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CIV3703 Transport Engineering

Assignment 2
Question 1 (50 Marks)
Calculate the design traffic in ESA for the follows cases:
Case A
Road type

Urban arterial

AADT (data year)

12 000 (5 years ago)

Case B
Principal road between major
regions
5000 (last year)

HV %

10

20

Annual growth rate %

Design period

20 years

15 years

Directional Factor
Lane distribution
Factor

60:40

50:50

85% of HV using outer lane

95% of HV using outer lane

For Case A:
Using Table 6.2,

(
ESA per HV for Urban Arterial = 1.8

For Case B:
Using Table 6.2,

ESA per HV for Principal road between major regions = 3

Question 2 (50 Marks)


A granular pavement with bituminous seal is to be design for a collector road in urban area. The
design lane traffic loading in Equivalent Standard Axles (DESA) is 20 million ESLs.
Testing reveals a subgrade CBR of 3, and could be improved from CBR 3 to CBR 7 with lime
stabilization. Available equipment and construction techniques dictate that the stabilised layer must be
150 mm compacted thicknesses and the cost for stabilisation will be $35.00 per m3.
The minimum thickness of any layer is 100mm.
The following materials are available for your use and are as placed.
Material

Cost

Crushed rock, CBR 90


Crushed river gravel, CBR 30
River gravel, CBR 15
Selected fill, CBR 7

$55.00/ m3
$35.00/ m3
$15.00/ m3
$10.00/ m3

Consider possible pavement options and recommend a final pavement configuration for adoption. It is
essential to provide justification as to why you have selected a particular design for construction.
While cost is an important issue, include some discussion on the potential long-term performance of
the selected pavement as compared with other pavements.
Note: The pavement seal has already been designed, and you do not need to design either seal or other
road elements such as slopes, drainage, etc.

STEP 1:
California bearing Ratio (CBR) for subgrade given as 3 (without stabilization)
California bearing Ratio (CBR) for subgrade given as 7 (with lime stabilization)

STEP 2:
Design traffic given as 20,000,000 ESA

STEP 3:
Without Stabilization:
Using Figure 6.4 at ESA =

and

Thickens of granular material = 690 mm

Minimum Thickness of Base material = 180 mm

With Lime Stabilization:


Using Figure 6.4 at ESA =

and

Thickens of granular material = 430 mm


Minimum Thickness of Base material = 180 mm

STEP 4:
Base:
Crushed Rock CBR 90
Sub-Base:
Crushed river gravel CBR 30
River Gravel, CBR 15
Selected fill, CBR 7

STEP 5:
Required cover for sub-base material, using table 6.4
Sub-Base Material
Crushed river gravel CBR 30
River Gravel, CBR 15
Selected fill, CBR 7

Required Cover
180 mm
265 mm
430 mm

STEP 6:
Maximum value from Step 3 and Step 5
Sub-Base Material
Crushed river gravel CBR 30
River Gravel, CBR 15
Selected fill, CBR 7

Without Stabilization
(180 mm)
180 mm
265 mm
430 mm

With Lime Stabilization


(180 mm)
180 mm
265 mm
430 mm

To achieve Overall pavement thickness, thickness of sub-base required:

Sub-Base Material
Crushed river gravel CBR 30
River Gravel, CBR 15
Selected fill, CBR 7

Without Stabilization
(690 mm)
510 mm
425 mm
260 mm

With Lime Stabilization


(430 mm)
250 mm
165 mm
0 mm

STEP 7:
Cost comparison of different material (assuming 1 m2 of pavement area)

Without Stabilization:
Base
Crushed Rock
Thickness Cost
Cost
Thickness
(mm)
($/m2)
($)
510
17.9
180
9.9
425
6.4
265
14.6
260
2.6
430
23.7
Sub-Base

Pavement Options
Option 1 (Crushed River Gravel)
Option 2 (River Gravel)
Option 3 (Selected Fill)

Total
Cost
($/m2)
27.8
21
26.3

With Lime Stabilization:


Base
Crushed Rock
Thickness Cost
Cost
Thickness
2
(mm)
($/m )
($)
250
8.8
180
9.9
165
2.5
265
14.6
0
0
430
23.7
Sub-Base

Pavement Options
Option 1 (Crushed River Gravel)
Option 2 (River Gravel)
Option 3 (Selected Fill)

Stabilizing
Total
cost (150
Cost
mm @
($/m2)
$35 m3
5.25
23.95
5.25
22.35
5.25
28.95

Based is the cost analysis, it can be seen that Option 2 under Without stabilization is the most
economical assuming that 690 mm of granular pavement is acceptable.

Hence the final pavement design is

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Crushed Rock CBR 90 Base

265 mm

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------River Gravel CBR 15 Sub-base

425 mm

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sub grade

Question 3 (30 Marks)


a)

List the functions of a primer in the application of a bituminous seal over a crushed rock or
natural gravel base, and outline the materials which are typically used for primes.

The functions of primer includes


Enhance bond between the pavement and subsequent bituminous surfacing
Provide water proof membrane in the pavement
Assist in stabilizing moisture conditions in pavement
Typical materials used for primes is Cutback bitumen

b)

Explain the basis of mechanistic pavement thickness design methods (i.e. what theories and
assumptions are these methods based on).

Mechanistic pavement thickness design method


mechanistically calculate pavement response such as stress, strains and deflections due
to traffic loading and environmental conditions (response model)
Empirically relate damage over time to pavement distresses such as cracking, rutting,
faulting due to repeated loads (performance model)
Calibrate predictions to observed field performance
Elastic layer model is the commonly used response model to model the pavement as a series of layers
of infinite horizontal extent. Pavement is represented as a grid of finite elements under finite element
model for response model.
Assumptions:
Pavement material are considered homogenous, linease, elastic and isotropic
No slip between adjacent layer

c)

List the parameters used in the current Austroads methods for flexible pavement design, and
outline how these parameters are determined.

Design Traffic
Subgrade modulus
Modulus of different materials

Question 4 (20 Marks)


An asphalt stiffness modulus of 4800 MPa was obtained in the laboratory.
In the field, the following are observed:

a.

In-service Air Voids = 8%


WMAPT = 27C
Average traffic speed = 80 kph.

Find the Austroads correction factors for the asphalt and obtain the design asphalt modulus.

Correction factor for In-service air voids: 0.82


Correction factor for in-service Temperature: 0.85
Correction factor for traffic speed: 0.95
Design asphalt modulus =

b.

Using the calculated design asphalt modulus, design 3 alternative flexible pavements (granular,
deep strength and full depth) using Austroads charts for a design traffic loading of 7.5x107 ESA.

Traffic =
Asphalt (3200 MPa)
Assuming available Materials:
Unbound granular (CBR 80)
Cemented material (deep strength) (Modulus 5000 MPa)
Subgrade, CBR=5 (modulus 50 MPa)
Design 1 Asphalt over unbound granular material:
Assuming thickness of unbound granular material of 200 mm
Using charts, Thickness of asphalt required = 315 mm
----------------------------Asphalt (315 mm)
----------------------------Granular (200 mm)
----------------------------CBR5

Design 2 Deep strength (Asphalt over cemented material):


Assuming thickness of cemented material of 200 mm
Using charts, Thickness of asphalt required = 220 mm
----------------------------Asphalt (220 mm)
----------------------------Cemented (200 mm)
----------------------------CBR5

Design 3 Full depth asphalt:


Using charts, Thickness of asphalt required = 320 mm
----------------------------Asphalt (320 mm)
----------------------------CBR5

c.

Explain the disadvantages and advantages of each pavement option considering issues such as
subgrade strength, long term settlement, reflective cracking, durability, construction

Note:
Refer to: Australian Standard-Methods of sampling and testing asphalt.pdf file uploaded on study
desk.

Design 1 Asphalt over unbound granular material:

Dominant stress mode is fatigue of asphalt


Granular base is assumed stable but failure through rutting is possible due to inferior material
and compaction
Moisture adversely affect granular base, hence dry back after compaction is required
Relatively cheap due to inexpensive granular material

Design 2 Deep strength (Asphalt over cemented material):

As cemented material has significant tensile strength, fatigue is likely to occur


Cracking is common
Block crack appear on asphalt layer
Greater pavement life

Design 3 Full depth asphalt:

Dominant stress mode is fatigue of asphalt


Expensive due the presence of large quantity of asphalt
Easy to construct and can be open to traffic almost immediately after construction
Assist construction to be done in stages

Question 5 (50 Marks)


You were involved in a dispute concerning the supply of asphalt for a full depth pavement
construction. During the first summer after road opening, it was observed that the asphalt experienced
extensive rutting. In addition, some bleeding occurred at a few locations. The available laboratory
record indicated that the asphalt aggregate as supplied could be classified as well graded.
The following data is obtained from a cored asphalt specimen taken from the site:
Mass of asphalt specimen in air
Mass of asphalt specimen in water
Bulk density of coarse aggregate
Bulk density of fine aggregate
Bulk density of filler
Density of binder
% coarse aggregate of total mass
% filler of total mass
Binder content by mass in asphalt mix
Maximum density of asphalt mix (AS 2891.7.1)

= 1200 g
= 680 g
= 2.68 t/m3
= 2.74 t/m3
= 3.10 t/m3
= 1 .02 t/m3
= 60 %
= 10%
= 6.4 %
= 2.51 t/m3

The asphalt laboratory suggested the effective binder content (% by volume) of typical asphalt mixes
are as follows:
Coated stone
7-9
Continuously graded asphalt mix
10-12
Gap graded asphalt mix
13-15
Gap graded wearing course
16-18
Mastic asphalt
24-28

a)

Analyse the results of the laboratory test, do some calculations and draw a conclusion as to why
the pavement experienced the above problems. Also suggest how to rectify the situation. Hints:
Find the % Air Voids and % Effective Binder Content.

% Aggregate in total asphalt mass = P = 100% - % Binder by mass


P = 100 6.4 = 93.6%

% mass coarse aggregate in aggregate mix = Q = 60/P * 100%


Q = 60/93.6 * 100 = 64.1%

% fine aggregate of total mass = 100 60 10 6.4 = 23.6%


% mass fine aggregate (R) in aggregate mix = 23.6/93.6 * 100 = 25.21%

% mass filler (S) in aggregate mix = 10/93.6 * 100 = 10.68%

Q + R + S = 64.1 + 25.21 + 10.68 = 99.99

Bulk Density of Aggregate Mix

Percentage Binder absorbed


(

)
(

Effective binder

Volume of specimen:

Mass of specimen = 1200g = 1.2kg

Bulk Density of specimen

Percentage of Air Voids

% Volume of (effective binder + aggregate) = X = 100 AV = 100 7.97 = 92.03%

Volumetric proportion of effective binder = Y = % aggregate by mass / density of binder

Volumetric proportion of aggregate = Z = % aggregate by mass / bulk density of aggregate mix

% Volume of effective binder

Its a gap graded asphalt mix

b)

Calculate (show calculation details and explain the meaning / significance of each item below):
1. Maximum theoretical density (t/m3)
2. Voids in mineral aggregate (%)
3. Voids filled with binder (%)

Maximum theoretical density

Voids in mineral aggregate

Voids filled with binder

c)

Further tests revealed that the stiffness modulus of the recovered binder = 50 MPa. Estimate the
laboratory stiffness modulus of the asphalt using the Shell nomograph.

Stiff ness Modulus