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# ELE637 Energy Conversion

Chapter 2 Transformers
Dewei(David) Xu
Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
Ryerson University

## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Content
Introduction
Ideal transformer
Practical transformer
Equivalent circuit
Voltage regulation
Efficiency

Autotransformer
Three-phase transformer
Three-phase transformer bank
Open-delta connection
3rd order harmonics in three-phase transformer

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2.1 Introduction
(1) Terminology
Electrical circuit symbol

## HV winding high voltage winding

LV winding low voltage winding
N1 is number of turns of primary winding
N 2 is number of turns of secondary winding

## If V1 > V2 (N1 > N 2 ), the transformer is step down transformer

If V1 < V2 (N1 < N 2 ), the transformer is step up transformer

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2.1 Introduction
(2) Construction

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2.1 Introduction
(3) Transformer function
To change voltage level

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2.1 Introduction
(3) Transformer function
To isolate one circuit from another

2

N
R0 = 1 RL
N2

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2.1 Introduction
(3) Transformer function
To measure voltage and current

PT potential transformer
CT current transformer

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## 2.2 Ideal transformers

(2)Basic equations
Voltage ratio
d m
(1)
v1 = e1 = N1
dt
d m
(2)
v2 = e2 = N 2
dt
(1) /(2)
v1 N1
=
= a v1 = av2
v2 N 2
where a is turns ratio

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## 2.2 Ideal transformers

Current ratio
For ideal transformer, no copper loss (winding loss) and
no core loss (eddy current loss + hysteresis loss)

1
I1 V2 N 2 1
=
=
= I1 = I 2
I 2 V1 N1 a
a

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## 2.2 Ideal transformers

Impedance transfer

Z L'

ZL =

V2
I2

Z L' =

V1 aV2
V
=
= a2 2 = a2Z L
I1 I 2
I2
a

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Example

## Given (as shown in Figure)

Find turns-ratio for the maximum
power transfer
Solution:
I1 =

V1
, Pout = I 12 RL'
R0 + RL'
2

V1 '
RL'
RL = V12
Pout =
'
2
2 '
'2
+
R
R
2
+
R
R
0
L
0
0 RL + RL
=

V12
R L' R0
R0 1 + 2 (RL' R0 ) + (RL' R0 )2

Pout
=0
(RL' R0 )

RL'
= 1 a 2 RL = R0
R0

a =

N1
=
N2

R0
=
RL

4
1
=
16 2

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## 2.2 Ideal transformers

(3) Polarity
A practical problem
Given conditions are shown in Figure.
Find the connection of the transformer to provide

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Solution:

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## 2.2 Ideal transformers

(3) Polarity
Determine of polarity

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## 2.2 Ideal transformers

Case 1: if Vc=Va+Vb,
then terminals 1 and
4 have the same
polarity
Case 2: if Vc=Va-Vb,
then terminals 1 and
3 have the same
polarity

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## 2.3 Practical transformers

(1) Derivation of equivalent circuit
Step1 Take winding resistances and leakage fluxes into account

## R1 , R2 are winding resistance s

l1 , l 2 are leakage fluxes

Ll1 =

N1 l1
is primary leakage inductance
I1

Ll 2 =

N1 l 2
is secondary leakage inductance
I2

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## 2.3 Practical transformers

(1) Derivation of equivalent circuit
Step1 Take winding resistances and leakage fluxes into account

c =
R1 , R2 are winding resistances

X l1 = 2fLl1

X l 2 = 2fLl 2

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## 2.3 Practical transformers

(1) Derivation of equivalent circuit
Step2 Take core losses and finite permeability into account

X m= 2fLm

Lm is magnetizing inductance
Rc is core loss resistance
I0 = Ic + Im

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## 2.3 Practical transformers

(1) Derivation of equivalent circuit
Step3 Eliminate ideal transformer

Impedance transfer
R2' = a 2 R2
X l' 2 = a 2 X l 2
Z L' = a 2 Z L

X m= 2fLm
Equivalent
circuit
referred to
primary side

N1
N2
1
I 2' = I 2
a
V2' = aV2
a=

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## 2.3 Practical transformers

(2) Approximate equivalent circuit
equivalent circuit A

Use it to
calculate
loss

## Usually R1<<Rc and Xl1<<Xm. So E1V1.

Features:
Losses can be readily calculated Pc=Vc2/Rc, Pw=I22(R1+R2)
R1 & R2, Xl1 & Xl2 can be lumped together.

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## 2.3 Practical transformers

(2) Approximate equivalent circuit
equivalent circuit B

Use it to find
voltage
regulation

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## (3) Transformer tests

Objective: to determine transformer parameters: Rc, Xm, Req & Xeq
No load test to find Rc, Xm

(open circuit)

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## (3) Transformer tests

Objective: to determine transformer parameters: Rc, Xm, Req & Xeq
No load test to find Rc, Xm

Measure : Vt , I t and P
Calculate :
Vt 2
P
V
Ic = t
Rc

Rc =

## Vt should be rated voltage of the winding

Apply Vt to LV winding (common practice)
Reasons: safer & more convenient

## core loss resistance

I m = I 02 I c2 = I t2 I c2
Xm =

Vt
Im

magnitizing reactance

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Transformer #1 (step up transformer)

Measure : Vt , I t and P
Calculate : Rc ( LV ) and X m ( LV )
(low voltage side parameters )

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## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Transformer #2 (step down transformer)

Measure : Vt , I t and P
Calculate : Rc ( LV ) and X m ( LV )
(low voltage side parameters )

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Transformer #2 (step down transformer)

Impedance transfer :
Rc ( LV ) and X m ( LV )

parameters at
primary side

R ' c = a 2 Rc ( LV )
X ' m = a 2 X m ( LV )

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Short circuit

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## 2.3 Practical transformers

(3) Transformer tests
short circuit test to find Req & Xeq

Measure : Vt , I t and P
Calculate :
P
Req = 2
It
Z eq = Req2 + X eq2 =

Vt
It

Req = R1 + R2'

V
X eq = t Req2
It

X eq = X l1 + X l' 2
Empirical equations

Note:

R1 R

Vt<<Vrated

'
2

X l1 X

'
l2

## Vt is increased slowly from zero until It=Irated

Apply Vt to HV winding for more accurate reading

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## Example (Short circuit test)

Transformer #1 (step down transformer)

Measure : Vt , I t and P
Calculate : Req ( HV ) and X eq ( HV )
(high voltage side parameters )

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## Example (Short circuit test)

Transformer #2 (step up transformer)

Measure : Vt , I t and P
Calculate : Req ( HV ) and X eq ( HV )
(high voltage side parameters )

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## Example (Short circuit test)

Transformer #2 (step up transformer)

parameters at
primary side

Impedance transfer :
Req ( HV ) and X eq ( HV )

R ' eq = a 2 Req ( HV )
X ' eq = a 2 X eq ( HV )

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2.4 Autotransformers
(1) Configuration
Step-down transformers, variac

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2.4 Autotransformers
(1) Configuration
Step-up transformers

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2.4 Autotransformers
(2) Voltage ratio and current ratio
Step-down transformers

a=

V1 E1 + E2 N1 + N 2
=
=
V2
E2
N2

a = 1+

N1
N2

Step-up transformers

a=

V1
E1
N1
=
=
V2 E1 + E2 N1 + N 2

a=

N1
N1 + N 2

I1
N
= 2 N1 I 1 = N 2 I 2 N 2 I 1
I 2 I 1 N1

I1 I 2 N 2
=
N1 I1 N1 I 2 = N 2 I 2
I2
N1

I1
N2
1
=
=
I 2 N1 + N 2 a

I 1 N1 + N 2 1
=
=
I2
N1
a

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2.4 Autotransformers
(3) Winding and terminal VA rating
Step-down transformers

Step-up transformers

Winding VA rating

Winding VA rating

= E1 I1

= E2 I 2

Terminal VA rating
= (E1 + E2 )I1

Terminal VA rating
= (E1 + E2 )I 2

E1
a 1
Winding VA
=
=
a
Terminal VA E1 + E2

Winding VA
E2
=
= 1 a
Terminal VA E1 + E2

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2.4 Autotransformers

## (3) Winding and terminal VA rating

Step-down transformers
N
Terminal VA = Winding VA + 2 Winding VA
N1

Transformer
action

Conductive
action

Step-up transformers
N
Terminal VA = Winding VA + 1 Winding VA
N2

Transformer
action

Conductive
action

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2.4 Autotransformers
(4) Energy flow
Via magnetic field
(transformer action)
Total
Transferred
Energy
Via conductive action

(5) Features
Higher power transferred due to conductive action
No isolation

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Example
A single phase 100KVA, 1000/100V transformer has the
following test result
(1) Open circuit test (Vt applied to LV side): Vt0=100V, It0=6A and
P0=400W
(2) Short circuit test (Vt applied to HV side): Vts=50V, Its=100A and
Ps=1800W

Find:
(a) the rated voltage and current for HV and LV winding
(b) an approximate equivalent circuit referred to the HV side

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Example

Solution:
(a)

100 103
= 100A
1000
VRTD ( HV )
S RTD
100 103
=
=
= 1000A
100
VRTD ( LV )

VRTD ( HV ) = 1000V

I RTD ( HV ) =

VRTD ( LV ) = 100V

I RTD ( LV )

S RTD

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Example
Solution:
(b)

Rc =

Vt 20 1002
=
= 25
400
P0

Ic =

Vt 0 100
=
= 4A
25
Rc

I m = I t20 I c2 = 62 42 = 4.47A
Xm =

Vt 0 100
=
= 22.4
I m 4.47

## Test is done on LV side

Vt0=100V, It0=6A and P0=400W

Rc ( LV ) = 25 X m ( LV ) = 22.4

## Refer Rc(LV) and Xm(LV) to HV side

Rc ( HV ) = a 2 Rc ( LV ) = 102 25 = 2.5K
X m ( HV ) = a 2 X m ( LV ) = 102 22.4 = 2.24 K

, where a =

VRTD ( HV ) 1000
=
= 10
VRTD ( LV ) 100

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Example
Test is done on HV side
Req ( HV ) =

Ps 1800
=
= 0.18
I ts2 1002
2

V
X eq ( HV ) = ts Req2
I ts
2

50
2
=
0.18 = 0.446
100

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## 2.5 Voltage regulation

(1) Definition

Voltage regulation =

V2 NL V2 L
V2 L

## where the subscript NL denotes no load voltage

and subscript L denotes load voltage
Use voltage transfer :
Voltage regulation =

V2'

NL

V2'

V2'

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## 2.5 Voltage regulation

(2) Phasor diagram

Z eq = Req + jX eq = Z eq eq

Z eq = Req + jX eq = Z eq eq

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## 2.5 Voltage regulation

(3) Maximum VR

maximum VR occurs at
eq 2 = 0 2 = eq

L

## V1 = V2' + I 2' Z eq V2'

NL

voltage regulation =
or voltage regulation =

rated

V1 V2'
V2'

rated

rated

V1' V2 rated
V2 rated

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## 2.5 Voltage regulation

(5) Calculation steps:

## Use approximate equivalent circuit B.

Assume load voltage V2(V2) is rated.
Calculate V1(V1).
Voltage regulation VR=(V1-V2)/V2
or VR=(V1-V2)/V2.
Note: use magnitudes of the phasors in the calculation
of voltage regulation

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Example
Given: A single phase transformer has the following name
plate data: 10KVA, 2200V/220V, 60Hz and has following
parameters: Req=10.4, Xeq=31.3, referred to the primary
power factor PF=0.6 (lagging).
Find: voltage regulation
Solution:
Step 1: Equivalent circuit

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Example
Solution:
Step 2: Assume V2=V2rated=220V
2200
a=
= 10 V2' = aV2 = 10 220 = 2200V
220
Step 3: find I2
S 10 000
1
45.5
I 2 FL =
=
= 45.5A I 2' FL = I 2 FL =
= 4.55A
V2
220
a
10

## 75% Full load means I 2 = 75% I 2 FL or I 2' = 75% I 2' FL

I 2' = 0.75 4.55 = 3.41A
PF = cos 2 = 0.6 (lagging) 2 = 53.1
Step 4: find V1

## V1 = V2' + I 2' Z eq = 22000 + 3.41 53.1(10.4 + j 31.3) = 23060.88 V

V1 = 2306 V
V V ' 2306 2200
Step 5: voltage regulation VR = 1 ' 2 =
= 4.86%
V2
2200

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2.6 Efficiency
(1) Definition
=

Pout
Pout
=
Pin Pout + Ploss

=

Pout
=
Pout + Pc + Pw

## V2' I 2' cos 2

= f (I 2' , 2 )
2
2
V
V2' I 2' cos 2 + 1 + (I 2' ) Req
Rc

Pc =

V12
Rc

Pw = (I 2' ) Req
2

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2.6 Efficiency
(2) Maximum efficiency
Maximum efficiency occurs at

=0
= 0,
2
I 2'

PF = 1.0
PF = 0.9
PF = 0.8

=0
I 2'

Pc = Pw

2
V12
= (I 2' ) Req
Rc

=0
2

2 = 0

I 2' =

'
Pc I 2rated
Req

I 2'

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Example

## Given: A single phase transformer has the following name

plate data: 10KVA, 2200V/220V, 60Hz and has following
parameters: Req=10.4, Xeq=31.3, referred to the primary
side. The core loss is 100W at rated terminal voltage. The
factor PF=0.6 (lagging).
Find: (a) efficiency. (b) maximum efficiency
(c) output power at maximum efficiency

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Example
Solution: (a)
find I2' = 75%I 2' FL = 0.75 4.55 = 3.41A
I2FL =

S 10103
I
45.5
2200
=
= 45.5A I2' FL = 2FL =
= 4.55A, wherea =
= 10
V2
a
220
10
220

## findV2' : V2' = aV2 = 10 220 = 2200V

4500
Pout
=
= 0.95
Pout + Pc + Pw 4500+ 121+ 100

## Pout = V2' I2' cos2 = 2200 3.41 0.6 = 4500W

or Pout = 75%S cos2 = 0.7510 103 0.6 = 4500W
Pw = (I2' ) Req = (3.41) 10.4 = 121W, Pc = 100W
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Example
Solution: (b)

max

occurswhenPw = Pc and2 = 0

2

I2'

=max

Pout

=max

(C)

max

100
Pc
=
= 3.1A
10.4
Req

## = V2' I2' cos2 = 2200 3.11 = 6820W

Pout
6820
=
= 0.97
Pout + Pc + Pw 6820+ 100+ 100

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Three-phase
transformer bank
i
a

Ia
ib

ic

Ib

Ic

a + b + c = 0

ia + ib + ic = 0

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## Y-: This connection is

commonly used to step
down a high voltage to a
lower voltage
-Y: This connection is
commonly used to step up
voltage
-: This connection has
the merit in maintenance.
One transformer can be
removed for repair and the
remain two can continue
to delivery three-phase
power at 58% rating.
Y-Y: This connection is
rarely used because of
harmonic problems

aI

V
I
3

aI

V
a

aI
3

V
3

V
3a

V
a

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## 2.7 Three-phase transformers

Non-sinusoidal exciting current

## The flux is sinusoidal Non-sinusoidal exciting current due to nonlinear

B-H curve
The exciting current is sinusoidal The flux is non-sinusoidal due to
nonlinear B-H curve The induced voltage is non-sinusoidal.
The non-sinusoidal current/voltage contains 3rd order harmonic

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## 2.7 Three-phase transformers

Y- Connection, SW is open
iA

vb

## due to nonlinear B - H curve

v AN = v A1 + v A3

v AN
vBN
iB

va

vCN

## No 3rd order harmonic current path

Excitation current is sinusoidal
Phase voltage has 3rd order harmonic

vc

iC

Primary side :
v A3 = 2V3 sin( 3t )
vB 3 = 2V3 sin( 3t 3 120) = 2V3 sin( 3t )
vC 3 = 2V3 sin( 3t + 3 120) = 2V3 sin( 3t )
line - to - line voltage
v AB = v AN vBN = v A1 vB1 has no 3rd order harmonic

vBN = vB1 + vB 3
v

vCN = vC1 + vC 3
Fundamental 3rd harmonic
voltages
voltages

Secondary side :
va = (N 2 N1 )v AN = (N 2 N1 )(v A1 + v A3 ) = va1 + va 3
vb = (N 2 N1 )vBN = (N 2 N1 )(vB1 + vB 3 ) = vb1 + vb 3
vc = (N 2 N1 )vCN = (N 2 N1 )(vC1 + vC 3 ) = vc1 + vc 3

## line - to - line voltage has 3rd order harmonic

v = va + vb + vc = 3va 3

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## 2.7 Three-phase transformers

Y- Connection, SW is close
3rd order harmonic voltages drive
to generate a circulatin g current I 3

iA

vb

v AN
N

vBN

va

vCN
vc

iB

v

iC

## Vbc = Vb1 + Vb3 I 3Z 3 = Vb1

Vca = Vc1 + Vc 3 I 3Z 3 = Vc1

Z3
Z3
Va = Va1 + Va 3
Z3 I 3

## compensate the non - linear B - H curve

fluxes and phase voltages at primary side is
sinusoidal

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## 2.7 Three-phase transformers

Phasor diagram

For Y connection :
VL = 3V p ,

I L1

I L2

I P1

I P2

VAN

Van

## VL is line - to - line voltage

Vab

IL = IP,
where I p is phase current
I L is line current

VCA

VAB

VCN

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Vcn = Vca
Van = Vab

VAN

Vbn = Vbc

VBN

VBC

For connection :
VL = V p ,
where V p is phase voltage
VL is line - to - line voltage
I L = 3I P ,
where I p is phase current
I L is line current

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Example
Three units of single-phase ideal transformers, each
rated at 50KVA, 120/460V, 60Hz are Y/ connected to
form a 3-phase transformer. The transformer is
connected with a 3-phase load at VLL2=460V and
127.5KW. The power factor of the load is 0.85 (lagging).
Find: IL1, Ip1, IL2, Ip2, and VLL1.
I L1

I P1

I L2

I P2

VAN

VLL1

Van

VLL 2

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Example
Solution:
3 phase power : S3 = 3VLL I L = 3V p I p , P3 = 3VLL I L cos = 3V p I p cos
where is load angle between V p and I p .
Load side : V LL 2= V p = 460V, I L 2 =
I P2 = I L2

3
120
where a =

127.5 103
P3
=
= 188.3A
3VLL 2 cos
3 460 0.85

188.3
108.7
= 108.7A I P1 = I P 2 =
= 416.5A
a
0.261
3

= 0.261
460
I L1 = I P1 = 416.5A, VP1 = aVP 2 = 0.261 460 = 120V

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Configuration

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## 2.7 Open delta connection

Feature:
V connection (using only 2 units of single-phase
transformers)
Produce 3-phase balanced voltage 3-phase

Applications:
If one of the three transformers breaks down, the
other two can still provide 3-phase balanced voltage.
But 3-phase output power should be reduced
Power delivered by connection : S = 3VP I P
Power delivered by V connection : SV = 3VP I P
3VP I P
SV
=
= 0.58 V connection is capable of delivering 58% total power
3VP I P
S

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Summary

Ideal transformer:
Voltage ratio, current ratio
Impedance transfer

Practical transformer:

Equivalent circuit
No load test and short circuit test
Voltage regulation
Efficiency and losses

Autotransformer
Connection
Voltage ratio, current ratio
Terminal VA rating and winding VA rating

Three-phase transformer

Connections
Relations of currents and voltages between line and phase
Open delta connection
3rd order harmonics in three-phase transformer

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