Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

# MECE

## 2334 (Fall 2014): Equation sheet of final exam

Thermodynamics laws for a closed system

1st Law
!

2nd Law

! = !!! !!!
!

! ! = !"#\$%,!!! + !"#,!!! =

Conservation relations for an open system

Mass conservation
!"
=
!"

!"

Energy conservation (1st Law)

!"
!
= +
!" +
+

2
!"

+ !"#,!!!

!"#
!"#

!"

!"# +
!"#

!
+
2

## Entropy balance (2nd Law)

!"

=
+

Constitutive relations

Model
Solid
Incompressible liquid
Ideal gas

Model
Solid
Incompressible liquid
Ideal gas

( )!"
!"

( )!"# + !"#
!"#

Internal energy
(Constant mass and specific heat)
! ! = (! ! )
! ! = (! ! )
! ! = ! (! ! )
Specific enthalpy ( = + )
(Constant specific heat)
NA
1
! ! = ! ! + (! ! )

! ! = ! ! !
Page 1 of 3

!"#

Model
Solid

Entropy

!
! ! = ( )
!
!
! ! = ( )
!
!
!
! ! = !
+ ln( )
!
!
!
!
! ! = !
ln( )
!
!
!
!
! ! = !
+ ! ln( )
!
!

Incompressible liquid
Ideal gas

(For variable specific heat)

! ! = ! ! ! !

For an ideal gas, ! = ! +
For an ideal gas: =
For a spring: =
!
Elastic potential energy of a spring: ! ! = ! (!! !! )
Mass flow rate: = (note that V is velocity in this formula)

For an isentropic process of an ideal gas with variable specific heat

!!
!
!
!
= !!! ; !! = !!!
!
!

Isentropic efficiency relations
For a turbine

!!

! =

! !

! !!

! =

!! !

! !

For a compressor/pump

For a nozzle

! =

!

!!

Page 2 of 3

!!

!

!

Work of a system

Work of a system in general: = .

!
Work of a quasi-equilibrium expansion (closed system) : ! =

## Work of an internally-reversible process (open control volume) : ! =

Two-phase relations
= 1 ! + !

= 1 ! + !

= 1 ! + !

= 1 ! + !

Performance of a cycle
Efficiency of a heat engine: =

!!"#
!!

; if reversible = 1 ! !
!

## Internal combustion engine

!"!#\$
!
= ; =

!
! !
Gas power cycle
!
!
!
Compression ratio = !! ; Expansion ratio= ! ! ; Back work ratio= !!
!

## Where o denotes outlet, i denotes inlet, c denotes the compressor and t

denotes the turbine.

Heat transfer

Mode
Heat flux [Wm-2]

Conduction
! =

Convection
= ( ! )