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13REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This Chapter illustrates the review of available literature relating to competency mapping and
skill gap analysis in banking as well as other sectors. This also includes studies that have been
undertaken in foreign countries. Research studies in the Indian soil are very few. This chapter
has given a lead to proceed well with the research work concerned.
Concept of Competency
Competency is a capacity of an individual that leads to the behavior, which meets the job
demands within the parameters of the organizational environment and in turn brings about
desired results. The competency mix comprises knowledge, skills and attitude. Any underlying
characteristic required performing a given task, activity, or role successfully can be considered as
competency.
Hogg B (1989) defined competency as Competencies are the characteristics of a
manager that lead to demonstration of skills and abilities, which results in effective performance
within an occupational area. Competency also embodies the capacity to transfer skills and
abilities from one area to another.
Definition of Competency:
Early in the 1970s, (McClelland, 1973), a professor of Harvard University, proposed the
idea of competency as a term used to challenge traditional criteria of assessment which had
emphasized intelligence evaluation in the higher education system. His theme provided a
conceptual framework that led to many subsequent studies in other fields such as teacher
education, vocational education, business management, and human resource management
(Spencer, 1993) .To better understand international trade competencies, this section began by
defining and grouping competency, followed by introducing the competency models, then
discussing competency in Taiwan and the paradigm shift on competency.
A competency was defined in the literature from various perspectives. The American Heritage
Dictionary of English language provided a general description as the state or quality of being
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properly or well qualified (p. 376). Numerous scholars have attempted to pin down a definition
for competency. (Quinn, 1990) indicated that competencies were associated with knowledge and
skills for implementing certain assignments or projects effectively. To be effective in a particular
competency, one must be able to accomplish the desired results of a job with specific
qualifications and personal attributes. (Burgoyue, 1993) employed a functional perspective to
define a competency as how the goals of organizations were best achieved by improving
members performance.
Human resource specialists viewed a set of competencies as a tool to serve as a common
language throughout the entire organization to consistently plan personnel, conduct performance
reviews, and determine the training program (Kravetz, 2008). (Boyatzis, 1982) and (Klemp,
1980) agreed that a person would have effective and/or superior performance in a job if he or she
exhibited underlying characteristics conducive to that particular job. Spencer and Spencer (1993)
similarly defined competency as an underlying characteristic of an individual that is causally
related to criterion-referenced effective and/or superior performance in a job or situation (p. 9).
They elaborated on their definition, explaining that Underlying characteristics meant the
competency is a fairly deep and enduring part of a persons personality . . . causes or predicts
behavior and performance (p. 9) and criterion-referenced meant the competency actually
predicts who does something well or poorly, as measured on a specific criterion or standard (p.
9). Furthermore, Spencer and Spencer (1993) applied the idea of competency to develop the Job
Competence Assessment Method (JCAM), which encouraged an organization to change its focus
from using traditional job descriptions to establishing a competency model by analyzing the key
characteristics of people with average to superior job performance. (Selvarajan, 2006) Concluded
previous researchers thought as competencies was the characteristics which could significantly
differ high-qualified employees from others who showed inferior performance.
(Hoffmann, 1999) analyzed past literature and summarized three key points in defining a
competency: (a) underlying qualification and attributes of a person, (b) observable behaviors,
and (c) standard of individual performance outcomes. The most general and detailed definition
was proposed by Parry:

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A competency is a cluster of related knowledge, skills, and attitudes that affects a major
part of ones job (a role or responsibility), that correlates with performance on the job, that
can be measure against well-accepted standards, and that can be improved via training and
development (as cited by (Lepsinger, 1999)).
Compared to job descriptions that only list responsibilities or expected results of a job,
competencies are viewed more broadly and included many factors that influenced job success
but are not included in the job description. For example, optimism and pessimism are considered
attitudinal terms and are not listed in job descriptions (Hayward, 2002). Similarly, personal traits
are also different from competencies. People bring their underlying physical and mental traits
into the workplace. These traits include qualities such as diligence, which is considered more
inherent or learned early in life (Nahavandi, 2006) and not at work.
Likewise, there is a distinction between competencies and knowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSAs). Knowledge refers to a body of information about the theoretical and practical
understanding of a subject, acquired by a person through experience or education. Skills refer to
the application of data or information with manual, verbal, or mental proficiency. Skills can be
tested to measure quantity and quality of performance, usually within an established time limit.
Examples of skills include typing and computation using decimals (Kravetz, 2008). Ability
means the sufficiency of strength to accomplish something, especially the physical and mental
quality to perform activities. Examples include planning and implementation. KSAs are
fundamental aspects of competencies, but competencies are more behavior-based rather than
skill-based. In brief, each competency requires several KSAs. While KSAs may underlie
competencies just as personal traits may underlie competencies, the KSAs are not the exact
competencies. That is to say, having the KSAs does not automatically mean that one has a
certain competency (Kravetz, 2008): one may know how to do a certain task without being able
to complete the task proficiently.

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(Payne, 1998) proposed 12 items as basic criteria for competency-based recruitment and
selection: communication, flexibility, achievement orientation, developing others, customer
orientation, problem solving, teamwork, analytical thinking, leadership, relationship building,
planning skills and organizational skills. In 2001, the European Union identified eight key
competencies as the development of indicators which can be used to monitor and evaluate
education and training progress across the European Union: (a) native language proficiency; (b)
foreign language proficiency; (c) ability to apply basic math and science; (d) ability to learn by
digital function; (e) abilities to learn skills such as time-management, problem-solving,
information seeking and applying; (f) social commitment; (g) entrepreneurship such as creativity,
planning, achievement motivation; and (h) ability to appreciate culture such as art, music and
literature.
A similar set of guidelines was proposed by both the Department of Education Science and
Training and the Australian National Training Authority in 2002. The framework was based on
the results of the research project conducted in 2001, covering the practice of small, medium and
large-sized enterprises requirements for employability skills. The results were formed as the
Employability Skills Framework in the 2002 Australia White Paper. The framework contained
eight primary skills that work together with the personal attributes, such as: loyalty,
commitment, honesty and integrity, enthusiasm, reliability, personal presentation, commonsense,
positive self-esteem, sense of humor, balanced attitude to work and home life, ability to deal with
pressure, motivation, and adaptability (Mckenzie, 2002).Curtis and McKenzie (2002) defined
the eight employability skills as follows:
1. Communication skills that contribute to productive and harmonious relations between
employees and customers;
2. Teamwork skills that contribute to productive working relationships and outcomes;
3. Problem solving skills that contribute to productive outcomes;
4. Initiative and enterprise skills that contribute to innovative outcomes;
5. Planning and organizing skills that contribute to long-term and short-term strategic planning;
6. Self-management skills that contribute to employee satisfaction and growth;

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7. Learning skills that contribute to ongoing improvement and expansion in employee and
company operations and outcomes; and
8. Technology skills that contribute to effective execution of tasks. (p. 7)
Competency Mapping
Competency Mapping is a process, which involves the following three steps:
1. Developing competency models to facilitate competency profiling for each job/role.
2. Identification of competencies required to perform successfully a given job/role or a set
of tasks at a given point of time
3. Assessing competency to measure the extent to which a given individual or a group of
individuals possess these competencies required for a given role or a set of roles.
In a nutshell, Competency Mapping is the process of defining a framework (Competency
Model) to identify competencies, using that framework to identify competencies required
for a job/role (Competency Identification), and to measure the competency deficiency of
an individual or group of individuals (Competency Assessment) in relation to existing or
expected job requirements. (Sahu, 2009).
Competency required for a particular job depends on many factors. The factors include
social culture, nature of the business, business environment, organizational culture, work
environment, organizational structure, duties and responsibility, nature of processes and assigned
activities, attitude and motive of colleagues, superior and subordinates. Some of these factors
may change with time and thus changing competency requirements for the same job position in
the organization. Unlike other resources, human being is the only asset that can appreciate with
useful inputs. It is one such asset that adds value to itself with respect to time. And therefore it is
considered as a resource that can be cultivated by the manure of training and development.
Competencies can provide the logic for designing an organization that will enable human
resources to continually add value to its firm.

Components of Competency:
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There are four major components of competency:
1. Skill: capabilities acquired through practice. It can be a financial skill such as budgeting, or a
verbal skill such as making a presentation.
2. Knowledge: Understanding acquired through learning. This refers to a body of information
relevant to job performance. It is what people have to know to be able to perform a job, such as
knowledge of policies and procedures for a recruitment process.
3. Personal attributes: inherent characteristics which are brought to the job, representing the
essential foundation upon which knowledge and skill can be developed.
4. Behavior: The observable demonstration of some competency, skill, knowledge and personal
attributes. It is an essentially definitive expression of a competency in that it is a set of action
that, presumably, can be observed, taught, learned, and measured. (Sahu2009)

Competency Assessment
Competency assessment is the process of measuring the competency deficiency of an individual
or group of individuals against the required competencies in relation to existing or expected job
requirements or superior performance. These required competencies should have been identified
for the job/role through Competency Identification Models.

Competency Assessment Process:


Step 1: Identify Competency required for job/role
Step 2: Select individuals for competency assessment
Step 3: Design competency assessment tool
Step 4: Apply competency assessment tool
Step 5: Identify competency gaps or deficiencies
Step 6: Post competency Assessment applications
Reviews: Competency Assessment in banking sector
(Sectoral and Skill Gap Anlaysis Report, 2009), this report outlines a baseline for labour market
and associated skills in eleven selected sectors in Bahrain. It forecasts the labor and skill needs
for each sector for future and identify skill gaps within each sector. It also identifies the
strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats in terms of the labor market in each sector and
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associated skill gaps. The study identifies the core skill gaps in areas like investments, dealers,
operations, credit analysis, derivatives, traders, asset management and also in support functional
skill gaps in financial controls, internal audit, IT, compliance etc.. Banking and finance sector
respondents identified the top five skills required in the sector, which include risk management
skills, customer service skills, human resource skills and treasury and investment skills.
(Prastacos, 2012), the study provided a detailed analysis of application of competencies in
banking sector and its impact on it. The study also identified the competencies needed for the
sector and the developed competency areas like interpersonal excellence, decision making, sales
management people management etc. It concluded that the competencies instill a culture of
transparency, thus significantly motivating the human capital of the bank.
(Survey for the Indian Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance Sector, 2010), This survey
was conducted to systematically evaluate if there are gaps in the expectations and performance of
newly hired MBAs in the Indian Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI) sector. The
Skills Gap Survey found that gaps do exist, particularly in Skills such as listening, and team
work and collaboration; Attitudes such as self motivation, self-discipline, and commitment and
dedication; and Knowledge such as understanding organisation and process; product, solutions,
and services; and consumer behaviour.
(K Nithyavathi, 2014), This study aims to analyze with an introspective view on the various
measures initiated by the scheduled commercial banks for enhancing their employees job
competency levels and the competency level of employees in selected commercial banks
operating in Coimbatore district. The empirical data analysis found that there exists difference in
the competency level of employees working in one bank to the other. The report suggests that in
todays competitive banking environment the bank cannot effect to recruit employees from nonfinancial discipline and train them frequently to adapt in their work nature. Instead bank must
prefer to employees, those candidates who are specialized in banking operations and financial
operations. It is also suggested to both public and private sector banks to enhance their
employees communication skills through effective training.
(Dr. Suman Nayyar, 2010), discussed the effectiveness of competency mapping for the growth
and performance of organization. The analysis of the study reveals that core competencies like
Customer focus, Communication, Team Orientation, Technical Expertise, Result Orientation,
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Leadership, Adaptability, and Innovation these are relevant and necessary for managerial levels
of the bank. It is found from the analysis of the study that maximum of the respondent employees
give their consent that training program is required to enhance the performance of the employee
and training should be based on scientific or at least systematic identification of competency
gaps and competency needs.
(Human Resource and Skill Requirements in Banking, Financial Services and Insurance Sector,
2010), this report analyses the skill requirements and gaps across various functions and levels in
the banking sector. The report examined and identified the skill requirement and skill gap areas
in different levels like executive-sales, executive-operations, branch manager and field
executive. The study discussed the skill requirements and skill gaps in corporate banking as well
as retail banking. The report identifies the major skill gaps in selling skills, communication
skills, people management etc. which are essential for the banking organization.
In another study (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2012) focused on efforts to promote, standardize and
sustain skills and competency development in the Nigerian Banking industry. The recent global
financial crisis exposed the inadequacy of skills and dearth of executive capacity in the banking
industry. From the foregoing, the development of staff competencies has become important in
addressing these inadequacies, underscoring the need to train a new generation of banking
professionals that is customer-centric, technology-savvy and flexible. The framework is expected
to address the competency challenges in the banking industry, explore growth opportunities as
well as critically facilitate improvement in the quality of the industrys human capital. Under the
framework, successful banks will be those that distinguish themselves by according high priority
to continuous enhancement of human capital and lifelong learning.

Reviews: Competency Assessment in other sectors


(Jimmy Kansal, 2012), This paper discussed in detail the competency mapping at various levels
in knowledge based organization and analyzes the gaps in required skill to improve the level of
competency. The investigation was carried out by taking a study on a R&D laboratory based at
Chandigarh, India as a model Knowledge Based Organization. The findings of this investigation
have implications for all the three levels of scientists. The competency mapping has not only

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enhanced the effectiveness of the organization, but has also played a vital role in the individual
career progression.
(KUMAR, 2012), explains how and to what extent competency mapping facilitates the
organization to function effectively. The competencies of managers from three different levels of
management were measured with the help of questionnaire and gap was analyzed. The study
concluded that the manger in higher level lacked in technical skills compared to middle level
manger. Planning skills and leadership skill were missing in middle and first level. The
implications of the study reveals that, the implementation of competency mapping would focus
on the gap that are essential for the required job and hence can be improved by training which
will enhance the organization effectiveness and facilitates the organization to meet its business
objectives.
(S. BALAJI, 2012), The study aims to identify the difference between the performances of
employees of Adecco Service Organization at Chennai and also to identify the competency gap
of employee based on the 11 dimensions taken for Competency Mapping. It is found that the
competency levels of Adecco Employees are found to be different among the employees. The
Competency Gaps are found to be higher in Job Related Skills, Performance and Meta Qualities
of employees of Adecco Organization. These could be developed by giving training specifically
on Job Related Skills and Meta Qualities to the employees in order to the improve the
Performance better.
(R.Yuvaraj, 2011), discussed to map the technical competencies for the employees in different
departments of a Textile Machinery Manufacturing Industry. This study compared the workforce
job competency expectations for experienced / trained employees in possession of more than 10
years from the date of joining. These comparisons were made between the existing competencies
arrived from the survey to the required competencies for an employee to perform a particular job.
The gaps between these two are the need identified for the competency training. The study
concluded that Skill development by Competency mapping is one of the most accurate means in
identifying the job and behavioral competencies of an individual in an organization.
Hanneke Heinsman, Annebel H.B. de Hoogh and Paul L. Koopman (2007)16 in their study
Commitment, control, and the use of competency management have examined the effects of the
commitment- and control-approaches on the use of competency management, and to investigate
whether, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control mediate these effects.

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In this study, the author has used a survey; employees were indicated whether their organization
adopted a commitment- or a control-approach towards competency management. Moreover, they
rated their own attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and behaviour. In Study 2 a
scenario experiment was conducted in which the authors have manipulated the commitment- and
control-approaches towards competency management in order to establish casual relations. They
conclude that the Results consistently showed that the use of competency management is higher
within a commitment- than within a control-approach. Furthermore, attitude and perceived
behavioural control are found to mediate the relationship between the commitmentapproach and the use of competency management. The results of the studies highlight
that a commitment-oriented approach increases the use of competency management by the
employees and that a positive employee attitude and perceived behavioural control are of
considerable importance when increasing the use of competency management is an organizations
primary goal.

(JAIN, 2013), This study was undertaken to analyze employee competencies including
Attributes, Skills and Knowledge parameters in detail and make a gap analysis in the actual and
desired skills and assess the training needs of the employees. Gap Analysis has been made in
order to understand the difference in Actual and Standard scores on the variables of each
component of Attribute, Skill and Knowledge. It was observed that the respondent is fairly good
on various parameters of attributes and skills. The total score of the parameters of Knowledge
component as compared with the standard score indicate a slightly negative Gap in the actual
Knowledge of the respondent. The study suggests that every organization should review its
performance Appraisal System to incorporate the results of skill-will analysis and employee job
role assessment. It will improve the employee competencies in the organization and will help in
growth of the organization.
(Togonon, 2009), a report which shares several years of Womens World Banks (WWB) handson experience and lessons learned in the use of competency-based human resource systems to
build organizational capability for microfinance institutions. This article reports on research
designed to explore the competency models that can be used to raise the bar of performance.
By defining the behaviors that characterize exemplary employees, employers can hire the right
people for jobs, train existing staff towards desired behaviors, coach those who are not aligned
with these behaviors, and continuously bring the organization to a higher level of success.
Jutta Rasp et.al(2007)40 in their study onEuropean competency mapping, solve the

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puzzle on European competency in the field of advanced displays- that is the short way of describing
what the adria network has tried to accomplish with its competence mapping work package.
The authors also discuss about the is strong need for knowledge exchange, technology transfer from
research to industry and collaboration among all the European players in the field of advanced
displays. For companies or research organizations encountered a specific technical problem, it is hard
to find out the best solution available. They might then decide to reinvent the wheel. This paper
specifically applies for small and medium size organizations, which with neither have budget nor
dedicated personnel to contact comprehensive literature researchers, they do not have an extensive
network of contacts
with any company all over Europe.

(SANDY SCAFFETTA JOHNSON, 2010), This Skills Gap Analysis Report is a documented
instrument that represents the voices of the Oklahoma aerospace industry. The overview
provided in this report discusses the International, National, and State implications of the
aerospace industry on the economic impact of the aerospace industry and what other countries
are doing to establish and grow their aerospace programs. From these discussions and from
several personal interviews, recommendations are submitted to empower the industry to become
actively involved in the areas where narrowing the gap between current conditions and desired
conditions could make a substantial difference in the productivity of the industry and its
economic development in the state of Oklahoma.
Obiols Albiana L, et.al.(2005)41 in their study on Mapping levels of practice in the advanced
practitioner workforce aims to assess the validity for self-assessed competence in the experienced
specialist and advanced practitioner workforce, using the Advanced Competency Framework. The
Advanced Level Framework (ALF) has been developed and previously described. Using this
framework, the researchers collected data on the self-assessed competence and level of practice
among the practitioners in the selected specialist interest groups. The ALF comprises 34
competencies clustered into 6 key competency domains: "Expert Professional Practice", "Building
working relationships", and Leadership, Management , Education, Training & Development and
Research & Evaluation. As a result of the study, Data were obtained for 390 pharmacists. There were
66.9% females. The mean number of years qualified was 18. 22.8% were represented by Specialists
in Training, 39.7% were Experienced Practitioners and 34% were Leading Edge Practitioners.
HOMALS analysis (fig.1) showed that Specialists in Training tended towards "Foundation" (lowest)
level, while Experienced Practitioners clustered around "Excellence" and Leading Edge Practitioners
clustered around "Mastery". Used with the frequencies analysis, the authors estimate that of the
advanced practitioner workforce sampled, 14% would fit the description for "Consultant.

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Finally the authors conclude that using this type of analysis, the authors are able to describe levels of
practice and associated levels of competence for these practitioners, and hence provide a map that
will identify Advanced Practice and Consultant level practice for pharmacist practitioners.

(Maria Vakola, 2007) analyses and discuss a forward-looking, dynamic and proactive approach
to competency modeling explicitly aligned with strategic business needs and oriented to longterm future success. It was a longitudinal research project sponsored by a leading Greek bank,
currently undergoing fundamental corporate restructuring. It describes how the competency
model was developed and how it facilitated strategy implementation and change by supporting
communication, employee understanding of business goals, and the incorporation of new
behaviours, roles and competencies in operations. The findings of the study reveal that the right
mix of skills and behaviours that the individuals would need to possess in order to produce and
support those core competencies is analyzed and discussed.
Competency mapping is a strategic HR framework for monitoring the performance and
development of human resource in organizations. Regardless of whatever happens to the future
of software in India, the people who are outstanding in their performance will continue to be in
demand and will keep rising and for this the human resource of each organization should develop
the competencies which they have in order to compete with the highly competitive market. In a
study conducted among the software employees (Milyvelayudhan, Competency Mapping of the
Employees- A Study, 2011), competencies where studied in depth to bridge the gap of the
lacking competency which would help the employees to outshine which would help the
organization to lead its goal through its objectives.
Vathsala Wickramasinghe(2008)15 in her study Gender, age and marital status as predictors of
managerial competency needs, has investigated the empirical evidence from Sri Lankan
Telecommunications service provider. The objective of the study is to investigate the factors that
predict competency needs of managers using quantitative methodology. For the study, 31
individual competencies were analysed. The study is confined to a fully integrated
telecommunication service provider; 198 managerial employees participated in the survey. The
researcher has found out that the marital status, age and gender have significant effects in
predicting competency needs. The results also have revealed significant interaction effects
among the variables of marital status and the number of subordinates, and marital status and
gender in predicting competency needs. Though there is an enormous diversity in the scope of
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competency literature, a few empirical research studies have been conducted on the predictors of
management competency requirements. Further, a limited number of competency studies have
been conducted in Asia. Hence, empirical research studies are needed to fill this lacuna in
literature. The study has identified a list of competencies to a group of managers in a Sri Lankan
telecommunication firm. One of the main features of the current study is the usage of selfreporting method to assess competency levels. Each participant was asked to rate his/her own
perceived current level of expertise and future importance of each of the 31 work-related
competencies. The responses have led to identify individual competency gaps.
Michelle R. Ennis(2008)27, in his study Competency Models: A Review of the literature and
the Role of the Employment and Training administration (ETA), has said that competencies
have been discussed from the demand side of employment with the consideration primarily given
to the needs of the employers. Competency models can be used by the supply side of the labor
market as well, such as a learner or student, incumbent worker, or hopeful and expectant new
employees applying for a position, to achieve job stability. While competency models are useful
for the business planning purposes, individuals seeking employment, advancing in their jobs, or
transitioning careers can benefit from career exploration, planning and development with the use
of a competency model framework.
The author highlights that the potential job candidates and employees must consider
competencies required of a position of interest and develop and convey the desired knowledge,
skills, abilities, and other characteristics to successfully interview for, perform at, and advance
in a job within an organization.
(RP VAN DERMERWE, 2002) in his study, Assessment in workplace: A competency based
approach explores assessment in the workplace with a specific focus on using a competencybased approach. He presented a normative process model for developing a competency-based
assessment. The model is derived from practical experience and research in the development of
competency-based assessment batteries and is rooted in a person-based approach. The term
assessment is defined in this paper as an appraisal of personal characteristics, behaviour and
human processes, through a number of techniques, including tests, interviews and observations.
The process to design and develop an assessment battery to measure competencies is outlined in
a model and it involves (a) planning phase, (b) establish competencies, (c) develop assessment
battery and finally (d) implement and evaluate battery. This paper has attempted to establish a
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basic theoretical foundation for understanding competency-based assessment and to provide a
process model which can be followed in the development of competency-based batteries.
Vathsala Wickramasinghe(2007)29 in her study A comparative analysis of managerial
competency needs across areas of functional Specialization has investigated that whether there
is a set of management competencies that should be possessed by managers irrespective of their
areas of functional specialization using quantitative methodology. For the study, 31 individual
competencies were analyzed. The study was confined to a fully integrated telecommunication
service provider; 198 managerial employees participated in the survey. The findings reveal broad
level competencies that are important for the managers working in one of the seven functional
areas. The author suggests that the importance of competencies from value and skill clusters is
greater than knowledge cluster across all the functional areas. Further, there was hardly any
congruence with the perceptions on current expertise and current importance across all the
functional areas. While the findings of the study have a specific relevance to the managers in the
telecommunication industry, they could have a rather broader relevance with implications for
management development initiatives.
(Milyvelayudhan & K, 2009) There article is report on a pilot study done in-depth for assessing
the competencies possessed by the employees in an unbiased manner, also to find out the gap
between the present competencies and expected competencies of the employees at HCL
Technologies, Chennai. The study conclusively reveals the positive relationship between male
and female employees in all the fifteen aspects also there is a positive relationship between the
qualifications of the three groups and all the fifteen aspects covered in the study. The t-test
analysis also reveals that there is significant difference between the two groups of employees on
personal effectiveness also Significance difference were found between married and unmarried
group of employees in HCL on Functional expertise, Innovation, Customer service, analytical
thinking and Motivation. However in one way or the other this study also tells us that every
organization has to design and implement their own appropriate competency framework, which
may help it to face the competitive world.
Dhananjay Gokhale (2001)8, in his study PM Competency Mapping points out that a number
of organizations try to define and document project manager competencies. Many factors like a
sound understanding of competencies, competency grades, facilitators interviewing, inference
skills, etc. play a very important role in such an exercise. However, there is a much greater
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challenge of avoiding a me too mindset. The exercise must aim at bringing the best out of a
project manager with honest efforts to help the PM successfully continuing the journey towards
competency. The key is to go beyond mere processes and create a mapping exercise based on the
action oriented competency statements. This paper not only elaborates the concept but it actually
puts forward the how to aspects with the help of a real life case study of a project management
competency mapping exercise based on more than 230 action-oriented definitions of PM
competencies.
(Krishnaveni J. , 2013) This study evaluates various aspects of employees competency such as
ability to mutual relationship, communication, adaptability, leadership and overall task
proficiency. This study may help the organization to identify the men of incompetence among
the employees, and to take remedial measures to improve their performance. The competencies
such as ability to maintain relationship with others, communication, task proficiency, leadership
and adaptability of the employees of MHRC, Madurai are satisfactory. One may also developed
structured competency model for each job. As competency mapping is an essential task for all
the organization and employee development, it is essential for the organizations to maximize
utilization of these talents to gain competitive advantage.
David w. Johnson(2000)24 in his study Competency-Based Educational Program Effectiveness
Assessment, has pointed out that Colleges and Universities, like most businesses, need to
regularly assess the effectiveness of their products and services. In fact, such analysis is usually
required by accrediting bodies to ensure the educational institutions, and each of their
departments, show continual improvement. This paper describes a competency-based approach
to effectiveness assessment at the program level utilizing various feedback mechanisms.
An approach to feedback analysis using curriculum-competency mapping that can suggest areas
for program improvements is also discussed. Finally, experiences in applying the competencybased assessment process for the Computer Information Systems program of a small college are
described. In this paper the author has described an approach to educational program
effectiveness assessment. The research is specifically important to university departments,
faculty, and program chairs seeking an approach to continual program improvements as part of
their yearly planning cycle and for the accreditation reviews. The main message of the work is
that feedback mechanisms such as surveys, case, project and portfolio evaluations, and exit

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examinations need to be designed to measure the attainment of a set of program competencies
that in turn are linked to the Programs Curriculum.
(CELIA & M, 2012) in their study, competency mapping of power sector employees with
special reference to Chennai was carried out with a view of measuring the competency level of
employees in the power sector. It gives a brief description of the employees competencies
attributes, interdepartmental competencies and suggestions given to enhance their competency
level. The major idea is to find out the existing competency level of the employees, the
competency

assessment

focuses

on

six

behavioral

segments

namely,

Knowledge,

communication, development of people, team orientation, achievement orientation and client


orientation, samples of 300 employees were selected from a population using stratified random
sampling. The study has revealed that the competency level of all the departments are correlated
and has been suggested that peer group training could be conducted , recognition & rewards may
be given to the employees on performance `and continuous measure an competency may be
enhanced to improve employees skills. Hence these measures that are fundamental factors to
competency would obviously lead to enhanced performance of companies.
Fotis Draganidis and Gregoris Mentzas(2006)17 in their study Competency based management
the review of systems and approaches, have identified the key concepts of competency
management and have proposed the method for developing competency method. The study
examines the CM features of 22 competency based management systems and 18 learning
management systems. The authors highlight that the areas of open standard (XML, web series,
RDF) semantic technologies. They highlight that ontology-based models of competencies can
present a tight integration of capabilities and information in a highly contextualized user
interface. At the same time, different services and components may be loosely coupled through a
dynamic architecture whose coherence is ensured via a common semantic model in the rich
competency ontology.
(Krishnaveni, 2013), This study aims to assess the competency of the employees of Meenakshi
Mission Hospital and Research Centre, Madurai, India. It evaluates various aspects of
employees competency such as ability to mutual relationship, communication, adaptability,
leadership and overall task proficiency. This study may help the organization to identify the men
of incompetence among the employees, and to take remedial measures to improve their
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performance. The competencies such as ability to maintain relationship with others,
communication, task proficiency, leadership and adaptability of the employees of MHRC,
Madurai are satisfactory. One may also develop structured competency model for each job. As
competency mapping is an essential task for all the organization and employee development, it is
essential for the organizations to maximize utilization of these talents to gain competitive
advantage.
Rabindra Nath & Rajat Raheja(2001)7 in their article on Competencies in hospitality industry,
point out that in the given business scenario it is becomes imperative that each of the player in
the hotel industry consciously works towards achieving and maintaining differential positioning
based on service standards. However any process improvement or innovative ideas set by the
leaders are constantly copied by the me-too players, thus providing only diminishing returns to
them. This puts considerable pressure on the leaders to constantly upgrade service standards in
the organization. Hence the key question remains how to drive continuously the desired behavior
in the organization where service standard is the key to survival. One important factor in driving
the desired behaviors in the organization is how the changed strategy, processes and innovative
ideas are implemented and communicated down the line. However the key here is how the
competencies are mapped and implemented. The success really depends on the time, effort and
commitment on the part of the top management to drive such an initiative. Hence before taking a
plunge, it is important for the top management to deliberate on the reasons for opting for
competency-based approach and tools to be used for competency mapping.
Lauren S. Harris and Karl W. Kuhnert(2008)14 in their study Looking through the lens of
leadership: a constructive developmental approach have the objective to examine the
relationships between leadership development level (LDL) and leadership effectiveness utilizing
360-degree feedback scores. Researchers have examined the raters ability to recognize effective
leadership practices using a constructive developmental framework. They have used quantitative
and involved data gathered from the subject-object CD interviews and 360-degree feedback
scores collected from the individuals enrolled in an executive leadership development program.
The researchers have revealed that LDL predicted leadership effectiveness using the 360-degree
feedback measure across a number of sources including superiors, subordinates, and peers. In
addition, the researchers have revealed that the individuals that lead from higher levels are more
effective in a number of leadership competencies (e.g. Leading Change, Managing Performance,
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Creating a Compelling Vision, etc.). Finally, the research demonstrates that the superiors and
peers can predict leader effectiveness better than the subordinates or oneself.

(Long & Ismail, 2008), This study examines the vital competencies of Human Resource (HR)
professionals in the manufacturing companies of Malaysia. The Human Resource Competency
Survey (HRCS) model is used in this study. The competencies that are examined in this study are
business knowledge, strategic contribution, HR delivery, personal credibility, and HR
technology. All these competencies will be tested to determine whether or not they are
significantly related to a firms performance. The sample employed here consists of HR
professionals from Malaysian manufacturing companies in the southernmost state of Malaysia,
Johor. This study uses quantitative methods such as spearmen rho correlation and multiple
regression analysis to test the variables. The finding shows that the top nine HR competency
factors are from the domain of personal credibility and HR delivery. Competencies such as
strategic contribution, business knowledge, and HR technology have a significant correlation
with firm performance. Furthermore, of all HR competencies, the highest contributions to a
firms performance are business knowledge and strategic combination.
Judith G. Calhoun et.al (2005)6 in their article Competency Mapping and Analysis for Public
Health Preparedness Training Initiatives point out that Competency-based education and
assessment initiatives have been completed in a number of health care and health management
professions during the past decade. In addition, several competency subsequently had to address
the many challenges and barriers to the dissemination and integration of their models into
specific educational and professional development practices. Specification endeavors have been
similarly undertaken in relation to the field of public health, including the development of the
Council on Linkages between Academia and Public Health Practice competency model and the
initial competency modeling Delphi survey completed by the Association of Schools of Public
Health. All of these organizations have competency modeling and deployment, understanding
and acceptance of competency-based systems are formidable goals, often rife with controversy.
This article describes the processes undertaken by The University of Michigan Center for Public
Health Preparedness to integrate competency-based learning and assessment in educational and
training initiatives with its many community partners.

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(Pooja & Ranjan, 2010) in their study titled, A Competency Mapping for Educational
Institution: Expert System Approach presents the development of expert system to assist in the
operation of competence management in educational institution. The knowledge based consists
of a rule-based expert system for the competence management and subsequent performance
assessment. It is generally recognized that an expert system can cope with many of the common
problems relative with the operation and control of the competence management process. In this
work an expert system is developed which emphasize on various steps involved in the
competence management process. The knowledge acquisition to develop this expert system
involved an exhaustive literature review on competence management operation and interviews
with experienced deans and the competence managers. The development tool for this system is
an expert system shell.
Saidas Ranade; Cassio Tamara, Edgar Castiblanco, Anibal Serna(2010)45 in their study on
Mapping competencies-Application of a visual method to determine the abilities of engineers
to reveal new and useful insights, determine that competency mapping has taken on a new
urgency as the increasing age of engineering professional. The increasing median age of
engineering professionals worldwide threatens a skill shortage as attrition and early retirements
take veteran engineers and accumulated knowledge out of the workplace.
(Vathsala & Zoyza, 2009), this study investigates whether there is a set of management
competencies that should be possessed by managers irrespective of their areas of functional
specialization using quantitative methodology. For the study, 31 individual competencies were
analyzed. The study was confined to a fully integrated telecommunication service provider; 198
managerial employees participated in the survey. The findings reveal broad level competencies
that are important for managers working in one of the seven functional areas. The findings
suggest the importance of competencies from value and skill clusters than knowledge cluster
across all functional areas. Further, there was hardly any congruence with the perceptions on
current expertise and current importance across all the functional areas. However, the findings of
the study imply the management development challenges in incorporating a proper balance of
knowledge, skill and value competencies into managerial competency development programs. In
making critical decisions, competency management has an important contribution as it ensures
that individual competencies are linked to strategies of the organization.

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Rakesh Sharma and Jyotsna Bhatnagar(2009)25 in their study Talent management
competency development: key to global leadership, have aimed to draw lessons on how
building a talent management strategy based on competency profiling becomes a critical impact
area within the field of strategic HRM. Design/methodology/approach The case study
discusses an Indian pharmaceutical organization, the environment and the issues arising in
context to talent management. The case discusses a well designed talent management strategy.
The talent mindset has helped the organization in recruiting the best talent from the best
pharmaceutical organizations. The attrition of the top and valued talent segment has come down.
Some of the key positions have been filled through succession planning. The implications lie in
whether to grow talent or buy talent. This paper provides insights to HR practitioners on how to
attract, acquire and manage talent in a tight internal and external labor market. It also provides
empirical support for, and theoretical understanding of, the strategic HRM literature on the talent
management theme.
(Tawit & Swierczek, 2009) this study titled Management competencies: a comparative study
between Thailand and Hong Kong, investigates the management competencies required by a
Master of Business Administration (MBA) graduate to succeed as a global business manager in
an increasingly competitive business environment in Asia. This paper analyzes the differences in
management competencies of nearly 600 MBA students from 13 universities in Thailand and
Hong Kong. In the questionnaire, the MBA students are asked to indicate the levels of the
management competencies which they have gained from studying the MBA program. The
findings indicate that the work competency of the Hong Kong MBA students is significantly
higher than the Thai MBA students. The levels of interpersonal competency do not, however,
differ significantly between the Thai and Hong Kong students. The findings also show that there
are significant relationships between the background variables, e.g. job title and cultural values
namely individual success and social power and work and interpersonal competencies.
Gail Hall & Associates(2008) 32

in their study Cooks Competency mapping and

Qualifications Framework Project, have identified and promoted positive career options, the
cooking profession and the value of qualifications and optional learning routes are described in a
cohesive, clear and realistic manner. This project was initiated by Chefs and educators who saw
an opportunity to work together to provide clear resources that encourage new entrants to the
trade. Chefs, industry educators, apprenticeship and
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together on the project, beginning discussion on a Pan- Canadian basis about how qualifications
in the cooking profession link to one another. Finally they recommended three things. First is to
improve awareness of qualifications in the cooking field and understanding of their value, to
increase clarity of information about qualifications and optional training programs, and to
increase credit transferability and mobility options.
James Thomas Kunnannatt (2008)43

in his study Emotional intelligence: theory and

description a competency model for interpersonal effectiveness points out the brain theory and
recent business research to explain emotional intelligence and make a case for its centrality in the
successful workplace. The author describes a potential training model to develop EI, seeing it not
as an abstract concept but as a set of competencies that can be improved with good training. The
author highlights that, if a HR manager wants to invest in training that will raise the EI of
employees, and then the areas to work on are self-awareness and self-regulation as well as social
awareness and social influence. The author suggests that building empathy and influence are the
last stages in the EI development program, and can only be achieved through specialized and
sophisticated training. It is worth the effort, though, because the best managers will always
display both of these things, along with the associated traits of assertiveness, communication and
negotiation.
(Sarah & Bishop, 2014), discussed the experience of developing of a competency model for an
undergraduate business program and the benefits and challenges of moving to a competencybased approach and also draw on the literature on competency models in the human resource
management field and higher education to demonstrate that competency models can be helpful in
developing the knowledge and abilities of business student. Competency models have been
adopted in many organizations to focus systems for employee selection, training and
development, and work engagement on the competencies identified by the organization as most
important to its operations and strategic direction. Similarly, competency models can be
employed in business schools to guide the development of students with the goal of developing
their abilities consistent with demands in the marketplace. In this paper, they explored how
competency modeling can create benefits for both students and higher education institutions and
specifically business education programs. In their review of how competencies have been used in
the human resource management field and in higher education, they found that many of the
drivers of competency modeling in business organizations also apply to business education.
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Because graduates will need to demonstrate technical knowledge and be generalists as well,
incorporating broader skill development through competencies with content knowledge can
enhance the future success of the students.
T.V.Rao & Mohit Juneja (2007)5 in their study A study of competency assessment through
assessment centers and 360 degree feedback describe that both assessment centers and 360
degree feedback have become very popular new era HR tools. With human resources gaining
strategic importance combined with raising costs of talented managers and their source
availability, the organizations are left with no alternatives than identifying and grooming talent
from within. This has to the increased use of assessment centers and 360 degree tools developing
leadership competencies. The researchers study is based on the data gathered from the 3
organizations, Assessment centers and 360 degree feed back used as development tools .In all
these organizations competency mapping was done and common competencies were identified
using behavior indicators. Competencies were assessed by their external assessor and their
seniors, juniors, and colleagues on the same competency model. The researchers have found out
that no definite patterns lead to the conclusion that pat performance as assessed by 360 degree
feedback predictor of future potential as assessed by the assessment centers.
(Singh & Srivastava, 2013) in their study titled Competency Mapping for HR professionals in
IT industry, develops a competency mapping model for HR professionals in IT Industry for the
purpose of Training Need Assessment. Rapid and unpredictable technological changes and the
increased emphasis on quality of services are compelling IT businesses to recruit adaptable and
competent employees. At the top of the competency model are five roles, or lenses, through
which HR practitioners can view the model: Strategic partners, Administrative experts,
Employee champions, Change agents and HR experts. As the HR profession has increasingly
earned its seat at the strategic table and become a business partner, the need to develop the
foundational competency has become more pronounced. Every well-managed firm should have
well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively for all HR
jobs. IT Industry, being a knowledge-based industry, a high intellectual capital lends competitive
advantage to a firm. Therefore, many IT Companies in India are interested in knowing the
present skill level of their employees so that training can be given to improve their performance.
Competency mapping model helps in identification of training needs for HR professionals.
CM ON CIVIL ENGR-08 Chapter
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Naomi Meadows (2004)1 in her study Developing and validating a competency frame work for
advanced pharmacy practice has identified 34 competencies and has grouped them into 6
competency domains. Consensus development panels have validated the descriptors terms used
to define competency at foundation, excellence, or mastery for the expert practice and
the frame work. The majority have indicated that their practice is at mastery for the expert
practice and building relationship clusters, although a broader level of activity is reported for
the other four clusters. She has also developed an evidence based advanced practice competency
framework, grounded in the multi- disciplinary literature and validated by expert opinion.
Marica L.Bush(2001)2 in her study Spreadsheet competencies needed for entry level
managerial positions in accounting and business / information systems has pointed out that the
post secondary business educators, accounting managers, and business / information systems
managers have agreed upon 65 spreadsheet competencies as an important skill set needed by the
post secondary business graduate seeking an entry level managerial position, and she also states
that of the 65 competencies, 29 items are rated at 4.5 and above and extremely important to all
the three panels set by her. She has found out that highly correlated relationship between the
perceptions about spreadsheet competencies is needed for entry level managerial positions in the
accounting and business/ information systems. She concludes that a fairly high significant
relationship between the mean ratings of important spreadsheet competencies by the business/
information systems managers and post secondary business educators is conformed. The two
groups have 75% of their variance in common across 73 competencies; of these 73
competencies, twelve competencies were identical.
Paul lyons(2003)3 in his study Influencing performance improvement using skill charting has
provided a brief exposition on the general definitions and features of skills and competencies in
organizations. He presents an overview of skill charting, and offers specific methods to
demonstrate training for skill development, using skill charting and competency mapping; and
then presents the results of a brief study that encompasses the approaches discussed. The
findings of the study indicate that the skill charting methods have values, and promise, required
for the study. The author also points out that the organizational domains include team building,
job analysis, task analysis, skill development, development of competencies and standards,
training, performance analysis and appraisal. Finally the author has concluded that the skill
charting application offers many opportunities for the human resource and organization
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development specialists to create interventions that invite and involve the employees in learning
aimed at increasing the self-efficacy of the individual, improving the individual performance,
and improving the success of the organization.
Boak & Diane Coolican,(2001)4 in their study Competencies for retail leadership: accurate,
acceptable, affordable describe the development of competency model for middle- senior
managers in a large fashion retailing company, to encourage them to act more strategically and
discuss the relative benefits of researching as a custom made model against using or adopting a
generic model. They describe how the model has been used in the company for training and
developing and evaluate the model against a critical view of management competencies. In their
study they have taken 70 area managers, seven most effective performers are identified, and five
of them are interviewed using a critical incident approach. Six key leadership competencies have
been identified and they have constructed the model. The authors conclude that it is possible to
produce an accurate and acceptable bespoke model of management competency for managers
whose roles have much in common, within a reasonable budget, and thus is the realistic
alternative to adopt a generic model. They also point out that such a model will inevitably be
influenced by mental models of effective managers.
Andreas, Christine(2007)28 in his study Sustainable Competency- oriented Human Resource
Development with Ontology-Based Competency Catalogs points out that Competency-oriented
approaches are gaining ground in human resource development. Key technology to cope with the
complexity of fine-grained approaches are ontologies. By having a formal semantics, many
competency-related tasks can be partially automated on a technical level. In this paper, the author
wants to show that ontology-based approaches also foster the sustainability of such approaches
on an organizational level by providing connections between the operational and strategic level.
The authors present reference ontology and a reference process model have been applied in a
hospital case study.
Farah Naqvi (2009)44 in his study on Competency Mapping and Managing Talent, traces that
the performance of companies depend mostly on the quality of their human resource. For
obvious economic and business reasons, organizations have always been concerned about the
competence of its people. In this the author said that to delves deeper into the concept of
competency, tracing its history and its role in the present context. The paper explains how the
concept has constantly evolved over the years, its applications in human resource management,
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and development in the present scenario. It also aims to study its future prospects in the light of
other emerging areas like talent management. The paper proceeds with the examples of
companies, which have successfully integrated competency-based systems in their HR
initiatives.

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practice journal of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 27 Nov 2004, pp:789 792
2) Marcia L.Bush , Spreadsheet competencies needed for entry level managerial positions in accounting and
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23)

advanced practitioner workforce, University of London & NHS Specialist Pharmacy Services, HSRPP
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