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106.

COMPOSITIONS, ,

comma 0R PLASHC

89

Examiner

' Cross Reference. 9 3 / 8 V

STATES PATENT OFFICE.


CHARLES McCOBMICR-IOF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, ASSIGNOBITO KERAMEC PORTLAND CEMENT 8:
na'rnmar. conrmr, or rnosmx, ARIZONA TERRITORY, A CORPORATION OF ARIZONA

TERRITORY.
WATERPROOF PORTLAND CEMENT AND PROCESS OF MAKING SAME.

931,884..
No Drawing.

7 Speci?cation of Letters Patent.

Patented Aug. 24:, 1909

Application ?led September '14, 1908. Serial No. 452,823.

'To all whom it may concern:

55

state certain substances'which will, so long

Be it known that I, CHARLES MCCORMICK, as the cement remains dry, preserve their
a citizen of the United States, residing at the identity and undergo no chemical reaction,
in the presence of water, be so
city of St. Louis, State of Missouri, have in however,
changed either physically or chemically as
vented certain new and useful Improve to
60
rovide both the ?ller and the vehicle.
'ments in Waterproof Portland Cement and
he
vehicle
to
be
provided
should
be
a
Process of Making Same, of which the fol

colloidal substance which willpreadil pene


lowing is a speci?cation, reference being had trate
the cement and diffuse itself-t rough
therein to the accompanying drawings.
out the entire mass, entering into and ?llin
This invention consists in- a water roof

10.

up allthe-pores and voids (even the smallest%


Portland cement which, when made into'a in
the mortar or concrete which the cement
mortar or concrete and allowed to set, is
hits
been used to make. The vehicle must,
permanently impervious to water, and it
so, be one which will readily carry whatconsists, also, in a process of rendering aever
?ller is rovided, so as to deposit the
Portland cement waterproof.
articles of ler within the ores and voids

15

65

'
70

I Various methods have heretofore been

pro osed for rendering mortar and concrete 1n the cement. The ?ller -s ould be a sub
ma e of Portland cement water )IOOf, but stance or substances possessing such ?neness
all these methods have proven to c more or and water-repelling qualities that, when

associated with the vehicle, the ?ller will


less unsatisfactory, since, independent of give
greater body to the whole void-?lling
any question of their ef?ciency in water

20

75

and insure complete and permanent


proo?ng, it is necessary in practicing them mass
to add the waterproo?ng ingredielhts to the impermeability in the resulting concrete
set.
,
mix (of cement, water, sand, etc.) at the when
Any substance which will answer the
time that the mortar or concrete is made.
80
According to some methods, these water requirements set forth in the two preceding
paragraphs
of
this
eci?cation
can
be
used.
proo?ng Ingredients are added to the whole
mix, and in others the waterproo?ng ingre lhe following ingre rents are recommended,
dients are added only to that part of the mix however, because they have proven to

30

which is to be used for external or ?nished thoroughly satisfactory in every respect.


v (1) The vehicle is produced by introduc 85
surfaces. In any event, however, great ing
into the cement roperquantities of c
skill is re uired in making the mix when

said prior processes are practiced, and, if the

mmllmmxi-dandgrnmmwlfala T we,

' best results are to be secured, the mixing of mthe presence of we r,reactguic ??esult
the mortar can not be intrusted entirely to ing in the formation of a copious co 01 a or 90
jelly-like precipitate of aluminum 'hydroxid.

ordinary workmen, but must be in charge of The calcium hydroxid must be reasonably
a person who has some knowledge of the
chemical reactions involved, The cement free from carbonates, though not necessarily
chemicall pure. _An other substanc
which is hereinafter described, however, is which
wi produce su icient quantities
produced
at
the
Portland
cement
works
and
40
95
placed upon the market in such form that, colloidal precipitates may be used, and other
sulfates
(like
ferrous
sulfate)
may
be
sub
when made into mortar or concrete in the
ordinary way ('i. e., by the addition of water, stituted for all or part of t e'aluminum sul
Aluminum sulfate is referable,- how
sand, and aggregate), the mortar or concrete fate.
ever, both because the resu ting precipitate
will be impervious to moisture.
100
Generically, the invention consists in in of aluminum hydroxid serves admirably 'as a
vehicle,
and
because
it
is
practically
color
troducing into the cement (1) a filler and (.2)
less, and, therefore, does not communicate
a v - which will carry the
er and dif
se same throughout the, entire body of to the mortar or concrete the dirty green
'50 cement when the cement is in a semi-liquid tinge that would follow from the use of iron ;
.
or lastic condition, which vehi le, also, salts.
(2) The ?ller comprises (a) a main ?ller,
itseMore
serves
speci?cally,
as a ?ller.the invention consists such as drv clay of plastic properties, talc
in introducing into the cement in the dry soapstone, or similar silicate mineral W1

or

1'96. COMPOSITIONS,
CONTING 0R PILASTPC

89

Examiner

Cross es1,se4
Reference

After having been mixed with the water;


without ?ne silica, reasonably free from car
bonates, and in an extremely ?ne state of proo?ng ingredients, the cement is ready for
division; and (b) a relatively small amount use at an time, and it is made into mortar or
of some metallic salt of a fatty acid, such, concrete y exactly the same means that are

employed when ordinary Portland cement is 74?


ground silica, talc, or other cate material; used. It is unnecessary to take an precau
ma be substituted for part or all of the clay. tions'or to perform any steps whic are'not

5 for instance, as stea?LgElinc Finel

en the ingredients enumerated above required with ordinary Portland cement;

are used, the proportion of each to be taken hence, the expense, care, and labor involved _
10 and the .method of mixing them together in making .concrete or-mortar with the here- 75
and with the Portland cement are as follows: indescribed waterproof cement is exactly the
same as that required for making mortar or

Eourteen (14) 1parts of aluminum sulfate,

?ve (5) parts 0 dry calcium hydroxidrea

concrete with ordinary cement.

sonably free from carbonate, eleven (11) _- The entire amount of waterproo?ng mate

15 parts of- any ?ne dry clay of plastic proper; rial need not in any case exceed two and a 80
. ties, and two (2) parts of zinc stearate are half to three per cent. of the combined mix

taken and mixed together. The mixture ture of the Portland cement and waterproof
thus obtained (preferably in pulverulent ing ingredients. The character of the eom7
condition) is added to the Portland cement ponent ingredients is such, and their ropor
20 in the proportionof nine and one-half (9%) tion to the entire volume isso sma , that 85
pounds of the mixture to three hundred and there is no deleterious effect whatsoever upon

seventy and one-half (3701;) pounds of dry the Portland cement, and the resence of the
cement, or approximately one 'part of the waterproo?ng substances in t e cement im
waterproo?ng ingredients to thirty-nine pairs neither the keeping qualities .of the ce-v
25 parts of cement, and thoroughlyincorporated ment before use nor its ef?ciency when made 90
therewith by mechanical mixture. It is into mortar or concrete. On the contrary,
preferable that the said waterproo?ng in in addition to making the set concrete per
gredients be mixed together before being manently impervious to water, these water

added to the cement, in order to make it proo?ng ingredients act to some extent as a
retarder, thus tending to obviate the neces- 95

' 30 more certain that the mixture of ingredients

in their proper proportions will be uniformly sity for adding gypsum, plaster-ofsparis, or

disseminated throughout the mass of cement, similar substance to the cement, in order to
but they may, however, be added one at a retard or delay the initial set of the cement
time to the cement. The ingredients, whether when made into mortar, as is now done uni
35 mixed with the cement singly, or all at the
same time, are added to. the cement either

versally.

100

This invention, therefore, marks a distinct

during the grinding of the clinker or to the and ve

important advance in the art, and

?nished cement after it has been ground, or results in the production of an article pos-_
in any way to insure thorou hand uniform sessing a far greater degree of utility and a
40 dissemination throughout t e cement. It much wider range of application than any 195
is entirely feasible, of course, to add the cement heretofore known.
Having thus described my said invention,
_ waterproo?ng ingredients to the Portland
_ cement at the time of making the mortar or what I claim and desire to secure by Letters

concrete, but it is preferable to make the


45 mixture at the factory, since then the prod
not is placed upon the market in such form
that an ordinary workman, who has had
average experience in the building trades can.
handle the cement and make the mix by fol
5 lowing a course of procedurewith which he

Patent is:

' 1. A process of making a water-proof Port- 110

land cement which consists in mixing with


the dry raw cement ingredients in a dry
mixed state which will form a colloidal h -

droxid compound ada ted to permeate t e


mass when rendered

astic.

a ,

115

is perfectly familiar, and without requiring. p 2. A rocess for msilring a water-proof ce-'
ment 'ch consists in mixing with the dry
special directions about his work.
The uantity of calcium hydroxid men- {-1 "Portland cement a sulfate and an alkaline
~ tioned
ereinabove slightly ' exceeds the base which will dis lace~ the base of the sul
'55 precise amount required to produce the fate and form a co oidal precipitate with the 120

r
' l
maximum colloidal precipitate of aluminum addition ,of water.
3. A process of rendering Portland cement
hydroxid, four and twothirds (4%) parts of
calcium hydroxid being just sufficient for the water-proof which consists in mixing there

reaction with fourteen (14) parts of alumi


- 50 num sulfate, thus leaving an excess of one

55

with a compound com rising a sulfate or sui


fates and an-alkaline

ase whichlis ada

19

third (1}) of one (1) part of the ?ve (5) parts to form a colloidal precipitate with sai sul
of calcium hydroxid. This excess, however, fate or sulfates and permeate said cement.
4. A plllocess of rendering cement water
is desirable, in order to render it certain that
all the aluminum will be precipitated as proof, w 'ch consists in mixing with the ce
ment a plurality of dry substances which, 130
hydroxid.
-

931,884
.

'

when the cement is treated with waterfwill


aluminum sulfate, and-an alka
form a colloidal precipitate which will'per pi'loperties,
' e base.
meate the cement mass.

10. A cement comprising Portland cement,

5. A rocess' of rendering cement water and water-proo?ng ingredients in the re,


proof w 'ch consists in mixing with the ce spective proportions of thirty-nine to one,
ment a compound comprising a ?ller, a sul said ingredients comprising fourteen , arts fate or sulfates, and an alkaline base which aluminum sulfate, eleven arts clay ofCp astic

r ill form with said sulfate or sulfates a c0l~

ioidal precipitate.
6. A

rocess of rendering cement water

proof, which consists in mixing with the ce

qualities, and ?ve parts 0 calcium hy roxid.


11. A cement comprising Portland cement

and water-proo?ng ingredients, in the re

spective proportions 0 thirty-nine to one,


ment a.,_clay of plastic qualities, a metallic said ingredients comprising fourteen arts
salt of one of the fatty acids, and substances aluminum sulfate, eleven parts clay of p astic
which, when the cement is treated with qualities, two parts zinc-stearate, and ?ve
water, form a colloidal precipitate which will parts calcium hydroxid, said ingredients
permeate the mass to render it impermeable em adapted when treated to-form a col
when set.

7. A process of rendering cement water

proof, which consists in mixing the cement

loida compound which will permeate the


cement mass.

'

12. A waterproo?ng? compound for ce- _


ments consisting of u minum sulfate, cal
cium hydroxid, zinc stearate, and a clay
?ller,
said aluminum sulfate and calcium
which will form with said sulfate or sulfates hydroxid. being adapted to form a colloidal
a colloidal compound and precipitate.
precipitate which Wlll permeate a plastic,
8. A water-proo?ng compound for a Port cement mass.

with a comp?und comprising a silicate min


eral, a meta ' 0

salt of one of the fatty acids, .


a sulfate or sulfates, and an alkaline base

land cement w ich comprises a clay of plastic


roperties, a sulfate or sulfates, and an alka

line base which will react with said sulfate or


sulfates to form a colloidal precipitate when
treated.
9. A water-proo?ng compound for a cement
comprising a clay or mineral silicate of plastic

>

In testimony whereof I have a?'ixed my '

signature in presence of two witnesses.


' , CHARLES MCCORMICK.
I Witnesses:

GLADYS WALTON,

EDNA J. GooKEL.