
culture? *

It will greatly help

It will help a little

I don't know

It's not necessary
Do you have any suggestions that may help the researcher with her thesis?


Photos from Dumagat settlement at Brgy. Ayod, Sitio Kabulaklakan

Example of Dumagat houses located at Brgy. Digumased, Dinapigue, Isabela

Unfinished housing project construction for the Dumagats at Brgy. Ayod, Sitio Dicadican. The houses
were abandoned by the Dumagats after a period of time.

The Dibungco Church at Palanan used as a center for activites for the Dumagats.

The structure is called as the Agta dormitory located at Palanan, Isabela. NCIP officials conduct activities
in the area.

Another Dumagat Settlement

A Dumagat Village which has a basketball court. This area is facilitated by Catholic missionaries.

The traditional house of the Dumagats. Some of them still use this kind of settlement since they still
practice their nomadic culture.

Chapter I.3.3Population Sampling

This study focuses on an Agta population living in one community, around the Northern Sierra
Madre Natural Park, in the province of Isabela. It describesand analyses the ways in which this population
responds to social and environmentalchange and most importantly, their needs. For a proper
understanding of the Agtas situation it is important to knowsomething of the world that surrounds them
together with their social structure and culture.

Chapter I.3.2.1Sample Population

The population targetedis an Agta settlement of which themembers depended on the natural
resources within the protected area. Moreover, they should not have different kinship networks. The
selected groups are the Dinapigue and Palanan residential groups in Isabela. This provides the
opportunity to compare not only differencesbetween Agta groups in space, but through time as well.

Chapter I.3.3 Research Instruments

The researcher will perform the interview method for the investigation of the research. It will be
conducted throughout the research process. It must be done in organize manner to come up with an
information that leads to a reliable evaluation and an excellent solution. Surveys will also be conducted
with questionnaires that will answer the problem of the research. In this method, the researcher will be
studying not only a single individual but a group of individual and their relationship with each other. This
can benefit both the researcher and the IP community because in here, they will find out the relationship,
the status and interaction of the theAgtas non-Agtas, government officials, social workers and volunteer.
This can give a notion that architecture should not only be connected with nature but it must also be the
bridge between people.
A detailed description of a socio-economic survey is to begathered among the Agta population
within a community. This survey includes a house to house census, a livelihood profile andethnographic
research. Second, based on this survey, Agta residential groupswere selected for in-depth research. This
involves data collection on time allocation,hunting and fishing success, agricultural production, trade and

nutrition. Field datawith secondary data which are to be obtained from government and non-government

Chapter I.4 Summary of findings and analysis

Chapter I.4.1 Presentation of Collected Data

Chapter I.4.2 Need Analysis

The Agta of the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park are in a highlydisadvantaged position
whether it comes to their health condition or educational background.Although this undesirable situation
is acknowledged by government and nongovernmentorganizations, interventions to address these
problems are very limited.The few attempts at the provisioning of health care and education facilities
bygovernment and NGOs are unsystematic and remain without lasting impact. Thus, there is a deep need
in providing them the facilities which offers them the provisions of having not only informal education but
formal education as well and to provide them access to basic health services.

Chapter I.4.3 Qualitative or Quantitative Analysis

Most of the respondents are youth volunteers, Cagayan valley residents and some are NCIP officials


5 33%


10 67%



8 53%


7 47%


0 0%


0 0%


0 0%

Are you a government official or a volunteer?

Government official

1 7%


10 67%


4 27%

Name of organization



Samahan ng kabataan

Gerry Roxas Leadership Awardees

Gerry Roxas Leadership Awardees Students' Society

Political Science Society PUP

Where among the Dumagat communities have you been to?

Dinapigue, Isabela

How do you perceive the Dumagat community?


0 0%

Have adequate facilities

5 33%

Organized and planned

1 7%


5 33%

None of the above

8 53%

What do you think are the principal factors that contribute illiteracy among Dumagats?


9 60%

Lack of school and facilities

8 53%

Lack of teachers and volunteers

10 67%

Problem in site accessibility

9 60%


1 7%

What do you think are the facilities needed most by the Dumagats?

Housing or Permanent Settlement

8 53%

School or Learning Center

13 87%

Health Center

11 73%

Facilitites for Livelihood Programs

10 67%

Recreational Facilites (Basketball courts, playgrounds, etc.)

3 20%


0 0%

How do you describe the settlements of the Dumagats?

Resembling the traditional bahay-kubo

5 33%

Use of traditional materials (heath-kugon, wood, etc)

11 73%

Built on stilts

4 27%

Have window openings

3 20%


0 0%

Do you think Dumagats can adapt to a permanent settlement today, despite their nomadic

Absolutely yes

4 27%


4 27%


4 27%

No, I don't think so

3 20%

Do you think Dumagats can learn alternative livelihood programs?

Absolutely yes

6 40%


9 60%


0 0%

No, I don't think so

0 0%

What is the most possible and most suitable livelihood program for the Dumagats?

Agriculture or Farming

12 80%


4 27%

Handicraft making and weaving

10 67%


0 0%

Do you think the Dumagats can retain their culture despite the modernization today?


13 87%


0 0%

I don't know

0 0%


2 13%

Do you think establishing a self-sustaining community is possible for the Dumagats?

Absolutely yes

5 33%


8 53%


2 13%

No, I don't think so

0 0%

Education is the key to the empowerment of the Dumagat's community and culture.

I strongly agree

13 87%

I agree

1 7%

I disagree

1 7%

No comment

0 0%

Do you think a cultural community center with learning and healthcare facility for the
Dumagat tribe of Isabela would be helpful for the empowerment and development of their
community and culture?

It will greatly help

12 80%

It will help a little

3 20%

I don't know

0 0%

It's not necessary

0 0%

Do you have any suggestions that may help the researcher with her thesis?
1.Nakikita lang natin na kailangan nila ang mga bagay na ito dahil doon tayo nasanay.
2.Mas marunong pa sila sa mga livelihood kaysa sa atin. 3.Hindi sila mahirap. Mayaman sila.
Huwag nating sukatin sa batayan ng mga nasa patag. 4.Ang kailangan ng mga katutubo ay
pagbibigay ng pantay na karapatan at pag unawa at pagtingin. Ang mga nasa patag ang
nangangailangan ng edukasyon tungkol sa ating mga katutubo.

It might be a good addition to your thesis if you can establish a "concrete" measurement of
the feasibility of establishing a community center. For example - costs of constructing the
community center or the resources needed for conducting the activities (Fishing - because of
the bodies of water and abundance of a certain kind of fish - Blue Marlin if I remember
correctly). You will definitely find that useful if as early as now you can discover why you're
respondents answered as such :) Ex. You asked what livelihood is feasible, I answer fishing
(your questions ask up until here), but why did I say fishing? What made fishing
"FEASIBLE?" (You need to reach this point to determine the feasibility) I only based on the
questionnaire but I hope this comment helps or at least gives you new ideas. Good luck :)

Chapter I.4.4 Conclusion and Recommendations

Chapter I.4.4.1 Conclusion
Based from the computed and analyzed results, the researcher concludes that education will
empower the Agta and Dumagat community of Isabela. The community center will give them the benefits
and provisions they need where they lack most. The center will be their bridge towards sustainability and
development. It will help them improve and cultivate their culture and introduce their traditions to the
Non-Agta communities as well so that their culture will not be neglected and will be remembered through

Chapter I.4.4.2 Recommendations

In designing the facility, culture sensitive design must always be observed. Since the Agtas have
different behavior when it comes to livelihood and education, they must not be pushed towards the
lifestyle of non-ethnic minorities. The structure must adapt to their way of living as they will adapt to the

Part II. Research Focus

Chapter II.1 Rationale
Community spaces play an important role in the success of a city and its inhabitants. They
become the foundation to which those living and visiting in the area come together and communicate.
They offer opportunities to embrace the history and culture of the area and bring the community
together using this common bond. This thesis focuses on embracing the history and culture of Kansas
City by bringing a community together through the design of desirable spaces.


The major emphasis of this project is in the Dumagat community and its culture.Community
design and the design of public spaces is an integral part of the success of a city. Designing spaces that
benefit the community as a whole and begins to create a place rather than just a space.The focus of this
architectural thesis project is on the cultural identity of theDumagat Tribe of Isabela and how architecture
can help them revive a lost and neglected culture.This thesis projects seeks to use Post-Colonialism
theory as a way to understand how to give power back to the powerless mass, and understanding how
architecture can be the method of delivery. It seeks to create and revive the neglected and forgotten
identity of the Dumagats, and at the same time create an architectural identity for themselves.

Chapter II.2 Principles and Relevance to the Project

The design of the community center will adapt and focus on the following theories and principles:

Anthropology: the science of human beings; especially: the study of human beings and their ancestors
through time and space and in relation to physical character, environmental and social relations, and
culture. (Anthropology)
Culture: culture is a set of common values, beliefs, accomplishments, behavior patterns, and also
material artifacts, created within a specific social context and transmitted from one generation to the
next. (Rieger- Jandl 12)

Cultural Change: modification in the civilization of a people, i.e., in social institutions, living habits, the
built environment, and many more, occurring inadvertently or by design. (Rieger-Jandl 12)
Iconography: is the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the
interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details
used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style. (Iconography)
Identity: the qualities, beliefs, etc., that make a particular person or group different from others.

Post-colonialism theory: is an academic discipline featuring methods of intellectual discourse that analyze,
explain, and respond to the cultural legacies of colonialism and of imperialism, to the human
consequences of controlling a country and establishing settlers for the economic exploitation of the native
people and their land. (Post-colonialism)
Tradition: it is an anonymous product of the unconscious collective process. It is an accumulated
understanding of a cultural phenomenon. In dealing with its nature, it seems that the aspect of
transmission is the essence of tradition since the transmissible parts of human action are the keyelements of their behavior that would be classified as tradition.

Chapter II.3 Application to the Project

Implementing sustainable living into Kansas City and other cities, is important as it will give the city the
opportunity to continue to grow and extend the life of not only its inhabitants but of the city itself.
Protecting its resources, reducing waste, and ensuring better walkability all contribute to the success of a
sustainable city. Sustainable living can be done in many ways and can benefit communities as a whole.
By creating spaces that accommodate for an entire community and giving the community a space in a
centralized location to accommodate for a large amount of their needs, rather than the use of
automobiles, traveling distances will lessen and the public will take advantage of what is close by. This in
turn, is sustainable and healthy for the city and the community.


Having a common place for people to interact and come together, makes a city close and in turn, creates
a strong bond between its members. This idea is important, because if the public did not interact or enjoy
being in a place, then those outdoor spaces would be unnecessary. By creating these public spaces, the
community will strengthen, which in turn will help to define the city as a whole.


Open spaces play a large role in this design as they become the backbone to embracing the culture and
rich history in the area. There are multiple open spaces surrounding the site, but adding a large space
that will act as a central hub for the community will be beneficial in creating a sense of community and
place for the area. The large open space on site will provide adequate room for community and public
events, as well as for recreation and leisure. This multiuse space will embrace sustainability.

Community centers are spaces that bring the community into one area and provide numerous activities
and events to keep the community involved with their city and each other. Adding a community center on
site and programming a calendar of events for the space, will benefit those living in the area and those
visiting. Having amenities such as recreation spaces and meeting spaces, will create a multi space for any
community and public need and to further its success

Part III. Site Identification and Analysis

In this chapter, the study will focus on the different potential sites and will assess its strong and
weak points in order to choose the best location for the establishment of the community center. Since the
target end users are ethnic minorities, the criteria will be culture sensitive and will incorporate the tribes
traditions and practices in the site selection phase. Moreover, the principles to be discussed will help the
community and the governing persons to locate the most viable spaces for certain facilities, like the
school or the health center.

Chapter III.1 Site Selection Process

The site selection process is the most intricate and complicated phase of the study for the
researcher because this will determine the future and the success of the project.
In this phase, the following considerations must be observe in the site selection process:

Site Condition
This pertains to the physical features of the site and its stability like, slope, topography,
hydrology, flood and landslide susceptibility, vegetation and landscape as well as environmental
hazards and conditions.

Availability of contagious parcels of land

This will be helpful when it comes to future expansion and developments.

Accessibility and visibility

The roads serving the site, proximity to public transportation routes and major intersections and
sites orientation. But since the users will be the Dumagat tribe, and their communities are far
from urban areas, this will only be used for the accessibility to enable easy access for assistance
in their community.

Location and Neighborhood

The site must be accessible and near to different Agta or Dumagat communities to offer them
access to basic necessities.

Economic and Demographic Characteristics

The population census, number of households, livelihood and income.

Zoning and Local Codes

The site must be located within the territories of the tribes ancestral domain to further enhance
their own community and to avoid conflict with the local community residents. Codes and
ordinances must be observed as given by the NCIP.

Chapter III.1.1 Criteria for Site Selection

Site condition




Availability of utilities





Demographic Profile

Existing availability of natural resources

Proximity from other Agta or Dumagat communities

Historic properties and cultural characteristics

Community social structure and kinship

Other social problems involved among the communities will also help to assess the need for a facility

Illiteracy rate

Mortality rate

Livelihood and economic profile

Chapter III.1.2 Site Option Description (at least 3 sites)

The three chosen sites are studied and compared to choose the best location for the community
center. Each one is to be assimilated using the criteria discussed earlier. All of the sites are located within
the territories of the Ancestral Domain of the Agta Tribe, thus, giving them all the privileged and rights to
sustain their necessities. There are minimal commercial, institutional or any other establishment near its
proximity since the territory lies within the Sierra Madre Mountain range.

Site 1:Culasi, Palanan, Isabela

Palananis a town of about 16000 people that can only be reached by boat in 7 hours from Aurora
Province, by foot in three days from San Mariano, Isabela, or by plane from Cauayan or Tuguegarao.
There is no hotel nor restaurant, but homestays are available and can be arranged by the tourism officer
at the Municipyo. Homestay who were delightful hosts. Palanan is located a few kilometers inland on the
Pinacanauan River, about 30 minutes by boat from the sea. The local dialect, called Paranan, is a mix
of Ibanag, Spanish, Tagalog and the indigenous Dumagat language.

Latitude in decimal degrees:


Longitude in decimal degrees:


Latitude in degrees, minutes, and seconds:

17 3' 13" North

Longitude in degrees, minutes, and seconds:

122 27' 31" East

Height above sea level:

16 m, 52.49 ft, 629.92 in

Geographical feature:

P (Populated place type feature)

Feature designation code:

P.PPL (Populated place)

*Populated place - a city, town, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work

Culasi is one of the barangays which are in the outlying area of Municipality Palanan.
The municipality of Palanan with a population of about 16,254 and its 17 barangays belong to the
partly urban areas in the Philippines. While some of the barangays developed modern urban structures,
some others, especially those which are seated in the outlying areas, remained rural. By the end of 2007
Culasi had 1,051 residents.

Earth Map

Street Map

Terrain Map

Site 2: Brgy. Dibulo, Salulog, Dinapigue, Isabela

Dinapigue is located in the southeastern-most part of the province, near the provincial
boundaries of Quirino and Aurora. It is bounded in the north by Palanan, in the west by Echague, San
Guillermo and San Mariano, and in the south by Aurora Province. It is virtually land locked by Sierra
Madre Mountain range on the west and Pacific Ocean in the east.It is one of the five coastal towns of
Isabela with its poblacion situated about 78 kilometers aerial distance from Ilagan, the provincial center
of Isabela. The estimate terrain elevation above seal level is 16 metres. Variant forms of spelling for
Dinapigue or in other languages: Dinapigue (fil), Dinapigui (fil), Dinapigue, Dinapigui.
The municipality is centered approximately in the intersection of geographical coordinates 122
1540 north latitude and 16 3145 east longitude
Latitude: 1631'38.28"
Longitude: 12215'52.21"
Dibulo belongs to the barangays of Municipality Dinapigue which are in the outlying area. The
municipality Dinapigue with a population of about 4,807 and its 6 barangays belong to the partly urban
areas in the Philippines. While some of the barangays developed modern urban structures, some others,
especially those which are seated in the outlying areas, remained rural. By the end of 2007 Dibulo had
1,148 residents.

Nearby cities: Gapan City, Rodriguez (Montalban), Rizal,Norzagaray, Bulacan

Coordinates: 1634'22"N 1229'18"E

Earth Map

Street Map

Terrain Map

Site 1: Dibulos, Divilacan, Isabela

The municipality Divilacan is seated about 28 km north-east of province capital Ilagan and about
335 km north-north-east of Philippine main capital Manila.Divilacan is a 2nd class municipality. Regarding
urbanization Divilacan is classified as partly urban. It occupies an area of 889.49 km. By the end of 2007
Divilacan was the home of 4,602 residents. Thus by average 5.17 people are living on one km.
Dibulos belongs to the barangays of Municipality Divilacan which are in the outlying area. While
some of the barangays developed modern urban structures, some others, especially those which are
seated in the outlying areas, remained rural. By the end of 2007 Dibulos had 158 residents.

Terrain Map

Street Map

Chapter III.1.3 Site Selection and Justification

1 Poor

2 Fair 3 Good

4 - Very Good

5 Excellent





Site Condition




Availability of Utilities


Susceptibility to Hazard




Availability of Natural Resources

Proximity to Communities

Historic and Cultural Characteristic

Community Social Structure





Soil fertility contribute to the importance of crops and organic plants. The lot is really rich in the
nutrients needed for basic plant nutrition. Dumagats can make use of their lands for developing farms
that can also contribute for their livelihood.
Rich in natural resources like coconuts, rattan etc.
With just proper knowledge in using their resources, Dumagats can make products out of coconuts and
rattan like coconut jam, coconut oil, furnitures and handicrafts.
Cold air
Cold air influence how enjoyable an experience is, therefore, tourists satisfaction is likely to be at least
partly weather dependent
Scenic landscape for tourism development
Scenic beauty, in particular, is strength of the Dinapigue because it is a major draw for visitors for natural
environment such as forest, ocean and highlands.
Lack of daily necessities
Since the community is too far from civilization and advancements, for instance, they may be starving,
lack of clean water, proper housing, sufficient clothing and medicine.
Education status
The Dumagats have limited opportunities for basic education although there are some organizations tried
to support them.
Health support and facilities
The Dumagats just rely on their herbal medicinal crops because the clinic was too far away in their area.
Housing and shelter
Dumagat people have no stable habitation some has no permanent place to stay on.
Transportations (poor roads and bridges conditions)

The tendency of the poor roads and bridges is the difficulty to get into the place so even though
recreational and tourist spots are already available for the tourist, it may affect the accessibility of the
Electricity (insufficient source of power supply)
The power supply in the community is not enjoyed unlike in urban areas that is more available.
Telecommunications (no communication network)
The government has lack of coordination and low priority of telecommunication development.
Good geophysical environment serve as a tourist spot
The place possesses stunning scenery that if in particular to developed and discovered can be a famous
tourist spot in the place.
Make their natural resources as a new innovative product and sell it to the market
The site is abundant in natural resources such as coconut trees, bamboo, rattan and other plants that
they can use to invent useful products to sell for their livelihood.
Natural disaster risk management issue
Since the place was situated near the mountains and river, it is exposed to the threat of natural disasters
like typhoons, landslides, flashfloods, mudslides etc. that can result to damage of properties, agriculture,
infrastructure and even loss of lives.
Security for intruders / strangers
The area was mountainous and secluded-like place that is a good place for such activities like illegal
logging, forest fires etc. resulting to disadvantages for the people who resides in the area.

Chapter III.2 Site Evaluation and Analysis

Chapter III.2.1 The Macro Setting
Geographical Background
Regional Setting
Cagayan Valley (Lambak ng Cagayan), one of the region of the Philippines, is designated as
Region II. Cagayan Valley is considered as the second largest region of the Philippines when it comes to
land area. It comprises of five provinces, specifically: Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Cagayan, Quirino, and
Batanes. It has four inner cities: Cauayan City as thecenter for industry, Tuguegarao as its regional
center, Ilagan City as its investment hub and
Satiago City as its well know premier city.
Most of the regions vast territory bounds
between the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre


northeastern Luzon.






Figure: Location of Cagayan Valley in the Philippines

Total Land Area:
2,826,520 ha.
Agricultural Land
540,812 ha.
Forest Land:
2,654 ha.
Other Land:
25,495 ha.
Population (2010)
Total Population:
Growth Rate (20001.39 percent
Type III
Ilokano, Ybanag, Ytawes,
Irraya, Ivatan, Gaddang,
Tagalog, others
Poverty incidence
17.00 percent
among families %:

Indigenous peoples of
the Philippines refer to a group








attribution and attribution by

others. They have continuously
lived as organized community
on communally bounded and defined territory who have, under claims of ownership, possessed and
utilized such territories, sharing common bonds of language, customs, traditions, and other distinctive
cultural traits.

The Philippine Regional IP Population Graph

Map showing Negrito Populations in the Philippines

(Based on Headland 2003; Seitz 2004 Gordon 2005)

Distribution of Negrito Populations (based on Headland 2007)

Provincial Setting





province in the Philippines next to Palawan.

It is located in the Cagayan Valley region in
the island of Luzon. Its capital is Ilagan City
and borders, clockwise from the south,
Aurora, Quirino, Nueva Vizcaya, Ifugao,
Mountain Province, Kalinga, and Cagayan.
This primarily agricultural province is the rice
and corn granary of Luzon due to its plain
and rolling terrain.

Location of Isabela in Cagayan Valley

Figure: view of sierra madre from cabagan

Isabela comprises an aggregate land area of 10,665 square kilometres (4,118 sq mi),
representing almost 40 percent of the regional territory. It is the largest province in the island of Luzon
and the second largest province in the Philippines in terms of land area. It is located on the right-most
part of the Northern Luzon facing the Pacific Ocean and encompassing parts of the Sierra Madre
Mountains. Isabela is one of the typhoon-prone provinces in the country due to its location.


The province is divided into three physiographic areas. The eastern area, straddled by the Sierra
Madre mountain range, is rugged and thickly forested. A substantial portion is uncharted. These
unexplored hinterlands are home to a rich variety of flora and fauna, and some are under government
reservations. It is home to one of the worlds largest remaining low-altitude rainforests, with numerous
unknown endemic species of flora and fauna and exceptional biological diversity in the protected area
known as the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park. Isabela has 600,000 hectares (1,500,000 acres) of
Cagayan Valleys 900,000 hectares (2,200,000 acres) of forest cover.
The highest point of the province is located near the border with Cagayan. Mount Dos Cuernos
peak has an elevation of 1,785 metres (5,856 ft) located in San Pablo, Isabela near the border with
Maconacon. Other notable peak in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park is Mount Cresta in Divilacan
with an elevation of 1,672 metres (5,486 ft).[15]
The western area is a sprawling fertile valley hemmed by the Central Cordillera. It is criss-crossed by the
mighty Cagayan River, SiffuRiver, and Magat River.




No. of City/Towns

3 Cities
34 Municipalities

No. of Barangays


Land Area

1,066,456 has.


Relatively wet from May to Oct.

Relatively dry from Nov. to April

Population (CY 2010)


Number of Households


Average Annual Population Growth Rate


Average Household Size

No. of Barangays


Language / Dialect

Ilokano, Tagalog, Ibanag, Yogad,


Income Classification

1st Class

Total Revenue (million pesos)

P 1,777,780,001.82

Labor Force

1,493,000 (Region 02)

Employment Rate (2002)


Underemployment Rate (2002)


Literacy Rate


Salient Features of the Province

Second largest Province in the Philippines
Strategic location between the part of Cagayan Economic Zone and the National Capital Center of the
country Metro Manila
Productive Forest Land & Watershed Areas
Hybrid Corn & Rice Champion of the Philippines
Home of Magat Dam, a major source of power and water supply of the Northern Luzon
Home to the biggest corn processing facility in South East Asia






municipalities and 1,055 barangays

and is divided into four congressional
districts. Santiago is an independentcomponent city while Cauayan is a
component city. Ilagan is the capital
town while Cauayan is the industrial

Figure: Political Map of Isabela


Types of rainfall according to Pag-asa. Isabela belongs to type III and type IV

Generally, the province has two types of climate. The eastern and coastal areas experience
moderate rainfall more or less distributed throughout the year while western Isabela has more
pronounced wet and dry seasons. The average temperature is recorded at 27.1 degrees Celsius.

Economy and Tourism

Isabela is a first class in terms of income classification. Agriculture, mainly rice with a relatively
large corn crop, is the biggest industry in Isabela. Farming is highly mechanized as most of the
agricultural lands are irrigated. With the presence of the Isabela State University, joint ventures, other
foreign assisted projects, and the Magat Dam, agriculture has a high level of productivity. It is also the
hub of trade, commerce, and other economic activities due to its central location in the region. The wood
industry used to be a top earner for the province but due to the logging ban imposed in the Cagayan
Valley Region, activities in this industry have considerably declined. However, furniture making using
narra and other indigenous forest materials continues.

Some potential investments are in fisheries and tourism. Isabela has a fertile fishing ground on
the Pacific Coast. The reservoir of the Magat Dam is utilized for fish cage operations, such as tilapia
production for domestic markets. Tourism is relatively a new industry being developed in the province.
Support services and accommodation facilities are likewise being developed. Tourism focuses mainly in
and around Santiago City and can be noted by the presence of the only McDonalds in the province.

Airports and sea ports

There are three airports in the province. The Cauayan Airport is the primary airport in the
province serving a trip to Manila and Tuguegarao. The other two are the Palanan Airport in Palanan and
Maconacon Airport in Maconacon. The countrys leading passenger airline Cebu Pacific services the
Cauayan-Manila-Cauayan Route. Light planes operated by Cyclone Airways and WCC Aviations Sky
Pasada Have flights from Cauayan Domestic Airport to the community airports in Palanan and
Maconacon. The province has two minor seaports, the Divilacan Port and Palanan Port in the coastal
towns of Divilacan and Palanan. The trade going to the ports come primarily from major seaports in
Cagayan such as Port of Aparri in Aparri, Cagayan, and Port of San Vicente and Port Irene, both in Santa
Ana, Cagayan.

Chapter III.2.2 The Micro Setting

Geographical Profile

Situation of the study area in

the Philippines (right) and
close up of the Northern Sierra
Madre Natural Park with its
nine municipalities and buffer
zone (left)

The towns of Maconacon, Divilacan, and Palanan, are within the Northern Sierra Madre Natural
Park (NSMNP). Dinapigue, the southernmost coastal town, is only particularly covered by NSMNP). The
Northern Sierra Madre mountain range system is among the most unique and richest on a per area basis
among the park systems in the Philippines.
It covers 359,486 hectares 80% of which consists of terrestrial and 20% of coastal water areas.
(Map 2. Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park Delineation). The NSMNP is characterized by undistributed

lowland dipterocarp rainforest as well as montane forest, limestone forest, mangroves, beach forest, and
marine eco-systems.








Basic Profile
LGU Type


Income class




Total Land area in



No. of Barangays

Population (2010)


9.5/km2 (25/sq mi)

No. of Households



IRA share

PhP 88,782,868.00



Other Revenues

PhP 11,045,169.00

Financial Profile


Total LGU Income


PhP 100,763,024.54
Agricultural Ecosystem
Forest Ecosystem
Coastal Marine
Freshwater Ecosystem

Economic Activity



Hon. Reynaldo D. Derije

Vice Mayor

Hon. Herminio B.

Brgy. Dibulo, Salulog,
Dinapigue, Isabela

Chapter III.2.3 Laws and Ordinances Pertaining to the Site

As of 2000, there were about 1,800 Agtas within the Agtas within the NSMNP boundaries in
mobile existence. The Agtas live in small groups of hunting and gathering communities as observed and
gathered from interviews with some of the Agta men and women.
Three (3) Certificates of Ancestral Domain Claims (CADC) were granted by the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) to Agta groups within Northern Sierra Madre. With the
enactment of the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) in 1997,
Theagta can apply for legal ownership of their Indigenous territories. According to the National
Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP), the agency tasked to convert the CADs issued by the DENR
into ancestral domain titles, a resurvey order was issued to cover the domain to be included in the
application for Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT).

Chapter III.3 Site Development Options (at least 2)

Chapter III.3.1 Site Analysis
Land Use
The land use classification at the coastal tows is predominantly forest land, with about 86% of the total
land area allocated for protection and production forests (Table 4). Dinapigue has largest forest cover,
with 98% of the towns land area is classified as forest. The total area utilized for agricultural 14,307
hectares for all the coastal municipalities. Among the four towns, Palanan has largest agricultural land
with 10,339 hectares, or 8% of its total are is allotted for agriculture. The build-up are at the coastal
municipalities is minimal at 0.16%, with Divilacan having the highest built up are in terms of actual area
and percentage.

The topography of the area is a range of peaks and ridges extending from the North to South, divides the
East and West portion. The terrain varies from the North to South, divides the East and West portion.

The terrain varies from relatively low hills with moderate to steep slopes near the coast or very steep
slopes in the central portion of the range.
CENRO Palanan occupies the mid-section of the mountain range stretching from the boundary of
Cagayan Province on the North, Aurora Province on the South, the Cagayan Valley on the West, and the
Philippine Sea on the East, Climatic type falls under Type IV.








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Chapter III.3.2 Proposed Site Development Plan (with building massing)




Area of Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title within the Sierra Mountain Range at Isabela

Ancestral Domain of the Agta and Dumagat tribe of Isabela

Technical description of the parcel of Ancestral Domain