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Progressives

Believed government should take more active role in solving society's problems.
New deal
Name for Roosevelt's policies for ending the depression
Dawes act
1887. Break up reservation. Sell off some and give up some. Authorized the President of the United States to survey
American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
Homestead act
1862. Encouraged settlement. $10= up to 160 acres. Becomes your land if you live there for 5 years
Granger movement
Populist movement
Populism
Movement to increase farmers political power (legislation passed that benefited farmers)
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president. Fiery speaker
Prosecutor in Scopes trial.
Robber barons
Dishonest railroad entrepreneurs. Made money by swindling people and bringing government officials.
Sherman anti trust act
1890. Made monopolies illegal. Said that they are illegal when they lesson competition substantially.
Settlement houses
Boss William tweed
Leader of Tammany hall. (Democratic political machine). Went to prison in 1874
Pullman strike
1893. Pullman company required workers to live in Pullman and buy from their stores. In a recession wages were
cut. Higher prices in company store. 3 people complained and were fired. ARU said do not touch a Pullman car
(sleeping car). They put mail on Pullman cars.
Homestead strike
The final result was a major defeat for the union and a setback for efforts to unionize steelworkers.
Muckrakers
Crusading journalists who wrote about corruption, social conditions, exposed all the dirt.
Pure food and drug act
1906. Required accurate labels on foods showing contents.
Meat inspection act
1906. Gave government right to inspect meat. Dept of agriculture does it today
Spanish American war

Was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of American intervention in the Cuban War
of Independence
Open door policy
Policy that says all countries should be allowed to trade with china
Chinese exclusion act
1882. Banned Chinese immigration for 10 year.
1892 law was renewed.
1902 law made permanent.
1943 law repealed.
Roosevelt corollary
Speech teddy gave in 1904. Said to prevent European nations from sending troops to Caribbean USA would
intervene when necessary
Dollar diplomacy
Tafts policy which helped and encouraged Latin America busniess
Moral diplomacy
The system in which support is given only to countries whose moral beliefs are analogous to that of the nation.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the austro-Hungarian throne.
Killed by terrorist group black hand. Spark that ignited WWI
Zimmerman telegram
Arthur Zimmerman sends telegram to Mexico. (USA intercepts). Tells Mexico to attack USA if USA attacks
Germany. Said when Germany won, Mexico would get : Texas, Arizona, New Mexico.
Lusitania
Germany torpedoed this ship. British passenger boat. 1200 people died (128 Americans).
War bonds
War production board
Had authority to set priorities and production goals and to control distribution of raw materials and supplies (clashed
with the military)
Committee on public information
Had the task of "selling" the war to the American people. Provided propoganda and "four minute men".
John Pershing
Led expedition across Mexican border to capture poncho villas guerrillas. Failed.
New weapons (WWI)
Poisonous gas. Tanks. Airplanes. Gas masks
Trench warfare
Trenches surrounded by barbed wire. No mans land was in between trenches. "Trenchfoot"- foot fungus cause feet
were always wet.
Bolshevik revolution

Seized power from Russian government.


The big four
USA
Great Britain
France
Italy
American expeditionary force
Wilson's 14 points
Tried to prevent war. Point #14 called for League of Nations. Allies and USA senate didn't like it.
League of Nations
General association of all nations. Help preserve peace and prevent future wars by pledging to respect and protect
each other's territory
Reparations
Money for wrong doing. Germany had to pay $300 billion.
Harlem reinasance
Flowering of African American arts in Harlem
The great migration
300,000-500,000 blacks went from south to north looking to settle in northern cities.
19th amd
Gave women the right to
Vote
Laissez faire
"Hands off" economy. Economy taks care of itself.
Jim Crow laws
Statues enforcing segregation
Sacco and Vanzetti trial
2 men shot and killed at show company. Police arrested Sacco and Vanzetti as suspects. They were anarchists. Many
people leaped to condemn them because they were anarchists and immigrants. Found guilty and executed.
Scopes trial
Biology teacher. Asked by ACLU if he would be arrested for teaching evolution, he agreed. Scopes found guilty.
Fined $100.
Henry ford
Vowed to make car cheap enough so every American could have one. Wanted to lower production costs. Created the
Model T
Causes of the Great Depression
1. Failure of stock market
2. Overproduction
3. Loss of export sales
4. Federal reserve kept interest rates low.
Stock market crash

Placer mining
Mining surface of the earth
Quartz mining
Digging below the surface
Dry farming
Planted seeds deeper so they would grow (more moisture). Also strong winds would
Blow seeds away if they weren't planted deep
Sodbusters
Plowed up soil. Considered low life's
Horizontal integration
Busniess buys business in same Busniess
Paper mill buys paper mill
Vertical integration
Busniess buys business it gets it's raw materials from.
Holding company
Doesn't produce anything. Holds stock in companies that do produce things.
Trade union
Centered around particular skills.
Marxism
Hates capitalism.
Says there is class struggle between workers and owners
Said workers will revolt and overthrow the government.
Said government would take private property from people and create socialist country.
Wanted wealth to be evenly divided.
Closed shop
Company won't hire you unless you are a union member
Arbitration
If a strike occurs within a company, 3rd party will try to end it (arbitrator)
Tenement
Multi family apartments.
Political machine
Informal political group designed to gain and keep power.
Graft
Gaining money illegally through politics
Graduated income tax
More money you make= more tax.
Grandfather clause

Louisiana one allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on voting rolls in 1867. Discriminated against blacks
Imperialism
Economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker ones
Protectorate
Imperial power allowed local rulers to stay in control and protected them from invasions.
Yellow journalism
Sensationalist reporting. Writers exaggerated or made up stories to attract readers.
Jingoism
Attitude of aggressive nationalism
Square deal
Nickname for Teddy's reform programs in his second term
Suffrage
Right to vote
Nationalism
Extreme belief in ones country
Victory garden
Hoover encourage citizens to grow their own foods so more would be saved for troops overseas
Armistice
Temporary agreement to end fighting
Flapper
Personified women's changing behavior in the 1920s.
Smoked, drank, dressed in revealing attire.
Speakeasy
Hidden bars during prohibition.
32,000 in NYC alone
Normalcy
Hardings campaign based on this. Means retiring to normal life after the war
Margin
Only payed 10% of stock. Financed other 90%.
Hooverville
Nickname for Shantytowns
Dust bowl
Great Plains durin the depression. Numerous dust storms
Public works

Government finance building projects (failed)


Fireside chats
Direct talks FDR held with the American people over the radio.
Social security act
Goal was to provide security for the elderly and for unemployed workers.
What type of mining was used by early prospectors?
Placer mining
Describe the homestead act
$10 registration fee, u could file for a homestead. Could claim up to 160 acres. Could receive title for that land after
living there for 5 years
How did the Dawes act attempt to help native Americans?
It attempted the help them by trying to assimilate them into American culture
What was the result of fencing the open range?
Long drives ended. And ranchers used the fence to shut out competition.
Why did the confrontation occur at wounded knee?
The confrontation occurred because the Lakota people refused to stop performing the ghost dance. When the army
tried to disarm the group (led by sitting bull) gunfire broke out.
What group of people worked with the central pacific railroad?
The Chinese
How do corporations achieve economies of scale?
When they make goods more cheaply because they produce so much so quickly using large manufacturing facilities.
What 2 railroads built the transcontinental railroad?
Union Pacific and central pacific.
Explain the credit mobiler scandal
Credit mobiler was construction company set up by several stockholders of Union Pacific. Investors signed contracts
with themselves
What did the working mans party of California hope to achieve?
To fight Chinese immigration
Explain how saloons functioned in big cities like Chicago in the 1800s.
Like community centers and political centers.
What did nativists hope to achieve?
To fight catholic immigration from Ireland.
Explain political machines.
An informal political group designed to gain and keep power
What did the mugwumps hope to achieve?
Do defeat Blaine by defecting to the democratic candidate for moral reason

What was the result of the McKinley tariff?


Lowered federal revenue and transformed the surplus into a deficit.
Explain wabash v Illinois
Ruled that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce.
Why was the Sherman anti trust act ineffective?
It was vaguely worded
What was the purpose of granger laws?
To set maximum rates and prohibit railroads from charging more for short hauls than for long hauls.
How did the USA cause an economic crisis in Cuba?
By imposing a new tariff on sugar to protect it's troubled economy from foreign competition.
Who overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy?
Planters and marines from the Boston.
Why was the battleship Maine sent to Havana?
To evacuate Americans if necessary
What did the platt amendment call for?
Cuba couldn't make a treaty with another country that would allow another foreign country to gain territory in Cuba
Cuba had to allow the USA to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba
Cubas debts had to be kept low
USA would have the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence.
What was the purpose of the open door policy in china?
To allow all countries to trade with china
Why did teddy win the Nobel peace prize?
He helped negotiate peace between Japan and Russia
Explain northern securities v USA
Union Pacific railroad, great northern railroad, and northern pacific railroads formed holding company called
northern securities. Supreme Court ruled they were in violation of the Sherman anti trust act.
Why was Wisconsin known as laboratory of democracy?
Because it's governor (Robert la follotte) established a direct primary
What do socialists believe in?
That government should own and operate industry for the community as a whole. Wanted government to buy up
Large companies
Describe the underwood tariff act
Reduced the average tariff on imported goods to about 30% of the value of the goods.
Also levied an income tax
What is a direct primary?

All party members can vote for a candidate to run in the general election.
Explain the significance of te triangle shirtwaist company tragedy
Cause strict building codes to be passed and health codes
What countries were in the triple entente?
Britain
France
Russia
Schenck v USA
Supreme Court ruled that individuals free speech could be curbed when the words uttered constitute a clear and
present danger.
What event started WWI?
Assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand
What did the fuel administration do to conserve energy?
Introduced daylight savings time and shortened workweeks for factories that did not make war materials
Who were the big 4 and what countries did they represent?
Wilson- US
David loyd- Great Britain
George Clemenceau- France
Vittorio Orlando- Italy
What countries were in the triple alliance?
Germany
Italy
Austria-Hungary
Explain the Zimmerman telegram
(Look at previous card)
What was the purpose of the selective service act?
Required all men 21-30 to register for the draft to get more soldiers
Purpose of espionage and sedition act?
Espionage act establish penalties and prison time for anyone who gave aid to the enemy.
Sedition act expanded it to make illegal any public expression of opposition to te war
How were airplanes first used in WWI?
Used to observe enemy activities
What did the KKK do the vastly increase it's membership in the early 1920s?
Hired PR people to promote the klan
What was outlawed by the butler act?
Any teaching that denied the story of the Devine creation of man as taught in the Bible.
Why did the KKK lose membership in the late 1920s?
Scandals and power struggles involving it's leaders.

What was the purpose


Of the volstead act?
To try and enforce prohibition.
What message did Ernest Hemingway convey in A Farewell To Arms?
What was the purpose of Henry fords sociological department?
Build worker loyalty
Describe the teapot dome scandal
Hardings secretary of interior Albert fall allowed private interests to lease lands containing USA navy oil reserves
What innovation was instituted by international harvester in 1926?
Why did Alfred smith endure a smear campaign in 1928?
Because he was a Catholic
What was the first feature length film?
Animal crackers
What was stated in the treaty that ended the Spanish American war?
USA would free Cuba, and annex Guam and Puerto Rico
What was American support for the rebels in Cuba fueled by?
Sensational stories published by rival newspapers
The platt amendment effectively made Cuba into an....?
American protectorate
18 and 21 amendment
18 started prohibition
21 ended it
Who can declare war??
Only congress, not the president