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DRUG

CLASSIFICATION

DOSAGE,

MECHANISM OF

& INDICATION

ROUTE,

ACTION

CONTRA-

SIDE EFFECTS

NURSING
RESPONSIBILITIES

INDICATION

FREQUENCY
Generic

Classication

10

Maintain acid-

Contraindicated

CNS: confusion,

name:

Therapeutic:

meqs/durule

base balance,

in:

restlessness,

isotonicity, and

Hyperkalemia;

weakness.

elec-

Severe renal

replacements/supp

trophysiologic

impairment;

lements

balance of the

Untreated

brand

cell.Activator in

Addisons

name:

many enzymatic

disease; Severe

reactions;

tissue trauma;

essential to

Hyperkalemic

transmis- sion of

familial periodic

nerve impulses;

pa- ralysis; Some

contraction of

products may

potassium
chloride

mineral and
electrolyte

Indications PO, IV:


kaliumdurul
e

Treatment/preventi
on of potassium
depletion.
IV: Arrhythmias

1 durule 3x
day

Assessment
Assess for signs
and symptoms of

CV:

hypokalemia

ARRHYTHMIAS,

(weakness, fatigue, U

ECG changes.

wave on ECG,

GI: abdominal

arrhythmias,

pain, diarrhea,

polyuria, polydipsia)

atulence,

and hyperkalemia

nausea,

(see Toxicity and

vomiting;

Overdose).

tablets, capsules

Monitor pulse,

due to digoxin

cardiac, skeletal,

contain

only, GI

blood pressure, and

toxicity.

and smooth

tartrazine (FDC

ulceration,

ECG periodically

muscle; gastric

yellow dye #5) or

stenotic lesions.

during IV therapy.

secretion; renal

alcohol; avoid

Local: irritation

function; tissue

using in patients

at IV site.

synthesis; and

with known

Neuro:

carbohydrate

hypersensitivity

paralysis,

metabolism.

or intoler- ance;

paresthesia.

Therapeutic

Potassium

Effects:

acetate injection

Replacement.

contains alumi-

Prevention of

num, which may

deciency.

become toxic
with prolonged
use to high risk
groups (renal

Lab Test
Considerations:
Monitor serum
potassium before and
periodically during
therapy. Monitor
renal function, serum
bicarbonate, and
pH.Determine serum
magnesium level if
patient has refractory
hypokalemia;
hypomagnesemia

impairment, pre-

should be corrected

mature

to facilitate

neonates).

effectiveness of
potassium
replacement. Monitor serum chloride
because
hypochloremia may
occur if replacing
potassium without
con- current chloride.
Toxicity and
Overdose: Symptoms
of toxicity are those
of hyperkalemia
(slow, irregular

heartbeat; fatigue;
muscle weakness;
paresthesia;
confusion; dyspnea;
peaked T waves; depressed ST segments;
prolonged QT
segments; widened
QRS complexes; loss
of P waves; and
cardiac arrhythmias).
Treatment includes
discontinuation of
potassium,administr
ation of sodium
bicarbonate to

correct acidosis,
dextrose and insulin
to facilitate passage
of potassium into
cells, calcium salts to
reverse ECG effects
(in patients who are
not receiving
digoxin), sodium
polystyrene used as
an exchange resin,
and/or dialysis for
patient with impaired
renal function.