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ANSWER KEY - HOMEWORK # 3

1
x2$sin K0
f x Kf 0 x 1
1.) By definition, f ' 0 = lim = lim = lim x$sin =0
x/0 x K0 x/0 x x/0 x
Thus f ' 0 exists and f ' 0 = 0
2.) Note that since f x is an even differentiable function, f ' x is an odd function. Also, the second
derivative of f x exists for certain values of x. And since f ' x is odd, then f '' x must be even.
Now g x = x$f x2 0 g' x = x$f ' x2 2 x Cf x2 = 2 x2$f ' x2 Cf x2
g'' x = 2 x2$f '' x2 2 x Cf ' x2 2 x Cf ' x2 2 x = 4 x3$f '' x2 C 6 x $ f ' x2
g'' K1 = 4 K1 3$f '' 1 C6 K1 $f ' 1 = K4 $f '' K1 C6$f ' K1 = K4 0 C 6 1 = 6

3.) Given f x = xa$ 1 Kx b with a, b O 0.


f ' x = xa b 1 Kx b K 1 K1 C 1 Kx b a xa K 1 = xa K 1 1 Kx b K 1 Kbx Ca 1 Kx
To find the critical numbers, set f ' x = 0. So,
a
f ' x = xa K 1 1 Kx b K 1 a K a Cb x = 0 0 x = 0, 1,
a Cb
Finally, if we evaluate at the endpoints and at the critical numbers, we get :
a b
a a a aa bb
f 0 = 0, f 1 = 0, f = 1K = O0
a Cb a Cb a Cb a Cb a C b
a
a bb
Thus the maximum value of f x on 0, 1 is
a Cb a C b
2 3
sin x Ccos x
4.) f x = . We can let H x = sin2 x $cos x3 , L x = 1 Cx Ctan 4 x
1 Cx Ctan 4 x
H ' x = sin2 x $ Ksin x3 3 x2 Ccos x3 $2sin x cos x
= 2 sin x cos x cos x3 K3 x2 sin2 x sin x3
1
L' x = 1 Cx K1/2 C4 sec2 4 x
2
L x $H ' x KH x $L ' x
f' x =
L x 2
2 K1/3 2 dy
5.) If x2/3 Cy2/3 = 1 with x, y R 0, differentiating implicitly we getx C yK1/3 =0
3 3 dx
For the pts. 1, 0 and 0, 1 on the curve, obviously the length of the line segment is 1. If x, y s 0,
dy y 1/3
then = K . Let a, b be on the curve so that a2/3 Cb2/3 = 1 a, b O 0
dx x
b 1/3
Then the tangent line to the curve at a, b has equation y = K x Ka Cb &
a
In & , we set x = 0 to solve for the y Kintercept to get :
b 1/3
y= K 0 Ka Cb 0 y = b1/3a2/3 Cb 0 y = b1/3 a2/3 Cb2/3 0 y = b1/3
a
So the y Kintercept has coordinates 0 , b1/3
Similarly, we set y = 0 in & to solve for the x Kintercept to get :
b 1/3
0= K x Ka Cb 0 x = a1/3b2/3 Ca 0 x = a1/3 b2/3 Ca2/3 0 x = a1/3
a
So the x Kintercept has coordinates a1/3 , 0
The distance between the x Kintercept and the y Kintercept is the length of the line segment in the
2 2
first quadrant. And it is given by d = 0 Ka1/3 C b1/3 K0 = a2/3 Cb2/3 = 1
Conclusion : The length of the required longest line segment is 1 and is achieved by any ordered pair
a, b with a, b R 0
1
6.) We know by the IVT that d c in 0, 1 such that f c = . We will apply the MVT on the intervals
2
0, c and c, 1 .
f c Kf 0 1/2 1 1
On the interval 0, c , d a such that f ' a = = = 0 =2 c
c K0 c 2c f' a
f 1 Kf c 1/2 1
On the interval c, 1 , d b such that f ' b = = =
1 Kc 1Kc 2 1 Kc
1 1 1
0 = 2 K2 c. Clearly a and b are distinct and C = 2 c C 2 K2 c = 2
f' b f' a f' b

7.) We know that 1, 2 is on f so that f 1 = a Cb Cc = 2 1


f ' x = 3 ax2 C2 bx Cc. And we know that f ' 1 = 3 a C2 b Cc =K2 (2)
f '' x = 6 ax C2 b. Since we have a pt. of inflection at 1, 2 , f '' 1 = 6 a C2 b = 0 3
We now have 3 equations in 3 unknowns and the solution set is : a = 4, b =K12, c = 10

8.) The illustration on the right


summarizes a possible graph
for f '' x and f x

a f x is increasing on the
following intervals :
2, 4 , 6, 9
f x is decreasing on the
following intervals :
0, 2 , 4, 6
b f x has a local minimum
at x = 2, 6
f x has a local maximum
at x = 4
d f x is concave downward
on the following intervals :
0, 1 , 3, 5 , 7, 8
f x is concave upward
on the following intervals :
1, 3 , 5, 7 , 8, 9

9.) The following are some tips in sketching the graph of a function f x by hand :
(1) Determine the domain of the function
(2) Determine the intercepts of the function
(3) Determine symmetries of the function ( if the function is even, odd, or periodic )
(4) Determine the asymptotes of the function
(5) Compute for f ' x and by using the Increasing / Decreasing Test, determine the intervals where
the graph of f x is increasing and the intervals where the graph of f x is decreasing
(6) Find the critical numbers of f x by setting f ' x = 0 or determining the values of x for which
f ' x does not exist. Determine the function values at each critical number and decide if each
critical number will yield a local maximum value or local minimum value
(7) Compute for f '' x and use the Concavity Test to determine the intervals where the graph of f x
is concave downward and the intervals where the graph of f x is concave upward
(8) Determine possible points of inflection by setting f '' x = 0 or determining the values of x for
which f '' x does not exist. Determine the function values at each possible point of inflection
(9) Set up a table to summarize all the information and use them to make a rough sketch of f x

x2 1 2 K1
Example : f x = = 1 C = 1 C x K1
x2 K1 x2 K1
(1) Domain : =! K1, 1
(2) Intercepts : 0, 0
(3) f x is an even function so we can just concern ourselves for x R 0
(4) lim f x = 1, so y = 1 is a H.A.
x /CN
lim f x = CN and since f x is even, we know that x =K1 and x = 1 are V.A.s
x/1 C
2x
(5) f ' x =K 2
For x O 0, f' x ! 0 and for x ! 0, f' x O 0 ( of course x sK1, 1 )
x2 K1
(6) The only critical number is at x = 0 and we know f 0 = 0, which is a local maximum value
2
x2 K1 K2 C 2 x 2 x2 K1 2x 8 x2 K2 x2 K1 6 x2 C2
(7) f '' x = 4
= 3
= 3
x2 K1 x2 K1 x2 K1
We notice that f '' x O 0 on KN,K1 and 1,CN and f '' x ! 0 on K1, 1
(8) There are no points of inflection
(9) We summarize all the information in a table and sketch the function
1
10.) Let f x = mxK1 C . We want to find the minimum positive value for m so that f x R 0 for
x
1
x O 0. Note that f x is differentiable for x O 0 since f ' x = m K 2 is defined. The only critical
x
1 1 1
number is at x = and when x O , f ' x O 0 so that f x is increasing on ,CN .
m m m
1 1
Also, f x is decreasing on 0, . Thus, f x has an absolute minimum at x = on the
m m
interval 0,CN . Since we want f x R 0 for positive values of x and since we have an absolute
1 1 1 1
minimum at x = , then f =m K1 C =0
m m m 1/ m
1
0 m K1 C m = 0 0 m =
4