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Legal and Forensic Medicine

Roy G. Beran
Editor

Legal and Forensic


Medicine

With 52 Figures and 34 Tables

Editor
Roy G. Beran
Strategic Health Evaluators
Chatswood, NSW, Australia

ISBN 978-3-642-32337-9
ISBN 978-3-642-32338-6 (eBook)
ISBN 978-3-642-32339-3 (print and electronic bundle)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-32338-6
Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013942874
# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013
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I would like to dedicate this book to those


within the Australasian College of Legal
Medicine (ACLM) and the World
Association for Medical Law (WAML),
without whose support and guidance this
book would never have eventuated. I thank
the readers for showing the confidence to
use what is encompassed between the
covers of this book and for their
commitment to continue their studies into
legal and forensic medicine. This book has
had a long gestation and has finally
reached parturition, and I dedicate this
first edition to its continued development
and to that of the specialty of legal and
forensic medicine into the future.

Foreword

The Australasian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) provides a forum for


exploring issues at the interface between medicine and the law. It seeks to do this
principally by way of education in the fields of civil legal medicine, criminal or
forensic legal medicine and medical ethics and practice areas affected by statute
law. While education and advances in clinical medicine may have obvious benefits
to patients, the benefits of education and advances in the understanding of legal
medicine may not be quite so obvious. They are there, nonetheless, present and of
value. Improvements in the understanding of legal medicine should lead to achieving justice for both health consumers as well as health practitioners. This is likely to
lead to improved psychological well-being and, often, also to improved physical
outcomes. Much of these benefits accrue from legal medicine practitioners having
specialized knowledge and understanding in areas such as ethics and health policy,
as well as the law.
For some time, the ACLM has been acutely aware of a lack of a definitive book
which covers legal medicine from a health practitioners point of view, as distinct
from medical law from a legal practitioners perspective. Such a lack has made the
mission of education much more difficult. Therefore, the College has been
delighted that Roy Beran, a previous president of the College, has undertaken the
exhausting task of assembling and editing such a book. During its gestation, this
book has grown from a focus on the situation in Australia, to then encompass New
Zealand and now has a much broader horizon.
This book amply illustrates the significant expansion in legal medicine
knowledge and practice that has taken place over the last decade or two. It also
illustrates that there is great diversity in this area its chapters cover civil, criminal,
and administrative law; ethical issues; code and common law systems; and different
cultures.
Roy Beran is to be commended in securing contributions from a wide range of
practitioners from a wide range of places and in assisting in the birth of a book of
such breadth. It will be a great addition to the field of legal medicine and certainly
assist in the education of practitioners and, indirectly, in improving patient
outcomes.
Allan Hunt
President, Australasian College of Legal Medicine
vii

Foreword

With this book, Professor Roy G. Beran has made a major contribution to legal
and forensic medicine and forensic sciences. Professor Beran serves as the
secretary-general of the World Association for Medicine Law (WAML) and is
also a past president of the Australasian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM).
With his wide range of associations with leading authors in the related areas of
medicine and law, which are separately and competently discussed in this book, he
has managed to significantly impact all areas of interrelations between medicine
and law. This book will be very useful to members of all the various professions
dealing with health care and related areas, from medical doctors, specialists, and
the nursing profession to faculty of law and philosophy as related to ethics,
forensic medicine and forensic pathology. This book helps clarify the various
related fields. This is the first book I know of that deals with the difficulty of
reconciling multiple professions. It provides comparisons of various international
systems. Many of the authors are governors or members of the WAML, and many
are members of The Australasian College of Legal Medicine and/or the
American College of Legal Medicine in the United States (also known by
the acronym ACLM).
This book contains the most comprehensively cross-referenced, international
and up-to-date information. The listed subjects total over a hundred. If one would
like to know the current status of a specific subject item, one can easily access it in
this handbook.
I was impressed with the chapter dealing with the definition of legal medicine.
Each country or region has long-established disciplines, courses or curricula
described as legal medicine but including varying subjects. One might think of
forensic medicine or forensic pathology as having to do only with homicide or
accidents, as they do in the United States, but in Europe, the definition includes
what is known in the United States as clinical forensic medicine.
This book is an international reference on the group of related disciplines in
medicine and law, as well as a quick reference to find out what the current status of
a subject is. For example, there is a chapter on biotechnology and ethics, as well as
biotechnology and intellectual property law.
This book is a major contribution to the world progress in this profession, which
is rapidly expanding, and will serve as an invaluable reference source for any

ix

Foreword

scholar interested in/or involved with health care in a university setting, be it in


teaching in a medical school, dentistry, law school or nursing school, as well as
other health care administration organizations.
This book is useful to have in the office for quick reference.
Thomas T. Noguchi
President, the World Association for Medical Law

Preface

This book started out as a proceedings book for the Australasian College of Legal
Medicines Annual Scientific Meeting in 2010. This conference was entitled
Legal and Forensic Medicine at the End of the First Decade of the 21st Century.
It was supposed to be a quick and simple publication to coincide with my stepping
down from the presidency of the College after a decade at the helm.
The conference itself, held at Sydney University, was an exciting program,
including some of the best known authorities in legal and forensic medicine in
Australasia. It demonstrated how far we had evolved but also how far we still had to
travel. The compilation of the various papers into book chapters motivated much
greater commitment to produce a more comprehensive reference text, which
incorporated the vast activities of the College, including topics from its basic law
intensives, its practical law intensives, and its expert witness programs.
It soon became apparent that what started as a simple quick and dirty reporting
of a conference had much more to offer. The Australasian experience with the
development of legal and forensic medicine was being mirrored around the world.
It soon became apparent that there was so much more both to teach and to learn.
It was obvious that a book focused solely on Australasia was too restrictive and
this realization generated the far more ambitious goal of compiling a lexicon of
world experience.
Using my various roles in the World Association for Medical Law, which
culminated in being honored to become its secretary-general, it was possible to
persuade international experts and authorities to contribute chapters to this book.
This no longer was a simple report of a conference but became a massive
undertaking requiring coordination and international cooperation between authors,
the editor, the publishers and various other people along the fascinating road that
has led to the production of this book.
This book has grown in size and magnitude and has covered a breadth of topics
in legal and forensic medicine dealing with the same topic but with quite different
approaches and perspectives. It has mapped out the evolution of the discipline
from an international appreciation that different cultures exert different influences
on its development.
While the compilation of this book has been a major undertaking and has
consumed many more hours than was originally envisaged, it has been a labor of
love and learning. It behooves me to thank each and every contributor to this book,
xi

xii

Preface

from the many authors, the publishers, those who have suggested others to
contribute, and you, the readers, who comprise the ultimate audience for whom
this compilation was designed.
I must particularly thank all the authors who gave selflessly of their time and
effort. I can only apologize that I could not give more in return! I need to apologize
to those for whom I modified their style and at times even the content to some of
the chapters. Most importantly, I have to thank Maureen, my devoted and
long-suffering wife, and my family for tolerating the many hours devoted to the
preparation of this major undertaking. I can only hope the finished product justifies
everyones efforts and energies demanded to realize the fruition of the project.
Aug, 2013

Roy G. Beran
Chatswood, NSW, Australia

Acknowledgments

I could not do what I do if it was not for the massive support and love shown to me
by my gorgeous and long-suffering wife, Maureen, who also happens to be my most
vocal critic. I also need to acknowledge the team with whom I work on day-to-day
basis and all those at Springer for their continued support and most importantly
each and every author and contributor to the long process that has evolved with the
development of this project.

xiii

Editor

Roy G. Beran Strategic Health Evaluators, Chatswood, NSW, Australia


Australasian College of Legal Medicine, Canberra, ACT, Australia
World Association for Medical Law, Los Angeles, CA, USA
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
University of NSW, South Western Clinical School, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool,
NSW, Australia

xv

Contents

Volume 1
Section I

Definitions and Concepts

.........................

Clinical Bioethics and Its Interface with Legal Medicine . . . . . .


Miriam Piven Cotler

Contravention of Statute Obligations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Paul Baram

19

Legal Medicine in Adult Medical Practice in Australia


Allan Hunt

.......

31

Legal Medicine and Dentistry


Russell Lain and Jane Taylor

...........................

45

Concepts in Medical Law and Legal Medicine


Rafael Aguiar-Guevara

..............

63

Legal and Forensic Medicine in Paediatrics


Sandra Johnson

................

79

Legal and Forensic Medicine in Geriatrics


Beverley Ferres

.................

91

Legal Medicine and Medical Law


Roy G. Beran

........................

103

Evidence-Based Medicine and the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Ian Freckelton SC

109

10

Legal Medicine and Criminal Law: Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Steven Yannoulidis

119

11

Forensic Medicine: A Clinicians View


Don Buchanan

....................

143

12

Law, Health Law and Science of Health Law


Chongqi Wu

...............

157

xvii

xviii

Contents

Section II

International Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173

13

Legal Medicine in Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Berna Arda and Ahmet Aciduman

175

14

Teaching Medical Law: The Genesis and Directions of


Legal Medicine in Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ruth E. Blackham

193

15

Legal Medicine in the Administration of Health Care


Erwin Loh

........

197

16

Health-Care System Regulation in Brazil and in


Great Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ivandro Aguiar Campos

223

17

Medical and Health Law in the Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Tomas Holcapek

18

Evidence-Based Forensic Medicine: A Canadian


Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ken J. Berger

261

Medico Legal Organization in Portugal and


Legal Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J. Pinto da Costa and M. J. Carneiro de Sousa

277

Forensic Institutional Practice in Central America


and Panama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jose Vicente Pachar Lucio

295

19

20

245

21

Establishment of a Patient Ombudsman Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Olav Molven

303

22

Dento-legal Medicine
Paul V. Nichols

..................................

327

23

Occupational and Environmental Medicine: Applications and


Implications to Forensic Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Robin Chase

357

24

Medical Tourism Vendors and Legal Jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . .


Thomas R. McLean

387

25

Legal Framework for Nursing Practice in New Zealand . . . . . . .


Margaret Barnett-Davidson

405

26

Legal and Forensic Medicine: UK and Australia


Margaret M. Stark

............

423

27

Legal Medicine in the United States of America (USA) . . . . . . . .


Richard S. Wilbur

441

Contents

xix

28

Legal and Forensic Medicine: A Sri Lankan Perspective . . . . . .


Sarathchandra Kodikara and Michael Pollanen

461

29

Legal and Forensic Medicine in Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Jonathan Davies

475

30

Law and the Medical-Man: The Challenges of an Expanding


Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R. R. Kishore

497

31

Health-Care Reform in the United States of America . . . . . . . . .


John P. Conomy

517

32

Forensic Identification in the Australian Defence Force . . . . . . .


Russell Lain

545

33

Forensic Medicine and Medical Law in Modern Russia . . . . . . .


Yu. D. Sergeyev and S. V. Erofeev

553

34

Legal Medicine and Forensic System in Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . .


Duarte Nuno Vieira

571

Volume 2
Section III
35

Negligence, Malpractice and Liability

.............

589

Medical Liability: Comparing Civil Law and


Common Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Andre Goncalo Dias Pereira

591

36

Medical Malpractice Liability


Hongjie Man

...........................

605

37

Defensive Medicine and Clinical Risk Management . . . . . . . . . .


Jonathan Burdon

621

38

Medical Indemnity Insurance in Australia


Jonathan Burdon

.................

629

39

Explaining Causation of Injury An Australian


Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kate Henning

643

40

No Fault Compensation: The New Zealand Experience . . . . . . .


Bruce Corkill QC

41

Medical Law in Common Law Jurisdictions (New Zealand)


(No-fault) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Christopher John Hodson QC

661

677

xx

Contents

42

Understanding Medical Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Sasa Niksic

43

Notification and Disease Control: Obligations of the Medical


Practitioner Under Public Health Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mark J. Ferson

Section IV
44

Legal and Forensic Medicine in Clinical Psychiatry . . . . . . . . . .


C. Timothy Golumbeck{

45

Sexual Abuse Current Medico-legal, Forensic and


Psychiatric Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R. Nardello, A. Compagno, A. Argo, S. Zerbo, P. Procaccianti,
and S. Mangano

46

707

727
729

753

Suicide and Violence in US Colleges: Legal and


Clinical Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elizabeth J. Lilley and Kenneth R. Kaufman

773

47

Hypothetical Legal Questions and the Psychiatric Expert


Roberto Mester and Oren Asman

.....

797

48

Clinical Neuropsychology and the Assessment of Capacity . . . . .


Jeanette E. Stewart and Andrew A. Rock

805

49

Communication as a Risk Management Tool


for Psychiatry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oren Asman and Tal Bergman-Levy

50

Legal Issues in Psychiatry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Chris Cantor

Section V

Psychology and Psychiatry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

691

Informed Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

831
843

851

51

Patient Consent Conversation


Bernadette Richards

...........................

853

52

Informed Consent and Medical Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Hongjie Man

865

53

Interpreting Informed Consent by Stealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Sharon Levy

881

Deceased

Contents

xxi

54

Informed Consent in Saudi Arabia


Abdallah A. Adlan

.......................

893

55

Practice of Legal Medicine in Japan: Informed Consent


in Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eiji Maruyama

909

Informed Consent and Informed Refusal: A Developing


Country Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radmyla Yu. Hrevtsova

927

56

Section VI

Expert Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

943

57

Role of Medical Experts in Courts Under Turkish Law . . . . . . .


R. Bars Erman and Fulya Eroglu

945

58

Legal Medicine Report Preparation in Australia


Roy G. Beran

............

961

59

Giving Expert Evidence: A Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Judith Fordham

973

60

Law of Evidence: Main Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Judith Fordham

991

61

Providing Expert Evidence in an Australian Court:


A Lawyers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
J. A. Devereux

62

Expert Evidence the Decision Makers Perspective . . . . . . . . . 1015


Michael Burnett

Section VII

Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1039

63

Doctors and Torture in Medical Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041


Mike OConnor AM

64

Bioethics Azerbaijan
Vugar G. Mammadov

65

Ethical Standards for Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117


Annagrazia Altavilla

66

Pediatric Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127


Annagrazia Altavilla

67

Open Disclosure: Ethical and Cultural Considerations . . . . . . . . 1137


Rosemary Aldrich

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071

xxii

Contents

Section VIII

Inheritance, End of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1159

68

Wills and Estates: Succession Law and Testamentary


Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1161
Stephen Lynch

69

Legal Aspects of End-of-Life Decisions in Neonatology . . . . . . . . 1175


Jozef H. H. M. Dorscheidt

70

Mental Capacity Considerations in Powers of Attorney and


Enduring Guardianship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Stephen Lynch

71

Advance Directives for Medical Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1217


Fabiana Rego and Mara Cristina de Sousa Freitas

Volume 3
Section IX

Clinical Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1235

72

Legal Issues in Neurology Observations on American


Medical Jurisprudence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1237
James C. Johnston

73

Legal Medicine and Drug-Resistant TB in South Africa . . . . . . . 1265


Christa van Wyk

74

Complementary and Alternative Medicine and


Medical Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1281
Michael Weir

75

Follow Up of Surgical Patients and Legal Medicine . . . . . . . . . . 1299


Stuart R. Walker

76

Abortion Law in Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309


Brenda Daly

77

Evidence Collection in Cases of Sexual Assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1335


Maria Nittis

78

Asbestos-Related Diseases Their Aetiology and Medico-legal


Issues: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1359
Jonathan Burdon and Andrew Dimsey

79

Shaken Baby Syndrome and the Legal Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . 1373


Sarathchandra Kodikara and Michael Pollanen

Section X
80

Conventions

..................................

1389

Article 9 of the Convention on Human Rights


and Biomedicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1391
Fabiana Rego and Mara Cristina de Sousa Freitas

Contents

81

xxiii

European Convention of Human Rights and Biomedicine


Vera Lucia Raposo and Eduardo Osuna

Section XI

Dispute Resolution

. . . . . 1405

............................

1425

82

Regulations on Mediation in the Belgian Health


Care System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
Marie-Noelle Dere`se

83

Current Status and Legal Treatments of Medical Disputes


in China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Zhao Min and Tao Peng

84

Medical Dispute in Indonesia Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1459


Muh Nasser

Section XII

Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1471

85

Law and Science of Driving Under the Influence


C. William Hinnant

. . . . . . . . . . . . 1473

86

Driving Fitness and Legal Medicine in Australia


Roy G. Beran

. . . . . . . . . . . . 1503

Section XIII Genetics, Reproduction, Stem Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1517

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519

87

Ethics of Genetic Screening


G. T. Roche

88

Legal and Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research in


South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1535
Hennie Oosthuizen

89

Surrogacy Under French Law: Ethical, Medical, and


Legal Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1545
Allane Madanamoothoo

90

Regulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Europe . . . . . . . 1561


Amanda Warren-Jones

91

Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Services: Policies and


Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1583
Camilla Fittipaldi Jales and Pascal Borry

Section XIV

Therapeutics

................................

1599

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1601

92

Off-Label Use of Medication


Rita-Marie Jansen

93

Off Licence Use of Medications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617


Mafalda Francisco Matos

xxiv

Contents

Section XV

Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1631

94

Data Protection in eHealth Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1633


Juergen Hohmann and Stefan Benzschawel

95

Legal Maintenance of Patient Data Confidentiality in the


Russian Federation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1659
Alexander N. Pishchita

96

Privacy and Confidentiality: The Doctors Obligations . . . . . . . . 1683


Ian Freckelton SC

97

Comparing Medical Record Ownership and Access:


Australia, Canada, UK, USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1699
Chris Dwyer

98

Law of Defamation: Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1717


Bruce Burke

Section XVI Biotechnology & Intellectual Property . . . . . . . . . . . .

1733

99

Intellectual Property and Medical Biotechnologies . . . . . . . . . . . 1735


Alexandre L. D. Pereira

100

Global Regulation of Nanotechnologies and Their Products


in Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1755
Jennifer Moore

101

Computer Technology in Medical Practice and Its Impact


on the Delivery of Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1783
Ron Granot

102

Product Liability in Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1805


Marko Baretic
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1837

Contributors

Ahmet Aciduman Faculty of Medicine, Department of History of Medicine and


Ethics, Ankara University, Shhiye, Ankara, Turkey
Abdallah A. Adlan King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre,
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Rafael Aguiar-Guevara World Association for Medical Law, Baruta, Caracas,
Venezuela
Rosemary Aldrich Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, NSW, Australia
School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Waratah, NSW,
Australia
Annagrazia Altavilla Espace Ethique Mediterraneen (Bioethics Research Centre
UMR 7268), Aix-Marseille University, Hopital Adultes de la Timone, Marseille,
France
Mike OConnor AM Womens and Childrens Health University of New South
Wales, Kogarah, NSW, Australia
Berna Arda Faculty of Medicine, Department of History of Medicine and Ethics,
Ankara University, Shhiye, Ankara, Turkey
A. Argo Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Biotecnologie Mediche e Forensi,
Universita` degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Oren Asman Department of Mental Health, Law and Ethics, International Center
for Health, Law and Ethics, Haifa University, Haifa, Israel
Zefat Bioethics Forum, Zefat Academic College, Zefat, Israel
Paul Baram Norton Rose Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Marko Baretic Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Margaret Barnett-Davidson New Zealand Nurses Organisation, Willbank Court,
Wellington, New Zealand
Stefan Benzschawel Health Care Technology Department CR SANTEC, Public
Research Centre Henri Tudor, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
xxv

xxvi

Contributors

Roy G. Beran Strategic Health Evaluators, Chatswood, NSW, Australia


Australasian College of Legal Medicine, Canberra, ACT, Australia
World Association for Medical Law, Los Angeles, CA, USA
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
University of NSW, South Western Clinical School, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool,
NSW, Australia
Ken J. Berger University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Tal Bergman-Levy BeerYaacov Mental Health Center, BeerYaacov, Israel
Department for Mental Health, Law and Ethics, International Center for Health,
Law and Ethics, Haifa University, Haifa, Israel
Ruth E. Blackham School of Pathology and Surgery, University of Western
Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Pascal Borry Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Katholieke Universiteit
Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Don Buchanan Australasian College of Legal Medicine, Brisbane, QLD,
Australia
Jonathan Burdon Avant Mutual Group Ltd, East Melbourne, Australia
Bruce Burke Banki Haddock Fiora, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Michael Burnett Federal Circuit Court of Australia, Brisbane, Australia
Ivandro Aguiar Campos Nucleo ANS Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil
Chris Cantor Department of Psychiatry, University of Queensland, Noosa Heads,
QLD, Australia
M. J. Carneiro de Sousa Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar,
Oporto University, Porto, Portugal
Robin Chase Fellow and Past President of the Australasian Faculty of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Royal Australasian College of Physicians,
Jobfit Health Group, Wayville, South Australia, Australia
A. Compagno Servizio per leta` evolutiva - U.O.C. Infanzia Adolescenza
e Famiglia, Azienda ULSS7 Veneto, Pieve di Soligo, Italy
John P. Conomy School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University,
Cleveland, OH, USA
Bruce Corkill QC Central Chambers, Wellington, New Zealand
Miriam Piven Cotler The Bioethics Institute, LMU/CSUN Clinical Bioethicist,
Redondo Beach, CA, USA

Contributors

xxvii

Mara Cristina de Sousa Freitas Lisboa, Portugal


Brenda Daly School of Law and Government, Dublin City University, Dublin,
Ireland
Jonathan Davies Davies - Korn Law Offices, Jerusalem, Israel
Marie-Noelle Dere`se Center for Medical and Biomedical Law, Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
J. A. Devereux T.C. Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland, St Lucia,
QLD, Australia
Andrew Dimsey Maurice Blackburn Lawyers, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Jozef H. H. M. Dorscheidt Section of Health Law, University of Groningen,
Groningen, The Netherlands
Chris Dwyer Junior Medical Officer, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, Australia
R. Bars Erman Department of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure, Yeditepe
University Law Faculty, Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey
S. V. Erofeev The Bureau of Forensic Medicine, Ivanovo State Medical Academy,
Ivanovo, Russia
Fulya Eroglu Department of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure, Yeditepe
University Law Faculty, Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey
Beverley Ferres Bendigo Health, Bendigo, VIC, Australia
Mark J. Ferson Public Health Unit, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District,
Randwick, NSW, Australia
School of Public Health & Community Medicine, University of New South Wales,
Kensington, NSW, Australia
Sydney School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame Australia, Darlinghurst,
NSW, Australia
Camilla Fittipaldi Jales Attorney at Law (Portuguese and Brazilian Bar
Association), Catholic Portuguese University, Institute of Bioethics, Porto, Portugal
Judith Fordham Fordham & Roast, Perth, WA, Australia
Mafalda Francisco Matos Centre for Biomedical Law, University of Coimbra,
Coimbra, Portugal
Ian Freckelton SC Melbourne, Australia
Law and Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Forensic Medicine and Forensic Psychology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC,
Australia

xxviii

Contributors

C. Timothy Golumbeck{
Ron Granot East Neurology, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of NSW,
Bondi Junction, NSW, Australia
Kate Henning Wallmans Lawyers, Adelaide, SA, Australia
C. William Hinnant The American College of Legal Medicine, USA
Medicolegal Consultants, LLC, Attorneys and Counselors at Law, Anderson, SC,
USA
Christopher John Hodson QC Wellington, New Zealand
Juergen Hohmann Cellule dexpertise medicale (CEM), Inspection generale de
la securite sociale (IGSS), Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Tomas Holcapek Centre of Health Law, Faculty of Law, Charles University in
Prague, Praha 1, Czech Republic
Radmyla Yu. Hrevtsova Institute of Medical Law, Pharmaceutical Law and
Bioethics at the Academy of Advocacy of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Allan Hunt Emergency Department, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Elizabeth Vale,
Australia
University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia
Australasian College of Legal Medicine, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Rita-Marie Jansen Department of Private Law, University of the Free State,
Bloemfontein, South Africa
Sandra Johnson Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical
School, University of Sydney, Pennant Hills, NSW, Australia
James C. Johnston Legal Medicine Consultants, LLC, Seattle, WA, USA
Legal Medicine Consultants, LLC, Auckland, New Zealand
Kenneth R. Kaufman Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Anesthesiology,
UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
R. R. Kishore Indian Society for Health Laws and Ethics, New Delhi, Delhi, India
Sarathchandra Kodikara Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology,
Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
{

Deceased

Contributors

xxix

Russell Lain Department of Forensic Medicine, Glebe, Australia


Forensic Odontology, Sydney Dental Hospital, Surry Hills, NSW, Australia
Sharon Levy School of Law and Social Sciences (LSS), University of East
London, London, UK
Elizabeth J. Lilley Department of Surgery, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson
Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
Erwin Loh Southern Health Corporate Office, Clayton, VIC, Australia
Australian Institute of Business, Adelaide, SA, Australia
Stephen Lynch Somerville Legal, North Sydney, NSW, Australia
Allane Madanamoothoo Groupe ESC Troyes, France, Troyes, France
Vugar G. Mammadov Human Rights Institute, National Academy of Sciences of
Azerbaijan Head, Azerbaijan Unit, UNESCO Chair in Bioethics, Baku, Azerbaijan
Hongjie Man Law School, Shandong University, Shandong, Peoples Republic
of China
S. Mangano Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno
Infantile G. DAlessandro, Unita` Operativa di Neuropsichiatria Infantile,
Universita` degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Eiji Maruyama School of Law, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
Thomas R. McLean Third Millennium Consultants LLC, Shawnee, KS, USA
Roberto Mester Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv,
Israel
Department of Mental Health, Law and Ethics at the International Center for
Health, Law and Ethics, Haifa University, Haifa, Israel
NessZiona Mental Health Center, Ministry of Health, NessZiona, Israel
Israeli Society for Forensic Psychiatry, Israel
Zhao Min Law Department, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan,
Peoples Republic of China
Olav Molven Diakonhjemmet University College, Oslo, Norway
Jennifer Moore Centre for Law and Policy in Emerging Technologies, Faculty of
Law, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
R. Nardello Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno
Infantile G. DAlessandro, Unita` Operativa di Neuropsichiatria Infantile,
Universita` degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

xxx

Contributors

Muh Nasser Indonesia Police Committee, Indonesia Health Law Society, World
Association of Medical Law (WAML), Jakarta, Indonesia
Paul V. Nichols Surgeon Commander (D) RANR, MAA NSW Assessor,
WorkCover trained in the assessment of WPI Assessor, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Sasa Niksic Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Maria Nittis Forensic Medical Unit, Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health District and Western Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, Australia
Hennie Oosthuizen Department of Criminal and Medical Law, Faculty of Law,
University of the Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein, South Africa
Eduardo Osuna Department of Legal Medicine, University of Murcia School of
Medicine, Murcia, Spain
Jose Vicente Pachar Lucio Legal and Forensic Medicina, Universidad Latina
de Panama, Panama, Republica de Panama
Tao Peng DLA Piper Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China
Andre Goncalo Dias Pereira Centre for Biomedical Law, Faculty of Law,
University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Alexandre L. D. Pereira Faculty of Law, University of Coimbra, Coimbra,
Portugal
J. Pinto da Costa Law and Psychology Faculties, Universidade Portucalense
Infante D. Henrique and Universidade Lusada do Porto, Porto, Portugal
Alexander N. Pishchita The Russian Medical Academy for Postgraduate
Education, Department of Health Organization and Public Health, Moscow, Russia
Michael Pollanen Ontario Forensic Pathology Services, Toronto, ON, Canada
Centre for Forensic Science and Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine and
Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
P. Procaccianti Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Biotecnologie Mediche e Forensi,
Universita` degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Vera Lucia Raposo Centre of Biomedical Law; Vieira de Almeida Law Firm,
Coimbra University, Coimbra, Portugal
Fabiana Rego Trainee Lawyer, Law Degree and Master Degree in Civil Law
thesis on Advance Directives and Personality Rights, University of Coimbra,
Portugal
Bernadette Richards Law School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
G. T. Roche Wellington, New Zealand

Contributors

xxxi

Andrew A. Rock Psychology Department, Braeside Hospital and Neuropsychology SouthWest (NSW), Wetherill Park, NSW, Australia
Yu. D. Sergeyev Department for Medical Law, The First Moscow State Medical
University, Moscow, Russia
Margaret M. Stark David Jenkins Professor of Forensic and Legal Medicine,
Royal College of Physicians, London, UK
Jeanette E. Stewart Department Neurology, Liverpool Hospital & St Vincents
Clinic (NSW), Liverpool, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Jane Taylor Department of Forensic Medicine, Glebe, Australia
School of Health Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Health Precinct,
Ourimbah, NSW, Australia
Duarte Nuno Vieira National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences,
Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Stuart R. Walker Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, TAS, Australia
Amanda Warren-Jones School of Law, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
Michael Weir Faculty of Law, Bond University, QLD, Australia
Richard S. Wilbur American Medical Foundation for Peer Review and Education
(AMF), Lake Forest, IL, USA
Chongqi Wu China Health Law Society, World Association for Medical Law,
Beijing, Peoples Republic of China
Christa van Wyk Department of Jurisprudence, University of South Africa,
Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa
Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State Province,
South Africa
Steven Yannoulidis Faculty of Law, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
S. Zerbo Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Biotecnologie Mediche e Forensi,
Universita` degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy