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Electronic dance music

Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance

music,[1] club music,[2] or simply dance) is a broad
range of percussive electronic music genres produced primarily for dance-based entertainment environments such
as nightclubs, raves, and festivals. The music is largely
produced for playback by disc jockeys (DJs) and is generally used in the context of a live DJ mixes where the DJ
creates a seamless selection of tracks by segueing from
one recording to the next.[3]
In 2010, the acronym EDM was adopted by the American music industry and music press as a buzzword to describe the increasingly commercial US electronic dance
music scene.[4][5]

Roland TB-303: The bass line synthesizer that was used prominently in acid house.


Notable examples include the 1977 collaboration between producer Giorgio Moroder and vocalist Donna
Summer on the song "I Feel Love", a groundbreaking
dance/discothque hit with no traditional instruments.[6]


Birth of club music

and in Manchester The Haienda, where Mike Pickering and Graeme Parks Friday night spot, Nude, was an
important proving ground for American underground [8]
dance music. Acid house party fever escalated in London
and Manchester, and it quickly became a cultural phenomenon. MDMA-fueled club goers, faced with 2 A.M.
closing hours, sought refuge in the warehouse party scene
that ran all night. To escape the attention of the press and
the authorities, this after-hours activity quickly went underground. Within a year, however, up to 10,000 people
at a time were attending the rst commercially organized
mass parties, called raves, and a media storm ensued.[9]

See also: Hi-NRG, Electronic body music, Euro disco,

Synthpop, Italo disco, Electro (music), Garage music
(North America), Post-disco and House music


Acid house and Rave

See also: Acid house, Techno, Rave and Second Summer

of Love
By 1988, house music had exploded in the UK and Germany with acid house becoming increasingly popular.[7]
There was also a long established warehouse party
subculture based around the sound system scene. In 1988,
the music played at warehouse parties was predominantly
house. That same year, the Balearic party vibe associated with Ibiza based DJ Alfredo Fiorito was transported to London, when Danny Rampling and Paul Oakenfold opened the clubs Shoom and Spectrum, respectively. Both night spots quickly became synonymous with
acid house, and it was during this period that the use
of MDMA, as a party drug, started to gain prominence.
Other important UK clubs at this time included Back to
Basics in Leeds, Sheelds Leadmill and Music Factory,

The success of house and acid house paved the way for
Detroit Techno, a style that was initially supported by
a handful of house music clubs in Chicago, New York,
and Northern England, with Detroit clubs catching up
later.[10] According to British DJ Mark Moore it was
Derrick Mays Strings of Life that eased London clubgoers into acceptance of house, with Moore stating that:
I was on a mission because most people hated house music and it was all rare groove and hip hop...I'd play Strings
of Life at the Mud Club and clear the oor. Three weeks
later you could see pockets of people come onto the oor,
dancing to it and going crazy and this was without ecstasy. [11][12]



North American commercialization of acts gaining prominence during this period, such as Avicii
and Swedish House Maa, elected to hold concert tours at

major venues such as arenas alongside nightclub appearances;

in December 2011, Swedish House Maa became
Initially, electronic dance music achieved limited popthe
electronic music act to sell out New York City's
ular exposure in America when it was marketed as
Square Garden.[17]
"electronica" during the mid to late 1990s.
At that
time, a wave of electronic music bands from the UK, In January 2013, Billboard introduced a new EDMincluding The Prodigy, The Chemical Brothers, Fatboy focused Dance/Electronic Songs chart, tracking the top
Slim and Underworld, had been prematurely associated 50 electronic songs based on sales, radio airplay, club
with an American electronica revolution.[14][15] But, in- play, and online streaming[19] and by November the same
stead of EDM nding wider mainstream success, it was year, Music Trades magazine was calling EDM the fastest
relegated to the margins of the industry.[14] Despite the growing genre on the planet.[20] In addition to the growth
domestic music media interest in electronica during the of EDM through live events and the Internet, radio and
latter half of the 1990s, American house and techno pro- television were also credited with helping to increase
ducers continued to travel abroad to establish their careers mainstream attention: analysts noted that sales of Calvin
as DJs and producers.[14]
Harriss "Feel So Close" and Swedish House Maas
You Worry Child" dramatically increased after
By the mid-2000s, a number of factors led to an inthey
receiving contemporary hit radio airplay.[21]
creased prominence for dance acts in North America that
was larger than previously observed. Daft Punk's per- EDM songs and artists have been featured in television
formance at the 2006 Coachella Festival was considered commercials and programs, while some artists have protheir work more
by Spin to be a tipping point for EDM, as the appear- duced more pop-oriented songs to make
ance fueled nostalgia of the electronica era, and introduced the duo to a new generation of rock kids.[14] In
2009, French house musician David Guetta began to gain
prominence in mainstream pop music after achieving several crossover hits on Top 40 charts, such as "When Love
Takes Over", and collaborations with U.S.-based pop and
hip-hop acts, such as Akon ("Sexy Bitch") and The Black
Eyed Peas ("I Gotta Feeling").[16]

1.3.1 Criticism of commercial EDM

Despite the growing mainstream acceptance of EDM, a
number of producers and DJs, including Carl Cox, Steve
Lawler, and Markus Schulz, have raised concerns that
the perceived over-commercialization of dance music has
impacted the art of DJing. Cox sees the press-play
approach of a new generation of EDM DJs as not being
representative of what he calls the DJ ethos.[17] Writing in Mixmag DJ Tim Sheridan questioned whether or
not EDM was responsible for aecting the art of traditional DJing.[23] Sheridan contends that the emergence of
push-button DJs who use auto-sync functions and prerecorded sets featuring obvious hits rather than a diverse selection of music has led to a situation where the
spectacle, money and the showbiz [had] overtaken all
even notions of honesty.[23]

The increased popularity of EDM was also fuelled by

concerts and festivals, such as Electric Daisy Carnival,
that placed an increased emphasis on visual experiences
(such as video and lighting eects), fashion (which The
Guardian characterized as an evolution from the 1990s
kandi raver into "[a] slick and sexied yet also kitschysurreal image midway between Venice Beach and Cirque
Du Soleil, Willy Wonka and a Gay Pride parade"), and
the DJs themselves, who began to attain celebrity-like statuses. Websites such as YouTube and SoundCloud also
helped fuel interest in other genres of electronic music,
such as electro house and dubstep. At the time, Dubstep Some house producers have openly admitted that comalso began to develop a harsher sound popularized mainly mercial EDM required further dierentiation and creby U.S. producer Skrillex.[17][18]
ativity. Avicii (whose 2013 album "True" featured songs
In 2011 Spin declared the start of a new rave gen- incorporating elements of bluegrass music, such as its
eration, with acts such as Guetta, Canadian producer lead single "Wake Me Up") stated that there was no
Deadmau5, and Skrillex now followed by a new wave longevity in the majority of EDM.[24] Deadmau5 has
of mainstream consumers.[14] Elements of EDM also be- also criticized the homogenization of EDM, stating that
came increasingly prominent in the music of mainstream the music he hears all sounds the samehe emphasized
chart acts, and collaborations occurred with producers his diversication into other genres, such as techno and, in
such as Afrojack and Calvin Harris.[14] Promoters could 2014, he released a techno song under the moniker testnow generate higher prots from booking DJs over other pilot for Richie Hawtin's label, Plus 8. During the 2014
types of music acts. According to Diplo:"a band plays, its Ultra Music Festival, Deadmau5 made remarks attacking
45 minutes; DJs can play for four hours. Rock bands up and coming EDM artist Martin Garrix, and during his
theres a few headliner dudes that can play 3,000-4,000- set later in the evening (where he lled in for Avicii, who
capacity venues, but DJs play the same venues, they turn was unable to attend due to medical issues), he played an
the crowd over two times, people buy drinks all night edited version of Garrixs song "Animals" remixed to the
long at higher pricesits a win-win.[14] Other major melody of "Old McDonald Had a Farm". Following the

dance radio brand,[40] and announced a partnership with
SFX Entertainment in January 2014 to co-produce live
concert events and EDM-oriented original programming,
such as a Beatport countdown show, for its top 40 radio stations. iHeartMedia president John Sykes explained
that he wanted his companys properties to be the best
In May 2014, the NBC comedy series Saturday Night Live destination [for EDM]", and felt that its planned Beatport
parodied the stereotypes of EDM culture and push-button top 20 show would provide increased mainstream,[41][42]
American exposure to up and coming producers.
DJs through a Digital Short entitled When Will the Bass
Drop?". The short featured a DJ named Davvincii EDM festivals have also had considerable economic imwho is seen performing a number of unrelated tasks pacts on the cites which host them. The Ultra Music Fesincluding playing a computer game, frying eggs, and col- tival brought 165,000 attendees in 2014, and more than
lecting money rather than actually mixing, and pressing $223 million to Miami's economy,[39] while the inaugua giant BASS button to cause the heads of attendees to ral TomorrowWorld festival brought $85.1 million in revexplode.[29][30][31]
enue to the Atlanta areaas much revenue as the nals of
the 2013 NCAA college basketball tournament that was
also held in Atlanta.[43]
1.3.2 Corporate investment in EDM
performance, Deadmau5 was also criticized on Twitter by
fellow electronic musician Tisto for sarcastically mixing Aviciis "Levels" with his own "Ghosts 'n' Stu", asking in response How does one play a track sarcastically?
Am I supposed to sneer while hitting the sync button?
Or is that ironic?[25][26][27][28]

Following the mainstream success of EDM it became increasingly attractive to outside investors; with some comparing it to the dot-com boom of the late-1990s. The
beginning of corporate consolidation in the EDM industry began in 2012; especially in terms of live events. In
June 2012, media executive Robert F. X. Sillerman
founder of what is now Live Nationre-launched SFX
Entertainment as an EDM-focused conglomerate, and announced his plan to invest US$1 billion for the acquisition of EDM-related properties. His purchases included
a number of regional promoters and festivals (including ID&T, organizers of the annual Tomorrowland festival in Belgium), along with two nightclub operators in
Miami, U.S., and Beatport, an EDM-oriented online music store.[32][33] Live Nation itself also invested in the
EDM market with the acquisition of Cream Holdings
and Hard Events, and the announcement of a creative
partnership with EDC organizers Insomniac Events in
2013;[34] Live Nation CEO Michael Rapino described
EDM as the "[new] rock 'n' roll.[35][36][37]
Advertisers have also increasingly associated themselves
with the EDM industry; for example, alcoholic beverage companies such as Heineken and Anheuser-Busch
have maintained marketing relationships with the Ultra
Music Festival and SFX, respectively. Heineken also
incorporated Dutch producers, such as Armin van Buuren and Tiesto, into their marketing campaigns.[22] Soft
drink brand 7 Up introduced branded stages at both Ultra
and EDC in 2014.[38][39] Aviciis manager Ash Pournouri
compared the increasingly commercial EDM industry to
the transformation and commercialization of hip hop,
which occurred in the early 2000s, arguing that the corporate world was beginning to catch on to EDM.[22]

2 Terminology
The term electronic dance music was used in America as early as 1985,[44] although the term dance music
didn't catch on as a blanket term for the genre(s) until
the second half of the 1990s, when it was embraced by
the American music industry with their Dance charts
(which continue to this day), as well as the consistent
use of the term dance music in reference to artists in
reviews.[44] In July 1995 Nervous Records and Project
X magazine held their rst award ceremony titled Electronic Dance Music Awards. [45][46]
Writing for The Guardian, journalist Simon Reynolds
noted that music industry adoption of the term EDM
was part of a drive to re-brand rave culture in the United
States; an attempt to draw line between todays EDM
and 90s rave.[47] While EDM has become the common blanket term for dance music genres in the USA, in
many parts of Europe and online, in the UK the usage of
dance music or dance is more commonly used.[48]
What is widely considered to be club music changes
over time includes dierent genres depending on the region and whos making the reference, and may not always
encompass electronic dance music. Similarly, electronic
dance music sometimes means dierent things to dierent people. Both terms vaguely encompass multiple genres, and sometimes are used as if they were genres themselves. The distinction is that club music is ultimately
based on whats popular, whereas electronic dance music is based on attributes of the music itself.[49]

3 Genres

U.S. radio conglomerate iHeartMedia, Inc. (formerly

Clear Channel Media and Entertainment) has also made
eorts to align itself into the EDM industry; the com- Main article: List of electronic music genres
pany hired noted British DJ and BBC Radio 1 personality Pete Tong to produce programming for its Evolution Just as rock, jazz and other musical genres have their

own set of sub-genres, so does electronic dance music.

Continuing to evolve over the past 30 years dance music
has splintered o into numerous sub-genres often dened
by their varying tempo (BPM), rhythm, instrumentation
used and time period.[50] The broadest categories include
house, techno, trance, hardstyle, UK garage, drum &
bass, dubstep, progressive, electro and hardcore.


Andrew also warns that too much bass, as well as too

much sound overall, can be harmful and a good sound
engineer will understand that there is a window between
enough sound to give excitement and so much that it is

5 Festivals


See also: List of Electronic dance music festivals

Music festivals devoted to the electronic music scene are
a major aspect of the EDM subculture. Modern, commercial electronic music festivals represent an evolution
from the largely underground rave culture of the 1980s
and 90s, with a particular emphasis on the health and
safety of attendees, and lineups featuring large numbers
of acts representing various genresranging from prominent headline acts, to up and coming or local talent
spread across multiple stages. Recent festivals have
placed a larger emphasis on visual spectacles, including elaborate stage designs with complex lighting systems and pyrotechnics, along with the attire of their

Typical tools for EDM production: computer, MIDI keyboard

and mixer/sound recorder.

In an April 2014 interview with Tony Andrew, the

owner and founder of the Funktion-One sound system
considered a foremost model of audio technology and installed in venues such as Berghain, Output and Trouw
Andrew explains the critical importance of bass to dance

Notable U.S. electronic music festivals include the

Ultra Music Festival in Miami, Electric Daisy
Carnival Las Vegas, New York City's Electric
Zoo, and TomorrowWorlda spin-o of Belgium's
Tommorowland festival held outside of Atlanta.[18][38]
The mainstream popularity of electronic dance music
has also led major multi-genre music festivals, such as
Chicagos Lollapalooza and the Coachella Festival, to
add dedicated stages hosting electronic music acts.[52][53]

6 Industry Awards
Dance music wouldnt be so successful
without bass. If you think about it, weve
really only had amplied bass for around 50
years. Big bass is only a couple of generations old. Before the invention of speakers
that could project true bass frequencies, humans really only came across bass in hazardous
situationsfor example, when thunder struck,
or an earthquake shook, or from explosions
caused by dynamite or gunpowder. That is
probably why it is by far the most adrenalineinducing frequency that we have. Bass gets humans excited basically. Below 90 or 100 Hz,
bass becomes more of a physical thing. It vibrates specic organs. It vibrates our bones.
It causes minor molecular rearrangement, and
that is what makes it so potent as a force in
dance music. The molecular vibration caused
by bass is what gives dance music its power. It
is what makes dance music so pleasurable to
hear through a proper sound system.[51]

7 See also
Timeline of electronic music genres
List of electronic dance music record labels
List of electronic musicians
Rave music

8 References
[1] Kosko, E. (2004). Music Cultures in the United States:
An Introduction, Routledge, p44.
[2] ibid.

[3] Butler, M.J., Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm, Meter,

and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music, Indiana University Press, 2006, pp. 1213, 94. ISBN
[4] RA Roundtable: EDM in AmericaResident Advisor,. 'RA
Roundtable: EDM In America'. N. p., 2012. Web. 18
May. 2014.
[5] 'The FACT Dictionary: How Dubstep, Juke, Cloud
Rap And Many More Got Their Names. N. p., 2013.
Web. 18 May. 2014.
[6] [http://www.billboard.com/biz/search/charts?page=
[7] Rietveld 1998:4050
[8] Fikentscher (2000:5), in discussing the denition of underground dance music as it relates to post-disco music in
America, states that: The prex 'underground' does not
merely serve to explain that the associated type of music and its cultural context - are familiar only to a small number of informed persons. Underground also points to the
sociological function of the music, framing it as one type of
music that in order to have meaning and continuity is kept
away, to large degree, from mainstream society, mass media, and those empowered to enforce prevalent moral and
aesthetic codes and values. Fikentscher, K. (2000), You
Better Work!: Underground Dance Music in New York,
Wesleyan University Press, Hanover, NH.
[9] Rietveld 1998:5459
[10] Brewster 2006:398443
[11] Brewster 2006:419
[12] Cosgrove 1988a. Although it can now be heard in Detroits
leading clubs, the local area has shown a marked reluctance to get behind the music. It has been in clubs like the
Powerplant (Chicago), The World (New York), The Hacienda (Manchester), Rock City (Nottingham) and Downbeat (Leeds) where the techno sound has found most support. Ironically, the only Detroit club which really championed the sound was a peripatetic party night called Visage,
which unromantically shared its name with one of Britains
oldest new romantic groups.
[13] Sisario, Ben (2012-04-04). Electronic Dance Concerts
Turn Up Volume, Tempting Investors. New York Times.
Retrieved 2012-06-17.
[14] Sherburne, Philip. Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger, Spin
Magazine, pages 41-53, October 2011, Spin Media LLC.
[15] Chaplin, Julia & Michel, Sia. Fire Starters, Spin Magazine, page 40, March 1997, Spin Media LLC.
[16] DJ David Guetta leads the EDM charge into mainstream. USA Today. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
[17] The Dumbing Down of Electronic Dance Music. Wall
Street Journal. Retrieved 25 January 2014.

[18] How rave music conquered America. Guardian. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
[19] New Dance/Electronic Songs Chart Launches With
Will.i.am & Britney at No. 1. Billboard. Retrieved 13
August 2014.
[20] Just How Big is EDM?". Music Trades Magazine. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
[21] The Year EDM Sold Out: Swedish House Maa, Skrillex
and Deadmau5 Hit the Mainstream. Billboard.biz. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
[22] Booming business: EDM goes mainstream. Miami Herald. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
[23] Is EDM killing the art of DJing?". Mixmag. Retrieved 7
June 2014.
[24] EDM Will Eat Itself: Big Room stars are getting bored.
Mixmag. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
[25] Deadmau5 Trolls Martin Garrix with Old MacDonald
Had a Farm Remix of Animals at Ultra. radio.com.
Retrieved 25 April 2014.
[26] Deadmau5 gives reason for techno track: EDM sounds
the same to me"". inthemix.com.au. Retrieved 25 April
[27] Deadmau5: The Man Who Trolled the World. mixmag.
Retrieved 25 April 2014.
[28] Afrojack and Deadmau5 argue over whats good music"". Mixmag. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
[29] SNL Digital Shorts return with 'Davvincii' to skewer
EDM and overpaid DJs. The Verge. Retrieved 7 June
[30] Watch Saturday Night Live Mock Big Room DJ Culture. Mixmag. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
[31] SNL takes stab at EDM culture in new digital short featuring Davvincii". Dancing Astronaut. Retrieved 7 June
[32] Exclusive: SFX Acquires ID&T, Voodoo Experience.
Billboard. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
[33] SFX Purchases 75% Stake in ID&T, Announce U.S. Edition of Tomorrowland at Ultra. Billboard.biz. Retrieved
16 April 2013.
[34] Live Nation Teams With Insomniac Events in Creative
Partnership'". Billboard.biz. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
[35] Live Nation Acquires L.A. EDM Promoter HARD: Will
the Mainstream Get More Ravey?". Spin. Retrieved 25
April 2014.
[36] Live Nation Buys EDM Entertainment Company Cream
Holdings Ltd, Owner of Creamelds Festivals. Billboard.biz. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
[37] Electronic Dance Concerts Turn Up Volume, Tempting
Investors. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April

[38] An electric desert experience: the 2014 EDC Las Vegas

phenomenon. Dancing Astronaut. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
[39] Ultra Music Festivals 16th Anything but Sweet, Though
Still Potent. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
[40] Sisario, Ben (December 20, 2012). Boston Radio Station Switches to Electronic Dance Format. The New York
Times. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
[41] SFX and Clear Channel Partner for Digital, Terrestrial
Radio Push. Billboard.biz. Retrieved 6 January 2014.


[54] Hardwell Wins DJ Mags Top 100 DJs Poll. Billboard.

Retrieved 12 August 2014.
[55] http://www.wintermusicconference.com/events/idmas/
index.php?wmcyear=1998. Missing or empty |title=
[56] Unknown (November 18, 2012). American Music
Awards 2012: A big night for Justin Bieber. CBS News.
CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 27, 2012.

9 Further reading

[42] John Sykes, Robert Sillerman on New Clear Channel,

SFX Partnership: 'We Want to Be the Best'". Billboard.biz. Retrieved 6 January 2014.

Hewitt, Michael. Music Theory for Computer Musicians. 1st Ed. U.S. Cengage Learning, 2008. ISBN

[43] Study: TomorrowWorld had $85m impact. Atlanta

Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

Electronic dance music glossary by Moby for USA

Today published December 13, 2011

[44] Bogart, Jonathan (10 July 2014). Buy the Hype: Why
Electronic Dance Music Really Could Be the New Rock.
The Atlantic. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
[45] Flick, Larry (Aug 12, 1995). Gonzales Prepares More
Batches of Bucketheads. Billboard: 24. Josh Wink,
Moby, and the Future Sound Of London were among the
fortunate folks honored at the rst Electronic Dance Music Awards, which were presented July 27 in New York.
Produced by Nervous Records and Project X magazine,
the evening saw trophies doled out to some of the club
communitys more cerebral and experimental producers,
DJs, musicians and record labels. Winners were tallied
from ballots from Project X readers.
[46] Prince, David (1995). Rhythm Nation. Rolling Stone
(705): 33.
[47] ""After 20 years, electronic dance music has made it big
in the US url=http://www.theguardian.com/music/2012/
[48] ""Denition
[49] McLeod, Kembrew (2001).
Genres, Subgenres,
Sub-Subgenres and more: Musical and Social Difference Within Electronic/Dance Music Communities
(PDF). Journal of Popular Music Studies 13: 5975.
[50] Brief History of Electronic Music
[51] Terry Church (10 April 2014). Funktion-Ones Tony
Andrews on Setting Up Soundsystems From Wembley
Stadium to Your Bedroom. DJTechTools. DJTechTools.
Retrieved 13 April 2014.
[52] House Music Comes Home: How Chicagos Summer
of Music Festivals Has Reinvigorated the Citys Dance
Spirit. Noisey. Vice.
[53] How Coachellas nal day symbolizes the electronic music fever pitch. Las Vegas Weekly. Retrieved 9 December


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