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Architecture
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Architecture(Latinarchitectura,
aftertheGreek
arkhitektonfrom"chief"
and"builder,carpenter,
mason")isboththeprocessand
theproductofplanning,
designing,andconstructing
buildingsandotherphysical
structures.Architecturalworks,in
thematerialformofbuildings,are
oftenperceivedascultural
symbolsandasworksofart.
Historicalcivilizationsareoften
identifiedwiththeirsurviving
architecturalachievements.
"Architecture"canmean:
Ageneraltermtodescribe
buildingsandother

Brunelleschi,inthebuildingofthedomeofFlorenceCathedralintheearly
15thcentury,notonlytransformedthebuildingandthecity,butalsothe
roleandstatusofthearchitect. [1][2]

physicalstructures.[3]
Theartandscienceofdesigningbuildingsand(some)
nonbuildingstructures.[3]
Thestyleofdesignandmethodofconstructionofbuildings
andotherphysicalstructures.[3]
Theknowledgeofart,science&technologyandhumanity.[3]
Thepracticeofthearchitect,wherearchitecturemeans
offeringorrenderingprofessionalservicesinconnectionwith
thedesignandconstructionofbuildings,orbuilt
environments.[4]
Thedesignactivityofthearchitect,[3]fromthemacrolevel
(urbandesign,landscapearchitecture)tothemicrolevel

SectionofBrunelleschi'sdomedrawn
bythearchitectCigoli(c.1600)

(constructiondetailsandfurniture).
Architecturehastodowithplanning,designingandconstructingform,spaceandambiencetoreflect
functional,technical,social,environmentalandaestheticconsiderations.Itrequiresthecreative
manipulationandcoordinationofmaterialsandtechnology,andoflightandshadow.Often,conflicting
requirementsmustberesolved.ThepractiseofArchitecturealsoencompassesthepragmaticaspectsof
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realizingbuildingsandstructures,includingscheduling,costestimationandconstructionadministration.
Documentationproducedbyarchitects,typicallydrawings,plansandtechnicalspecifications,definesthe
structureand/orbehaviorofabuildingorotherkindofsystemthatistobeorhasbeenconstructed.
Theword"architecture"hasalsobeenadoptedtodescribeotherdesignedsystems,especiallyininformation
technology.[3]

Contents
1Theoryofarchitecture
1.1Historictreatises
1.2Modernconceptsofarchitecture
2History
2.1Originsandvernaculararchitecture
2.2Ancientarchitecture
2.3Asianarchitecture
2.4Indianarchitecture
2.5Middleages
2.6Renaissanceandthearchitect
2.7Earlymodernandtheindustrialage
2.8Modernismandreaction
2.9Architecturetoday
3Seealso
4Notes
5References
6Externallinks

Theoryofarchitecture
Historictreatises
TheearliestsurvivingwrittenworkonthesubjectofarchitectureisDearchitectura,bytheRomanarchitect
Vitruviusintheearly1stcenturyAD.[6]AccordingtoVitruvius,agoodbuildingshouldsatisfythethree
principlesoffirmitas,utilitas,venustas,[7][8]commonlyknownbytheoriginaltranslationfirmness,
commodityanddelight.AnequivalentinmodernEnglishwouldbe:
Durabilityabuildingshouldstanduprobustlyandremainingoodcondition.
Utilityitshouldbesuitableforthepurposesforwhichisitused.
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Beautyitshouldbeaestheticallypleasing.
AccordingtoVitruvius,thearchitectshouldstrivetofulfilleachofthesethreeattributesaswellaspossible.
LeoneBattistaAlberti,whoelaboratesontheideasofVitruviusinhistreatise,DeReAedificatoria,saw
beautyprimarilyasamatterofproportion,althoughornamentalsoplayedapart.ForAlberti,therulesof
proportionwerethosethatgovernedtheidealisedhumanfigure,theGoldenmean.Themostimportant
aspectofbeautywasthereforeaninherentpartofanobject,ratherthansomethingappliedsuperficiallyand
wasbasedonuniversal,recognisabletruths.Thenotionofstylein
theartswasnotdevelopeduntilthe16thcentury,withthewritingof
Vasari:[9]bythe18thcentury,hisLivesoftheMostExcellent
Painters,Sculptors,andArchitectshadbeentranslatedintoItalian,
French,SpanishandEnglish.

TheHousesofParliament,
Westminster,masterplannedby
CharlesBarry,withinteriorsand
detailsbyA.W.N.Pugin

Intheearly19thcentury,
AugustusWelbyNorthmore
PuginwroteContrasts
(1836)that,asthetitled
TheParthenon,Athens,Greece,"the
suggested,contrastedthe
supremeexampleamongarchitectural
modern,industrialworld,
sites."(Fletcher). [5]
whichhedisparaged,withan
idealizedimageofneo
medievalworld.Gothicarchitecture,Puginbelieved,wastheonly
"trueChristianformofarchitecture."

The19thcenturyEnglishartcritic,JohnRuskin,inhisSevenLamps
ofArchitecture,published1849,wasmuchnarrowerinhisviewof
whatconstitutedarchitecture.Architecturewasthe"artwhichso
disposesandadornstheedificesraisedbymen...thatthesightof
them"contributes"tohismentalhealth,power,andpleasure".[10]
ForRuskin,theaestheticwasofoverridingsignificance.Hisworkgoesontostatethatabuildingisnot
trulyaworkofarchitectureunlessitisinsomeway"adorned".ForRuskin,awellconstructed,well
proportioned,functionalbuildingneededstringcoursesorrustication,attheveryleast.[10]
Onthedifferencebetweentheidealsofarchitectureandmereconstruction,therenowned20thcentury
architectLeCorbusierwrote:"Youemploystone,wood,andconcrete,andwiththesematerialsyoubuild
housesandpalaces:thatisconstruction.Ingenuityisatwork.Butsuddenlyyoutouchmyheart,youdome
good.IamhappyandIsay:Thisisbeautiful.ThatisArchitecture".[11]
LeCorbusier'scontemporaryLudwigMiesvanderRohesaid"Architecturestartswhenyoucarefullyput
twobrickstogether.Thereitbegins."[12]

Modernconceptsofarchitecture
Thenotable19thcenturyarchitectofskyscrapers,LouisSullivan,promotedanoverridingpreceptto
architecturaldesign:"Formfollowsfunction".
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Whilethenotionthatstructuralandaestheticconsiderationsshouldbeentirelysubjecttofunctionalitywas
metwithbothpopularityandskepticism,ithadtheeffectofintroducingtheconceptof"function"inplace
ofVitruvius'"utility"."Function"cametobeseenasencompassingallcriteriaoftheuse,perceptionand
enjoymentofabuilding,notonlypracticalbutalsoaesthetic,psychologicalandcultural.

SydneyOperaHouse,Australia
designedbyJrnUtzon

NunziaRondaninistated,
"Throughitsaesthetic
dimensionarchitecturegoes
beyondthefunctional
aspectsthatithasin
commonwithotherhuman
sciences.Throughitsown
particularwayofexpressing
values,architecturecan
stimulateandinfluence
sociallifewithoutpresuming
that,inandofitself,itwill
promotesocialdevelopment.'

TheNationalCongressofBrazil,
designedbyOscarNiemeyer

Torestrictthemeaningof(architectural)formalismtoartforart'ssakeisnotonlyreactionaryitcanalsobe
apurposelessquestforperfectionororiginalitywhichdegradesformintoamereinstrumentality".[13]
Amongthephilosophiesthathaveinfluencedmodernarchitectsandtheirapproachtobuildingdesignare
rationalism,empiricism,structuralism,poststructuralism,andphenomenology.
Inthelate20thcenturyanewconceptwasaddedtothoseincludedinthecompassofbothstructureand
function,theconsiderationofsustainability,hencesustainablearchitecture.Tosatisfythecontemporary
ethosabuildingshouldbeconstructedinamannerwhichisenvironmentallyfriendlyintermsofthe
productionofitsmaterials,itsimpactuponthenaturalandbuiltenvironmentofitssurroundingareaandthe
demandsthatitmakesuponnonsustainablepowersourcesforheating,cooling,waterandwaste
managementandlighting.

History
Originsandvernaculararchitecture
Buildingfirstevolvedoutofthedynamicsbetweenneeds(shelter,
security,worship,etc.)andmeans(availablebuildingmaterialsand
attendantskills).Ashumanculturesdevelopedandknowledge
begantobeformalizedthroughoraltraditionsandpractices,
buildingbecameacraft,and"architecture"isthenamegiventothe
mosthighlyformalizedandrespectedversionsofthatcraft.
Itiswidelyassumedthatarchitecturalsuccesswastheproductofa
processoftrialanderror,withprogressivelylesstrialandmore
replicationastheresultsoftheprocessprovedincreasingly
satisfactory.Whatistermedvernaculararchitecturecontinuestobe
producedinmanypartsoftheworld.Indeed,vernacularbuildings
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makeupmostofthebuiltworldthatpeopleexperienceeveryday.Earlyhumansettlementsweremostly
rural.Duetoasurplusinproductiontheeconomybegantoexpandresultinginurbanizationthuscreating
urbanareaswhichgrewandevolvedveryrapidlyinsomecases,suchasthatofatalHykinAnatolia
andMohenjoDarooftheIndusValleyCivilizationinmoderndayPakistan.

Ancientarchitecture
Inmanyancientcivilizations,suchasthoseofEgyptand
Mesopotamia,architectureandurbanismreflectedtheconstant
engagementwiththedivineandthesupernatural,andmanyancient
culturesresortedtomonumentalityinarchitecturetorepresent
symbolicallythepoliticalpoweroftheruler,therulingelite,orthe
stateitself.
ThePyramidsatGizainEgypt

ThearchitectureandurbanismoftheClassicalcivilizationssuchas
theGreekandtheRomanevolvedfromcivicidealsratherthan
religiousorempiricalonesandnewbuildingtypesemerged.Architectural"style"developedintheformof
theClassicalorders.
Textsonarchitecturehavebeenwrittensinceancienttime.Thesetextsprovidedbothgeneraladviceand
specificformalprescriptionsorcanons.Someexamplesofcanonsarefoundinthewritingsofthe1st
centuryBCERomanmilitaryengineerVitruvius.Someofthemostimportantearlyexamplesofcanonic
architecturearereligious.

Asianarchitecture
EarlyAsianwritingsonarchitectureincludetheKaoGongJiof
Chinafromthe7th5thcenturiesBCEtheShilpaShastrasof
ancientIndiaandManjusriVasthuVidyaSastraofSriLanka.
ThearchitectureofdifferentpartsofAsiadevelopedalongdifferent
linesfromthatofEuropeBuddhist,HinduandSikharchitecture
eachhavingdifferentcharacteristics.Buddhistarchitecture,in
Kinkakuji(GoldenPavilion),Kyoto,
particular,showedgreatregionaldiversity.Hindutemple
Japan
architecture,whichdevelopedaroundthe3rdcenturyBCE,is
governedbyconceptslaiddownintheShastras,andisconcerned
withexpressingthemacrocosmandthemicrocosm.InmanyAsiancountries,pantheisticreligionledto
architecturalformsthatweredesignedspecificallytoenhancethenaturallandscape.

Indianarchitecture
Islamicarchitecturebeganinthe7thcenturyCE,incorporatingarchitecturalformsfromtheancientMiddle
EastandByzantium,butalsodevelopingfeaturestosuitthereligiousandsocialneedsofthesociety.
ExamplescanbefoundthroughouttheMiddleEast,NorthAfrica,SpainandtheIndianSubcontinent.The
widespreadapplicationofthepointedarchwastoinfluenceEuropeanarchitectureoftheMedievalperiod.

Middleages
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InEuropeduringtheMedievalperiod,guildswereformedbycraftsmentoorganizetheirtradesandwritten
contractshavesurvived,particularlyinrelationtoecclesiasticalbuildings.Theroleofarchitectwasusually
onewiththatofmastermason,orMagisterlathomorumastheyaresometimesdescribedincontemporary
documents.
Themajorarchitecturalundertakingswerethebuildingsofabbeysandcathedrals.Fromabout900CE
onwards,themovementsofbothclericsandtradesmencarriedarchitecturalknowledgeacrossEurope,
resultinginthepanEuropeanstylesRomanesqueandGothic.

Renaissanceandthe
architect

TheTajMahal(16321653),inIndia

LaRotonda(1567),ItalybyPalladio

InRenaissanceEurope,from
about1400onwards,there
wasarevivalofClassical
learningaccompaniedbythe
developmentofRenaissance
Humanismwhichplaced
greateremphasisontherole
NotreDamedeParis,France
oftheindividualinsociety
thanhadbeenthecase
duringtheMedievalperiod.Buildingswereascribedtospecific
architectsBrunelleschi,Alberti,Michelangelo,Palladioandthe
cultoftheindividualhadbegun.Therewasstillnodividingline
betweenartist,architectandengineer,oranyoftherelated
vocations,andtheappellationwasoftenoneofregionalpreference.
ArevivaloftheClassicalstyleinarchitecturewasaccompaniedby
aburgeoningofscienceandengineeringwhichaffectedthe
proportionsandstructureofbuildings.Atthisstage,itwasstill
possibleforanartisttodesignabridgeasthelevelofstructural
calculationsinvolvedwaswithinthescopeofthegeneralist.

Earlymodernandtheindustrialage
Withtheemergingknowledgeinscientificfieldsandtheriseofnew
materialsandtechnology,architectureandengineeringbeganto
separate,andthearchitectbegantoconcentrateonaestheticsandthe
humanistaspects,oftenattheexpenseoftechnicalaspectsof
buildingdesign.Therewasalsotheriseofthe"gentlemanarchitect"
whousuallydealtwithwealthyclientsandconcentrated
predominantlyonvisualqualitiesderivedusuallyfromhistorical
prototypes,typifiedbythemanycountryhousesofGreatBritain
thatwerecreatedintheNeoGothicorScottishBaronialstyles.
Formalarchitecturaltraininginthe19thcentury,forexampleat
EcoledesBeauxArtsinFrance,gavemuchemphasistothe

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ParisOperabyCharlesGarnier
(1875),France

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productionofbeautifuldrawingsandlittletocontextandfeasibility.Effectivearchitectsgenerallyreceived
theirtrainingintheofficesofotherarchitects,graduatingtotherolefromdraughtsmenorclerks.
Meanwhile,theIndustrialRevolutionlaidopenthedoorformassproductionandconsumption.Aesthetics
becameacriterionforthemiddleclassasornamentedproducts,oncewithintheprovinceofexpensive
craftsmanship,becamecheaperundermachineproduction.
Vernaculararchitecturebecameincreasinglyornamental.Housebuilderscouldusecurrentarchitectural
designintheirworkbycombiningfeaturesfoundinpatternbooksandarchitecturaljournals.

Modernismandreaction
Aroundthebeginningofthe20thcentury,ageneraldissatisfaction
withtheemphasisonrevivalistarchitectureandelaboratedecoration
gaverisetomanynewlinesofthoughtthatservedasprecursorsto
ModernArchitecture.NotableamongtheseistheDeutscher
Werkbund,formedin1907toproducebetterqualitymachinemade
objects.Theriseoftheprofessionofindustrialdesignisusually
placedhere.Followingthislead,theBauhausschool,foundedin
Weimar,Germanyin1919,redefinedthearchitecturalboundsprior
setthroughouthistory,viewingthecreationofabuildingasthe
ultimatesynthesistheapexofart,craft,andtechnology.

TheBauhausDessauarchitecture
departmentfrom1925byWalter
Gropius

WhenModernarchitecturewasfirstpracticed,itwasanavantgarde
movementwithmoral,philosophical,andaestheticunderpinnings.
ImmediatelyafterWorldWarI,pioneeringmodernistarchitects
soughttodevelopacompletelynewstyleappropriateforanewpostwarsocialandeconomicorder,
focusedonmeetingtheneedsofthemiddleandworkingclasses.Theyrejectedthearchitecturalpracticeof
theacademicrefinementofhistoricalstyleswhichservedtherapidlydecliningaristocraticorder.The
approachoftheModernistarchitectswastoreducebuildingstopureforms,removinghistoricalreferences
andornamentinfavoroffunctionalistdetails.Buildingsdisplayedtheirfunctionalandstructuralelements,
exposingsteelbeamsandconcretesurfacesinsteadofhidingthembehinddecorativeforms.
ArchitectssuchasFrankLloydWrightdevelopedOrganic
architecture,inwhichtheformwasdefinedbyitsenvironmentand
purpose,withanaimtopromoteharmonybetweenhuman
habitationandthenaturalworldwithprimeexamplesbeingRobie
HouseandFallingwater.
ArchitectssuchasMiesvanderRohe,PhilipJohnsonandMarcel
Breuerworkedtocreatebeautybasedontheinherentqualitiesof
buildingmaterialsandmodernconstructiontechniques,trading
traditionalhistoricformsforsimplifiedgeometricforms,celebrating
Fallingwater,Organicarchitectureby
thenewmeansandmethodsmadepossiblebytheIndustrial
FrankLloydWright
Revolution,includingsteelframeconstruction,whichgavebirthto
highrisesuperstructures.Bymidcentury,Modernismhadmorphed
intotheInternationalStyle,anaestheticepitomizedinmanywaysbytheTwinTowersofNewYork's
WorldTradeCenter.
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ManyarchitectsresistedModernism,findingitdevoidofthe
decorativerichnessofornamentedstylesandasthefoundersofthat
movementlostinfluenceinthelate1970s,Postmodernism
developedasareactionagainstitsausterity.Postmodernismviewed
Modernismasbeingtooextremeandevenharshinregardsto
design.Instead,PostmodernistscombinedModernismwitholder
stylesfrombeforethe1900stoformamiddleground.Robert
Venturi'scontentionthata"decoratedshed"(anordinarybuilding
whichisfunctionallydesignedinsideandembellishedonthe
outside)wasbetterthana"duck"(anungainlybuildinginwhichthe
wholeformanditsfunctionaretiedtogether)givesanideaofthese
approaches.

TheCrystalCathedral,California,by
PhilipJohnson(1980)

Architecturetoday
Sincethe1980s,asthecomplexityofbuildingsbegantoincrease(in
termsofstructuralsystems,services,energyandtechnologies),the
fieldofarchitecturebecamemultidisciplinarywithspecializations
foreachprojecttype,technologicalexpertiseorprojectdelivery
methods.Inaddition,therehasbeenanincreasedseparationofthe
'design'architect[Notes1]fromthe'project'architectwhoensures
thattheprojectmeetstherequiredstandardsanddealswithmatters
ofliability.[Notes2]Thepreparatoryprocessesforthedesignofany
largebuildinghavebecomeincreasinglycomplicated,andrequire
PostmoderndesignatGaredo
preliminarystudiesofsuchmattersasdurability,sustainability,
Oriente,Lisbon,Portugal,by
quality,money,andcompliancewithlocallaws.Alargestructure
SantiagoCalatrava
cannolongerbethedesignofonepersonbutmustbetheworkof
many.ModernismandPostmodernism,havebeencriticisedby
somemembersofthearchitecturalprofessionwhofeelthatsuccessfularchitectureisnotapersonal
philosophicaloraestheticpursuitbyindividualistsratherithastoconsidereverydayneedsofpeopleand
usetechnologytocreateliveableenvironments,withthedesignprocessbeinginformedbystudiesof
behavioral,environmental,andsocialsciences.
Environmentalsustainabilityhasbecomeamainstreamissue,with
profoundaffectonthearchitecturalprofession.Manydevelopers,
thosewhosupportthefinancingofbuildings,havebecomeeducated
toencouragethefacilitationofenvironmentallysustainabledesign,
ratherthansolutionsbasedprimarilyonimmediatecost.Major
examplesofthiscanbefoundinPassivesolarbuildingdesign,
greenerroofdesigns,biodegradablematerials,andmoreattentionto
astructure'senergyusage.Thismajorshiftinarchitecturehasalso
changedarchitectureschoolstofocusmoreontheenvironment.
Greenroofplantedwithnative
SustainabilityinarchitecturewaspioneeredbyFrankLloydWright,
speciesatL'HistorialdelaVende,a
inthe1960sbyBuckminsterFullerandinthe1970sbyarchitects
newmuseuminwesternFrance
suchasIanMcHargandSimVanderRynintheUSandBrendaand
RobertValeintheUKandNewZealand.Therehasbeenan
accelerationinthenumberofbuildingswhichseektomeetgreenbuildingsustainabledesignprinciples.
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Sustainablepracticesthatwereatthecoreofvernaculararchitectureincreasinglyprovideinspirationfor
environmentallyandsociallysustainablecontemporarytechniques.[14]TheU.S.GreenBuildingCouncil's
LEED(LeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesign)ratingsystemhasbeeninstrumentalinthis.[15]
Concurrently,therecentmovementsofNewUrbanismandNewClassicalArchitecturepromotea
sustainableapproachtowardsconstruction,thatappreciatesanddevelopssmartgrowth,architectural
traditionandclassicaldesign.[16][17]Thisincontrasttomodernistandgloballyuniformarchitecture,aswell
asleaningagainstsolitaryhousingestatesandsuburbansprawl.[18]

Seealso

AngkorWat,Cambodia,
symmetryandelevationhave
oftenbeenutilisedinthe
architecturalexpressionof
religiousdevotionorpolitical
power.

MachuPicchu,Peru,shows
theadaptationsofarchitecture
andtownplanningtoa
ruggednaturalsite

LowerManhattan,March2001.
The20thcenturysawcitiesacross
theworldtransformedbyhighrise
buildingsintheInternationalStyle

Architecturaldesigncompetition
Architecturaldrawing
Architecturalstyle
Architecturaltechnology
Architecturaltheory
Architectureprizes
Buildingmaterials
Contemporaryarchitecture
Glossaryofarchitecture
Listofhumanhabitationforms
Organicarchitecture
Outlineofarchitecture
Sociologyofarchitecture
Sustainablearchitecture

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Notes
1. ^Adesignarchitectisonewhoisresponsibleforthedesign.
2. ^Aprojectarchitectisonewhoisresponsibleforensuringthedesignisbuiltcorrectlyandwhoadministers
buildingcontractsinnonspecialistarchitecturalpracticestheprojectarchitectisalsothedesignarchitectand
thetermreferstothedifferingrolesthearchitectplaysatdifferingstagesoftheprocess.

References
1. ^MuseoGalileo,MuseumandInstituteofHistoryandScience,TheDomeofSantaMariadelFiore
(http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/itineraries/place/TheDomeOfSantaMariaFiore.html),(accessed30012013)
2. ^GiovanniFanelli,Brunelleschi,Becocci,Florence(1980),Chapter:TheDomepp.1041.
3. ^abcdefShorterOxfordEnglishDictionary(1993),Oxford,ISBN0198605757
4. ^"Gov.ns.ca"(http://www.gov.ns.ca/legislature/legc/bills/60th_1st/3rd_read/b115.htm).Gov.ns.ca.Archived
(http://web.archive.org/web/20110721200353/http://www.gov.ns.ca/legislature/legc/bills/60th_1st/3rd_read/b115.
htm)fromtheoriginalon21July2011.Retrieved20110702.
5. ^BanisterFletcher,AHistoryofArchitectureontheComparativeMethod
6. ^D.RowlandT.N.Howe:Vitruvius.TenBooksonArchitecture.CambridgeUniversityPress,Cambridge
1999,ISBN0521002923
7. ^TranslatedbyHenryWottonin1624(http://www.gardenvisit.com/landscape/LIH/history/vitruvius.htm#ch13)
8. ^"Vitruvius"(http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Vitruvius/home.html).
Penelope.uchicago.edu.Retrieved20110702.
9. ^FranoiseChoay,AlbertiandVitruvius,editor,JosephRykwert,Profile21,ArchitecturalDesign,Vol49No
56
10. ^abJohnRuskin,TheSevenLampsofArchitecture,G.Allen(1880),reprintedDover,(1989)ISBN0486
26145X
11. ^LeCorbusier,TowardsaNewArchitecture,DoverPublications(1985).ISBN0486250237
12. ^MiesvanderRohequotationatBrainyquote
(http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/l/ludwigmies116040.html)
13. ^Rondanini,NunziaArchitectureandSocialChangeHeresiesII,Vol.3,No.3,NewYork,NeresiesCollective
Inc.,1981.
14. ^OneWorld.net(20040331)."VernacularArchitectureinIndia"
(http://el.doccentre.info/eldoc/0411/dwvernacular_architecture.html).El.doccentre.info.Retrieved20110702.
15. ^OtherenergyefficiencyandgreenbuildingratingsystemsincludeEnergyStar,GreenGlobes,andCHPS
(CollaborativeforHighPerformanceSchools).
16. ^CharteroftheNewUrbanism(http://www.cnu.org/charter)
17. ^"Beauty,Humanism,ContinuitybetweenPastandFuture"(http://www.traditionalarchitecture.co.uk/aims.html).
TraditionalArchitectureGroup.Retrieved23March2014.
18. ^IssueBrief:SmartGrowth:BuildingLivableCommunities
(http://www.aia.org/SiteObjects/files/smartgrowth05.pdf).AmericanInstituteofArchitects.Retrievedon2014
0323.
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ArchitectureWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Externallinks
GlobalArchitectureandUrbanityCommunitySSC(http://www.skyscrapercity.com)
WorldArchitectureCommunity(http://www.worldarchitecture.org)
Architecture.com(http://www.architecture.com),publishedbyRoyalInstituteofBritishArchitects
Architecturalcentersandmuseumsintheworld(http://www.uiaarchitectes.org/texte/england/Menu
7/1musees.html),listoflinksfromtheUIA
ArchitectureWeek(http://www.architectureweek.com/today.html)
AmericanInstituteofArchitects(http://www.aia.org)
GlossaryofArchitectureTerms(http://www.theenglishdictionary.org/label/architecture)(with
dictionarydefinitions)
Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Architecture&oldid=637667898"
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