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The Responsive National State—1871 to 1914

Nationalism no longer really seen as dangerous (except austrai b/c of HUGE ethnic

Liberalism no longer really radical, more conservative

Socialism no longer really radical

Eve of world war one- ELEMENTS of socialism firmly established

General Characteristics of Responsive national state

Loyalty to national state

Nationalism_ more a conservative ideology

Def had changed : more PATRIOTIC, not ethnic

Universal male suffrage _ Was the NORM by WWI rather than the

Helped gov address all social classes, elite is not sole voting class

Female suffrage

Norway was first,

England was HUGLEY radical

Most countries not until AFTER WWI

US too

Women needed in work force

Emmeline Pankhurst: mother o British women suffrage

Multiparty system

Harder to get majority

Good for lower class

Manipulation of National feelings

“blame the jews”

Use war to distract people

Anti-Semitism rises again

GERMANY was actually first to give full legal rights to jews


Goes through stages

German Empire: gov Structure

Chancellor (Bismarck until 1890)

King more of a figurehead

Reichstag: german parliament

2 house legislature

Separate STATE governments

25 states total including Prussia

Federal gov controlled foereign and overall eco policy

3 major parties

National liberals: 1866

Furether economic and legal reform

Catholic Center Party

In line w/ liberals but wanted to protect religious aims

Mainly made of peeps in more SOUTHERN states (b/c of


Conservative Party

Junkers (Prussian aristocrats)

Lost of progress-

Jews got full emancipation


Was a count
Was conservative

Realized nationalism had a place


Stems from Pope Pius IX’s reassertion of infallibility

Was putting Church’s needs above state

Was a movement against the church

Conflict btw National Lib party and Cahtolic Center Party

1878 Bis had to drop Kulturkampf

Prussia was MOSTLY Lutheran to begin with

Also, Bis needed Cath Cent party’s support for economic stuff

Dropping this got them on his side

Protective Tariffs

Low wheat prices--- peasant crisis!!!!

Bis wanted to make sure he could give what peasants demanded

Went to tariff protection

Had LOTS of support from Cath center party

Bis saw this as very Similar to Friedreck lists economic nationalism

Was able to get ALL THREE parties on his side!!!!!

Allowed Bismarck to increase taxes without complaint

Saw Socialism as biggest threat because of the language they used

Marxian Socialism most prominent by this point

Talked about revolution and NO NEED FOR GOVERNMENT

Talked about REVOLUTION

Assination attempst on William I

Restrictions on Socialist groups failed

Bis had to restrict ANY Sort of Possible rev by OUTLAWING SOCIAL

Fairly ineffective

First modern social security Laws

Needed to meet needs of working class

National sickness and accident insurance!!!!!

During the 1870s!!!!

National Pesions and Retirement benefits!!

Paid for via employer and employee

Allowed Bismarck to quite the working class

LESSENED THE NEED for radical socialism

William II (1888-1918)

Intent on doing EVERYTHING by himself

Didn’t want to be manipulated

The “dropping of the pilot”

Bismarck is canned in 1890

Bis wanted to keep Socialist party outlawed


Is a long-term cause of WWI

Bis is Fired, Wil II legalizes Social dems

Were largest party in the Reichstadt by 1912

Were more nationalistic by this point

Compulsory edu helped

France: Empire to Republic

Louis Napoleon

FABULOUS domestic reforms

AWFUL foreign policy

Was sensitive to public opinion

Final undoing was the Franco-Prussian war

Issue was who was going to succeed the throne in Spain

Could have been German_ even Will and Bis admitted it

was a stretch

Paris was trying to assert their power as a CITY over the country

Paris commune and national Assembly conflict (just like in 1848)

Most of the peeps in France got fed up w/ radicals in paris

Third Republic:

Adolf Thiers (1871-1873)

“this is the government that divides us the LEAST”

Knew it wasn’t perfect, was best compromise available

As a result, voted president in 1871

Leon Gambetta

Leader of who was Pres longer and gets more Don

Moderates were winning out

First time in FRENCH HISTORY idea of Parliament get

something DONE

No revs for a while (till 1914)

Legalizes trade unions

Workers have ANOTHER way to lobby for their demands

Don’t HAVE to rely on Radical Marxian socialism

Gains a colonial empire

Get a DESRET in Africa


Mostly mountains and not productive land

Compulsory education

MEN and WOMEN!! (yay!)

Very patriotic curriculm

Was SECULAR for first time

Change in gender roles

Teachers used to HAVE to remain single

Women are allowed to marry, try to increase birth


Lest edu system be more stable

The Dreyfus affair

Albert Dreyfuss

Was jewish

In army

Accused of treason

Jews had started to get civil Rights

Napoleon had started to protect their rights

Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)

Iunfuses anti-semitism

Albert insist innocent

Gets Emile Zola (writer) on his side

Dreyfuss found INOCENNT

France Gov realizes church is trying to control france

Undoes Concordat of 1801

France cuts almost all ties w/ church

Introdusced separation of Church and state to


Great Britain

Reform Bill of 1832

Slightly extended voting

Gave House of Commons over the house of lords

Did NOT give universal sufferage

John Stewart Mill started really promoting U suffrage

William Gladstone

Leader of Liberal party

Benjamin Disraeli

Leader of conservative Party

1867- Second reform bill

Prompted by Disraeli

Reduced property requirements for voting

Made it so that most of the middle class and above could vote

Third reform bill-1884


House of Lords

Start get irritated

Fairly quite after 1832

1884 wanted to reassert power

Ruled AGAINST labor unions

Trying to prevent any type of liberal reform


King threatens to make more aristocrats

King silences the house of lords, peeps biudget goes through

Edward vII was king

Liberal Party was spearheaded by David Lloyd George (prime minister
of Parliament)

People’s Budget- 1906-1914

Taxing the aristocrats

National health insurance

Unemployment compensation

Old age pensions

Basically what Bismarck had done

Moderated socialism

Ireland and Great Britain

Potato ramine—revolutionary movement

Slow concessions to Ireland

Some rights to peasants

Abolish special priviledges for Anglicans

Had the support of Gladstone (liberal party)

2 atempts to try to ggfet irish self rule bills passed

Neither one passed

1886 and 1893

Had SOME irish nationalists in Parliament

In order to get Peeps budget through need comp in Irish self rule
Protestant irish opposed it!

Worried about how they’d be treated

Called Ulsterites

Protestant Ulsterites vs Irish catholic

1914- compromise home rule bill defeated

WWI suspended issue

Saved England from Civil war

Northern Ireland remains part of Great Britain

Creates issues into the 1990

Clinton had to make peace w/ N and S in ‘98

The austro-Hungarian Empire

1849- subjugation of Hungary

Ruled as an occupied territory

Austro-Prussian war – dual monarchy

Weakend hold on Hungary

Austria and Hungary basically seperat, just ruled by ONE


Internal affairs were separate

Common ministers for finance, defensem foreign affairs


Continued to see ethnic division

Only 1/3 of Austria was german

Rule by decree

Try to promote economic nationalism FAILED

Issue over what national language should be


Constitution of 1848 reinstated

Magyars suppressed ethnic minorities

Nationalism destroyed empire

All of the above leads to the changing of the definition of socialism