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Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

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Ocean Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

Design and analysis of a straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine blade
using analytical and numerical techniques
M. Saqib Hameed a,n, S. Kamran Afaq b
a
b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan


Department of Mechanical Engineering, HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 19 November 2011
Accepted 13 September 2012
Available online 6 November 2012

Wind as a source of energy is being used from very long time. It has gained more signicance in the
current age of energy crisis. Lots of efforts have been made to develop the horizontal axis wind turbines
but vertical axis wind turbines did not get much attention over the past couple of decades. Blade is the
most important component of a wind turbine which controls the performance of a wind turbine and
design of other components attached to it. A concept for the design of a straight symmetrical blade for a
small scale vertical axis wind turbine using beam theories for analytical modeling and a commercial
software ANSYS 11.0 for numerical modeling is presented in current research. Design parameters of the
blade like solidity, aspect ratio, pressure coefcient etc are determined aiming the 1 kW power output
and the blade design was analyzed at extreme wind conditions where maximum values of deection
and bending stresses were determined at peak values of aerodynamic and centrifugal forces. The design
was optimized to attain the structural strength i.e. reduction in deections and bending stresses. This
blade design has high strength and lower material consumption to achieve the low cost of complete
rotor assembly of the wind turbine which actually covers more than 50% of the overall wind
turbine cost.
& 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
VAWT
Centrifugal forces
Wall thickness
Darrieus
H-rotor
Blade design

1. Introduction
The attempts have been made to explore and analyze the
aerodynamic models utilized for the high performance and strong
design of straight bladed darrieus VAWTs. The major advantage of
VAWTs is that it can be used at any location and it is a standalone
system where you can place the generator at the ground level
(Islam et al., 2008b) The principle advantages of VAWTs are that
they accept the wind from any direction without yawing. Straight,
untwisted and uniform section blades of VAWTs are easy to
fabricate and give the performance which is comparable with
HAWT, with almost 40% extraction of wind energy (Habtamu and
Yingxue, 2011). The long blades of darrieus vertical axis wind
turbine with high aspect ratios subjected to a large value of
bending moments due to centrifugal forces which may result into
the failure of the blades (Kragten, 2004). Even the small scale
vertical axis wind turbine is potentially dangerous because when
it is allowed to spin freely it accelerates rapidly due to the
absence of stall; it creates explosive centrifugal forces within
few moments, so as the aerodynamics forces over the blade
n

Corresponding author. Tel.: 92 3349607734.


E-mail addresses: saqibhameed@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk,
saqib.hameed@hotmail.com (M.S. Hameed),
kamran.afaq@hitecuni.edu.pk (S.K. Afaq).
0029-8018/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.09.007

increase the effect of centrifugal forces increases too (Sharp).


Therefore, high rotational speeds leads to high centrifugal forces
and pulsating torque which actually supports the blades but
probability of structural failures increases at the same time
(Jain, 2011). The blade centrifugal stresses are maximum at the
location where the connection with the tower is made which is
actually the location of strut attachments in case of darrieus
vertical axis wind turbines (Blackwell, et al. 1977). So without
compromising on the performance of darrieus rotor, three blades
model is recommended to use in order to reduce the structural
loads on the blades. Struts were made with NACA 0025 to
withstand the extreme values of centrifugal and aerodynamics
loads (Wahl, 2007). The design mechanism, selections of design
variables with theoretical modeling and aerodynamics modeling
is discussed and compared briey for different wind turbine
blades (Eriksson et al., 2008).
This research aims to design and optimize the blade of
darrieus VAWT using analytical and numerical techniques. The
blade design parameters and its dimensions are calculated analytically. The aerodynamics forces acting on a blade are determined
during its complete 3601 rotation. The blade is designed on the
basis of maximum values of deection and bending stresses at
extreme loading condition i.e. maximum sum of aerodynamic and
centrifugal forces during one complete rotation of blade. These
values are determined analytically and validated numerically and

M.S. Hameed, S.K. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

an optimized value of wall thickness is chosen keeping in view


the maximum deections and bending stresses.

2. Design parameters
In this section a complete methodology for the selection of
blade geometry, proles and dimensions are described when
designing it for required power output.
2.1. Design velocity, V
The designed wind velocity is chosen as 8 m/s which is an
average wind speed in areas where this wind turbine will be
operational.
2.2. No. of blades, n
The torque ripple can be reduced for the case of darrieus rotor
by taking three or more number of blades. For small scale
domestic use vertical axis wind turbines normally contain three
blades which is an optimum number of blades.
2.3. Tip speed ratio, TSR
This is actually the ratio between rotational speed of the tip of
a blade and the actual velocity of the wind. Relationship for
calculating the TSR is given as

lmax

4p
4:1 TSR Rw=V
n

where, n no. of blades 3


Value of TSR is observed to be a low in this case because the
operating TSR range for darrieus rotor is 46 (Koksal and Hughes,
2005).
2.4. Solidity
The solidity is dened as the ratio of blade area with rotor area
and represented as
Solidity

Blade area
ncD
nc
2
Rotor area
D
D

where, D is the diameter of the turbine and c is the chord length


viz. unknown at this time.
For design velocity range of 711 m/s, the solidity values for
darrieus VAWTs should be chosen in the range of 0.20.25 (Jain,
2011). Power production can be increased by increasing the value
of solidity but at the same time production of torque on the blade
increases too, more specically, the value of solidity is within the
range of 0.10.2 for straight bladed darrieus VAWT (Koksal et al.,
2004). For three or more number of blades with small size of wind
turbines and lower value of TSR, the value of solidity is preferred
to be a high value (Islam et al., 2008a) within its given range in
order to maximize the power production. Therefore, a high value
of solidity was chosen as 0.24.
2.5. Power coefcient, Cp
For darrieus rotors and other rotary devices, the values of Cp
are plotted against TSR for a range of solidity 0.050.40 (Koksal
et al., 2004). For solidity 0.24, the value of Cp is approximately
0.43 at TSR 4.1.

249

2.6. Diameter of the turbine, D


The relationship between required power output and the
design velocity was utilized to evaluate the diameter of the
turbine, as (Blackwell et al., 1977)
P 0:5C p rV 3 D2
For 900 W output and density of air as 1.23 Kg=m3 the
diameter D of the turbine was calculated as 2.578 m.
2.7. Span length of the blade, b
For the calculations of the blade span length, the complete
rotor assembly was considered as a 3D cube for capture of same
and maximum possible value of wind energy from any direction,
as shown in the front view of designed turbine, Fig. 1.
On the right of the gure the front view of the designed wind
turbine is shown diameter is already calculated as 2.58 m
whereas, considering it a square from front span length is also
taken as 2.578 m.
2.8. Aspect ratio, AR
Aspect ratio is the ratio of span length, b, with chord length,
c, of the blade. Reducing the aspect ratio deteriorates the blade
performance. Long slender blades with high value of aspect ratio
are recommended for straight bladed VAWTs (Islam et al., 2008a).
Therefore, a high value of aspect ratio as 12.5 is chosen for this
design of straight bladed VAWT.
Aspect ratioAR

Span length
b

Chord length
c

2.9. Chord length of the blade, c


Using the above described relation of AR, the chord length of
the wind turbine blade was calculated as 0.2062 m.
2.10. Selection of airfoil
For small scale vertical axis wind turbines, symmetric airfoils
are utilized to have the same characteristics of lift and drag on
upper and lower surfaces. The major advantage is that symmetric
airfoils provide lift from both side of the airfoil therefore; it will
provide lift during complete 3601 rotation or the turbine. Plus, we
will not need to readjust the blades in the direction of wind; the
blade will provide lift when wind comes from any direction.

S
p
a

Assumed
Square Box

p
a
n

Diameter
2.578m
Diameter
Fig. 1. Front view of darrieus VAWT design (left) with the front view of the
assumed 3D cube for design calculations to extract energy from any wind
direction.

250

M.S. Hameed, S.K. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

1.5

0.10

1.0

0.08

0.5

0.06

0.0

0.04

-0.5

0.02

CL

CD

0.00

-1.0
-10

-5
0
5
10
Angle of Attack ()

15

-10

-5

0
5
10
Angle of Attack ()

15

Fig. 2. Comparison of lift and drag coefcients of NACA 0012, NACA 0015 and NACA 0018 at low angle of attacks (Proli, 19952009).

For darrieus type vertical axis wind turbines, NACA 00xx series
of symmetric airfoils are used and more specically NACA 0012
NACA 0015 and NACA 0018 are more frequently used.
When the lift and drag coefcients of these airfoils were
compared at low angle of attacks, Fig. 2, it was observed that a
low value of lift coefcient and high value of drag coefcient is
obtained for NACA 0018 whereas, a high value of lift coefcient
and lower value of drag coefcient for NACA 0012. This make
NACA 0012 most suitable from aerodynamic characteristics but at
the same time NACA 0012 is considered as too thin (12% of chord
length) for this design of high aspect ratio blades.
Therefore, NACA 0015 is chosen for this design considering its
thickness and aerodynamics performance.

Table 1
Variation in angle of attack with pitch angle.
Pitch angle y (Deg.)

y (Radians)

a (Radians)

a (Deg.)

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360

0
0.52
1.05
1.57
2.09
2.62
3.14
3.67
4.19
4.71
5.24
5.76
6.28

0
0.10
0.19
0.24
0.24
0.15
0.00
 0.15
 0.24
 0.24
 0.19
 0.10
0.00

0
5.75
10.66
13.71
13.53
8.79
0.00
 8.79
 13.53
 13.71
 10.66
 5.75
0.00

3. Analytical modeling
Numerical values of forces acting on the blade at extreme wind
conditions are determined and applied to the blade, maximum
deections and maximum bending stresses are calculated using
basic beam theories (American wood council).

Alpha vs Theta
20
15
10
5
0
-5 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
-10
-15
-20

3.1. Relation between angle of attack (a) and pitching angle (y)
The following equation was used to determine the values of
angle of attack with the variation in pitching angle (Anderson).
p tan1

siny
TSR cosy

The variation in angle of attack during 3601 rotation of blade is


determined and some of the values are shown in Table 1.
The variation in angle of attack with pitch angle is plotted in
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Plot of the variation in angle of attack (y-axis) with pitch angle (x-axis).

Table 2
Variation in coefcient of lift and coefcient of drag with pitch angle and angle of
attack.
Pitch angle y (Deg.)

a (Deg.)

3.2. Determination of lift and drag coefcients


A small commercial software DESFOIL was utilized to determine the value of lift and drag coefcients for NACA 0015 at
above calculated angles of attack and these values were compared
with the available values in the graphs given by Proli (1995
2009) and good agreement between values was found, Table 2.
3.3. Maximum velocity of the blade in tangential direction, Rw
Relation of tip speed ratio is used here to determine the maximum velocity of blade tip at maximum wind speed viz. 8 m/s

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360

0
5.76
10.67
13.72
13.54
8.80
0.00
 8.80
 13.54
 13.72
 10.67
 5.76
0.00

DESFOIL

Proli (19952009)

CL

CD

CL

CD

0
0.71
1.23
1.34
1.34
1.07
0.00
 1.08
 1.64
 1.66
 1.30
 0.71
0.00

0.015
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.02

0
0.72
1.02
0.9
0.9
0.9
0
 0.9
NA
NA
NA
 0.75
0

0.02
0.02
0.036
0.079
0.07
0.03
0.02
0.03
NA
NA
NA
0.02
0.02

M.S. Hameed, S.K. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

in current design.

251

Table 4
Variation in values of Lift and Drag with pitch angle and resolving each value along
and perpendicular to chord.

Rw
4:1
TSR
V
Therefore, the maximum velocity of blade tip in forward
direction is calculated as, 32.8 m/s.
3.4. Relative velocity, W
In the case of vertical axis wind turbine, it is not just the
simple wind velocity that basically produces the lift on the blade
but relative velocity viz. a vector solution of maximum blade tip
velocity Rw and wind velocity V, shown in Fig. 4.
The variation in b and g with a was determined and therefore
the value of W at different angles of attack was evaluated using
sine and cosine laws and shown in the Table 3.
 

V
Rw
Rw
sina

4 b sin1
sina
Sinb
V
g 180a b

(Deg.)

(Deg.)

Lift force
(N)

Drag force
(N)

Normal force
(N)

Axial force
(N)

0
30
60
75
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360

0
5.75
10.66
12.49
13.71
13.53
8.79
0.00
 8.79
 13.53
 13.71
 10.66
 5.75
0.00

0
372
660
695
681
687
579
0.49
 364
 393
 389
 395
 276
 0.96

6.66
9.29
13.64
16.13
17.15
17.06
11.85
6.66
7.46
8.07
8.00
7.81
6.88
6.66

0
371
651
681
664
670
572
0.49
 361
 384
 380
 388
 276
 0.96

 6.66
27
109
134.45
145
144
77
 6.68
47
83
84
64
21
 6.7

1.29 m

W 2 V 2 Rw2 2VRw cosg

Blade
3.5. Calculations for normal and axial forces

Rotational
Axis

The values of lift (perpendicular to wind velocity V) and Drag


(parallel to V) are calculated in complete 3601 rotation of the
blade using the following relations (Anderson), shown in Table 4.
L q1 C L S, D q1 C D S, where q1

1
rW 2
2

1.46 m

These values of lift and drag were then resolved perpendicular


(normal force N) and parallel (axial force A) to the chord of the
blade, using the following relationships (Anderson); these results
are also shown in Table 4.

0.56 m

N Lcos a Dsin a, A Lsin a2Dcos a


Fig. 5. Location of Strut attachment with the designed bladefront view of
designed VAWT.

-Rw

The maximum value of normal force during the complete 3601


rotation of the blade is 681 N. This value is used as a component of
total forces to obtain the deections and bending stresses in the
blade.

Fig. 4. Velocity triangle for darrieus VAWT with internal angles.

Table 3
Variation in internal angles of the velocity triangle with variation in the value
of relative velocity with pitch angle.
Pitch angle
y (Deg.)

a (Radians)

b (Radians)

g (Radians)

Relative velocity
W (m/s)

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360

0
0.11
0.20
0.25
0.25
0.16
0.00
 0.16
 0.25
 0.25
 0.20
 0.11
0.00

0
0.43
0.87
1.34
1.29
0.69
0.00
 0.69
 1.29
 1.34
 0.87
 0.43
0.00

180
179.49
178.96
178.44
178.49
179.18
180.00
180.84
181.53
181.58
181.06
180.53
180

38.14
40.28
40.77
39.51
39.71
40.78
38.14
32.28
27.14
26.83
30.55
34.67
38.14

3.6. Location of strut attachments and cross sectional properties of


the optimized blade model
For blades with high aspect ratios (low value of c) and higher
value of solidity which increases the torque and bending stresses on
the blade, a two point support is recommended (Islam et al., 2008a),
shown in Fig. 5.
The location of supporting struts attachment with the blade
was chosen in such a manner to achieve minimum deection and
bending stresses at both the regions i.e. cantilever region each of
0.56 m and xed region of 1.46 m.
The blade model was optimized from solid to a hollow cross
section with different values of wall thickness to reduce the
weight and centrifugal forces on the blade.
The cross sectional properties using the following relations
were calculated and cross checked with the beam section properties facility of ANSYS 11.0 for all the design cases at different
values of wall thickness and shown in Table 5.
(1) Thickness to chord ratio for NACA 0015 airfoil (Emami, 2007)
7

r

x
x2
x3
x4 
z
t
x

0:2969
0:126
0:3516
0:2834
0:2834
c
0:2
c
c
c
c
c

252

M.S. Hameed, S.K. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

(2) Area of the airfoil.


Z 0:206 h
z   z i
dx
 
A
c
c
0

3.9. Evaluating the values of maximum deections and stresses


As the blade is divided into two beams, cantilever and xed at
both ends therefore, both the regions were analyzed separately
and max. deection and max. stress were evaluated using
relations taken from beam theories for uniformly distributed loading (American wood council), shown below, results are shown
in Table 6.

(3) Moment of inertia



Z 0:206 
1
z3  z3

dx
 
I
3
c
c
0

3.7. Selection of material properties


The blade is designed with aluminum with E 70 GPa,

r 2700 Kg/m3 and n 0.33.

The high values of deection were observed in cantilever


region whereas, in xed region stress were high.

3.8. Effect of centrifugal forces, Fc


The high aspect ratio straight blades of H-darrieus rotor are
subjected to high values of centrifugal forces, these values are
determined for all designed values of wall thickness (with mass m)
at the maximum tip speed velocity (Rw) of 32.8 m/s, using the
following relationship:
Fc

(1) Max. moments (Mmax) and max. deections at beam with


both ends xed and uniformly distributed loading w.
Mmax (at ends)wl2/12 Max. deection (at center)wl4/384EIxx
(2) Max. moments and max. deections at Cantilever beam with
uniformly distributed loading.
Mmax (at xed end) wl2/2, max. deection (at free end)
wl4/8EIxx

2mRw2
D

The total force evaluated here is the sum of centrifugal force


determined at maximum tip speed velocity and extreme aerodynamics force perpendicular to chord viz. 681 N.

Table 5
Value of total force (aerodynamics centrifugal) acting on the blade at different
values of wall thickness of the blade.
Wall thickness
(mm)

A (10  3)
(m2)

Ixx (10  7)
(m4)

Mass
(kg)

Total force
(kN)

Solid
5
4
3
2
1

4.36
1.92
1.56
1.19
0.807
0.409

2.40
1.79
1.56
1.27
0.920
0.499

30.38
13.37
10.89
8.29
5.62
2.85

26.02
11.83
9.76
7.59
5.37
3.06

4. Numerical modeling
In this section of analysis, all the results from solid to 1 mm
wall thickness were computed by numerical analysis using ANSYS
11.0, under the same boundary conditions. The cross sections
of all the meshed models considered here for analysis are shown
in Fig. 6.
The mesh size control was done and convergence was
achieved. The current rened mesh shown in the research
approximates the solution to its best possible value with minimum error with the analytical values. Further renement of mesh
does not alter the nal results shown in numerical analysis.
4.1. Selection of element type
All the design cases were evaluated rst using SOLID45 and
then BEAM3 element type.
4.2. Boundary conditions and application of forces
For symmetric airfoils, the center of pressure and aerodynamics center lie at quarter chord (c/4) distance from leading
edge (Anderson; Komerath, 2007).

Table 6
Analytical calculations for the evaluation of maximum deection and maximum stress on the blade using basic beam theories.
Cantilever Region (0.56 m)
Wall thickness (mm)
Solid
5
4
3
2
1

Force (kN)
5.65
2.57
2.12
1.65
1.17
0.663

UDL (kN/m)

Mmax (kN m)

Max. stress (MPa)

Max. def (mm)

10.08
4.56
3.78
2.94
2.08
1.19

1.58
0.718
0.593
0.461
0.326
0.186

102
62.2
58.9
56.2
54.8
57.5

7.39
4.51
4.27
4.07
3.97
4.17

Fixed region (1.46 m)


Wall thickness (mm)

Force (kN)

UDL (kN/m)

Mmax (kN m)

Max. stress (MPa)

Max. def (mm)

Solid
5
4
3
2
1

14.72
6.70
5.53
4.30
3.04
1.73

10.08
4.59
3.78
2.94
2.08
1.16

1.79
0.82
0.67
0.52
0.37
0.21

116
70.5
66.8
63.6
62.1
65.2

7.12
4.34
4.11
3.92
3.83
4.01

M.S. Hameed, S.K. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

253

Fig. 6. Cross Sections of designed models of the blade with different values of wall thickness.

Fig. 7. Application of forces normal and along the chord of the blade.

Fig. 9. Verication of results through BEAM3 element type.

Therefore, all degrees of freedom of the blade are constraints


at the distance of 0.56 m from both ends giving the cantilever
regions of length 0.56 m and xed region of length 1.46 m viz. the
location of struts attachment with the blade, as described earlier.
The uniformly distributed load along the blade span at c/4 from
leading edge was applied for each designed cross section of the
blade viz. the sum of all the forces (aerodynamic and centrifugal)
acting on the blade perpendicular to the chord, causing bending
in the blade.
Application of loads and resulting deformed model for a
typical case is shown in Figs. 7 and 8, respectively.
Results obtained for the same case using the BEAM3 element
type are shown in Fig. 9.

5. Comparison of analytical and numerical results

Fig. 8. Contour of stress distribution over the blade for a specic cross section of
the blade.

The comparison of results obtained from analytical analysis


with numerical results is shown in Tables 7 and 8 and Figs. 10 and
11, for maximum stresses and maximum deections, respectively.

254

M.S. Hameed, S.K. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

Table 7
Comparison of maximum stresses at different values of wall thickness and blade mass.
Wall thickness (mm) and mass of the
blade (kg)Left to Right

Max. stress (Mpa) (xed region)


ANSYS

Solid
5
4
3
2
1

30.38
13.37
10.89
8.29
5.62
2.85

Solid45

Beam3

113
80.4
74.9
70.1
68.2
96.4

114
69.6
65.9
62.9
61.4
64.5

Table 8
Comparison of maximum deections different values of wall thickness and
blade mass.
Wall thickness (mm)
and mass of the blade
(Kg)Left to Right

Max. def. (mm) (Cantilever region)


ANSYS

Analytical % Error with


analytical results

Solid45 Beam3
Solid
5
4
3
2
1

30.38
13.37
10.89
8.29
5.62
2.85

7.947
5.123
4.864
4.703
4.689
5.603

7.386
4.504
4.264
4.075
3.978
4.178

7.39
4.51
4.27
4.07
3.97
4.17

Analytical

Beam3

Solid45

0.05
0.13
0.14
0.12
0.20
0.19

7.54
13.59
13.91
15.55
18.11
34.36

116
70.5
66.8
63.6
62.1
65.2

% Error with analytical results


Beam3

Solid45

1.72
1.28
1.35
1.10
1.13
1.07

2.59
14.04
12.13
10.22
9.82
47.85

Solid45

Beam3

Analytical

6
5
4
3
2
1

Solid45

140

0
Solid

Beam3
120
Analytical

5mm

4mm

3mm

2mm

1mm

Fig. 11. Graphical comparison of max. deections (mm) at different value of wall
thickness (x-axis).

100
6. Discussion on results

80

60

40

20

0
Solid

5mm

4mm

3mm

2mm

1mm

Fig. 10. Graphical comparison of max. stresses (MPa) at different value of wall
thickness (x-axis).

5.1. Cross sectional views of analyzed blade models


As all the blades with different cross sections (with varying
values of wall thickness) were modeled and analyzed numerically.
The cross sectional locations of these blades where the maximum
deections occurred (extreme ends of the blade) are shown in
the Fig. 11.

A. The values of maximum stress and maximum deections start


decreasing from solid cross section to hollow cross section till
approximately 2 mm wall thickness but start increasing by
reducing the value of wall thickness further.
B. The suitable range of wall thickness can be taken from 1 mm
to 5 mm. But the exact value of the most appropriate wall
thickness is not known yet for this design.
C. When the cross sections of these blades were modeled and
analyzed it was observed that the distortion in the blade shape
occurs at the regions of maximum deections as shown in
Fig. 12.
D. The values of maximum deection and stresses are suddenly
increased from 2 mm to 1 mm wall thickness. This is due to
the large distortion in the shape of the blade as the wall
thickness is reduced from 2 mm to further 1 mm. The solid45
element type better approximates the large distortion in the
shape of the blade.
E. The distortion in shape reduces with increase in wall thickness
of the blade.
F. For the optimal wall thickness of 4 mm, the maximum deection of 4.58 mm and maximum stress of 70.5 MPa is found. The
optimal thickness is found between 3 mm and 4 mm with no
distortion in shape of the blade.

M.S. Hameed, S.K. Afaq / Ocean Engineering 57 (2013) 248255

255

Fig. 12. Cross sections of blades designed for different values of wall thickness after application of extreme loads.

7. Conclusions
It has been seen that in darrieus type vertical axis wind turbine
the centrifugal forces play an important role. Bending stresses and
deections are not only a function of aerodynamics forces but also
very dominantly controlled by centrifugal forces. Wall thickness
of the blade can be optimized by reducing weight of the blade
but maximum stresses and maximum deection should be in
acceptable range.
Evaluation of their effect is not a simple task as reducing the
wall thickness of the blade reduces the weight and subsequently
the centrifugal forces but at the same time the cross sectional area
reduces too which reduces the strength of the blade. Therefore,
the distortion in the shape of the blade must be considered while
reducing the weight and centrifugal forces acting on the blade to
achieve the best optimized cross section design.

Acknowledgments
The research was done in the labs of HITEC University, Taxila
with the support of Department of Mechanical Engineering.
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