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Physics

Project
TRANSFORMER

Certificat
e
This is to certify that Ridam Pal Singh, student of
Class XII, Delhi Public School, Kalyanpur has
completed the project titled Transformer during the
academic year 2014-2015 towards partial fulfillment
of credit for the Physics practical evaluation of CBSE
2015, and submitted satisfactory report, as compiled
in the following pages, under my supervision.

Mr.Ashutosh Tiwari
Department of Physics
Delhi Public School Kalyanpur

Acknowledgeme
nt
"There are times when silence speaks so much more
loudly than words of praise to only as good as belittle a
person, whose words do not express, but only put a
veneer over true feelings, which are of gratitude at this
point of time."

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my physics


mentor Mr.Ashutosh Tiwari, for his vital support, guidance
and encouragement, without which this project would not
have come forth. I would also like to express my gratitude to
the staff of the Department of Physics at Delhi Public School,
Kalyanpur for their support during the making of this project.

(Ridam Pal Singh)

INTRODUCTION

The transformer is a device used for


converting a low alternating voltage to a
high

alternating

voltage

or

high

alternating voltage into a low alternating


voltage.

PRINCIPLE

It is based on the principle of mutual


induction that is if a varying current is setup in a circuit induced e.m.f. is produced
in the neighboring circuit. The varying
current

in

circuit

produce

varying

magnetic flux which induces e.m.f. in the


neighboring circuit.

STEP-DOWN
TRANSFORMER

In our project step-down transformer is


used:
This transformer converts high
voltage at alternating current into low
voltage alternating current. In step-down
transformer

the

number

of

turns

in

primary coil remains large as compare to


secondary coil.

CONSTRUCTION

The transformer consists of two coils.


They are insulated with each other by
insulated

material

common

core.

For

and

wound

operation

on
at

a
low

frequency, we may have a soft iron. The


soft iron core is insulating by joining thin
iron strips coated with varnish to insulate
them to reduce energy losses by eddy
currents.

The input circuit is called primary.


And the output circuit is called secondary.

THEORY
Suppose, the number of turns in the
primary coil is NP and that in the secondary coil
is NS.
The resistance of the coil is assumed to be
zero. Let dq/dt be the rate of change of flux in each
turn of the primary coil. If

Ep be the e.m.f. in the

primary circuit then.

EP = NP

(1)

We suppose that there is no loss of flux


between the primary and secondary coils.
Then, the induced

e.m.f. in the secondary coil will


be:
ES = NS

(2)

From equations (1) and (2), we find:


Ns/Np = K is called transformer ratio or turn
ratio.
For step up transformer K >
1
For step down transformer K
<1

That is for step-up transformer NS > NP, therefore


ES>EP.
For the step down transformer NS < NP therefore
E S < EP .

Efficiency: The efficiency of the transformer is


given by:

If Ip and Is be the currents in the primary and


secondary

circuits.

For ideal transformer = 1 = 100%.


Therefore ESIS = EPIP
Or

Therefore, for step up, transformer


current in the secondary is less than in the
primary

(IS

<

IP).

And

transformer we have IS > IP.

in

step

down

Energy Losses in
Transformer
In practice, the output energy of a
transformer is always less than the input
energy, because energy losses occur due to a
number of reasons as explained below.
1.

Loss of Magnetic Flux: The coupling

between the coils is seldom perfect. So, whole


of the magnetic flux produced by the primary
coil is not linked up with the secondary coil.
2.

Iron Loss: In actual iron cores inspite of

lamination, Eddy currents are produced. The


magnitude of eddy current may, however be
small. And a part of energy is lost as the heat
produced in the iron core.

3.

Copper Loss: In practice, the coils of

the transformer possess resistance. So a


part of the energy is lost due to the heat
produced in the resistance of the coil.
4.

Hysteresis Loss: The alternating current

in the coil tapes the iron core through


complete cycle of magnetization. So Energy is

lost due to hysteresis.


5.

Magneto restriction: The alternating current


in the Transformer may be set its parts in to
vibrations and sound may be produced. It is
called humming. Thus, a part of energy may be
lost due to humming.