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Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

Bode Plots
Given a transfer function G(s) how can we sketch its Bode plots
(Magnitude and Phase)
1. Write transfer function in Bode Form

G(s)

Ko

sN

" Qmr

j=1 (s/zj + 1)

Qn r

2Q
6
4

mc
j=1
Q nc
i=1

i=1 (s/pi + 1)

(s/z j )2 + 2z j (s/z j ) + 1
(s/pi)2 + 2pi(s/pi) + 1

3

7
5

Ko = lim s G(s)
s0

2. Expand the log of the magnitude. For s = j , plot one


factor at a time. Add their contributions.

log |G(s)|

log |Ko| +

mr
X

log |s/zj + 1|

j=1

nr
X

log |s/pi + 1|

i=1

mc
X





2
log (s/z j ) + 2z j (s/z j ) + 1

j=1

nc
X
i=1

c J.C. Cockburn





2
log (s/pi) + 2pi(s/pi) + 1

Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

3. Expand G(s). For s = j , plot one factor at a time. Add


their contributions.
G(s)

Ko +

mr
X

(s/zj + 1)

j=1

nr
X

(s/pi + 1)

i=1

mc
X

(s/z j ) + 2z j (s/z j ) + 1

j=1

nc
X

(s/pi) + 2pi(s/pi) + 1

i=1

Notes
The choice for a logarithmic magnitude scale allows easy
addition of the contribution the gain and of simple poles
and zeros to the Bode plot.
The choice of a logarithmic frequency scale allows to
compress the information displayed in the Bode plot.
To sketch a Bode plot by hand straight line (asymptotic)
approximations for each of the factors in log |G(j)|
and (G(j)) is used.
Asymptotic approximations to complex conjugate poles
and zeros have large errors at the resonant frequency.
At that frequency the amplification (attenuation) factor for
1
a pole (zero) is
.
2
Care must be taken when considering systems with
unstable poles and non-minimum phase zeros, e.g.,
zeros on the Right Half Plane.
c J.C. Cockburn

Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

Asymptotic Bode Plots

The phase contribution in this table is valid for poles/zeros on the


Left Half Plane. Phase contribution is reversed for poles/zeros
on the Right Half Plane.
c J.C. Cockburn

Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

Asymptotic Bode Plots Construction


1. Write transfer function in Bode Form

G(s)

Ko

sN

2Q
6
4

" Qmr

j=1 (s/zj
Qn r
i=1 (s/pi

mc
j=1
Q nc
i=1

+ 1)
+ 1)

(s/z j )2 + 2z j (s/z j ) + 1
(s/pi)2 + 2pi(s/pi) + 1

3

7
5

Ko = lim s G(s)
s0

Example:
G(s)

500(s 2)
s3(s2 + 2s + 100)

10
s/(2) + 1
s3
(s/10)2 + 2 0.1(s/10) + 1

G(s)

2. Form a table with the poles and zeros sorted, in ascending


order, according to their natural frequency and damping ratio.
Keep the factor Ko/sN together.
Example:
Term

(Ko, N )|| (, )

Total Phase

Ko/sN
z1
p1,2
r = #p #z

(10, 3)
(2, 1)
(10, 0.1)
4

180 90 3
(+90)
180
90 4

c J.C. Cockburn

Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

3. Choose the frequency axis for the Bode Plots


min: at most two decades below smallest non-zero
frequency.
max: at least two decades above largest frequency.
Example:
min 2/100 = 2 102 min = 103

4.
5.

6.

7.

max 10 100 = 103 min = 103


Estimate the magnitude axis for the Magnitude Bode Plot.
N
|G(jmin)| = |Ko|/min
(= | 10|/(103)3 = 1010)
Estimate the phase axis for the Phase Bode Plot.
G(jmin) = Ko N 90
(= 90)
G(jmax) = 90 r
(= 90 4 = 360)
(r = # poles - # zeros, the pole-zero excess)
For Magnitude Bode Plot
Start magnitude plot at |G(jmin)| with a slope of N
dB/dec.
|Ko|
|G(jmin)| = N
min
Indicate slope contribution of poles by marking corner
frequency of
a. real poles with
(represents -20 dB/dec)
b. of complex poles with
(represents -40 dB/dec)
Indicate slope contribution of zeros by marking corner
frequency of
a. real zeros with
(represents +20 dB/dec)
a. of complex zeros with
(represents +40 dB/dec)
For Phase Bode Plot
Start phase at G(jmin), where

G(jmin) = Ko N 90
c J.C. Cockburn

Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

For zeros and poles in the Left Half Plane


(stable domain, positive damping)
Indicate phase contributions of poles as follows
a. For real poles:
mark with a decade below of the corner
frequency to indicate beginning of (45/dec)
phase contribution.
mark with a decade above of the corner
frequency to indicate end of phase contribution.
b. For complex poles:
mark with double arrows (contribution is 90/dec)
Indicate phase contributions of zeros as follows
a. For real zeros:
mark with a decade below of the corner
frequency to indicate beginning of (+45/dec)
phase contribution.
mark with a decade above of the corner
frequency to indicate end of phase contribution.
b. For complex zeros:
mark with double arrows (contribution is +90/dec)
For zeros and Poles in the Right Half Plane
(unstable domain, negative damping)
Phase contributions are reversed, that is
Poles contribute positive phase.
Follow procedure for stable poles but reverse the arrow
directions.
Zeros contribute negative phase.
Follow procedure for stable zeros but reverse the
arrow directions.

c J.C. Cockburn

Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

Example: Minimum phase system with integrator


G(s)

min = 10

100(s + 1)
s(s + 10)(s + 100)

s/1 + 1
0.1
s (s/10 + 1)(s/100 + 1)
4

, max = 10 , G(jmin ) = |.1|/.01 = 10(20 dB)

Term

(Ko , N )|| (, )

Total Phase

Ko /sN
z1
p1
p2

(0.1, 1)
(1, 1)
(10, 1)
(100, 1)

90
+90
90
90

180

G(s)=

100

1
1
1
(s+1)
1
s (s+10) (s+100)

Magnitude (dB)

Bode (Magnitude)
0

50

100

10

10

10

10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

10

Phase (degrees)

Bode (Phase)
45
90
135

180
2

10

c J.C. Cockburn

10

10

10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

10

Review: Asymptotic Bode Plots

Digital Control Systems

Exact and Asymptotic Bode Plots


G(s)=

100

1
1
1
(s+1)
1
s (s+10) (s+100)

Magnitude (dB)

Bode (Magnitude)
0

50

100

10

10

10

10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

10

Phase (degrees)

Bode (Phase)
45
90
135

180
2

10

10

10

10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

Notes
At break points of simple real poles (zeros), the actual magnitude Bode
plot is 3 dB below (above) the asymptotic Bode plot.
At break points of simple complex poles (zeros), the actual magnitude
Bode plot is 1/(2) dB below (above) the asymptotic Bode plot.
At low frequencies the Bode plot slope is N dB/dec. (N number of poles)
At high frequencies the Bode plot slope is r dB/dec. (r realtive degree or
polezero excess)
Frequency where magnitude crosses 0 dB is called the gain crossover
frequency, where phase crosses 180 deg is called the phase crossover
frequency.
Phase starts flat and ends flat at r 90 .

c J.C. Cockburn

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