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Large Hadron Collider

Experiments, Technology, Theory and Future

Contents
1

Overview

1.1

CERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2

Particle accelerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.3

Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.4

Participation and funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.5

Public exhibits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.6

In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.7

Associated institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Large Hadron Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.2.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.2.2

Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.2.3

Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.2.4

Operational history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.2.5

Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.2.6

Proposed upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.2.7

Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.2.8

Computing resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.2.9

Safety of particle collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.2.10 Operational challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.2.11 Construction accidents and delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.2.12 Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.2.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.2.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.2.15 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

1.2

Experiments

23

2.1

List of Large Hadron Collider experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.1.1

Large Hadron Collider experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.1.2

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

ii

CONTENTS

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.1.3

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.1.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.1.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

A Large Ion Collider Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.2.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.2.2

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.2.3

Heavy-Ion Collisions at the LHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

2.2.4

The ALICE detectors

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

2.2.5

Data Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

2.2.6

Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

2.2.7

Future Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

2.2.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

2.2.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

ATLAS experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

2.3.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

2.3.2

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

2.3.3

Physics program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

2.3.4

Micro black holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

2.3.5

Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

2.3.6

Data systems and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.3.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.3.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.3.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

2.3.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Compact Muon Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

2.4.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

2.4.2

Physics goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

2.4.3

Detector summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

2.4.4

CMS by layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

2.4.5

Collecting and collating the data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

2.4.6

Milestones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

2.4.7

Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

2.4.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

2.4.9

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

2.4.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

2.4.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

VELO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

2.5.1

Physics goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

2.5.2

The LHCb detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

2.5.3

Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

2.5.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

CONTENTS

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.5.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

2.5.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

LHCf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

2.6.1

Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

2.6.2

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.6.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

FP420 experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.7.1

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.7.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.7.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

TOTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.8.1

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.8.2

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.8.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

Technology

53

3.1

Beetle (ASIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.1.1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.1.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

LHC Computing Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.2.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.2.2

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

3.2.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

3.2.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

3.2.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

LHC@home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

3.3.1

SixTrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

3.3.2

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

3.3.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

3.3.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

Proton Synchrotron Booster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

3.4.1

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

3.4.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

VELO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

3.5.1

Physics goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

3.5.2

The LHCb detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

3.5.3

Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3.5.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3.5.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3.5.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

iii

Theory

58

iv

CONTENTS
4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

Standard Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

4.1.1

Historical background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

4.1.2

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

4.1.3

Particle content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

4.1.4

Theoretical aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

4.1.5

Tests and predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

4.1.6

Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

4.1.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

4.1.8

Notes and references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

4.1.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

4.1.10 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

4.1.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

Particle physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

4.2.1

Subatomic particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

4.2.2

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

4.2.3

Standard Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

4.2.4

Experimental laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

4.2.5

Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

4.2.6

Practical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

4.2.7

Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

4.2.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

4.2.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

4.2.10 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

4.2.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

Superpartner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

4.3.1

Theoretical predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

4.3.2

Recreating superpartners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

4.3.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

4.3.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

4.3.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

Supersymmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

4.4.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

4.4.2

Motivations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

4.4.3

Applications

72

4.4.4

General supersymmetry

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

4.4.5

Supersymmetry as a quantum group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

4.4.6

Supersymmetry in quantum gravity

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

4.4.7

Falsiability

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

4.4.8

Current status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

4.4.9

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

4.4.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS

4.5

4.4.11 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

4.4.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

Higgs boson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

4.5.1

A non-technical summary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

4.5.2

Signicance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

4.5.3

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

4.5.4

Theoretical properties

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

4.5.5

Experimental search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

4.5.6

Public discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

4.5.7

Technical aspects and mathematical formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

4.5.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

4.5.9

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

4.5.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

4.5.11 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


4.5.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5

Safety
5.1

5.2

103

Safety of particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


5.1.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

5.1.2

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

5.1.3

Large Hadron Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

5.1.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

5.1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

5.1.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Micro black hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


5.2.1

Minimum mass of a black hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

5.2.2

Stability of a micro black hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

5.2.3

Primordial black holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

5.2.4

Manmade micro black holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.5

Black holes in quantum theories of gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.6

Micro black holes in ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.10 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114


5.2.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.3

Strangelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.3.1

Theoretical possibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

5.3.2

Natural or articial occurrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

5.3.3

Dangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

5.3.4

Debate about the strange matter hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

5.3.5

In ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

vi

CONTENTS
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5.3.7

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Future
6.1

6.2

5.3.6

119

Super Large Hadron Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


6.1.1

Injector upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

6.1.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

6.1.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Very Large Hadron Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


6.2.1

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

6.2.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

6.2.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

121

7.1

Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

7.2

Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

7.3

Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Chapter 1

Overview
1.1 CERN
For the company with the ticker symbol CERN, see
Cerner. For the rocket nozzle, see SERN.
Coordinates:
6.05278E

461403N 60310E / 46.23417N

The European Organization for Nuclear Research


(French: Organisation Europene pour la Recherche Nuclaire), known as CERN (/srn/; French pronunciation:
[sn]; derived from Conseil Europen pour la Recherche
Nuclaire; see History) is a European research organization whose purpose is to operate the worlds largest
particle physics laboratory. Established in 1954, the organization is based in the northwest suburbs of Geneva
on the FrancoSwiss border, (46143N 6319E /
46.23417N 6.05528E) and has 21 European member
states. Israel is the rst (and currently only) non- The 12 founding member states of CERN in 1954 <sup
European country granted full membership.[3]
class="reference plainlinks nourlexpansion id="ref_[1] "> (map
The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, borders from 1989)
which in 2013 counted 2,513 sta members, and hosted
some 12,313 fellows, associates, apprentices as well as
visiting scientists and engineers[4] representing 608 uni- Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional
versities and research facilities and 113 nationalities.
council for setting up the laboratory, established by 12
CERNs main function is to provide the particle accel- European governments in 1952. The acronym was reerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy tained for the new laboratory after the provisional counphysics research as a result, numerous experiments have cil was dissolved, even though the name changed to the
been constructed at CERN following international collab- current Organisation Europenne pour la Recherche Nuclaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in
orations.
1954.[5] According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of
CERN is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web. CERN, when the name was changed, the acronym could
The main site at Meyrin has a large computer centre con- have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said
taining powerful data processing facilities, primarily for that the acronym could still be CERN even if the name
experimental-data analysis; because of the need to make is [not]".
these facilities available to researchers elsewhere, it has
CERNs rst president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser.
historically been a major wide area networking hub.
The rst Director General was Edoardo Amaldi.
Soon after the laboratorys establishment, its work went
beyond the study of the atomic nucleus into higher-energy
physics, which is concerned mainly with the study of inThe convention establishing CERN was ratied on 29 teractions between particles. Therefore the laboratory
September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.[1] operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the EuroThe acronym CERN originally stood in French for Con- pean laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire euseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire (European ropen pour la physique des particules), which better de-

1.1.1

History

2
scribes the research being performed there.

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW
in the early 1980s. A short history of this period can be
found at CERN.ch.[15]

More recently, CERN has become a centre for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the
Several important achievements in particle physics have Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computbeen made during experiments at CERN. They include: ing Grid. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point
(CIXP), one of the two main internet exchange points in
Switzerland.
1973: The discovery of neutral currents in the
[6]
Gargamelle bubble chamber;
Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly
1983: The discovery of W and Z bosons in the UA1
[7]
and UA2 experiments;
Main article: Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly
1989: The determination of the number of light
neutrino families at the Large ElectronPositron On 22 September 2011, the OPERA Collaboration reCollider (LEP) operating on the Z boson peak;
ported the detection of 17-GeV and 28-GeV muon neutrinos, sent 730 kilometers (450 miles) from CERN near
1995: The rst creation of antihydrogen atoms in
Geneva, Switzerland to the Gran Sasso National Labo[8]
the PS210 experiment;
ratory in Italy, traveling apparently faster than light by a
1999: The discovery of direct CP violation in the factor of 2.48105 (approximately 1 in 40,000), a statistic with 6.0-sigma signicance.[16] However, in March
NA48 experiment;[9]
2012 it was reported by a new team of scientists for
2010: The isolation of 38 atoms of antihydrogen;[10] CERN, Icarus, that the previous experiment was most
by scientists of both the
2011: Maintaining antihydrogen for over 15 likely awed and will be retested
[17]
Opera
and
Icarus
teams;
on
16
March, CERN stated
[11]
minutes;
in a press release that the results were awed due to an
2012: A boson with mass around 125 GeV/c2 con- incorrectly connected GPS-synchronization cable.[18]
sistent with long-sought Higgs boson.[12]
Scientic achievements

1.1.2 Particle accelerators

The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo


Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments
Current complex
that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The
1992 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to CERN sta
researcher Georges Charpak for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire
LHC
proportional chamber.
ALICE

CMS

North Area

LHC-b
TI8

SPS

TT10

Computer science See also: History of the World


Wide Web

TI2

ATLAS

West Area

AD

CNGS
Towards
Gran Sasso

TT60

TT2

LINAC 2

n-TOF

BOOSTER

East Area

ISOLDE

PS

CTF3

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called


LINAC 3
ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and
Robert Cailliau in 1990.[13] Berners-Lee and Cailliau
were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing
Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the develop- Map of the CERN accelerator complex
ment of the World Wide Web.
CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelBased on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed
erator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of
at facilitating sharing information among researchers.
particle beams before delivering them to experiments or
The rst website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993,
to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active
CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be
machines are:
free to anyone. A copy[14] of the original rst webpage,
created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World
Two linear accelerators generate low energy partiWide Web Consortium's website as a historical docucles. Linac2 accelerates protons to 50 MeV for inment.
jection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB),
protons
ions
neutrons

Prior to the Webs development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology, beginning

antiprotons
electrons
neutrinos

PS
SPS
LHC

Proton Synchrotron
Super Proton Synchrotron
Large Hadron Collider

Antiproton Decelerator
AD
n-TOF Neutron Time Of Flight
CNGS CERN Neutrinos Gran Sasso
CTF3 CLIC TestFacility 3

and Linac3 provides heavy ions at 4.2 MeV/u for


injection into the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR).[19]

1.1. CERN

3
the velocity of antiprotons to about 10% of the speed
of light for research into antimatter.
The Compact Linear Collider Test Facility, which
studies feasibility issues for the future normal conducting linear collider project.
Large Hadron Collider Main article: Large Hadron
Collider
Most of the activities at CERN are currently directed towards operating the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC),
and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a largescale, worldwide scientic cooperation project.

Map of the Large Hadron Collider together with the Super Proton
Synchrotron at CERN

The Proton Synchrotron Booster increases the energy of particles generated by the proton linear accelerator before they are transferred to the other accelerators.
The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerates the
ions from the ion linear accelerator, before transferring them to the Proton Synchrotron (PS). This
accelerator was commissioned in 2005, after having been recongured from the previous Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR).
The 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), built in 1959
and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful
SPS.
The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), a circular accelerator with a diameter of 2 kilometres built in
a tunnel, which started operation in 1976. It was
designed to deliver an energy of 300 GeV and was
gradually upgraded to 450 GeV. As well as having its own beamlines for xed-target experiments
(currently COMPASS and NA62), it has been operated as a protonantiproton collider (the SppS collider), and for accelerating high energy electrons
and positrons which were injected into the Large
ElectronPositron Collider (LEP). Since 2008, it
has been used to inject protons and heavy ions into
the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

Construction of the CMS detector for LHC at CERN

The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in


the region between the Geneva International Airport and
the nearby Jura mountains. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which
was closed down in November 2000. CERNs existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes will be used to preaccelerate protons which will then be injected into the
LHC.

Seven
experiments
(CMS,
ATLAS,
LHCb,
MoEDAL,[20] TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE)
will run on the collider; each of them will study particle
collisions from a dierent point of view, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments
required an extraordinary engineering eort. Just as an
example, a special crane had to be rented from Belgium
The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which reduces in order to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its
The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE),
which is used to study unstable nuclei. The radioactive ions are produced by the impact of protons at an
energy of 1.01.4 GeV from the Proton Synchrotron
Booster. It was rst commissioned in 1967 and was
rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992.

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

underground cavern, since each piece weighed nearly


2,000 tons. The rst of the approximately 5,000 magnets
necessary for construction was lowered down a special
shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005.

The Large ElectronPositron Collider (LEP), which


operated from 1989 to 2000 and was the largest machine of its kind, housed in a 27 km-long circular
tunnel which now houses the Large Hadron Collider.

This accelerator has begun to generate vast quantities of


The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), comdata, which CERN streams to laboratories around the
missioned in 1982, which assembled the rst pieces
world for distributed processing (making use of a speof true antimatter, in 1995, consisting of nine atoms
cialized grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid).
of antihydrogen. It was closed in 1996, and superIn April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to
seded by the Antiproton Decelerator.
seven dierent sites across the world. If all the data generated by the LHC is to be analysed, then scientists must
1.1.3 Sites
achieve 1,800 MB/s before 2008.
The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC
August 2008.[21] The rst attempt to circulate a beam
through the entire LHC was at 8:28 GMT on 10 September 2008,[22] but the system failed because of a faulty
magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19
September 2008.
The LHC resumed operation on Friday 20 November
2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an
energy of 3.5 trillion electron volts. The challenge that the
engineers then faced was to try to line up the two beams so
that they smashed into each other. This is like ring two
needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each CERNs main site, from Switzerland looking towards France
other according to the LHCs main engineer Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology at the Swiss
laboratory.
At 1200 BST on Tuesday 30 March 2010 the LHC successfully smashed two proton particle beams travelling
with 3.5 TeV (trillion electron volts) of energy, resulting
in a 7 TeV event. However, this was just the start of the
road toward the expected discovery of the Higgs boson.
When the 7 TeV experimental period ended, the LHC
revved up to 8 TeV (4 TeV acceleration in both directions) in March 2012, and soon began particle collisions
at that rate. In early 2013 the LHC was shut down for
a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the huge
magnets inside the accelerator. Eventually it will attempt
to create 14 TeV events. In July 2012, CERN scientists announced the discovery of a new sub-atomic particle that could be the much sought after Higgs boson believed to be essential for formation of the Universe.[23] In
March 2013, CERN announced that the measurements
performed on the newly found particle allowed to conclude that this is a Higgs boson. [24]

Decommissioned accelerators
The original linear accelerator (LINAC 1).
The 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron (SC) which started Interior of oce building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts
operation in 1957 and was shut down in 1991.
many oces for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.

The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), an early collider built from 1966 to 1971 and operated until The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin site (also
known as the West Area), which was originally built in
1984.

1.1. CERN

Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been Most of the roads on the CERN campus are named afextended to span the border since 1965. The French side ter famous physicists, e.g.- Richard Feynman, Niels Bohr,
is under Swiss jurisdiction and there is no obvious border Albert Einstein.
within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. There
are six entrances to the Meyrin site:

1.1.4 Participation and funding

A, in Switzerland, for all CERN personnel at specic


Member states and budget
times.
B, in Switzerland, for all CERN personnel at all
times. Often referred to as the main entrance.
C, in Switzerland, for all CERN personnel at specic
times.
D, in Switzerland, for goods reception at specic
times.
E, in France, for French-resident CERN personnel at
specic times. Controlled by customs personnel.[24]
Named Porte Charles de Gaulle in recognition of
his role in the creation of CERN.[25]
Inter-site tunnel, in France, for equipment transfer to
and from CERN sites in France by personnel with a
specic permit. This is the only permitted route for
such transfers. Under the CERN treaty, no taxes are Member states of CERN and current enlargement agenda
payable when such transfers are made. Controlled CERN members
Accession in progress
by customs personnel.[24]
Declared intent to join

The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French
farmland and invisible from the surface. However, they
have surface sites at various points around them, either
as the location of buildings associated with experiments
or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as
cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments are
located at the same underground level as the tunnels at
these sites.

Since its foundation by 12 members in 1954, CERN regularly accepted new members. All new members have
remained in the organization continuously since their accession, except Spain and Yugoslavia. Spain rst joined
CERN in 1961, withdrew in 1969, and rejoined in 1983.
Yugoslavia was a founding member of CERN but left
in 1961. Initially only West Germany was a (founding) member of CERN. Of the twenty members, 18 are
European Union member states. Switzerland and NorThree of these experimental sites are in France, with ATway are not. Israel joined CERN as a full member on 6
LAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryoJanuary 2014,[26] becoming the rst (and currently only)
genic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of
non-European member.[27]
the experimental sites is the Prvessin site, also known
as the North Area, which is the target station for non- As of 2014, CERN receives contributions from states
collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites with a total population of about 517 million people. Avare the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the eraged across those states, the contribution per person in
LEP experiments (the latter which will be used for LHC 2014 is about 2.2 CHF/year.
experiments).
Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are ocially named and numbered after the site where they were
located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of charmed particles and located
at the Prvessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the
Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at the Meyrin
(West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The
UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the
Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on
the SPS accelerator.

[1] Based on the population in 2014.[28]


[2] 12 founding members drafted the Convention for the
Establishment of a European Organization for Nuclear
Research which entered into force on 29 September
1954.[29][30]
[3] Acceded members became CERN member states upon
signing an accession agreement.[31]
[4] Additional contribution from Candidates for Accession
and Associate Member States.[31]

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

Enlargement

International relations

Associate Members, Candidates (note that dates are initial signature, not of ratication):

Romania, rst approved by CERN Council in


December 2008,[41] became a candidate for accession to CERN on 11 February 2010[32] and will become a full member in 2015.[42]

Serbia became a candidate for accession to


CERN on 19 December 2011, signed an association
agreement on 10 January 2012[43][44] and became
an ocial Associate Member in the pre-stage to
Membership on 15 March 2012.[33]

Cyprus became an associate member on 5 October 2012.[34]

Ukraine became an associate member on 3 October 2013.[35]

Brazil was approved by CERN Council on 13


December 2013[45] to become the rst Latin American associate member. As of July 2014, Brazil still
needs to sign and ratify its accession agreement.[46] CERN member states: 21 c.
Accession in progress: 3 c.
Declared intent to join: 2 c.
Observers: 4 c. + EU

Turkey became an associate member on 12 Cooperation agreement: 35 c.


May 2014.[36]
Turkey
Scientic contacts: 19 c.

+ Slovenia, Cyprus,

Pakistan became an associate member on 19 Four countries have observer status:[50]


June 2014. [37]

More countries have conrmed their wish to become


members and are awaiting approval from the CERN
Council:[47]

Russia since 1993

Japan since 1995

United States since 1997

India since 2002

Slovenia, which cooperates scientically with Also observers are the following international organizaCERN since 1991, applied for membership in tions:
2009.[48]

UNESCO since 1954

European Commission since 1985


Russia, working with CERN in practice since
1959 (as the former Soviet Union) and currently an
observer state, formally applied for membership in Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agree2012.[49]
ments) currently involved in CERN programmes are:

1.1. CERN

Algeria

Slovenia 7 January 1991

Argentina 11 March 1992

South Africa 4 July 1992

Armenia 25 March 1994

Australia 1 November 1991

South Korea 25 October 2006.

Azerbaijan 3 December 1997

Ukraine 2 April 1993

Belarus 28 June 1994

United Arab Emirates 18 January 2006

Bolivia

Vietnam

Brazil 19 February 1990 & October 2006

Canada 11 October 1996

Chile 10 October 1991

CERN also has scientic contacts with the following


countries:[56]

China 12 July 1991, 14 August 1997 & 17


February 2004

Cuba

Ghana

Colombia 15 May 1993

Croatia 18 July 1991

Ireland

Cyprus 14 February 2006

Latvia

Ecuador

Lebanon

Egypt 16 January 2006

Madagascar

Estonia 23 April 1996

Malaysia

Georgia 11 October 1996

Mozambique

Iceland 11 September 1996

Iran 5 July 2001

Palestinian Authority

Philippines

Qatar

Rwanda

Singapore

Sri Lanka

Taiwan

Thailand

Jordan - 12 June 2003.[51] MoU with Jordan and SESAME, in preparation of a cooperation
agreement signed in 2004.[52]
Lithuania 9 November 2004
Macedonia 27 April 2009

[53]

Malta 10 January 2008

Mexico 20 February 1998

Montenegro 12 October 1990

Morocco 14 April 1997

New Zealand 4 December 2003

Tunisia

Peru 23 February 1993

Uzbekistan

Venezuela

[54][55]

Romania 1 October 1991. Since 12 December 2008 it has the Status of Candidate for Accession to Membership.
Saudi Arabia 21 January 2006

International research institutions, such as CERN, can aid


in science diplomacy.[57]

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

The Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN

1.1.5

Public exhibits

Facilities at CERN open to the public include:


The Globe of Science and Innovation, which opened
in late 2005 and is used four times a week for special
exhibits.
The Microcosm museum on particle physics and
CERN history.
The Hindu deity, Shiva, a 2 metre statue styled on The statue of Shiva engaging in the Nataraja dance presented by
Chola bronzes of the deity engaging in the Nataraja the Department of Atomic Energy of India.
dance of Chidambaram, parallelling the movements
or dance of subatomic particles.[58][59][60]
Switzerland and steals a superconducting bending
magnet created for use in tests with particle acceleration to use in his son Stans Pinewood Derby
1.1.6 In popular culture
racer. Randy breaks into CERN dressed in disguise as Princess Leia from the Star Wars saga. The
break-in is captured on surveillance tape which is
then broadcast on the news.[63]
John Titor, a self-proclaimed time traveler, alleged
that CERN would invent time travel in 2001.
CERN is depicted in the visual novel/anime series
Steins;Gate as SERN, a shadowy organization that
has been researching time travel in order to restructure and control the world.

line 18 goes to CERN

CERNs Large Hadron Collider is the subject of a


(scientically accurate) rap video starring Katherine
McAlpine with some of the facilitys sta.[61][62]
CERN is depicted in an episode of South Park (Season 13, Episode 6) called Pinewood Derby. Randy
Marsh, the father of one of the main characters,
breaks into the Hadron Particle Super Collider in

In a documentary entitled Particle Fever, CERN


is explored throughout the inside, and depicts the
events surrounding the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2013
In Dan Brown's mystery-thriller novel Angels &
Demons, a canister of antimatter is stolen from
CERN.[64]
In the popular childrens series The 39 Clues, CERN
is said to be an Ekaterina stronghold hiding the clue
hydrogen.

1.1. CERN
In Robert J. Sawyer's science ction novel
Flashforward, at CERN, the Large Hadron Collider
accelerator is performing a run to search for the
Higgs boson when the entire human race sees
themselves twenty-one years and six months in the
future.
In season 3 episode 15 of the popular TV sitcom The
Big Bang Theory titled The Large Hadron Collision, Leonard and Rajesh travel to CERN to attend
a conference and see the LHC.
The 2012 student lm Decay, which centers around
the idea of the Large Hadron Collider transforming people into zombies, was lmed on location in
CERNs maintenance tunnels.[65]
The Compact Muon Solenoid at CERN was used as
the basis for the Megadeth's Super Collider album
cover.
In Denpa Kyoushi, the main character is scouted by
CERM
In Super Lovers, Haruko (Rens mother) worked at
CERN, and Ren was taught by CERN professors

1.1.7

Associated institutions

Swiss National Supercomputing Centre

1.1.8

See also

CERN Openlab
Fermilab
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk
Onderzoek
Science and technology in Switzerland
Scientic Linux
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
World Wide Web
Large Hadron Collider Wikipedia book

[5] The Name CERN. CERN. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
[6] CERN.ch. Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
[7] CERN.ch La.
November 2010.

Public.web.cern.ch.

Retrieved 20

[8] CERN.ch. Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.


[9] Fanti, V. et al. (1998). A new measurement of direct
CP violation in two pion decays of the neutral kaon.
Physics Letters B 465: 335. arXiv:hep-ex/9909022.
Bibcode:1999PhLB..465..335F.
doi:10.1016/S03702693(99)01030-8.
[10] Antihydrogen isolation. CNN. 18 November 2010.
[11] Jonathan Amos [6 June 2011]BBC 2011 Retrieved
2011-06-06
[12] CERN experiments observe particle consistent
with long-sought Higgs boson | CERN press oce.
Press.web.cern.ch (2012-07-04). Retrieved on 2013-0717.
[13] CERN.ch. Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
[14] W3.org. W3.org. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
[15] CERN.ch. CERN.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
[16] Adrian Cho, Neutrinos Travel Faster Than Light, According to One Experiment, Science NOW, 22 September
2011.
[17] The Associated Press, Einstein Proved Right in Retest of
Neutrinos Speed, The Associated Press, 17 March 2012.
[18] CERN Press Release. Press.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 4
July 2012.
[19] CERN Website LINAC. Linac2.home.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
[20] CERN Courier, MoEDAL becomes the LHCs magnicent seventh, 5 May 2010
[21] Overbye, Dennis (29 July 2008). "Let the Proton Smashing Begin. (The Rap Is Already Written.)". The New York
Times.
[22] CERN press release, 7 August 2008. Press.web.cern.ch.
7 August 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2010.

1.1.9

References

[1] CERN.ch. Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.


[2] http://council.web.cern.ch/council/en/Governance/
composition.html
[3] The boycott movement is losing the battle - for now
[4] CERN Annual Report 2013 - CERN in Figures. CERN.
Retrieved 4 September 2014.

[23] "'God particle': New particle found, could be the Higgs


boson, CERN scientists say. The Times Of India. 4 July
2012.
[24] New results indicate that particle discovered at CERN
is a Higgs boson. CERN press release. Retrieved 4
September 2014.
[25] <Please add rst missing authors to populate metadata.>
(November 2004). Red Carpet for CERNs 50th. CERN
bulletin.

10

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

[26] CERN Internationl Relations - Israel. Retrieved 5 July


2014.

[45] Decisions from CERN Councils 169th session. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.

[27] Rahman, Fazlur. (2013-11-11) Israel may become rst


non-European member of nuclear research group CERN
- Diplomacy and Defense Israel News. Haaretz. Retrieved
on 2014-04-28.

[46] Brasil far parte do maior laboratrio de fsica do


Mundo. www.estadao.com.br. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.

[28] List of countries by population.


[29] ESA Convention (6th ed.). European Space Agency.
September 2005. ISBN 92-9092-397-0.
[30] CONVENTION FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A
EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH. CERN Council website. CERN. Retrieved 16
July 2012.
[31] CERN Member States. CERN Council website. CERN.
Retrieved 16 July 2012.
[32] Romania takes rst steps to join CERN. CERN Courier.
CERN. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2014.

[47] 24 June 2011: CERN - CERN Council looks forward


to summer conferences and new members. Interactions.org. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
[48] CERN International Relations - Slovenia. CERN. 24
January 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
[49] Russia ocially joins CERN at last. swissinfo.ch. 1
October 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
[50] ISAAR relationship data at CERN library. Retrieved
14 December 2009.
[51] CERN International Relations - Jordan. Internationalrelations.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 4 July 2012.

[33] CERN Associate Members. CERN. 16 March 2012.


Retrieved 5 July 2014.

[52] CERN International Relations - SESAME.


International-relations.web.cern.ch. 17 October 2011.
Retrieved 4 July 2012.

[34] The Republic of Cyprus becomes a CERN Associate


Member State. CERN press release. CERN. 5 October
2012. Retrieved 5 July 2014.

[53] "''Macedonia joins CERN (SUP)''". Mia.com.mk. Retrieved 20 November 2010.

[35] Ukraine to become Associate Member State of CERN.


CERN press release. CERN. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 5
July 2014.
[36] Turkey to become Associate Member State of CERN.
CERN press release. CERN. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 5
July 2014.
[37] Pakistan Becomes the First Associate CERN Member
from Asia. Government of Pakistan press releases. Ministry of Foreign Aairs, Government of Pakistan. 20 June
2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
[38] Member States Contributions - 2014. CERN website.
CERN. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
[39] Final Budget of the Organization for the sixtieth nancial
year 2014. CERN. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 6 July
2014.
[40] Observers. CERN Council website. CERN. Retrieved
16 July 2012.

[54] Prime Minister of Malta visits CERN. CERN Bulletin.


10 January 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
[55] Malta signs agreement with CERN. Times of Malta. 11
January 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
[56] Member states. CERN. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
[57] Quevedo, Fernando (July 2013). The Importance of International Research Institutions for Science Diplomacy.
Science & Diplomacy 2 (3).
[58] Shivas Cosmic Dance at CERN. Fritjof Capra. 18 June
2004. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
[59] Ramachandran, Nirmala (2000). Hindu heritage. Pannipitiya : Stamford Lake Publication, 2000-2002. pp. 41
42. ISBN 978-955-8156-43-8.
[60] Smith, David. The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry
in South India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780-521-52865-8.
[61] Youtube.com. Youtube. Retrieved 20 November 2010.

[41] CERN International Relations - Romania. CERN. 3


April 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
[42] Andresen, G. B. et al.
(2010).
Trapped
antihydrogen.
Nature
468
(7324):
6736.
Bibcode:2010Natur.468..673A.
doi:10.1038/nature09610. PMID 21085118.

[62] Large Hadron Collider Rap Video Is a Hit, National Geographic News. 10 September 2008. Retrieved 13 August
2010.
[63] Southparkstudios.com. South Park Studios. Retrieved
25 May 2011.

[43] Vesti - Srbija zvanino postala lan CERN-a. B92. Retrieved 4 July 2012.

[64] Angels and Demons. CERN. Retrieved 31 January


2012.

[44] Serbia expected to become CERN Associate Member.


CMS Experiment web site. CERN. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2014.

[65] Boyle, Rebecca (31 October 2012). Large Hadron


Collider Unleashes Rampaging Zombies. Retrieved 22
November 2012.

1.2. LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

1.1.10

External links

11
prising over 170 computing facilities in a worldwide network across 36 countries[8][9][10] ).

Ocial website of CERN: CERN Accelerating science

The LHC went live on 10 September 2008, with proton


beams successfully circulated in the main ring of the LHC
for the rst time,[11] but nine days later a faulty electrical
CERN at 50
connection led to the rupture of a liquid helium enclo CERN Courier International journal of high- sure, causing both a magnet quench and several tons of
helium gas escaping with explosive force. The incident
energy physics
resulted in damage to over 50 superconducting magnets
Israel may become rst non-European member of and their mountings, and contamination of the vacuum
nuclear research group CERN
pipe, and delayed further operations by 14 months.[12][13]
On November 20, 2009 proton beams were successfully
Big Bang Day: The Making of CERN, September circulated again,[14][15] with the rst recorded proton
2008, A BBC Radio program
proton collisions occurring three days later at the injection energy of 450 GeV per beam.[16] On March 30,
2010, the rst collisions took place between two 3.5
TeV beams, setting a world record for the highest-energy
1.2 Large Hadron Collider
man-made particle collisions,[17] and the LHC began its
planned research program.
LHC redirects here. For other uses, see LHC (disamThe LHC has discovered a massive 125 GeV boson
biguation).
(which subsequent results conrmed to be the long-sought
Higgs boson) and several composite particles (hadrons)
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the worlds largest
like the (3P) bottomonium state, created a quark
and most powerful particle collider, built by the European
gluon plasma, and recorded the rst observations of the
Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) from 1998 to
very rare decay of the B meson into two muons (B 0
2008.
+ - ), which challenged the validity of existing models of
Its aim is to allow physicists to test the predictions of supersymmetry.[18]
dierent theories of particle physics and high-energy
The LHC operated at 3.5 TeV per beam in 2010 and 2011
physics, and particularly prove or disprove the existence
and at 4 TeV in 2012.[19] Protonproton collisions are the
of the theorized Higgs boson[1] and of the large family
main
operation mode. It collided protons with lead nuclei
of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories.[2]
for two months in 2013 and used leadlead collisions for
The discovery of a particle matching the Higgs boson was
about one month each in 2010, 2011 and 2013. The LHC
conrmed by data from the LHC in 2013. The LHC
went into shutdown for upgrades to increase beam energy
is expected to address some of the unsolved questions
to 6.5 TeV per beam, with reopening planned for early
of physics, advancing human understanding of physical
2015.[20]
laws. It contains seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research.
The LHC was built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries, as well as
hundreds of universities and laboratories.[3] It lies in a
tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as deep
as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the Franco-Swiss border
near Geneva, Switzerland.

1.2.1 Background

The term hadron refers to composite particles composed


of quarks held together by the strong force (as atoms
and molecules are held together by the electromagnetic
force). The best-known hadrons are the baryons protons
As of 2014, the LHC remains the largest and most com- and neutrons; hadrons also include mesons such as the
plex experimental facility ever built. Its synchrotron is pion and kaon, which were discovered during cosmic ray
designed to collide two opposing particle beams of ei- experiments in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
ther protons at up to 4 teraelectronvolts (4 TeV or 0.64 A collider is a type of a particle accelerator with two dimicrojoules), or lead nuclei at an energy of 574 TeV (92.0 rected beams of particles. In particle physics colliders are
J) per nucleus (2.76 TeV per nucleon),[4][5] with ener- used as a research tool: they accelerate particles to very
gies to be roughly doubled to around 7 TeV (14 TeV high kinetic energies and let them impact other particles.
collision energy) more than seven times any predeces- Analysis of the byproducts of these collisions gives scisor colliderby around 2015. Collision data were also entists good evidence of the structure of the subatomic
anticipated to be produced at an unprecedented rate of world and the laws of nature governing it. Many of these
tens of petabytes per year, to be analysed by a grid-based byproducts are produced only by high energy collisions,
computer network infrastructure connecting 140 comput- and they decay after very short periods of time. Thus
ing centers in 35 countries[6][7] (by 2012 the LHC Com- many of them are hard or near impossible to study in
puting Grid was the worlds largest computing grid, com- other ways.

12

1.2.2

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

Purpose

Why are there apparent violations of the symmetry


between matter and antimatter? See also CP violation.

Physicists hope that the LHC will help answer some of the
fundamental open questions in physics, concerning the
What are the nature and properties of quarkgluon
basic laws governing the interactions and forces among
plasma, believed to have existed in the early universe
the elementary objects, the deep structure of space and
and in certain compact and strange astronomical obtime, and in particular the interrelation between quantum
jects today? This will be investigated by heavy ion
mechanics and general relativity, where current theories
collisions in ALICE.
and knowledge are unclear or break down altogether.
Data are also needed from high energy particle experiments to suggest which versions of current scientic models are more likely to be correct in particular to choose 1.2.3 Design
between the Standard Model and Higgsless models and
to validate their predictions and allow further theoretical
development. Many theorists expect new physics beyond
the Standard Model to emerge at the TeV energy level, as
the Standard Model appears to be unsatisfactory. Issues
possibly to be explored by LHC collisions include:[21][22]
0

W, Z

Are the masses of elementary particles actually generated by the Higgs mechanism via electroweak
symmetry breaking?[23] It is expected that the collider will either demonstrate or rule out the existence of the elusive Higgs boson, thereby allowing
physicists to consider whether the Standard Model
or its Higgsless alternatives are more likely to be
A Feynman diagram of one way the Higgs boson may be procorrect.[24][25][26]

W, Z

duced at the LHC. Here, two quarks each emit a W or Z boson,

Is supersymmetry, an extension of the Stan- which combine to make a neutral Higgs.


dard Model and Poincar symmetry, realized in
nature, implying that all known particles have
supersymmetric partners?[27][28][29]
Are there extra dimensions,[30] as predicted by various models based on string theory, and can we detect
them?[31]
What is the nature of the dark matter that appears to
account for 27% of the mass-energy of the universe?
Other open questions that may be explored using high energy particle collisions:

It is already known that electromagnetism and the


weak nuclear force are dierent manifestations of
a single force called the electroweak force. The
LHC may clarify whether the electroweak force and
the strong nuclear force are similarly just dierent
manifestations of one universal unied force, as predicted by various Grand Unication Theories.
Map of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN
Why is the fourth fundamental force (gravity) so
many orders of magnitude weaker than the other
three fundamental forces? See also Hierarchy problem.

The LHC is the worlds largest and highest-energy particle


accelerator.[4][32] The collider is contained in a circular
tunnel, with a circumference of 27 kilometres (17 mi), at
a depth ranging from 50 to 175 metres (164 to 574 ft)
Are there additional sources of quark avour mix- underground.
ing, beyond those already predicted within the The 3.8-metre (12 ft) wide concrete-lined tunnel, conStandard Model?
structed between 1983 and 1988, was formerly used to

1.2. LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

13

When running at full design power of 7 TeV per beam,


once or twice a day, as the protons are accelerated from
450 GeV to 7 TeV, the eld of the superconducting dipole
magnets will be increased from 0.54 to 8.3 teslas (T).
The protons will each have an energy of 7 TeV, giving
a total collision energy of 14 TeV. At this energy the
protons have a Lorentz factor of about 7,500 and move
at about 0.999999991 c, or about 3 metres per second
slower than the speed of light (c).[36] It will take less than
90 microseconds (s) for a proton to travel once around
the main ring a speed of about 11,000 revolutions per
second. Rather than continuous beams, the protons will
be bunched together, into 2,808 bunches, 115 billion protons in each bunch so that interactions between the two
beams will take place at discrete intervals never shorter
than 25 nanoseconds (ns) apart. However it will be opThe 2-in-1 structure of the LHC dipole magnets
erated with fewer bunches when it is rst commissioned,
giving it a bunch crossing interval of 75 ns.[37] The de34
2 1
house the Large ElectronPositron Collider.[33] It crosses sign luminosity of the LHC is 10[38] cm s , providing a
the border between Switzerland and France at four points, bunch collision rate of 40 MHz.
with most of it in France. Surface buildings hold ancillary Prior to being injected into the main accelerator, the parequipment such as compressors, ventilation equipment, ticles are prepared by a series of systems that succescontrol electronics and refrigeration plants.
sively increase their energy. The rst system is the linear
The collider tunnel contains two adjacent parallel particle accelerator LINAC 2 generating 50-MeV probeamlines (or beam pipes) that intersect at four points, tons, which feeds the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB).
each containing a proton beam, which travel in opposite There the protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and injected
directions around the ring. Some 1,232 dipole magnets into the Proton Synchrotron (PS), where they are accelkeep the beams on their circular path (see image[34] ), erated to 26 GeV. Finally the Super Proton Synchrotron
while an additional 392 quadrupole magnets are used (SPS) is used to further increase their energy to 450 GeV
to keep the beams focused, in order to maximize the before they are at last injected (over a period of 4 minutes
chances of interaction between the particles in the four 20 seconds) into the main ring. Here the proton bunches
intersection points, where the two beams will cross. In are accumulated, accelerated (over a period of 20 mintotal, over 1,600 superconducting magnets are installed, utes) to their peak 4-TeV energy, and nally circulated
while collisions occur at the four interwith most weighing over 27 tonnes.[35] Approximately for 10 to 24 hours
[39]
section
points.
96 tonnes of superuid helium 4 is needed to keep the
magnets, made of copper-clad niobium-titanium, at their
operating temperature of 1.9 K (271.25 C), making the
LHC the largest cryogenic facility in the world at liquid
helium temperature.

The LHC physics program is mainly based on proton


proton collisions. However, shorter running periods, typically one month per year, with heavy-ion collisions are
included in the program. While lighter ions are considered as well, the baseline scheme deals with lead ions[40]
(see A Large Ion Collider Experiment). The lead ions
will be rst accelerated by the linear accelerator LINAC
3, and the Low-Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) will be used as
an ion storage and cooler unit. The ions will then be further accelerated by the PS and SPS before being injected
into LHC ring, where they will reach an energy of 2.76
TeV per nucleon (or 575 TeV per ion), higher than the
energies reached by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
The aim of the heavy-ion program is to investigate quark
gluon plasma, which existed in the early universe.

Detectors
Superconducting quadrupole electromagnets are used to direct the
beams to four intersection points, where interactions between accelerated protons will take place.

See also: List of Large Hadron Collider experiments


Seven detectors have been constructed at the LHC, lo-

14

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

1.2.4 Operational history


Inaugural tests
The rst beam was circulated through the collider on the
morning of 10 September 2008.[41] CERN successfully
red the protons around the tunnel in stages, three kilometres at a time. The particles were red in a clockwise
direction into the accelerator and successfully steered
around it at 10:28 local time.[42] The LHC successfully
completed its major test: after a series of trial runs, two
white dots ashed on a computer screen showing the protons travelled the full length of the collider. It took less
than one hour to guide the stream of particles around its
inaugural circuit.[43] CERN next successfully sent a beam
of protons in a counterclockwise direction, taking slightly
longer at one and a half hours due to a problem with the
cryogenics, with the full circuit being completed at 14:59.

2008 quench incident


On 19 September 2008, a magnet quench occurred in
about 100 bending magnets in sectors 3 and 4, where
an electrical fault led to a loss of approximately six
CMS detector for LHC
tonnes of liquid helium (the magnets cryogenic coolant),
which was vented into the tunnel. The escaping vapor expanded with explosive force, damaging over 50
cated underground in large caverns excavated at the superconducting magnets and their mountings, and conLHCs intersection points. Two of them, the ATLAS ex- taminating the vacuum pipe, which also lost vacuum
periment and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), are conditions.[12][13][44]
large, general purpose particle detectors.[32] A Large Ion
Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHCb, have more Shortly after the incident CERN reported that the most
specic roles and the last three, TOTEM, MoEDAL and likely cause of the problem was a faulty electrical conLHCf, are very much smaller and are for very special- nection between two magnets, and that due to the time
ized research. The BBCs summary of the main detectors needed to warm up the aected sectors and then cool
them back down to operating temperature it would take
is:[41]
at least two months to x.[45] CERN released an interim
technical report[44] and preliminary analysis of the incident on 15 and 16 October 2008 respectively,[46] and a
more detailed report on 5 December 2008.[47] The analComputing and analysis facilities
ysis of the incident by CERN conrmed that an electrical fault had indeed been the cause. The faulty electrical
connection had led (correctly) to a failsafe power abort
Main article: LHC Computing Grid
of the electrical systems powering the superconducting
magnets, but had also caused an electric arc (or discharge)
The LHC Computing Grid is an international collabora- which damaged the integrity of the supercooled heliums
tive project that consists of a grid-based computer net- enclosure and vacuum insulation, causing the coolants
work infrastructure connecting 140 computing centers in temperature and pressure to rapidly rise beyond the abil35 countries (over 170 in 36 countries as of 2012). It ity of the safety systems to contain it,[44] and leading to a
was designed by CERN to handle the signicant volume temperature rise of about 100 degrees Celsius in some of
of data produced by LHC experiments.[6][7]
the aected magnets. Energy stored in the superconductBy 2012 data from over 300 trillion (3 x 1014 ) LHC ing magnets and electrical noise induced in other quench
proton-proton collisions had been analyzed,[8] LHC col- detectors also played a role in the rapid heating. Around
lision data was being produced at approximately 25 two tonnes of liquid helium escaped explosively before
petabytes per year, and the LHC Computing Grid had detectors triggered an emergency stop, and a further four
become the worlds largest computing grid (as of 2012), tonnes leaked at lower pressure in the aftermath.[44] A tocomprising over 170 computing facilities in a worldwide tal of 53 magnets were damaged in the incident and were
network across 36 countries.[8][9][10]
repaired or replaced during the winter shutdown.[48]

1.2. LARGE HADRON COLLIDER


In the original timeline of the LHC commissioning, the
rst modest high-energy collisions at a center-of-mass
energy of 900 GeV were expected to take place before
the end of September 2008, and the LHC was expected
to be operating at 10 TeV by the end of 2008.[49] However, due to the delay caused by the above-mentioned
incident, the collider was not operational until November 2009.[50] Despite the delay, LHC was ocially inaugurated on 21 October 2008, in the presence of political leaders, science ministers from CERNs 20 Member
States, CERN ocials, and members of the worldwide
scientic community.[51]

15
Timeline of operations

1.2.5 Findings

CERN scientists estimated that, if the Standard Model


is correct, a single Higgs boson would be produced
every few hours, and that over a few years enough
data to conrm or disprove the Higgs boson unambiguously and to obtain sucient results concerning
supersymmetric particles would be gathered to draw
meaningful conclusions.[4] Some extensions of the Standard Model predict additional particles, such as the heavy
Most of 2009 was spent on repairs and reviews from W' and Z' gauge bosons, which may also lie within reach
the damage caused by the quench incident, along with of the LHC to discover.[71]
two further vacuum leaks identied in July 2009 which
The rst physics results from the LHC, involving 284 colpushed the start of operations to November of that
lisions which took place in the ALICE detector, were
year.[52]
reported on 15 December 2009.[58] The results of the
rst protonproton collisions at energies higher than
Fermilabs Tevatron protonantiproton collisions were
published by the CMS collaboration in early February
2010, yielding greater-than-predicted charged-hadron
production.[59]
Full operation

On 20 November 2009, low-energy beams circulated in


the tunnel for the rst time since the incident, and shortly
after, on 30 November, the LHC achieved 1.18 TeV per
beam to become the worlds highest-energy particle accelerator, beating the Tevatron's previous record of 0.98
TeV per beam held for eight years.[53]
The early part of 2010 saw the continued ramp-up of
beam in energies and early physics experiments towards
3.5 TeV per beam and on 30 March 2010, LHC set the
present record for high-energy collisions by colliding proton beams at a combined energy level of 7 TeV. The attempt was the third that day, after two unsuccessful attempts in which the protons had to be dumped from
the collider and new beams had to be injected.[54] This
also marked the start of its main research program.
The rst proton run ended on 4 November 2010. A run
with lead ions started on 8 November 2010, and ended on
6 December 2010,[55] allowing the ALICE experiment to
study matter under extreme conditions similar to those
shortly after the Big Bang.[56]
CERN originally planned that the LHC would run
through to the end of 2012, with a short break at the end
of 2011 to allow for an increase in beam energy from
3.5 to 4 TeV per beam.[19] At the end of 2012 the LHC
would be shut down until around 2015 to allow upgrade
to a planned beam energy of 7 TeV per beam.[20] In late
2012, in light of the July 2012 discovery of a new particle, the shutdown was postponed for some weeks into
early 2013, to allow additional data to be obtained prior
to shutdown.

After the rst year of data collection, the LHC experimental collaborations started to release their preliminary
results concerning searches for new physics beyond the
Standard Model in proton-proton collisions.[72][73][74][75]
No evidence of new particles was detected in the 2010
data. As a result, bounds were set on the allowed parameter space of various extensions of the Standard
Model, such as models with large extra dimensions, constrained versions of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and others.[76][77][78]
On 24 May 2011, it was reported that quarkgluon
plasma (the densest matter besides black holes) has been
created in the LHC.[63]
Between July and August 2011, results of searches for the
Higgs boson and for exotic particles, based on the data
collected during the rst half of the 2011 run, were presented in conferences in Grenoble[79] and Mumbai.[80] In
the latter conference it was reported that, despite hints
of a Higgs signal in earlier data, ATLAS and CMS exclude with 95% condence level (using the CLs method)
the existence of a Higgs boson with the properties predicted by the Standard Model over most of the mass region between 145 and 466 GeV.[81] The searches for new
particles did not yield signals either, allowing to further
constrain the parameter space of various extensions of
the Standard Model, including its supersymmetric extensions.[82][83]
On 13 December 2011, CERN reported that the Standard Model Higgs boson, if it exists, is most likely to
have a mass constrained to the range 115130 GeV. Both
the CMS and ATLAS detectors have also shown intensity peaks in the 124125 GeV range, consistent with
either background noise or the observation of the Higgs
boson.[84]

16

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

On 22 December 2011, it was reported that a new particle high-luminosity interaction regions, ATLAS and CMS.
had been observed, the (3P) bottomonium state.[66]
To achieve these increases, the energy of the beams at
On 4 July 2012, both the CMS and ATLAS teams an- the point that they are injected into the (Super) LHC
nounced the discovery of a boson in the mass region should also be increased to 1 TeV. This will require an uparound 125126 GeV, with a statistical signicance at grade of the full pre-injector system, the needed changes
the level of 5 sigma. This meets the formal level required in the Super Proton Synchrotron being the most expento announce a new particle which is consistent with the sive. Currently the collaborative research eort of LHC
is conducting reHiggs boson, but scientists are cautious as to whether it Accelerator Research Program, LARP,[91]
search into how to achieve these goals.
is formally identied as actually being the Higgs boson,
pending further analysis.[85]
On 8 November 2012, the LHCb team reported on an
experiment seen as a golden test of supersymmetry
theories in physics,[69] by measuring the very rare decay of the B meson into two muons (B 0 + ).
The results, which match those predicted by the nonsupersymmetrical Standard Model rather than the predictions of many branches of supersymmetry, show the decays are less common than some forms of supersymmetry
predict, though could still match the predictions of other
versions of supersymmetry theory. The results as initially
drafted are stated to be short of proof but at a relatively
high 3.5 sigma level of signicance.[86]

1.2.7 Cost
See also: List of megaprojects
With a budget of 7.5 billion euros (approx. $9bn or
6.19bn as of June 2010), the LHC is one of the most expensive scientic instruments[92] ever built.[93] The total
cost of the project is expected to be of the order of 4.6bn
Swiss francs (SFr) (approx. $4.4bn, 3.1bn, or 2.8bn
as of Jan 2010) for the accelerator and 1.16bn (SFr) (approx. $1.1bn, 0.8bn, or 0.7bn as of Jan 2010) for the
CERN contribution to the experiments.[94]

In August 2013 the team revealed an anomaly in the angular distribution of B meson decay products which could
not be predicted by the Standard Model; this anomaly
had a statistical certainty of 4.5 sigma, just short of the 5
sigma needed to be ocially recognized as a discovery.
It is unknown what the cause of this anomaly would be,
although the Z' boson has been suggested as a possible
candidate.[87]

The construction of LHC was approved in 1995 with a


budget of SFr 2.6bn, with another SFr 210M towards
the experiments. However, cost overruns, estimated in
a major review in 2001 at around SFr 480M for the accelerator, and SFr 50M for the experiments, along with
a reduction in CERNs budget, pushed the completion
date from 2005 to April 2007.[95] The superconducting
magnets were responsible for SFr 180M of the cost inOn 19 November 2014, the LHCb experiment announced crease. There were also further costs and delays due to
the discovery of two new heavy subatomic particles, engineering diculties encountered while building the
underground cavern for the Compact Muon Solenoid,[96]
b and
b. Both of them are baryons that are composed of one and also due to faulty parts provided by Fermilab.[97] Due
bottom, one down, and one strange quark. They are ex- to lower electricity costs during the summer, it is expected
that the LHC will normally not operate over the winter
cited states of the bottom Xi baryon. [88][89]
months,[98] although an exception was made to make up
for the 2008 start-up delays over the 2009/10 winter.

1.2.6

Proposed upgrade

Main article: High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider


After some years of running, any particle physics experiment typically begins to suer from diminishing returns:
as the key results reachable by the device begin to be completed, later years of operation discover proportionately
less than earlier years. A common outcome is to upgrade
the devices involved, typically in energy, in luminosity, or
in terms of improved detectors. As well as the planned
20132015 increase to its intended 14 TeV collision energy, a luminosity upgrade of the LHC, called the High
Luminosity LHC, has also been proposed,[90] to be made
in 2018 after ten years of operation.

1.2.8 Computing resources


Data produced by LHC, as well as LHC-related simulation, was estimated at approximately 15 petabytes per
year (max throughput while running not stated).[99]
The LHC Computing Grid[100] was constructed to handle the massive amounts of data produced. It incorporated both private ber optic cable links and existing
high-speed portions of the public Internet, enabling data
transfer from CERN to academic institutions around the
world.[101]

The Open Science Grid is used as the primary infrastructure in the United States, and also as part of an interopThe optimal path for the LHC luminosity upgrade in- erable federation with the LHC Computing Grid.
cludes an increase in the beam current (i.e. the number The distributed computing project LHC@home was
of protons in the beams) and the modication of the two started to support the construction and calibration of the

1.2. LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

17

LHC. The project uses the BOINC platform, enabling 1.2.11 Construction accidents and delays
anybody with an Internet connection and a computer run On 25 October 2005, Jos Pereira Lages, a technining Mac OS X, Windows or Linux,[102] to use their comcian, was killed in the LHC when a switchgear that
puters idle time to simulate how particles will travel in the
was being transported fell on him.[111]
tunnel. With this information, the scientists will be able
to determine how the magnets should be calibrated to gain
On 27 March 2007 a cryogenic magnet support
the most stable orbit of the beams in the ring.[103] In Aubroke during a pressure test involving one of the
gust 2011, a second application went live (Test4Theory)
LHCs inner triplet (focusing quadrupole) magnet
which performs simulations against which to compare acassemblies, provided by Fermilab and KEK. No
tual test data, to determine condence levels of the reone was injured. Fermilab director Pier Oddone
sults.
stated In this case we are dumbfounded that we
missed some very simple balance of forces. This
fault had been present in the original design, and
remained during four engineering reviews over the
1.2.9 Safety of particle collisions
following years.[112] Analysis revealed that its design, made as thin as possible for better insulation,
Main article: Safety of high energy particle collision
was not strong enough to withstand the forces genexperiments
erated during pressure testing. Details are available
in a statement from Fermilab, with which CERN is
in agreement.[113][114] Repairing the broken magnet
The experiments at the Large Hadron Collider sparked
and reinforcing the eight identical assemblies used
fears among the public that the particle collisions might
by LHC delayed the startup date, then planned for
produce doomsday phenomena, involving the producNovember 2007.
tion of stable microscopic black holes or the creation of hypothetical particles called strangelets.[104] Two
CERN-commissioned safety reviews examined these
concerns and concluded that the experiments at the
LHC present no danger and that there is no reason for
concern,[105][106][107] a conclusion expressly endorsed by
the American Physical Society.[108]
The reports also noted that the physical conditions and
collision events which exist in the LHC and similar experiments occur naturally and routinely in the universe without hazardous consequences,[106] including ultra-highenergy cosmic rays observed to impact Earth with energies far higher than those in any man-made collider.

1.2.10

Operational challenges

Problems occurred on 19 September 2008 during


powering tests of the main dipole circuit, when an
electrical fault in the bus between magnets caused
a rupture and a leak of six tonnes of liquid helium.
The operation was delayed for several months.[115]
It is currently believed that a faulty electrical connection between two magnets caused an arc, which
compromised the liquid-helium containment. Once
the cooling layer was broken, the helium ooded
the surrounding vacuum layer with sucient force
to break 10-ton magnets from their mountings.
The explosion also contaminated the proton tubes
with soot.[47][116] This accident was thoroughly discussed in a 22 February 2010 Superconductor Science and Technology article by CERN physicist Lucio Rossi.[117]

Two vacuum leaks were identied in July 2009, and


The size of the LHC constitutes an exceptional engineerthe start of operations was further postponed to miding challenge with unique operational issues on account
November 2009.[52]
of the amount of energy stored in the magnets and the
beams.[39][109] While operating, the total energy stored in
the magnets is 10 GJ (2,400 kilograms of TNT) and the 1.2.12 Popular culture
total energy carried by the two beams reaches 724 MJ
The Large Hadron Collider gained a considerable amount
(173 kilograms of TNT).[110]
7
Loss of only one ten-millionth part (10 ) of the beam of attention from outside the scientic community and its
is sucient to quench a superconducting magnet, while progress is followed by most popular science media. The
the beam dump must absorb 362 MJ (87 kilograms of LHC has also inspired works of ction including novels,
TNT) for each of the two beams. These energies are car- TV series, video games and lms.
ried by very little matter: under nominal operating conditions (2,808 bunches per beam, 1.151011 protons per
bunch), the beam pipes contain 1.0109 gram of hydrogen, which, in standard conditions for temperature and
pressure, would ll the volume of one grain of ne sand.

The novel Angels & Demons, by Dan Brown, involves


antimatter created at the LHC to be used in a weapon
against the Vatican. In response CERN published a Fact
or Fiction?" page discussing the accuracy of the books
portrayal of the LHC, CERN, and particle physics in

18

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

general.[118] The movie version of the book has footage


lmed on-site at one of the experiments at the LHC; the
director, Ron Howard, met with CERN experts in an effort to make the science in the story more accurate.[119]
The novel FlashForward, by Robert J. Sawyer, involves
the search for the Higgs boson at the LHC. CERN published a Science and Fiction page interviewing Sawyer
and physicists about the book and the TV series based on
it.[120]
CERN employee Katherine McAlpine's Large Hadron
Rap[121] surpassed 7 million YouTube views.[122][123]
The band Les Horribles Cernettes was founded by women
from CERN. The name was chosen so to have the same
initials as the LHC.[124][125]
National Geographic Channel's Worlds Toughest Fixes,
Season 2 (2010), Episode 6 Atom Smasher features the
replacement of the last superconducting magnet section
in the repair of the supercollider after the 2008 quench
incident. The episode includes actual footage from the
repair facility to the inside of the supercollider, and explanations of the function, engineering, and purpose of
the LHC.[126]

[2] Towards a superforce. CERN. 2008. Retrieved 200810-10.


[3] Higheld, Roger (16 September 2008). Large Hadron
Collider: Thirteen ways to change the world. The Daily
Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2008-10-10.
[4] What is LHCb. CERN FAQ. CERN Communication
Group. January 2008. p. 44. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
[5] Amina Khan (31 March 2010). Large Hadron Collider rewards scientists watching at Caltech. Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
[6] What is the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid?". CERN.
January 2011. Retrieved 2012-01-11.
[7] Welcome. CERN. January 2011. Retrieved 2012-0111.
[8] Hunt for Higgs boson hits key decision point
[9] Worldwide LHC Computing Grid main page 14 November 2012: "[A] global collaboration of more than 170 computing centres in 36 countries ... to store, distribute and
analyse the ~25 Petabytes (25 million Gigabytes) of data
annually generated by the Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider was the focus of the 2012 stu- [10] What is the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid? (Pubdent lm Decay, with the movie being lmed on location
lic 'About' page) 14 November 2012: Currently WLCG
in CERNs maintenance tunnels.[127]
is made up of more than 170 computing centers in 36
countries...The WLCG is now the worlds largest computThe third season of the popular CBS sitcom The Big
ing grid
Bang Theory features an episode revolving around a
dilemma regarding a trip to Switzerland to see the Large [11] First beam in the LHC Accelerating science (Press
Hadron Collider.
release). CERN Press Oce. 10 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
The feature documentary Particle Fever follows the experimental physicists at CERN who run the experiments, [12] Paul Rincon (23 September 2008). Collider halted until
as well as the theoretical physicists who attempt to pronext year. BBC News. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
vide a conceptual framework for the LHCs results. It
[13] Large Hadron Collider Purdue Particle Physics.
won the Sheeld International Doc/Fest in 2013.
Physics.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-05.

Onion News Network featured a parodied news story


about the LHC titled Bored Scientists Now Just Stick- [14] Large Hadron Collider.
ing Random Things Into Large Hadron Collider.

[15] The LHC is back (Press release). CERN Press Oce.


20 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-20.

1.2.13

See also

Compact Linear Collider


International Linear Collider
Very Large Hadron Collider
List of accelerators in particle physics
High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider
Particle Fever

1.2.14

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[119] Ceri Perkins (2 June 2008). ATLAS gets the Hollywood
[101] Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Ocial public webtreatment. ATLAS e-News. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
site. CERN. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
[120] FlashForward. CERN. September 2009. Retrieved
[102] BOINC client-server technology#Server design weak2009-10-03.
nesses, tecnologies weakness on win32 api
[121] Katherine McAlpine (28 July 2008). Large Hadron
[103] LHC@home, BOINC
Rap. YouTube. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
[104] Alan Boyle (2 September 2008). Courts weigh dooms- [122] Roger Higheld (6 September 2008). Rap about worlds
day claims. Cosmic Log. MSNBC. Retrieved 2009-09largest science experiment becomes YouTube hit. Daily
28.
Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2009-09-28.
[105] J.-P. Blaizot, J. Iliopoulos, J. Madsen, G.G. Ross, P. Son- [123] Jennifer Bogo (1 August 2008). Large Hadron Collider
deregger, H.-J. Specht (2003). Study of Potentially Danrap teaches particle physics in 4 minutes. Popular Megerous Events During Heavy-Ion Collisions at the LHC.
chanics. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
CERN. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
[124] Malcolm W Brown (29 December 1998). Physicists Dis[106] J. Ellis J, G. Giudice, M.L. Mangano, T. Tkachev,
cover Another Unifying Force: Doo-Wop. New York
U. Wiedemann (LHC Safety Assessment Group) (5
Times. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
September 2008). Review of the Safety of LHC
Collisions. Journal of Physics G 35 (11): 115004. [125] Heather McCabe (10 February 1999). Grrl Geeks Rock
arXiv:0806.3414.
Bibcode:2008JPhG...35k5004E.
Out. Wired News. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
doi:10.1088/0954-3899/35/11/115004.
[126] Atom Smashers.
Worlds Toughest Fixes.
Sea[107] The safety of the LHC. CERN. 2008. Retrieved 2009son 2. Episode 6. National Geographic Channel.
09-28.
http://natgeotv.com.au/tv/world%27s-toughest-fixes/
episode.aspx?id=100. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
[108] Division of Particles & Fields. Statement by the Executive Committee of the DPF on the Safety of Collisions at [127] Boyle, Rebecca (2012-10-31). Large Hadron Collider
the Large Hadron Collider. American Physical Society.
Unleashes Rampaging Zombies. Retrieved 22 November
Retrieved 2009-09-28.
2012.
[109] Challenges in accelerator physics. CERN. 14 January
1999. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
[110] John Poole (2004). Beam Parameters and Denitions.
Missing or empty |title= (help)
[111] Robert Aymar (26 October 2005). Message from the
Director-General (Press release). CERN Press Oce.
Retrieved 2013-06-12.

1.2.15 External links


Ocial website
Overview of the LHC at CERNs public webpage
CERN Courier magazine

22
CERN on Twitter
CMS Experiment at CERN on Twitter
Unocial CERN on Twitter
LHC Portal Web portal
CERN, how it works on YouTube
Lyndon Evans and Philip Bryant (eds) (2008).
LHC Machine.
Journal of Instrumentation
3 (8): S08001. Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8001E.
doi:10.1088/1748-0221/3/08/S08001. Full documentation for design and construction of the LHC
and its six detectors (1600p).
symmetry magazine LHC special issue August 2006,
special issue December 2007
New Yorker: Crash Course. The worlds largest particle accelerator.
NYTimes: A Giant Takes On Physics Biggest
Questions.
Why a Large Hadron Collider? Seed Magazine interviews with physicists.
Thirty collected pictures during commissioning and
post- 19 September 2008 incident repair, from
Boston Globe.
Podcast Interview with CERNs Rolf Landua about
the LHC and the physics behind it
Petabytes at the LHC. Sixty Symbols. Brady Haran
for the University of Nottingham.
Coordinates: 4614N 0603E / 46.233N 6.050E

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

Chapter 2

Experiments
2.1 List of Large Hadron Collider
experiments

LEP: Large ElectronPositron Collider


LHC: Large Hadron Collider

This is a list of current and proposed experiments that


take place, or would take place, at the CERN Large 2.1.3 Notes
Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is the most energetic
particle collider in the world, and will be used to test [1] Previously Fabiola Gianotti
the accuracy of the Standard Model (and particularly to
search for the Higgs boson), and look for physics beyond
the Standard Model such as supersymmetry, extra dimen- 2.1.4 References
sions, and others.

[1] James Pinfold (2010). The MoEDAL TDR. Retrieved


2010-04-11.

The list is rst compiled from the SPIRES database, then


missing information is retrieved from the online version
CERNs Grey Book. The most specic information of
the two is kept, e.g. if the SPIRES database lists December 2008, while the Grey Book lists 22 December 2008,
the Grey Book entry is shown. When there is a conict
between the SPIRES database and the Grey Book, the
SPIRES database information is listed, unless otherwise
noted.

2.1.1

[2] James Pinfold (2010). CERN Research Board Approves


the MoEDAL Experiment. The MoEDAL Milestone
Blog. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
[3] CERN Courier, MoEDAL becomes the LHCs magnicent seventh, 5 May 2010

SPIRES team. SPIRES database. Stanford Linear


Accelerator Center. Retrieved 2009-09-15.

Large Hadron Collider experiments

GS-AIF-FPF. Grey Book.


2009-09-15.

See also: Large Hadron Collider

2.1.2

See also

2.1.5 External links


CERN website

Experiments

LHC website

List of Super Proton Synchrotron experiments

CERN Grey Book

Facilities
CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research
PS: Proton Synchrotron
SPS: Super Proton Synchrotron
ISOLDE: On-Line Isotope Mass Separator
ISR: Intersecting Storage Rings

CERN. Retrieved

SPIRES database

2.2 A Large Ion Collider Experiment


Coordinates: 461504.8N 60112.5E / 46.251333N
6.020139E
23

24

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS
Towards the LHC experimental Programme in March
1992. From the ideas presented there, the ALICE collaboration was formed and in 1993, a LoI was submitted.[4]
ALICE was rst proposed as a central detector in 1993
and later complemented by an additional forward muon
spectrometer designed in 1995. In 1997, ALICE received
the green light from the LHC Committee to proceed towards nal design and construction.[5]

The rst ten years were spent on design and an extensive R&D eort. Like for all other LHC experiments, it
became clear from the outset that also the challenges of
heavy ion physics at LHC could not be really met (nor
Computer generated cut-away view of ALICE showing the 18 de- paid for) with existing technology. Signicant advances,
tectors of the experiment.
and in some cases a technological break-through, would
be required to built on the ground what physicists had
dreamed up on paper for their experiments. The ini2.2.1 Introduction
tially very broad and later more focused, well organised
and well supported R&D eort, which was sustained over
ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of most of the 1990s, has led to many evolutionary and some
seven detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider revolutionary advances in detectors, electronics and comat CERN. The other six are: ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, puting.
LHCb, LHCf and MoEDAL.
Designing a dedicated heavy-ion experiment in the early
ALICE is optimized to study heavy-ion (Pb-Pb nuclei) '90s for use at the LHC some 15 years later posed some
collisions at a centre of mass energy of 2.76 TeV per daunting challenges. The detector had to be general purnucleon pair. The resulting temperature and energy den- pose - able to measure most signals of potential interest,
sity are expected to be high enough to produce quark even if their relevance may only become apparent later gluon plasma, a state of matter wherein quarks and gluons and exible, allowing additions and modications along
are freed. Similar conditions are believed to existed a the way as new avenues of investigation would open up.
fraction of the second after the Big Bang before quarks In both respects ALICE did quite well, as it included
and gluons bound together to form hadrons and heavier a number of observables in its initial menu whose imparticles.[1]
portance only became clear later. Various major detecALICE is focusing on the physics of strongly interact- tion system where added, from the muon spectrometer in
ing matter at extreme energy densities. The existence of 1995, the transition radiation detectors in 1999 to a large
the quarkgluon plasma and its properties are key issues jet calorimeter added in 2007.
in Quantum Chromodynamics for understanding Color ALICE recorded data from the rst lead-lead collisions
connement and Chiral symmetry restoration. Recreat- at the LHC in 2010. Data sets taken during heavy-ion
ing this primordial form of matter and understanding how periods in 2010 and 2011 as well as proton-lead data from
it evolves is expected to shed light on questions about how 2013 have provided an excellent basis for an in-depth look
matter is organized, the mechanism that connes quarks at the physics of quarkgluon plasma.
and gluons and the nature of strong interactions and how
they result in generating the bulk of the mass of ordinary After more than three years of successful operation, the
ALICE detector is about to undergo a major programme
matter.
of consolidation and upgrade during the long shutdown of
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) predicts that at su- CERNs accelerator complex. A new subdetector called
ciently high energy densities there will be a phase tran- the dijet calorimeter (DCAL) will be installed, and all
sition from conventional hadronic matter, where quarks 18 of the existing ALICE subdetectors will be upgraded.
are locked inside nuclear particles, to a plasma of decon- There will also be major renovation work on the ALned quarks and gluons. The reverse of this transition ICE infrastructure, including the electrical and cooling
is believed to have taken place when the universe was systems. The wealth of published scientic results and
just 106 sec old, and may still play a role today in the the very intense upgrade programme of ALICE have athearts of collapsing neutron stars or other astrophysical tracted numerous institutes and scientists from all over
objects.[2][3]
the world. Today the ALICE Collaboration has more
than 1300 members coming from 110 institutes in 36
countries.

2.2.2

History

The idea of building a dedicated heavy-ion detector for


the LHC was rst aired at the historic Evian meeting

2.2. A LARGE ION COLLIDER EXPERIMENT

2.2.3

25

Heavy-Ion Collisions at the LHC

The rst collisions in the center of the ALICE, ATLAS


and CMS collisions took place less than 72 hours after
Searches for Quark Gluon plasma and a deeper under- the LHC ended its rst run of protons and switched to
standing of the QCD started at CERN and Brookhaven accelerating lead-ion beams.
with lighter ions in the 1980s.[6][7] Todays programme at
Each lead nucleus contains 82 protons, and the LHC acthese laboratories has moved on to ultrarelativistic colcelerates each proton to an energy of 3.5 TeV, thus resultlisions of heavy ions, and is just reaching the energy
ing in an energy of 287 TeV per beam, or a total collision
threshold at which the phase transition is expected to ocenergy of 574 TeV.
cur. The LHC, with a centre-of-mass energy around 5.5
Up to 3,000 charged particles were emitted from each
TeV/nucleon, will push the energy reach even further.
collision, shown here as lines radiating from the collision
During head-on collisions of lead ions at the LHC, hunpoint. The colors of the lines indicate how much energy
dreds of protons and neutrons smash into one another at
each particle carried away from the collision.
energies of upwards of a few TeVs. Lead ions are accelerated to 99.9% of the speed of light and collisions at the
LHC are 100 times more energetic than those of protons Proton-lead collisions at the LHC
- heating up matter in the interaction point to a temperature almost 100,000 times higher than the temperature in
the core of the sun.
When the two lead nuclei slam into each other, matter undergoes a transition to form for a brief instant a droplet
of primordial matter, the so-called quarkgluon plasma
which is believed to have lled the universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang.
The quarkgluon plasma is formed as proton and neutrons
melt into their elementary constituentsm, quarks and
gluons become asymptotically free. The droplet of QGP
instantly cools, and the individual quarks and gluons (collectively called partons) recombine into a blizzard of ordinary matter that speeds away in all directions.[8] The debris contains particles such as pions and kaons, which are
made of a quark and an antiquark; protons and neutrons,
made of three quarks; and even copious antiprotons and Proton-Lead ion collision recorded by the ALICE Experiment
antineutrons, which may combine to form the nuclei of on 13 September 2012 at a center of mass energy per colliding
antiatoms as heavy as helium. Much can be learned by nucleon-nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV.
studying the distribution and energy of this debris.
In 2013, the LHC collided protons with lead ions for
the LHCs rst physics beams of 2013.[11] The rst leadFirst Lead-Lead Collisions
proton run at the LHC lasted for one month and data help
ALICE physicists to decouple the eects of the plasma
from eects that stem from cold nuclear matter eects
and shed more light on the study of the Quark-Gluon
plasma.
In the case of lead-lead collisions, the congurations of
the quarks and gluons that make up the protons and neutrons of the incoming lead nucleus can be somewhat different of those in the incoming protons. In order to
study if part of the eects we see when comparing leadlead and proton-proton collisions is due to this conguration dierence rather than the formation of the plasma.
Proton-lead collisions are an ideal tool for this study.

One of the LHCs rst lead-ion collisions, as recorded by the ALICE detector.

2.2.4 The ALICE detectors

A key design consideration of ALICE is the ability to


The Large Hadron Collider smashed its rst lead ions in study QCD and quark (de)connement under these ex2010, on 7 November at around 12:30 a.m. CET.[9][10] treme conditions. This is done by using particles, created

26

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS
magnetic eld of 0.5 Tesla produced by a huge magnetic
solenoid, bending the trajectories of the particles: from
the curvature of the tracks one can nd their momentum.
The ITS is so precise that particles which are generated
by the decay of other particles with a very short life time
can be identied by seeing that they do not originate from
the point where the interaction has taken place (the vertex of the event) but rather from a point at a distance of
as small as a tenth of a millimeter.

Overall view of the ALICE detector

inside the hot volume as it expands and cools down, that


live long enough to reach the sensitive detector layers situated around the interaction region. ALICEs physics programme relies on being able to identify all of them, i.e. to
determine if they are electrons, photons, pions, etc. and
to determine their charge. This involves making the most
of the (sometimes slightly) dierent ways that particles
interact with matter.[12]
In a traditional experiment, particles are identied or
at least assigned to families (charged or neutral hadrons),
by the characteristic signatures they leave in the detector. The experiment is divided into a few main components and each component tests a specic set of particle properties. These components are stacked in layers
and the particles go through the layers sequentially from
the collision point outwards: rst a tracking system, then
an electromagnetic (EM) and a hadronic calorimeter and
nally a muon system. The detectors are embedded in
a magnetic eld in order to bend the tracks of charged
particles for momentum and charge determination. This
method for particle identication works well only for certain particles, and is used for example by the large LHC
experiments ATLAS and CMS. However, this technique
is not suitable for hadron identication as it doesn't allow distinguishing the dierent charged hadrons that are
produced in Pb-Pb collisions.
In order to identify all the particles that are coming out
of the system of the QGP ALICE is using a set of 18
detectors[13] that give information about the mass, the velocity and the electrical sign of the particles.

Tracking Particles
An ensemble of cylindrical detectors that surround the
interaction point is used to track all the particles that y
out of the hot medium. The Inner Tracking System (consisting of three layers of detectors: ITS Pixels, ITS Drift,
ITS Strips) the TPC and the TRD measure at many points
the passage of each particle carrying an electric charge
and give precise information about the particles trajectory. The ALICE tracking detectors are embedded in a

Installation of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

Inner Tracking System The short-living heavy particles cover a very small distance before decaying. This
system aims at identifying these phenomena of disintegration by measuring the location where they occur with
a precision of a tenth of millimetre.[14]
The Inner Tracking System (ITS) consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The layers surround the
collision point and measure the properties of the particles emerging from the collisions, pin-pointing their position of passage to a fraction of a millimetre.[15] With the
help of the ITS particles containing heavy quarks (charm
and beauty) can be identied by reconstructing the coordinates at which they decay.
ITS layers (counting from the interaction point):
2 layers of SPD (Silicon Pixel Detector),
2 layers of SDD (Silicon Drift Detector),
2 layers of SSD (Silicon Strip Detector).
The ITS was inserted at the heart of the ALICE experiment in March 2007 following a large phase of R&D.
Using the smallest amounts of the lightest material, the
ITS has been made as lightweight and delicate as possible. With almost 5 m2 of double-sided silicon strip detectors and more than 1 m2 of silicon drift detectors, it is
the largest system using both types of silicon detector.
ALICE has recently presented plans for an upgraded Inner Tracking System, mainly based on building a new silicon tracker with greatly improved features in terms of determination of the impact parameter (d0) to the primary

2.2. A LARGE ION COLLIDER EXPERIMENT


vertex, tracking eciency at low pT and readout rate
capabilities.[16] The upgraded ITS will open new channels
in the study of the Quark Gluon Plasma formed at LHC
which are necessary in order to understand the dynamics
of this condensed phase of the QCD.
It will allow the study of the process of thermalization of
heavy quarks in the medium by measuring heavy avour
charmed and beauty baryons and extending these measurements down to very low pT for the rst time. It will
also give a better understanding of the quark mass dependence of in-medium energy loss and oer a unique
capability of measuring the beauty quarks while also improving the beauty decay vertex reconstruction. Finally,
the upgraded ITS will give us the chance to characterize the thermal radiation coming from the QGP and the
in-medium modication of hadronic spectral functions as
related to chiral symmetry restoration.
The upgrade project requires an extensive R&D eort
by our researchers and collaborators all over the world
on cutting-edge technologies: silicon sensors, low-power
electronics, interconnection and packaging technologies,
ultra-light mechanical structures and cooling units.

27
ization strength. An avalanche eect in the vicinity of
the anode wires strung in the readout chambers, gives
the necessary signal amplication. The positive ions created in the avalanche induce a positive current signal on
the pad plane. The readout is performed by the 557 568
pads that form the cathode plane of the multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) located at the end plates.
This gives the radial distance to the beam and the azimuth. The last coordinate, z along the beam direction,
is given by the drift time. Since energy-loss uctuations
can be considerable, in general many pulse-height measurements are performed along the particle track in order
to optimize the resolution of the ionization measurement.
Almost all of the TPCs volume is sensitive to the traversing charged particles, but it features a minimum material
budget. The straightforward pattern recognition (continuous tracks) make TPCs the perfect choice for highmultiplicity environments, such as in heavy-ion collisions,
where thousands of particles have to be tracked simultaneously. Inside the ALICE TPC, the ionization strength
of all tracks is sampled up to 159 times, resulting in a
resolution of the ionization measurement as good as 5%.

The ALICE Time Projection Chamber used for particle tracking


and identication.
The completed ALICE detector showing the eighteen TRD mod-

Time Projection Chamber The ALICE Time Proules (trapezoidal prisms in a radial arrangement).
jection Chamber (TPC) is a large volume lled with a
gas as detection medium and is the main particle trackTransition Radiation Detector
Electrons and
ing device in ALICE.[17][18]
positrons can be discriminated from other charged
Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC ionize the particles using the emission of transition radiation,
gas atoms along their path, liberating electrons that drift X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of
towards the end plates of the detector. The characteris- thin materials.
tics of the ionization process caused by fast charged par- The identication of electrons and positrons is achieved
ticles passing through a medium can be used for particle using a transition radiation detector (TRD).[19] In a simidentication. The velocity dependence of the ionization ilar manner to the muon spectrometer, this system enstrength is connected to the well-known Bethe-Bloch for- ables detailed studies of the production of vector-meson
mula, which describes the average energy loss of charged resonances, but with extended coverage down to the light
particles through inelastic Coulomb collisions with the vector-meson and in a dierent rapidity region. Below
atomic electrons of the medium.
1 GeV/c, electrons can be identied via a combination of
Multiwire proportional counters or solid-state counters PID measurements in the TPC and TOF. In the momenare often used as detection medium, because they pro- tum range 110 GeV/c, the fact that electrons may create
vide signals with pulse heights proportional to the ion- TR when travelling through a dedicated radiator can be

28

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

exploited. Inside such a radiator, fast charged particles


cross the boundaries between materials with dierent dielectric constants, which can lead to the emission of TR
photons with energies in the X-ray range. The eect is
tiny and the radiator has to provide many hundreds of material boundaries to achieve a high enough probability to
produce at least one photon. In the ALICE TRD, the TR
photons are detected just behind the radiator using MWPCs lled with a xenon-based gas mixture, where they
deposit their energy on top of the ionization signals from
the particles track.

Time of Flight Charged particles are identied in


ALICE by Time-Of-Flight (TOF). TOF measurements
yield the velocity of a charged particle by measuring
the ight time over a given distance along the track
trajectory.[20][21] Using the tracking information from
other detectors every track ring a sensor is identied.
Provided the momentum is also known, the mass of the
particle can then be derived from these measurements.
The ALICE TOF detector is a large-area detector based
on multigap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs) that cover
a cylindrical surface of 141 m2, with an inner radius of
The ALICE TRD was designed to derive a fast trigger for 3.7 m. There are approximately 160 000 MRPC pads
with time resolution of about 100 ps distributed over the
charged particles with high momentum and can signicantly enhance the recorded yields of vector mesons. For large surface of 150 square meters.
this purpose, 250,000 CPUs are installed right on the de- The MRPCs are parallel-plate detectors built of thin
tector to identify candidates for high-momentum tracks sheets of standard window glass to create narrow gas gaps
and analyse the energy deposition associated with them with high electric elds. These plates are separated using
as quickly as possible (while the signals are still being cre- shing lines to provide the desired spacing; 10 gas gaps
ated in the detector). This information is sent to a global per MRPC are needed to arrive at a detection eciency
tracking unit, which combines all of the information to close to 100%.
search for electronpositron track pairs within only 6 s. The simplicity of the construction allows a large system
To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to be built with an overall TOF resolution of 80 ps at a
for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in relatively low cost (CERN Courier November 2011 p8).
mixed beams of pions and electrons.
This performance allows the separation of kaons, pions
and protons up to momenta of a few GeV/c. Combining
such a measurement with the PID information from the
Particle Identication with ALICE
ALICE TPC has proved useful in improving the separation between the dierent particle types, as gure 3 shows
ALICE also wants to know the identity of each particle, for a particular momentum range.
whether it is an electron, or a proton, a kaon or a pion.
Charged hadrons (in fact, all stable charged particles) are
unambiguously identied if their mass and charge are determined. The mass can be deduced from measurements
of the momentum and of the velocity. Momentum and
the sign of the charge are obtained by measuring the curvature of the particles track in a magnetic eld. To obtain the particle velocity there exist four methods based
on measurements of time-of-ight and ionization, and on
detection of transition radiation and Cherenkov radiation.
Each of these methods works well in dierent momentum
ranges or for specic types of particle. In ALICE all of
these methods may be combined in order to measure, for
instance, particle spectra.
In addition to the information given by ITS and TPC,
more specialized detectors are needed: the TOF measures, with a precision better than a tenth of a billionth
of a second, the time that each particle takes to travel
from the vertex to reach it, so that one can measure its
speed. The HMPID measures the faint light patterns generated by fast particles and the TRD measures the special
radiation very fast particles emit when crossing dierent
materials, thus allowing to identify electrons. Muons are
measured by exploiting the fact that they penetrate matter more easily than most other particles: in the forward
region a very thick and complex absorber stops all other
particles and muons are measured by a dedicated set of
detectors: the muon spectrometer.

The HMPID detector before nal installation inside the ALICE


magnet.

High Momentum Particle Identication Detector


The High Momentum Particle Identication Detector
(HMPID) is a RICH detector to determine the speed of
particles beyond the momentum range available through
energy loss (in ITS and TPC, p = 600 MeV) and through
time-of-ight measurements (in TOF, p = 1.21.4 GeV).
Cherenkov radiation is a shock wave resulting from
charged particles moving through a material faster than

2.2. A LARGE ION COLLIDER EXPERIMENT

29

the velocity of light in that material. The radiation propagates with a characteristic angle with respect to the
particle track, which depends on the particle velocity.
Cherenkov detectors make use of this eect and in general consist of two main elements: a radiator in which
Cherenkov radiation is produced and a photon detector.
Ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors resolve the
ring-shaped image of the focused Cherenkov radiation,
enabling a measurement of the Cherenkov angle and thus
the particle velocity. This in turn is sucient to determine the mass of the charged particle.
If a dense medium (large refractive index) is used, only
a thin radiator layer of the order of a few centimetres is
required to emit a sucient number of Cherenkov photons. The photon detector is then located at some distance (usually about 10 cm) behind the radiator, allowing
the cone of light to expand and form the characteristic
ring-shaped image. Such a proximity-focusing RICH is
installed in the ALICE experiment.
ALICE HMPIDs momentum range is up to 3 GeV
for pion/kaon discrimination and up to 5 GeV for
kaon/proton discrimination. It is the worlds largest
caesium iodide RICH detector, with an active area of 11
m. A prototype was successfully tested at CERN in 1997
and currently takes data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US.
Calorimeters
Calorimeters measure the energy of particles, and determine whether they have electromagnetic or hadronic interactions. Particle Identication in a calorimeter is a destructive measurement. All particles except muons and
neutrinos deposit all their energy in the calorimeter system by production of electromagnetic or hadronic showers. Photons, electrons and positrons deposit all their energy in an electromagnetic calorimeter. Their showers
are indistinguishable, but a photon can be identied by
the non-existence of a track in the tracking system that is
associated to the shower.

A technology for mass production of PWO crystals has been developed in close cooperation between CERN, the Apatity plant
and RRC Kurchatov Institute.

PHOS covers a limited acceptance domain at central rapidity. It is made of lead tungstate crystals,[23] similar to
the ones used by CMS, read out using Avalanche Photodiodes (APD).
When high energy photons strike lead tungstate, they
make it glow, or scintillate, and this glow can be measured. Lead tungstate is extremely dense (denser than
iron), stopping most photons that reach it. The crystals
are kept at a temperature of 248 K, which helps to minimize the deterioration of the energy resolution due to
noise and to optimize the response for low energies.

Electro-Magnetic Calorimeter
The EMCal is a
lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter comprising almost
13,000 individual towers that are grouped into ten supermodules. The towers are read out by wavelength-shifting
optical bers in a shashlik geometry coupled to an
The photons (particles of light), like the light emitted avalanche photodiode. The complete EMCal will contain
from a hot object, tell us about the temperature of the 100,000 individual scintillator tiles and 185 kilometers of
system. To measure them, special detectors are neces- optical ber, weighing in total about 100 tons.
sary: the crystals of the PHOS, which are as dense as lead The EMCal covers almost the full length of the ALICE
and as transparent as glass, will measure them with fan- Time Projection Chamber and central detector, and a
tastic precision in a limited region, while the PMD and third of its azimuth placed back-to-back with the ALICE
in particular the EMCal will measure them over a very Photon Spectrometer - a smaller, highly granular leadwide area. The EMCal will also measure groups of close tungstate calorimeter.
particles (called jets) which have a memory of the early
The super-modules are inserted into an independent supphases of the event.
port frame situated within the ALICE magnet, between
the time-of-ight counters and the magnet coil. The supPhoton Spectrometer
PHOS is a high-resolution port frame itself is a complex structure: it weighs 20 tons
electromagnetic calorimeter installed in ALICE[22] to and must support ve times its own weight, with a maxprovide data to test the thermal and dynamical proper- imum deection between being empty and being fully
ties of the initial phase of the collision. This is done by loaded of only a couple of centimeters. Installation of the
measuring photons emerging directly from the collision. eight-ton super-modules requires a system of rails with a

30

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

sophisticated insertion device to bridge across to the sup- screening. This leads to a suppression of their producport structure.
tion rates. At the high LHC collision energy, both the
The Electro-Magnetic Calorimeter (EM-Cal) will add charmonium states (J/ and ) as well as the bottomogreatly to the high momentum particle measurement ca- nium states (, and ) can be studied. The Dimuon
pabilities of ALICE.[24] It will extend ALICEs reach to spectrometer is optimized for the detection of these heavy
quark resonances.
study jets and other hard processes.
Photon Multiplicity Detector The Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) is a Particle shower detector which
measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons produced in the collisions.[25] It utilizes as a rst layer
a veto detector to reject charged particles. Photons on the
other hand pass through a converter, initiating an electromagnetic shower in a second detector layer where they
produce large signals on several cells of its sensitive volume. Hadrons on the other hand normally aect only one The main components of the ALICE muon spectrometer: an absorber to lter the background, a set of tracking chambers before,
cell and produce a signal representing minimum-ionizing
inside and after the magnet and a set of trigger chambers.
particles.

ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

Forward Multiplicity Detectors The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving
ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for
these measurements.[26]
FMD consist of 5 large silicon discs with each 10 240
individual detector channels to measure the charged particles emitted at small angles relative to the beam. FMD
provides an independent measurement of the orientation
of the collisions in the vertical plane, which can be used
with measurements from the barrel detector to investigate
ow, jets, etc.
The forward detectors also comprise the main trigger detectors for timing (T0) and for collision centrality (V0).
Muon Spectrometer The ALICE forward muon spectrometer studies the complete spectrum of heavy quarkonia (J/, , , , ) via their decay in the + channel. Heavy quarkonium states, provide an essential tool
to study the early and hot stage of heavy-ion collisions.[27]
In particular they are expected to be sensitive to QuarkGluon Plasma formation. In the presence of a deconned medium (i.e. QGP) with high enough energy density, quarkonium states are dissociated because of colour

Muons may be identied using the just described technique by using the fact that they are the only charged particles able to pass almost undisturbed through any material. This behaviour is connected to the fact that muons
with momenta below a few hundred GeV/c do not suer
from radiative energy losses and so do not produce electromagnetic showers. Also, because they are leptons, they
are not subject to strong interactions with the nuclei of
the material they traverse. This behaviour is exploited in
muon spectrometers in high-energy physics experiments
by installing muon detectors behind the calorimeter systems or behind thick absorber materials. All charged particles other than muons are completely stopped, producing electromagnetic (and hadronic) showers.
The muon spectrometer in the forward region of ALICE
features a very thick and complex front absorber and an
additional muon lter consisting of an iron wall 1.2 m
thick. Muon candidates selected from tracks penetrating these absorbers are measured precisely in a dedicated
set of tracking detectors. Pairs of muons are used to
collect the spectrum of heavy-quark vector-meson resonances (J/Psi). Their production rates can be analysed
as a function of transverse momentum and collision centrality in order to investigate dissociation due to colour
screening. The acceptance of the ALICE Muon Spectrometer covers the pseudorapidity interval 2.5 4
and the resonances can be detected down to zero transverse momentum.
Characterization of the Collision
Finally, we need to know how powerful the collision was:
this is done by measuring the remnants of the colliding
nuclei in detectors made of high density materials located
about 110 meters on both sides of ALICE (the ZDCs)
and by measuring with the FMD, V0 and T0 the number
of particles produced in the collision and their spatial distribution. T0 also measures with high precision the time

2.2. A LARGE ION COLLIDER EXPERIMENT

31

when the event takes place.

An array of Cherenkov counters used in the ALICE T0 detector.


Front face of the ZN calorimeter: One of the two ZN calorimeters during assembly. The quartz bers are hosted in the 1936
grooves of the W-alloy slabs.

Zero Degree Calorimeter The ZDCs are calorimeters


which detect the energy of the spectator nucleons in order to determine the overlap region of the two colliding
nuclei. It is composed of four calorimeters, two to detect protons (ZP) and two to detect neutrons (ZN). They
are located 115 meters away from the interaction point
on both sides, exactly along the beam line. The ZN is
placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis,
between the two beam pipes. That is why we call them
Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDC).The ZP is positioned
externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the
dipole magnet D1.

T0 Detector ALICE T0 serves as a start, trigger and


luminosity detector for ALICE. The accurate interaction
time (START) serves as the reference signal for the Timeof-Flight detector that is used for particle identication.
T0 supplies ve dierent trigger signals to the Central
Trigger Processor. The most important of these is the T0
vertex providing prompt and accurate conrmation of the
location of the primary interaction point along the beam
axis within the set boundaries. The detector is also used
for online luminosity monitoring providing fast feedback
to the accelerator team.

The T0 detector consists of two arrays of Cherenkov


counters (T0-C and T0-A) positioned at the opposite
sides of the interaction point (IP). Each array has 12
cylindrical counters equipped with a quartz radiator and
The ZDCs are spaghetti calorimeters, made by a stack a photomultiplier tube.
of heavy metal plates grooved to allocate a matrix of
quartz bres. Their principle of operation is based on
the detection of Cherenkov light produced by the charged
ALICE Cosmic Rays Detector (ACORDE)
particles of the shower in the bers.
The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place
for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons comV0 Detector V0 is made of two arrays of scintillator ing from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic
counters set on both sides of the ALICE interaction point, ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top
and called V0L and V0R respectively. The V0R counter of the ALICE magnet.
will be located right upstream of the dimuon arm absorber and cover the spectrometer acceptance while the The ALICE cosmic ray trigger is made of 60 scintillator
V0L counter will be located at around 3.5 m away from modules distributed on the 3 upper faces of the ALICE
magnet yoke. The array can be congured to trigger on
the collision vertex, on the other side.
single or multi-muon events, from 2-fold coincidences up
It is used to estimate the centrality of the collision by sum- to the whole array if desired. ACORDEs high luminosming up the energy deposited in the two disks of Vzero. ity allows the recording of cosmic events with very high
This observable scales directly with the number of pri- multiplicity of parallel muon tracks, the so-called muon
mary particles generated in the collision and therefore to bundles.
the centrality.
With ACORDE, the ALICE Experiment has been able
V0 is also used as reference in Van Der Meer scans that to detect muon bundles with the highest multiplicity ever
give the size and shape of colliding beams and therefore registered as well as to measure very high energy primary
the luminosity delivered to the experiment.
cosmic rays.

32

2.2.5

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

Data Acquisition

ALICE had to design a data acquisition system that operates eciently in two widely dierent running modes: the
very frequent but small events, with few produced particles encountered during proton-proton collisions and the
relatively rare, but extremely large events, with tens of
thousands of new particles produced in lead-lead collisions at the LHC (L = 1027 cm2 s1 in Pb-Pb with 100
ns bunch crossings and L = 1030 1031 cm2 s1 in pp
with 25 ns bunch crossings).[28]
The ALICE data acquisition system needs to balance its
capacity to record the steady stream of very large events
resulting from central collisions, with an ability to select
and record rare cross-section processes. These requirements result in an aggregate event building bandwidth of
up to 2.5 GByte/s and a storage capability of up to 1.25
GByte/s, giving a total of more than 1 PByte of data every year. As shown in the gure, ALICE needs a data
storage capacity that by far exceeds that of the current
generation of experiments. This data rate is equivalent
to six times the contents of the Encyclopdia Britannica
every second.
The hardware of the ALICE DAQ system[29] is largely
based on commodity components: PCs running Linux
and standard Ethernet switches for the eventbuilding network. The required performances are achieved by the
interconnection of hundreds of these PCs into a large
DAQ fabric. The software framework of the ALICE
DAQ is called DATE (ALICE Data Acquisition and Test
Environment). DATE is already in use today, during
the construction and testing phase of the experiment,
while evolving gradually towards the nal production system. Moreover, AFFAIR (A Flexible Fabric and Application Information Recorder) is the performance monitoring software developed by the ALICE Data Acquisition project. AFFAIR is largely based on open source
code and is composed of the following components: data
gathering, inter-node communication employing DIM,
fast and temporary round robin database storage, and permanent storage and plot generation using ROOT.
Finally. the ALICE experiment Mass Storage System
(MSS) combines a very high bandwidth (1.25 GByte/s)
and every year stores huge amounts of data, more than 1
Pbytes. The mass storage system is made of: a) Global
Data Storage (GDS) performing the temporary storage of
data at the experimental pit; b) Permanent Data Storage
(PDS) for long-term archive of data in the CERN Computing Center and nally from The Mass Storage System software managing the creation, the access and the
archive of data.

Events recorded by the ALICE experiment from the rst lead ion
collisions, at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon
pair.

tons in the QGP with focus on the massive charm and


beauty quarks and understanding the behaviour of these
heavy quarks in relation to the stroungly-coupled medium
of QGP, ii) the study of the mechanisms of energy loss
that occur in the medium and the dependencies of energy
loss on the parton species, iii) the dissociation of quarkonium states which can be a probe of deconnement and
of the temperature of the medium and nally the production of thermal photons and low-mass dileptons emitted
by the QGP which is about assessing the initial temperature and degrees of freedom of the systems as well as the
chiral nature of the phase transition.
The ALICE collaboration presented its rst results from
LHC proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7
TeV in March 2010.[30] The results conrmed that the
charged-particle multiplicity is rising with energy faster
than expected while the shape of the multiplicity distribution is not reproduced well by standard simulations.
The results were based on the analysis of a sample of
300,000 protonproton collisions the ALICE experiment
collected during the rst runs of the LHC with stable
beams at a centre-of-mass energy, s, of 7 TeV,

In 2011, the ALICE Collaboration measured the size of


the system created in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass
energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair.[31] ALICE conrmed that the QCD matter created in Pb-Pb collisions
behaves like a uid, with strong collective motions that
are well described by hydrodynamic equations. The reball formed in nuclear collisions at the LHC is hotter, lives
longer and expands to a larger size than the medium that
was formed in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. Multiplicity measurements by the ALICE experiment show that
the system initially has much higher energy density and
is at least 30% hotter than at RHIC, resulting in about
2.2.6 Results
double the particle multiplicity for each colliding nucleon
pair (Aamodt et al. 2010a). Further analyses, in particuThe physics programme of ALICE includes the follow- lar including the full dependence of these observables on
ing main topics: i) the study of the thermalization of par- centrality, will provide more insights into the properties

2.2. A LARGE ION COLLIDER EXPERIMENT

33

of the system such as initial velocities, the equation of Energy Loss


state and the uid viscosity and strongly constrain the
theoretical modelling of heavy-ion collisions.
A basic process in QCD is the energy loss of a fast
parton in a medium composed of colour charges. This
phenomenon, jet quenching, is especially useful in the
study of the QGP, using the naturally occurring products
(jets) of the hard scattering of quarks and gluons from
A perfect liquid at the LHC
the incoming nuclei. A highly energetic parton (a colour
charge) probes the coloured medium rather like an X-ray
O-centre nuclear collisions, with a nite impact param- probes ordinary matter. The production of these partonic
eter, create a strongly asymmetric almond-shaped re- probes in hadronic collisions is well understood within
ball. However, experiments cannot measure the spatial perturbative QCD. The theory also shows that a parton
dimensions of the interaction (except in special cases, traversing the medium will lose a fraction of its energy in
for example in the production of pions, see[32] ). Instead, emitting many soft (low energy) gluons. The amount of
they measure the momentum distributions of the emitted the radiated energy is proportional to the density of the
particles. A correlation between the measured azimuthal medium and to the square of the path length travelled by
momentum distribution of particles emitted from the de- the parton in the medium. Theory also predicts that the
caying reball and the initial spatial asymmetry can arise energy loss depends on the avour of the parton.
only from multiple interactions between the constituents
of the created matter; in other words it tells us about how Jet quenching was rst observed at RHIC by measuring
the matter ows, which is related to its equation of state the yields of hadrons with high transverse momentum.
These particles are produced via fragmentation of enerand its thermodynamic transport properties.[33]
getic partons. The yields of these high-pT particles in
The measured azimuthal distribution of particles in mo- central nucleusnucleus collisions were found to be a facmentum space can be decomposed into Fourier coe- tor of ve lower than expected from the measurements in
cients. The second Fourier coecient (v2), called ellip- protonproton reactions. ALICE has recently published
tic ow, is particularly sensitive to the internal friction or the measurement of charged particles in central heavyviscosity of the uid, or more precisely, /s, the ratio of ion collisions at the LHC. As at RHIC, the production
the shear viscosity () to entropy (s) of the system. For a of high-pT hadrons at the LHC is strongly suppressed.
good uid such as water, the /s ratio is small. A thick However, the observations at the LHC show qualitatively
liquid, such as honey, has large values of /s.
new features. The observation from ALICE is consistent
In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, the ALICE collab- with reports from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on
oration found that the hot matter created in the collision direct evidence for parton energy loss within heavy-ion
behaves like a uid with little friction, with /s close to its collisions using fully reconstructed back-to-back jets of
lower limit (almost zero viscosity). With these measure- particles associated with hard parton scatterings.[37] The
ments, ALICE has just begun to explore the temperature latter two experiments have shown a strong energy imbaldependence of /s and we anticipate many more in-depth ance between the jet and its recoiling partner (G Aad et
ow-related measurements at the LHC that will constrain al. 2010 and CMS collaboration 2011). This imbalance
is thought to arise because one of the jets traversed the
the hydrodynamic features of the QGP even further.
hot and dense matter, transferring a substantial fraction
of its energy to the medium in a way that is not recovered
by the reconstruction of the jets.
Measuring the highest temperature on Earth
In August 2012 ALICE scientists announced that their
experiments produced quarkgluon plasma with temperature at around 5.5 trillion degrees, the highest temperature mass achieved in any physical experiments thus
far.[34] This temperature is about 38% higher than the
previous record of about 4 trillion degrees, achieved in
the 2010 experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.[35]
The ALICE results were announced at the August 13
Quark Matter 2012 conference in Washington, D.C.. The
quarkgluon plasma produced by these experiments approximates the conditions in the universe that existed microseconds after the Big Bang, before the matter coalesced into atoms.[36]

Studying quarkonium hadroproduction


Quarkonia are bound states of heavy avour quarks
(charm or bottom) and their antiquarks. Two types
of quarkonia have been extensively studied: charmonia, which consist of a charm quark and an anti-charm,
and bottomonia made of a bottom and an anti-bottom
quark.Charm and anticharm quarks in the presence of
the Quark Gluon Plasma, in which there are many free
colour charges, are not able to see each other any more
and therefore they cannot form bound states. The melting of quarkonia into the QGP manifests itself in the
suppression of the quarkonium yields compared to the
production without the presence of the QGP. The search
for quarkonia suppression as a QGP signature started 25

34

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

years ago. The rst ALICE results for charm hadrons in


PbPb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy sNN = 2.76
TeV indicate strong in-medium energy loss for charm and
strange quarks that is an indication of the formation of the
hot medium of QGP.[38]
As the temperature increases so does the colour screening
resulting in greater suppression of the quarkonium states
as it is more dicult for charm anticharm or bottom
antibottom to form new bound states. At very high temperatures no quarkonium states are expected to survive;
they melt in the QGP. Quarkonium sequential suppression is therefore considered as a QGP thermometer, as
states with dierent masses have dierent sizes and are
expected to be screened and dissociated at dierent temALICE records rst proton-lead collisions at the LHC
peratures. However - as the collision energy increases so does the number of charm-anticharm quarks that can
form bound states, and a balancing mechanism of recombination of quarkonia may appear as we move to higher also found in high-multiplicity pPb collisions, but with a
much larger amplitude ([39] ). However, the biggest surenergies.
prise came from the observation that this near-side ridge
The results from the rst ALICE run are rather striking,
is accompanied by an essentially symmetrical away-side
when compared with the observations from lower enerridge, opposite in azimuth (CERN Courier March 2013
gies. While a similar suppression is observed at LHC
p6). This double ridge was revealed after the short-range
energies for peripheral collisions, when moving towards
correlations arising from jet fragmentation and resonance
more head-on collisions as quantied by the increasing
decays were suppressed by subtracting the correlation disnumber of nucleons in the lead nuclei participating in the
tribution measured for low-multiplicity events from the
interaction the suppression no longer increases. Thereone for high-multiplicity events.
fore, despite the higher temperatures attained in the nuclear collisions at the LHC, more J/ mesons are detected Similar long-range structures in heavy-ion collisions have
by the ALICE experiment in PbPb with respect to pp. been attributed to the collective ow of particles emitted
Such an eect is likely to be related to a regeneration pro- from a thermalized system undergoing a collective hydrocess occurring at the temperature boundary between the dynamic expansion. This anisotropy can be characterized
by means of the vn (n = 2, 3, ...) coecients of a Fourier
QGP and a hot gas of hadrons
decomposition of the single-particle azimuthal distribuThe suppression of charmonium states was also observed
tion. To test the possible presence of collective phein proton-lead collisions at the LHC, in which Quark
nomena further, the ALICE collaboration has extended
Gluon Plasma is not formed. This suggests that the obthe two-particle correlation analysis to identied partiserved suppression in proton-nucleus collisions (pA) is
cles, checking for a potential mass ordering of the v2
due to cold nuclear matter eects. Grasping the wealth of
harmonic coecients. Such an ordering in mass was obexperimental results requires understanding the medium
served in heavy-ion collisions, where it was interpreted
modication of quarkonia and disentangling hot and coldto arise from a common radial boost the so-called ramatter eects. Today there is a large amount of data
dial ow coupled to the anisotropy in momentum space.
available from RHIC and LHC on charmonium and botContinuing the surprises, a clear particle-mass ordering,
tomonium suppression and ALICE tries to distinguish besimilar to the one observed in mid-central PbPb collisions
tween eects due to the formation of the QGP and those
(CERN Courier, September 2013), has been measured in
from cold nuclear matter eects.
high-multiplicity pPb collisions.
Double-ridge structure in p-Pb collisions

The nal surprise, so far, comes from the charmonium


states. Whereas J/ production does not reveal any unexpected behaviour, the production of the heavier and lessbound (2S) state indicates a strong suppression (0.50.7)
with respect to J/, when compared with pp collisions. Is
this a hint of eects of the medium? Indeed, in heavy-ion
collisions, such a suppression has been interpreted as a sequential melting of quarkonia states, depending on their
binding energy and the temperature of the QGP created
in these collisions.

The analysis of the data from the p-Pb collisions at


the LHC revealed a completely unexpected double-ridge
structure with so far unknown origin. The protonlead
(pPb) collisions in 2013, two years after its heavy-ion
collisions opened a new chapter in exploration of the
properties of the deconned, chirally symmetrical state
of the QGP. A surprising near-side, long-range (elongated in pseudorapidity) correlation, forming a ridge-like The rst pPb measurement campaign, expected results
structure observed in high-multiplicity pp collisions, was were widely accompanied by unanticipated observations.

2.2. A LARGE ION COLLIDER EXPERIMENT


Among the expected results is the conrmation that
protonnucleus collisions provide an appropriate tool to
study the partonic structure of cold nuclear matter in detail. The surprises have come from the similarity of several observables between pPb and PbPb collisions, which
hint at the existence of collective phenomena in pPb collisions with high particle multiplicity and, eventually, the
formation of QGP.[40]

2.2.7

Future Plans

The main upgrade activity on ALICE during LHCs Long


Shutdown 1 was the installation of the dijet calorimeter
(DCAL), an extension of the existing EMCAL system
that adds 60 of azimuthal acceptance opposite the existing 120 of the EMCALs acceptance. This new subdetector will be installed on the bottom of the solenoid magnet, which currently houses three modules of the photon
spectrometer (PHOS). Moreover, an entirely new rail system and cradle will be installed to support the three PHOS
modules and eight DCAL modules, which together weigh
more than 100 tones. The installation of ve modules of
the TRD will follow and so complete this complex detector system, which consists of 18 units,

35

[3] Interview with Johan Rafelski, ALICE Matters, 18 December 2012


[4] ALICE New Kid on the block CERN Courier, 19 September 2008
[5] ALICE Experiment approved CERN timeline
[6] Experiments Revisit the Quark-Gluon Plasma CERN
Courier, 26 February 2001
[7] RHIC starts producing data CERN Courier, 10 October
2000
[8] Interview with CERNs theorist Urs Wiedemann ALICE
Matters, 13 July 2012
[9] LHC begins physics with lead ions CERN Courier, 30
November 2010
[10] First ions for ALICE and rings for LHCb CERN Courier,
30 October 2009
[11] First lead-ion collisions in the LHC Symmetry Magazine,
08 November 2010
[12] Particle identication in ALICE boosts QGP studies
CERN Courier, 23 August 2012
[13] ALICE forges ahead with detector installation CERN

Courier, 06 December 2006


In addition to these mainstream detector activities, all of
the 18 ALICE subdetectors underwent major improve[14] The Inner Tracking System arrives at the heart of ALICE
ments during LS1 while the computers and discs of the
CERN Courier, 04 June 2007
online systems are replaced, followed by upgrades of the
[15] Pixels make for perfect particle tracking in ALICE CERN
operating systems and online software.
Courier, 08 July 2008

All of these eorts will ensure that ALICE is in good


shape for the three-year LHC running period after LS1, [16] Upgrade of the ALICE ITS ALICE Matters, 05 Decemwhen the collaboration looks forward to heavy-ion colliber 2012
sions at the top LHC energy of 5.5 TeV/nucleon at lumi[17] ALICE Time Projection Chamber
nosities in excess of 1027 Hz/cm2 .
However, the LS1 eorts go beyond the hardware activities that are currently under way. The ALICE collaboration has plans for a major upgrade during the next long
shutdown, LS2, currently scheduled for 2018. Then the
entire silicon tracker will be replaced by a monolithicpixel tracker system; the time-projection chamber will be
upgraded with gaseous electron-multiplier (GEM) detectors for continuous read-out and the use of new microelectronics; and all of the other subdetectors and the online systems will prepare for a 100-fold increase in the
number of events written to tape. With only ve years to
go before this major upgrade, the ALICE collaboration is
also busy on this front, preparing technical design reports
for submission later this year.

2.2.8

References

[1] ALICE through the phase transition, CERN Courier, 30


October 2000
[2] Interview with Krishna Rajacopal, ALICE Matters, 15
April 2013

[18] Time Projection Chamber


[19] Transition Radiation Detector
[20] Time ies for ALICE CERN Courier, 08 July 2008
[21] ALICE revolutionizes TOF systems CERN Courier, 25
October 2011
[22] PHOS commissioning during LS1 ALICE matters, 17
May 2013
[23] ALICE crystals arrive at CERN CERN Courier, 30
September 2002
[24] First jet measurements with ALICE CERN Courier, 22
May 2013
[25] Indian detector stars at Brookhaven CERN Courier, 05
September 2004
[26] ALICE Forward Detectors
[27] ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer
[28] Meeting the ALICE data challenge CERN Courier, 27
June 2000

36

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

[29] ALICE Data Acquisition


[30] ALICE presents rst results at 7 TeV CERN Courier, 07
June 2010
[31] ALICE Collaboration measures the size of the reball in
heav-ion collisions CERN Courier, 03 May 2011
[32] ALICE enters new territory in heavy-ion collisions,
CERN Courier, 25 January 2012

MoEDAL) constructed at the Large Hadron Collider


(LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN (the European
Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland.
The experiment is designed to take advantage of the
unprecedented energy available at the LHC and observe
phenomena that involve highly massive particles which
were not observable using earlier lower-energy accelerators. It might shed light on new theories of particle
physics beyond the Standard Model.

[33] Hadron spectra probe nature of matter in Pb-Pb collisions,


CERN Courier, 25 January 2012

ATLAS is 46 metres long, 25 metres in diameter, and


weighs about 7,000 tonnes; it contains some 3000 km
[2]
[34] CERN scientists create the highest temperature mass hu- of cable. The experiment is a collaboration involving
manity has ever seen, Yahoo! News, 15 August 2012. Re- roughly 3,000 physicists from over 175 institutions in 38
trieved 15 August 2012
countries.[3] The project was led for the rst 15 years by
Peter Jenni and between 2009 and 2013 was headed by
[35] Hot stu: CERN physicists create record-breaking subFabiola Gianotti. Since 2013 it has been headed by David
atomic soup, Nature newsblog, 13 August 2012. ReCharlton. It was one of the two LHC experiments intrieved 15 August 2012
volved in the discovery[4] of a particle consistent with the
[36] LHC primordial matter is hottest stu ever made, New Higgs boson in July 2012.
Scientist, 14 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012
[37] ALICE tracks charm energy loss CERN Courier, 31 May
2012

2.3.1 History

[38] Studying Quarkonium hadroproduction with ALICE ALICE Matters, 20 August 2013
[39] and ATLAS nd intriguing double ridge in proton-lead
collisions CERN Courier, February 2013
[40] Is Cold nuclear matter really cold? CERN Courier, February 2014

2.2.9

External links

Ocial ALICE Public Webpage at CERN


Interactive Timeline for ALICE 20th anniversary
ALICE section on US/LHC Website
Photography panorama of ALICE detector center
K. Aamodt et al. (ALICE collaboration) (2008).
The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC.
Journal of Instrumentation 3 (8):
S08002.
Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8002T. doi:10.1088/17480221/3/08/S08002. (Full design documentation)

2.3 ATLAS experiment


ATLAS redirects here. For the linear accelerator, see
Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System. For other
uses, see Atlas (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 46148N 6319E / 46.23556N ATLAS logo
6.05528E ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus)[1]
is one of the seven particle detector experiments The ATLAS collaboration, the group of physicists who
(ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, LHCb, LHCf and built and now run the detector, was formed in 1992 when

2.3. ATLAS EXPERIMENT

Fabiola Gianotti, project leader 2009-13

the proposed EAGLE (Experiment for Accurate Gamma,


Lepton and Energy Measurements) and ASCOT (Apparatus with Super Conducting Toroids) collaborations merged
their eorts to build a single, general-purpose particle detector for the Large Hadron Collider.[5] The design was
a combination of the two previous experiments, and also
benetted from the detector research and development
that had been done for the Superconducting Supercollider. The ATLAS experiment was proposed in its current
form in 1994, and ocially funded by the CERN member
countries in 1995. Additional countries, universities, and
laboratories joined in subsequent years, and further institutions and physicists continue to join the collaboration
even today. Construction work began at individual institutions, with detector components then being shipped to
CERN and assembled in the ATLAS experiment pit from
2003.
Construction was completed in 2008 and the experiment
detected its rst single beam events on 10 September of
that year.[6] Data taking was then interrupted for over
a year due to an LHC magnet quench incident. On 23
November 2009, the rst proton-proton collisions occurred at the LHC, at a relatively low injection energy
of 450 GeV per beam. These collisions were successfully registered in ATLAS, which has been logging data
ever since. All the while LHC energy has been increasing: 900 GeV per beam at the end of 2009, 3,500 GeV
for the whole of 2010 and 2011 and nally 4,000 GeV per
beam in 2012. After a Long Shutdown in 2013 and 2014
the accelerator will increase to 7,000 GeV per beam.

2.3.2

Background

The rst cyclotron, an early type of particle accelerator, was built by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1931, with a radius of just a few centimetres and a particle energy of
1 megaelectronvolt (MeV). Since then, accelerators have
grown enormously in the quest to produce new particles
of greater and greater mass. As accelerators have grown,
so too has the list of known particles that they might

37

ATLAS experiment under construction in October 2004 in the experiment pit. Construction was completed in 2008 and the experiment has been successfully collecting data since November
2009, when colliding beam operation at the LHC started. Note
the people in the background, for size comparison.

be used to investigate. The most comprehensive model


of particle interactions available today is known as the
Standard Model of Particle Physics.
With the important exception of the Higgs boson (which
most probably has just been observed by the ATLAS
and the CMS experiments),[7] all of the particles predicted by the model have been observed. While the
Standard Model predicts that quarks, electrons, and neutrinos should exist, it does not explain why the masses
of these particles are so very dierent. Due to this
violation of naturalness most particle physicists believe it is possible that the Standard Model will break
down at energies beyond the current energy frontier of
about one teraelectronvolt (TeV) (set at the Tevatron). If
such beyond-the-Standard-Model physics is observed it
is hoped that a new model, which is identical to the Standard Model at energies thus far probed, can be developed
to describe particle physics at higher energies. Most of
the currently proposed theories predict new higher-mass
particles, some of which are hoped to be light enough to
be observed by ATLAS.
ATLAS is designed to be a general-purpose detector.
When the proton beams produced by the Large Hadron
Collider interact in the center of the detector, a variety of
dierent particles with a broad range of energies are produced. Rather than focusing on a particular physical process, ATLAS is designed to measure the broadest possible range of signals. This is intended to ensure that whatever form any new physical processes or particles might
take, ATLAS will be able to detect them and measure
their properties. Experiments at earlier colliders, such as
the Tevatron and Large Electron-Positron Collider, were
designed based on a similar philosophy. However, the
unique challenges of the Large Hadron Collider its unprecedented energy and extremely high rate of collisions
require ATLAS to be larger and more complex than any
detector ever built.

38

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

At 27 kilometres in circumference, the Large Hadron


Collider (LHC) collides two beams of protons together,
each proton carrying presently about 4 TeV of energy
enough energy to produce particles with masses up
to roughly ten times greater than any particles currently
known assuming of course that such particles exist.
When upgraded in 2014, the LHC with an energy seven
million times that of the rst accelerator, will represent a
new generation of particle accelerators.
Particles that are produced in accelerators must also
be observed, and this is the task of particle detectors.
While interesting phenomena may occur when protons
collide it is not enough to just produce them. Particle detectors must be built to detect particles, their
masses, momentum, energies, lifetime, charges, and
nuclear spins. In order to identify all particles produced
at the interaction point where the particle beams collide,
particle detectors are usually designed in layers like an
onion. The layers are made up of detectors of dierent types, each of which is designed to observe specic
types of particles. The dierent traces that particles leave
in each layer of the detector allow for eective particle
identication and accurate measurements of energy and
momentum. (The role of each layer in the detector is discussed below.) As the energy of the particles produced
by the accelerator increases, the detectors attached to it
must grow to eectively measure and stop higher-energy
particles. ATLAS is the largest detector ever built at a
particle collider.[8]

2.3.3

Physics program

Schematics, called Feynman diagrams show the main ways that


the Standard Model Higgs boson can be produced from colliding
protons at the LHC.

bosons mass while leaving the photon massless. On July


4, 2012, ATLAS (together with CMS its sister experiment at the LHC) reported evidence for the existence of
a particle consistent with the Higgs boson at the level of
5 sigma,[7] with a mass around 125 GeV, or 133 times
the proton mass. This new Higgs-like particle was detected by its possible decay into two photons and its decay to four leptons.In March 2013, in the light of the updated ATLAS and CMS results, CERN announced that
the new particle was indeed a Higgs boson. Having analyzed two and a half times more data than was available
for the discovery announcement in July, the condence
of observation has risen to 10 sigma. The experiments
were also able to show that the properties of the particle
as well as the ways it interacts with other particles were
well-matched with those of a Higgs boson, which is expected to have spin 0 and parity +. In 2013 two of the
theoretical physicists who predicted the existence of the
Standard Model Higgs boson, Peter Higgs and Franois
Englert were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. Physicists have now to pursue their measurements to determine
if this Higgs particle corresponds indeed to the Standard
Model Higgs boson or if it is part of a new physics scenario.
The asymmetry between the behavior of matter and
antimatter, known as CP violation, is also being
investigated.[9] Current CP violation experiments, such
as BaBar and Belle, have not yet detected sucient CP
violation in the Standard Model to explain the lack of
detectable antimatter in the universe. It is possible that
new models of physics will introduce additional CP violation, shedding light on this problem. Evidence supporting
these models might either be detected directly by the production of new particles, or indirectly by measurements
of the properties of B-mesons. (LHCb, an LHC experiment dedicated to B-mesons, is likely to be better suited
to the latter).[10]
The properties of the top quark, discovered at Fermilab
in 1995, have so far only been measured approximately.
With much greater energy and greater collision rates, the
LHC produces a tremendous number of top quarks, allowing ATLAS to make much more precise measurements of its mass and interactions with other particles.[11]
These measurements will provide indirect information on
the details of the Standard Model, perhaps revealing inconsistencies that point to new physics. Similar precision
measurements will be made of other known particles; for
example, ATLAS may eventually measure the mass of
the W boson twice as accurately as has previously been
achieved.

ATLAS is intended to investigate many dierent types


of physics that might become detectable in the energetic
collisions of the LHC. Some of these are conrmations
or improved measurements of the Standard Model, while
many others are possible clues for new physical theories. Perhaps the most exciting lines of investigation are those
One of the most important goals of ATLAS was to in- searching directly for new models of physics. One theory
vestigate a missing piece of the Standard Model, the that is the subject of much current research is broken suHiggs boson.[9] The Higgs mechanism, which includes persymmetry. The theory is popular because it could pothe Higgs boson, is hypothesized to give mass to elemen- tentially solve a number of problems in theoretical physics
tary particles, giving rise to the dierences between the and is present in almost all models of string theory. Modweak force and electromagnetism by giving the W and Z els of supersymmetry involve new, highly massive parti-

2.3. ATLAS EXPERIMENT


cles. In many cases these decay into high-energy quarks
and stable heavy particles that are very unlikely to interact
with ordinary matter. The stable particles would escape
the detector, leaving as a signal one or more high-energy
quark jets and a large amount of missing momentum.
Other hypothetical massive particles, like those in the
KaluzaKlein theory, might leave a similar signature, but
their discovery would certainly indicate that there was
some kind of physics beyond the Standard Model.

2.3.4

Micro black holes

39
of easily stopped particles, and the muon system makes
additional measurements of highly penetrating muons.
The two magnet systems bend charged particles in the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer, allowing their
momenta to be measured.
The only established stable particles that cannot be detected directly are neutrinos; their presence is inferred by
measuring a momentum imbalance among detected particles. For this to work, the detector must be "hermetic",
meaning it must detect all non-neutrinos produced, with
no blind spots. Maintaining detector performance in the
high radiation areas immediately surrounding the proton
beams is a signicant engineering challenge.

Some hypotheses involving large extra dimensions predict


that micro black holes could be formed by the LHC.[12]
These would decay immediately by means of Hawking
Inner Detector
radiation, producing all particles in the Standard Model in
equal numbers and leaving an unequivocal signature in the
ATLAS detector.[13] If this occurs, the primary studies of
Higgs bosons and top quarks would in fact be looking at
those produced by the black holes.

2.3.5

Components

The ATLAS TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker) central section,


the outermost part of the Inner Detector, assembled above ground
and taking data from cosmic rays[15] in September 2005
Computer generated cut-away view of the ATLAS detector showing its various components
Muon Spectrometer:
(1) Monitored Drift Tube
(2) Thin Gap Chamber
Magnet system:
(3) End-Cap Toroid Maget
(4) Barrel Toroid Magnet
Inner Detector:
(5) Transition Radiation Tracker
(6) Semi-Conductor Tracker
(7) Pixel Detector
Calorimeters:
(8) Electromagnetic Calorimeter
(9) Hadronic Calorimeter

The Inner Detector[16] begins a few centimetres from


the proton beam axis, extends to a radius of 1.2 metres, and is 6.2 metres in length along the beam pipe.
Its basic function is to track charged particles by detecting their interaction with material at discrete points, revealing detailed information about the types of particles
and their momentum.[17] The magnetic eld surrounding the entire inner detector causes charged particles to
curve; the direction of the curve reveals a particles charge
and the degree of curvature reveals its momentum. The
starting points of the tracks yield useful information for
identifying particles; for example, if a group of tracks
seem to originate from a point other than the original
protonproton collision, this may be a sign that the parThe ATLAS detector consists of a series of ever-larger ticles came from the decay of a hadron with a bottom
concentric cylinders around the interaction point where quark (see b-tagging). The Inner Detector has three parts,
the proton beams from the LHC collide. It can be divided which are explained below.
into four major parts: the Inner Detector, the calorime- The Pixel Detector,[18] the innermost part of the detector,
ters, the Muon Spectrometer and the magnet systems.[14] contains three concentric layers and three disks on each
Each of these is in turn made of multiple layers. The end-cap, with a total of 1,744 modules, each measuring 2
detectors are complementary: the Inner Detector tracks centimetres by 6 centimetres. The detecting material is
particles precisely, the calorimeters measure the energy 250 m thick silicon. Each module contains 16 readout

40

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

chips and other electronic components. The smallest unit


that can be read out is a pixel (50 by 400 micrometres);
there are roughly 47,000 pixels per module. The minute
pixel size is designed for extremely precise tracking very
close to the interaction point. In total, the Pixel Detector has over 80 million readout channels, which is about
50% of the total readout channels of the whole experiment. Having such a large count created a considerable
design and engineering challenge. Another challenge was
the radiation to which the Pixel Detector is exposed because of its proximity to the interaction point, requiring
that all components be radiation hardened in order to continue operating after signicant exposures.
The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the middle component of the inner detector. It is similar in concept and September 2005: The main barrel section of the ATLAS hadronic
calorimeter, waiting to be moved inside the toroid magnets.
function to the Pixel Detector but with long, narrow strips
rather than small pixels, making coverage of a larger area
practical. Each strip measures 80 micrometres by 12 centimetres. The SCT is the most critical part of the inner
detector for basic tracking in the plane perpendicular to
the beam, since it measures particles over a much larger
area than the Pixel Detector, with more sampled points
and roughly equal (albeit one-dimensional) accuracy. It
is composed of four double layers of silicon strips, and
has 6.3 million readout channels and a total area of 61
square meters.
The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), the outermost
component of the inner detector, is a combination of a
straw tracker and a transition radiation detector. The detecting elements are drift tubes (straws), each four millimetres in diameter and up to 144 centimetres long. The
uncertainty of track position measurements (position resolution) is about 200 micrometres. This is not as precise
as those for the other two detectors, but it was necessary
to reduce the cost of covering a larger volume and to have
transition radiation detection capability. Each straw is
lled with gas that becomes ionized when a charged particle passes through. The straws are held at about 1,500
V, driving the negative ions to a ne wire down the centre of each straw, producing a current pulse (signal) in the
wire. The wires with signals create a pattern of 'hit' straws
that allow the path of the particle to be determined. Between the straws, materials with widely varying indices of
refraction cause ultra-relativistic charged particles to produce transition radiation and leave much stronger signals
in some straws. Xenon gas is used to increase the number of straws with strong signals. Since the amount of
transition radiation is greatest for highly relativistic particles (those with a speed very near the speed of light),
and because particles of a particular energy have a higher
speed the lighter they are, particle paths with many very
strong signals can be identied as belonging to the lightest charged particles: electrons and their antiparticles,
positrons. The TRT has about 298,000 straws in total.

One of the sections of the extensions of the hadronic calorimeter,


waiting to be inserted in late February 2006.

The extended barrel section of the hadronic calorimeter.

Calorimeters
The calorimeters are situated outside the solenoidal
magnet that surrounds the Inner Detector. Their purpose is to measure the energy from particles by absorbing it. There are two basic calorimeter systems: an inner electromagnetic calorimeter and an outer hadronic
calorimeter.[19] Both are sampling calorimeters; that is,
they absorb energy in high-density metal and periodically

2.3. ATLAS EXPERIMENT

41

sample the shape of the resulting particle shower, infer- tifying muons very few particles of other types are exring the energy of the original particle from this measure- pected to pass through the calorimeters and subsequently
ment.
leave signals in the Muon Spectrometer. It has roughly
The electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter absorbs energy one million readout channels, and its layers of detectors
from particles that interact electromagnetically, which in- have a total area of 12,000 square meters.
clude charged particles and photons. It has high precision,
both in the amount of energy absorbed and in the precise
Magnet system
location of the energy deposited. The angle between the
particles trajectory and the detectors beam axis (or more
precisely the pseudorapidity) and its angle within the perpendicular plane are both measured to within roughly
0.025 radians. The barrel EM calorimeter has accordion shaped electrodes and the energy-absorbing materials are lead and stainless steel, with liquid argon as the
sampling material, and a cryostat is required around the
EM calorimeter to keep it suciently cool.
The hadron calorimeter absorbs energy from particles
that pass through the EM calorimeter, but do interact via
the strong force; these particles are primarily hadrons. It
is less precise, both in energy magnitude and in the localization (within about 0.1 radians only).[10] The energyabsorbing material is steel, with scintillating tiles that
sample the energy deposited. Many of the features of
the calorimeter are chosen for their cost-eectiveness; the
instrument is large and comprises a huge amount of construction material: the main part of the calorimeter the
tile calorimeter is 8 metres in diameter and covers 12
metres along the beam axis. The far-forward sections of
the hadronic calorimeter are contained within the forward
EM calorimeters cryostat, and use liquid argon as well,
while copper and tungsten are used as absorbers.

The ends of four of the eight ATLAS toroid magnets, looking


down from about 90 metres above, in September 2005.

The ATLAS detector uses two large superconducting


magnet systems to bend charged particles so that their
momenta can be measured. This bending is due to the
Lorentz force, which is proportional to velocity. Since
all particles produced in the LHCs proton collisions are
traveling at very close to the speed of light, the force on
particles of dierent momenta is equal. (In the theory of
Muon Spectrometer
relativity, momentum is not linear proportional to velocity at such speeds.) Thus high-momentum particles curve
The Muon Spectrometer is an extremely large tracking very little, while low-momentum particles curve signisystem, consisting of three parts: (1) a magnetic eld pro- cantly; the amount of curvature can be quantied and the
vided by three toroidal magnets, (2) a set of 1200 cham- particle momentum can be determined from this value.
bers measuring with high spatial precision the tracks of
tesla magnetic eld
the outgoing muons, (3) a set of triggering chambers with The inner solenoid produces a two
[20]
surrounding
the
Inner
Detector.
This
high magnetic
accurate time-resolution. The extent of this sub-detector
eld
allows
even
very
energetic
particles
to
curve enough
starts at a radius of 4.25 m close to the calorimeters out to
for
their
momentum
to
be
determined,
and
its nearly
[14]
the full radius of the detector (11 m). Its tremendous
uniform
direction
and
strength
allow
measurements
to
size is required to accurately measure the momentum of
be
made
very
precisely.
Particles
with
momenta
below
muons, which rst go through all the other elements of the
detector before reaching the muon spectrometer. It was roughly 400 MeV will be curved so strongly that they will
designed to measure, standalone, the momentum of 100 loop repeatedly in the eld and most likely not be meaGeV muons with 3% accuracy and of 1 TeV muons with sured; however, this energy is very small compared to the
10% accuracy. It was vital to go to the lengths of putting several TeV of energy released in each proton collision.
together such a large piece of equipment because a num- The outer toroidal magnetic eld is produced by eight
ber of interesting physical processes can only be observed very large air-core superconducting barrel loops and two
if one or more muons are detected, and because the to- end-caps air toroidal magnets, all situated outside the
tal energy of particles in an event could not be measured calorimeters and within the muon system.[20] This magif the muons were ignored. It functions similarly to the netic eld extends in an area 26 metres long and 20 meInner Detector, with muons curving so that their momen- tres in diameter, and it stores 1.6 gigajoules of energy. Its
tum can be measured, albeit with a dierent magnetic magnetic eld is not uniform, because a solenoid mageld conguration, lower spatial precision, and a much net of sucient size would be prohibitively expensive to
larger volume. It also serves the function of simply iden- build. It varies between 2 and 8 Teslameters.

42

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

2.3.6 Data systems and analysis


The detector generates unmanageably large amounts of
raw data: about 25 megabytes per event (raw; zero suppression reduces this to 1.6 MB), multiplied by 40 million beam crossings per second in the center of the detector. This produces a total of 1 petabyte of raw data per
second.[22] The trigger system[23] uses simple information
to identify, in real time, the most interesting events to retain for detailed analysis. There are three trigger levels.
The rst is based in electronics on the detector while the
other two run primarily on a large computer cluster near
the detector. The rst-level trigger selects about 100,000
events per second. After the third-level trigger has been
applied, a few hundred events remain to be stored for further analysis. This amount of data still requires over 100
megabytes of disk space per second at least a petabyte
each year.[24]
Oine event reconstruction is performed on all permanently stored events, turning the pattern of signals from
the detector into physics objects, such as jets, photons,
and leptons. Grid computing is being extensively used
for event reconstruction, allowing the parallel use of university and laboratory computer networks throughout the
world for the CPU-intensive task of reducing large quantities of raw data into a form suitable for physics analysis.
The software for these tasks has been under development
for many years, and will continue to be rened even now
that the experiment is collecting data.
Individuals and groups within the collaboration are writing their own code to perform further analysis of these
objects, searching the patterns of detected particles for
particular physical models or hypothetical particles.
Part of the ATLAS detector, as it looked in February 2007.

2.3.7 See also


Detector performance
The installation of all the above detectors was nished in
August 2008. The detectors collected millions of cosmic
rays during the magnet repairs which took place between
fall 2008 and fall 2009, prior to the rst proton collisions.
The detector operated with close to 100% eciency and
provided performance characteristics very close to its design values.[21]

Forward detectors
The ATLAS detector is complemented by a set of detectors in the very forward region. These detectors are
located in the LHC tunnel far away from the interaction
point. The basic idea is to measure elastic scattering at
very small angles in order to produce better measurements of the absolute luminosity at the ATLAS interaction point.

2.3.8 Notes
[1] Aad, G.; et al. (ATLAS Collaboration) (2008). The
ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron
Collider. Journal of Instrumentation 3 (8): S08003.
Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8003A.
doi:10.1088/17480221/3/08/S08003.
[2] http://www.atlas.ch/fact-sheets-1-view.html
[3] What is ATLAS?". ATLAS. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
[4] CERN experiments observe particle consistent with
long-sought Higgs boson. CERN. 4 July 2012. Retrieved
2013-10-27.
[5] ATLAS Collaboration records. CERN Archive. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
[6] First beam and rst events in ATLAS. Atlas.ch. Retrieved 2008-09-13.
[7] CERN experiments observe particle consistent with
long-sought Higgs boson. CERN. 4 July 2012. Retrieved
4 July 2012.

2.3. ATLAS EXPERIMENT

43

[8] Worlds largest superconducting magnet switches on


(Press release). CERN. 2006-11-20. Archived from the
original on 28 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
[9] Introduction and Overview. ATLAS Technical Proposal.
CERN. 1994.
[10] N. V. Krasnikov, V. A. Matveev (September 1997).
Physics at LHC.
Physics of Particles and Nuclei 28 (5):
441470.
arXiv:hep-ph/9703204.
Bibcode:1997PPN....28..441K. doi:10.1134/1.953049.
[11] Top-Quark Physics.
CERN. 1994.

ATLAS Technical Proposal.

[12] C.M. Harris, M.J. Palmer, M.A. Parker, P. Richardson, A. Sabetfakhri and B.R. Webber (2005). Exploring higher dimensional black holes at the Large Hadron
Collider. Journal of High Energy Physics 5 (5): 053.
arXiv:hep-ph/0411022. Bibcode:2005JHEP...05..053H.
doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2005/05/053.
[13] J. Tanaka, T. Yamamura, S. Asai, J. Kanzaki (2005).
Study of Black Holes with the ATLAS detector at the
LHC. European Physical Journal C 41 (s2): 1933.
arXiv:hep-ph/0411095. Bibcode:2005EPJC...41...19T.
doi:10.1140/epjcd/s2005-02-008-x.
[14] Overall detector concept. ATLAS Technical Proposal.
CERN. 1994.
[15] F. Pastore (2010). Readiness of the ATLAS detector: Performance with the rst beam and cosmic data.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in
Physics Research.
Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers,
Detectors and Associated Equipment
617 (1/3):
48.
Bibcode:2010NIMPA.617...48P.
doi:10.1016/j.nima.2009.08.068.
[16] Regina Moles-Valls (2010). Alignment of the ATLAS
inner detector tracking system. Nuclear Instruments
and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
617 (1-3): 568570. Bibcode:2010NIMPA.617..568M.
doi:10.1016/j.nima.2009.09.101.
[17] Inner detector. ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN.
1994.
[18] Hugging, F. (2006). The ATLAS pixel detector.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 53 (6): 1732.
arXiv:physics/0412138. Bibcode:2006ITNS...53.1732H.
doi:10.1109/TNS.2006.871506.
[19] Calorimetry. ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN. 1994.
[20] Magnet system. ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN.
1994.
[21] Aad, G.; et al.
(ATLAS Collaboration) (2010).
Performance of the ATLAS Detector using
First Collision Data.
JHEP 1009 (9):
056.
arXiv:1005.5254.
Bibcode:2010JHEP...09..056A.
doi:10.1007/JHEP09(2010)056.
[22] Detector Description.

[23] D.A. Scannicchio (2010). ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition: Capabilities and commissioning. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 617 (1/3): 306. Bibcode:2010NIMPA.617..306S.
doi:10.1016/j.nima.2009.06.114.
[24] The sensitive giant. United States Department of Energy
Research News. March 2004.

2.3.9 References
ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN: The Atlas Experiment. Retrieved on 2007-04-10
ATLAS Detector and Physics Performance Technical Design Report. CERN: The Atlas Experiment.
Retrieved on 2007-04-10
N. V. Krasnikov, V. A. Matveev (September
1997). Physics at LHC. Physics of Particles and Nuclei 28 (5): 441470. arXiv:hepph/9703204.
Bibcode:1997PPN....28..441K.
doi:10.1134/1.953049.

2.3.10 External links


Ocial ATLAS Public Webpage at CERN (The
award winning ATLAS movie is a very good general introduction!)
Ocial ATLAS Collaboration Webpage at CERN
(Lots of technical and logistical information)
ATLAS Cavern Webcams
Time lapse video of the assembly
ATLAS section from US/LHC Website
New York Times article on LHC and experiments
United States Department of Energy article on ATLAS
Large Hadron Collider Project Director Dr Lyn
Evans CBE on the engineering behind the ATLAS
experiment, Ingenia magazine, June 2008
The ATLAS Collaboration, G Aad et al. (2008-0814). The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large
Hadron Collider. Journal of Instrumentation 3
(S08003): S08003. Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8003T.
doi:10.1088/1748-0221/3/08/S08003. Retrieved
2008-08-26. (Full design documentation)
LEGO model of ATLAS, by an ATLAS-scientist at
the Niels Bohr Institute
Padilla, Antonio (Tony). ATLAS at the Large
Hadron Collider. Sixty Symbols. Brady Haran for
the University of Nottingham.

44

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

2.4 Compact Muon Solenoid


Coordinates:
6.07694E

461834N 6437E / 46.30944N

2.4.2 Physics goals


The main goals of the experiment are:
to explore physics at the TeV scale
to study the properties of the recently found Higgs
boson
to look for evidence of physics beyond the standard
model, such as supersymmetry, or extra dimensions
to study aspects of heavy ion collisions.

View of the CMS endcap through the barrel sections. The ladder
to the lower right gives an impression of scale.

The ATLAS experiment, at the other side of the LHC


ring is designed with similar goals in mind, and the two
experiments are designed to complement each other both
to extend reach and to provide corroboration of ndings.
CMS and ATLAS uses dierent technical solutions and
design of its detector magnet system to achieve the goals.

2.4.3 Detector summary


The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one
of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors
built on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in
Switzerland and France. The goal of CMS experiment
is to investigate a wide range of physics, including the
search for the Higgs boson, extra dimensions, and particles that could make up dark matter.

CMS is designed as a general-purpose detector, capable


of studying many aspects of proton collisions at 8TeV, the
center-of-mass energy of the LHC particle accelerator.
The CMS detector is built around a huge solenoid magnet.
This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a magnetic eld of 4 teslas, about
100 000 times that of the Earth. The magnetic eld is
conned by a steel 'yoke' that forms the bulk of the detectors weight of 12 500 tonnes. An unusual feature of
the CMS detector is that instead of being built in-situ underground, like the other giant detectors of the LHC experiments, it was constructed on the surface, before being
lowered underground in 15 sections and reassembled.

CMS is 21.6 metres long, 15 metres in diameter, and


weighs about 14,000 tonnes.[1] Approximately 3,800 people, representing 199 scientic institutes and 43 countries, form the CMS collaboration who built and now
operate the detector.[2] It is located in an underground
cavern at Cessy in France, just across the border from
Geneva. In July 2012, along with ATLAS, CMS tentatively discovered the Higgs Boson through decay mecha- It contains subsystems which are designed to measure the
nisms.
energy and momentum of photons, electrons, muons, and
other products of the collisions. The innermost layer is
a silicon-based tracker. Surrounding it is a scintillating
crystal electromagnetic calorimeter, which is itself sur2.4.1 Background
rounded with a sampling calorimeter for hadrons. The
tracker and the calorimetry are compact enough to t inRecent collider experiments such as the now-dismantled side the CMS Solenoid which generates a powerful magLarge Electron-Positron Collider at CERN and the (as of netic eld of 3.8 T. Outside the magnet are the large muon
October 2011) recently closed Tevatron at Fermilab have detectors, which are inside the return yoke of the magnet.
provided remarkable insights into, and precision tests of,
the Standard Model of Particle Physics. However, a num2.4.4 CMS by layers
ber of questions remain unanswered.
A principal concern is the lack of any direct evidence
for the Higgs boson, the particle resulting from the Higgs
mechanism which provides an explanation for the masses
of elementary particles. Other questions include uncertainties in the mathematical behaviour of the Standard Model at high energies, the lack of any particle
physics explanation for dark matter and the reasons for
the imbalance of matter and antimatter observed in the
Universe.

For full technical details about the CMS detector, please


see the Technical Design Report.
The interaction point
This is the point in the centre of the detector at which
proton-proton collisions occur between the two counterrotating beams of the LHC. At each end of the detector

2.4. COMPACT MUON SOLENOID

45

A slice of the CMS detector.

magnets focus the beams into the interaction point. At The silicon strip tracker of CMS.
collision each beam has a radius of 17 m and the crossing angle between the beams is 285 rad.
At full design luminosity each of the two LHC beams will
contain 2,808 bunches of 1.151011 protons. The interval between crossings is 25 ns, although the number of
collisions per second is only 31.6 million due to gaps in
the beam as injector magnets are activated and deactivated.

antimatter.
The tracker needs to record particle paths accurately yet
be lightweight so as to disturb the particle as little as possible. It does this by taking position measurements so accurate that tracks can be reliably reconstructed using just
a few measurement points. Each measurement is accurate to 10 m, a fraction of the width of a human hair. It
is also the inner most layer of the detector and so receives
the highest volume of particles: the construction materials were therefore carefully chosen to resist radiation.[3]

At full luminosity each collision will produce an average


of 20 proton-proton interactions. The collisions occur at
a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. But, it is worth noting
that for studies of physics at the electroweak scale, the
scattering events are initiated by a single quark or gluon
from each proton, and so the actual energy involved in
each collision will be lower as the total centre of mass The CMS tracker is made entirely of silicon: the pixels,
energy is shared by these quarks and gluons (determined at the very core of the detector and dealing with the highby the parton distribution functions).
est intensity of particles, and the silicon microstrip deThe rst test which ran in September 2008 was expected tectors that surround it. As particles travel through the
to operate at a lower collision energy of 10 TeV but tracker the pixels and microstrips produce tiny electric
this was prevented by the 19 September 2008 shutdown. signals that are amplied and detected. The tracker emWhen at this target level, the LHC will have a signif- ploys sensors covering an area the size of a tennis court,
icantly reduced luminosity, due to both fewer proton with 75 million separate electronic read-out channels: in
bunches in each beam and fewer protons per bunch. The the pixel detector there are some 6000 connections per
reduced bunch frequency does allow the crossing angle square centimetre.
to be reduced to zero however, as bunches are far enough The CMS silicon tracker consists of 13 layers in the censpaced to prevent secondary collisions in the experimen- tral region and 14 layers in the endcaps. The innermost
tal beampipe.
three layers (up to 11 cm radius) consist of 100150 m
pixels, 66 million in total.
The next four layers (up to 55 cm radius) consist of 10
cm 180 m silicon strips, followed by the remaining
Momentum of particles is crucial in helping us to build six layers of 25 cm 180 m strips, out to a radius of 1.1
up a picture of events at the heart of the collision. One m. There are 9.6 million strip channels in total.
method to calculate the momentum of a particle is to During full luminosity collisions the occupancy of the
track its path through a magnetic eld; the more curved pixel layers per event is expected to be 0.1%, and 1
the path, the less momentum the particle had. The CMS 2% in the strip layers. The expected SLHC upgrade will
tracker records the paths taken by charged particles by increase the number of interactions to the point where
over-occupancy may signicantly reduce tracknding efnding their positions at a number of key points.
The tracker can reconstruct the paths of high-energy fectiveness.
Layer 1 The tracker

muons, electrons and hadrons (particles made up of


quarks) as well as see tracks coming from the decay of
very short-lived particles such as beauty or b quarks that
will be used to study the dierences between matter and

This part of the detector is the worlds largest silicon


detector. It has 205 m2 of silicon sensors (approximately the area of a tennis court) comprising 76 million
channels.[4]

46

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

Layer 2 The Electromagnetic Calorimeter


The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is designed to
measure with high accuracy the energies of electrons and
photons.
The ECAL is constructed from crystals of lead tungstate,
PbWO4 . This is an extremely dense but optically clear
material, ideal for stopping high energy particles. Lead
tungstate crystal is made primarily of metal and is heavier than stainless steel, but with a touch of oxygen in this
crystalline form it is highly transparent and scintillates
when electrons and photons pass through it. This means
it produces light in proportion to the particles energy.
These high-density crystals produce light in fast, short,
well-dened photon bursts that allow for a precise, fast
and fairly compact detector. It has a radiation length of
0 = 0.89 cm, and has a rapid light yield, with 80% of light
yield within one crossing time (25 ns). This is balanced
however by a relatively low light yield of 30 photons per
MeV of incident energy. The crystals used have a front
size of 22 mm 22 mm and a depth of 230 mm. They
are set in a matrix of carbon bre to keep them optically
isolated, and backed by silicon avalanche photodiodes for
readout.
The ECAL, made up of a barrel section and two endcaps, forms a layer between the tracker and the HCAL.
The cylindrical barrel consists of 61,200 crystals
formed into 36 supermodules, each weighing around
three tonnes and containing 1700 crystals. The at ECAL
endcaps seal o the barrel at either end and are made up
of almost 15,000 further crystals.
For extra spatial precision, the ECAL also contains
preshower detectors that sit in front of the endcaps. These
allow CMS to distinguish between single high-energy
photons (often signs of exciting physics) and the less interesting close pairs of low-energy photons.

Half of the Hadron Calorimeter

cated 11 m either side of the interaction point, this uses a


slightly dierent technology of steel absorbers and quartz
bres for readout, designed to allow better separation of
particles in the congested forward region. The HF is also
used to measure the relative online luminosity system in
CMS.
The brass used in the endcaps of the HCAL used to be
Russian artillery shells.[5]
Layer 4 The magnet
The CMS magnet is the central device around which the
experiment is built, with a 4 Tesla magnetic eld that is
100,000 times stronger than the Earths. CMS has a large
solenoid magnet. This allows the charge/mass ratio of
particles to be determined from the curved track that they
follow in the magnetic eld. It is 13 m long and 6 m in
diameter, and its refrigerated superconducting niobiumtitanium coils were originally intended to produce a 4 T
magnetic eld. The operating eld was scaled down to 3.8
T instead of the full design strength in order to maximize
longevity.[6]

At the endcaps the ECAL inner surface is covered by the


preshower subdetector, consisting of two layers of lead
interleaved with two layers of silicon strip detectors. Its The inductance of the magnet is 14 and the nominal
purpose is to aid in pion-photon discrimination.
current for 4 T is 19,500 A, giving a total stored energy of
2.66 GJ, equivalent to about half-a-tonne of TNT. There
are dump circuits to safely dissipate this energy should
Layer 3 The Hadronic Calorimeter
the magnet quench. The circuit resistance (essentially just
the cables from the power converter to the cryostat) has
The Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) measures the energy a value of 0.1 m which leads to a circuit time constant
of hadrons, particles made of quarks and gluons (for ex- of nearly 39 hours. This is the longest time constant of
ample protons, neutrons, pions and kaons). Additionally any circuit at CERN. The operating current for 3.8 T is
it provides indirect measurement of the presence of non- 18,160 A, giving a stored energy of 2.3 GJ.
interacting, uncharged particles such as neutrinos.
The job of the big magnet is to bend the paths of particles
The HCAL consists of layers of dense material (brass or emerging from high-energy collisions in the LHC. The
steel) interleaved with tiles of plastic scintillators, read more momentum a particle has the less its path is curved
out via wavelength-shifting bres by hybrid photodiodes. by the magnetic eld, so tracing its path gives a measure
This combination was determined to allow the maximum of momentum. CMS began with the aim of having the
amount of absorbing material inside of the magnet coil. strongest magnet possible because a higher strength eld
The high pseudorapidity region (3.0 < || < 5.0) is in- bends paths more and, combined with high-precision postrumented by the Hadronic Forward (HF) detector. Lo- sition measurements in the tracker and muon detectors,

2.4. COMPACT MUON SOLENOID

47

this allows accurate measurement of the momentum of Cathode strip chambers (CSC) are used in the endcap
even high-energy particles.
disks where the magnetic eld is uneven and particle rates
The tracker and calorimeter detectors (ECAL and are high. CSCs consist of arrays of positively-charged
HCAL) t snugly inside the magnet coil whilst the muon anode wires crossed with negatively-charged copper
detectors are interleaved with a 12-sided iron structure cathode strips within a gas volume. When muons pass
that surrounds the magnet coils and contains and guides through, they knock electrons o the gas atoms, which
the eld. Made up of three layers this return yoke ock to the anode wires creating an avalanche of elecreaches out 14 metres in diameter and also acts as a l- trons. Positive ions move away from the wire and towards
the copper cathode, also inducing a charge pulse in the
ter, allowing through only muons and weakly interacting
particles such as neutrinos. The enormous magnet also strips, at right angles to the wire direction. Because the
strips and the wires are perpendicular, we get two posiprovides most of the experiments structural support, and
must be very strong itself to withstand the forces of its tion coordinates for each passing particle. In addition to
providing precise space and time information, the closely
own magnetic eld.
spaced wires make the CSCs fast detectors suitable for
triggering. Each CSC module contains six layers making
it able to accurately identify muons and match their tracks
to those in the tracker.
Layer 5 The muon detectors and return yoke
As the name Compact Muon Solenoid suggests, detecting muons is one of CMSs most important tasks.
Muons are charged particles that are just like electrons
and positrons, but are 200 times more massive. We expect them to be produced in the decay of a number of potential new particles; for instance, one of the clearest signatures of the Higgs Boson is its decay into four muons.
Because muons can penetrate several metres of iron without interacting, unlike most particles they are not stopped
by any of CMSs calorimeters. Therefore, chambers to
detect muons are placed at the very edge of the experiment where they are the only particles likely to register a
signal.
To identify muons and measure their momenta, CMS uses
three types of detector: drift tubes (DT), cathode strip
chambers (CSC) and resistive plate chambers (RPC). The
DTs are used for precise trajectory measurements in the
central barrel region, while the CSCs are used in the end
caps. The RPCs provide a fast signal when a muon passes
through the muon detector, and are installed in both the
barrel and the end caps.
The drift tube (DT) system measures muon positions in
the barrel part of the detector. Each 4-cm-wide tube
contains a stretched wire within a gas volume. When a
muon or any charged particle passes through the volume
it knocks electrons o the atoms of the gas. These follow the electric eld ending up at the positively-charged
wire. By registering where along the wire electrons hit (in
the diagram, the wires are going into the page) as well as
by calculating the muons original distance away from the
wire (shown here as horizontal distance and calculated
by multiplying the speed of an electron in the tube by
the time taken) DTs give two coordinates for the muons
position. Each DT chamber, on average 2m x 2.5m in
size, consists of 12 aluminium layers, arranged in three
groups of four, each with up to 60 tubes: the middle group
measures the coordinate along the direction parallel to the
beam and the two outside groups measure the perpendicular coordinate.

Resistive plate chambers (RPC) are fast gaseous detectors


that provide a muon trigger system parallel with those of
the DTs and CSCs. RPCs consist of two parallel plates, a
positively-charged anode and a negatively-charged cathode, both made of a very high resistivity plastic material and separated by a gas volume. When a muon passes
through the chamber, electrons are knocked out of gas
atoms. These electrons in turn hit other atoms causing
an avalanche of electrons. The electrodes are transparent
to the signal (the electrons), which are instead picked up
by external metallic strips after a small but precise time
delay. The pattern of hit strips gives a quick measure of
the muon momentum, which is then used by the trigger
to make immediate decisions about whether the data are
worth keeping. RPCs combine a good spatial resolution
with a time resolution of just one nanosecond (one billionth of a second).
The Hadron Calorimeter Barrel (in the foreground,
on the yellow frame) waits to be inserted into the
superconducting magnet (the silver cylinder in the
centre of the red magnet yoke).
A part of the Magnet Yoke, with drift tubes and
resistive-plate chambers in the barrel region.

2.4.5 Collecting and collating the data


Pattern recognition
New particles discovered in CMS will be typically
unstable and rapidly transform into a cascade of lighter,
more stable and better understood particles. Particles
travelling through CMS leave behind characteristic patterns, or signatures, in the dierent layers, allowing them
to be identied. The presence (or not) of any new particles can then be inferred.

48

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS
much more detailed analysis of the event to be done than
in the Level 1 trigger. The High Level trigger reduces the
event rate by a further factor of about a thousand down to
around 100 events per second. These are then stored on
tape for future analysis.
Data analysis
Data that has passed the triggering stages and been
stored on tape is duplicated using the Grid to additional
sites around the world for easier access and redundancy.
Physicists are then able to use the Grid to access and run
their analyses on the data.
There are a huge range of analyses performed at CMS,
including:
Performing precision measurements of Standard
Model particles, which allows both for furthering the
knowledge of these particles and also for the collaboration to calibrate the detector and measure the
performance of various components.

Testing the data read-out electronics for the tracker.

Trigger system
To have a good chance of producing a rare particle,
such as a Higgs boson, a very large number of collisions is required. Most collision events in the detector
are soft and do not produce interesting eects. The
amount of raw data from each crossing is approximately
1 megabytes, which at the 40 MHz crossing rate would result in 40 terabytes of data a second, an amount that the
experiment cannot hope to store, let alone process properly. The trigger system reduces the rate of interesting
events down to a manageable 100 per second.

Searching for events with large amounts of missing transverse energy, which implies the presence of
particles that have passed through the detector without leaving a signature. In the Standard Model only
neutrinos would traverse the detector without being
detected but a wide range of Beyond the Standard
Model theories contain new particles that would also
result in missing transverse energy.
Studying the kinematics of pairs of particles produced by the decay of a parent, such as the Z boson
decaying to a pair of electrons or the Higgs boson
decaying to a pair of tau leptons or photons, to determine various properties and mass of the parent.
Looking at jets of particles to study the way the partons (quarks and gluons) in the collided protons have
interacted, or to search for evidence of new physics
that manifests in hadronic nal states.

Searching for high particle multiplicity nal states


To accomplish this, a series of trigger stages are em(predicted by many new physics theories) is an imployed. All the data from each crossing is held in buers
portant strategy because common Standard Model
within the detector while a small amount of key inforparticle decays very rarely contain a large number
mation is used to perform a fast, approximate calculation
of particles, and those processes that do are well unto identify features of interest such as high energy jets,
derstood.
muons or missing energy. This Level 1 calculation is
completed in around 1 s, and event rate is reduced by
a factor of about thousand down to 50 kHz. All these 2.4.6 Milestones
calculations are done on fast, custom hardware using re The insertion of the vacuum tank, June 2002
programmable eld-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
If an event is passed by the Level 1 trigger all the data still
buered in the detector is sent over bre-optic links to
the High Level trigger, which is software (mainly written in C++) running on ordinary computer servers. The
lower event rate in the High Level trigger allows time for

YE+2 descent into the cavern


YE+1, a component of CMS weighing 1,270 tonnes,
nishes its 100 m descent into the CMS cavern, January 2007

2.5. VELO
Computer-generated event display of protons hitting
a tungsten block just upstream of CMS on the rst
beam day, September 2008

2.4.7

Etymology

49
http://petermccready.com/portfolio/07041601.
html Panoramic view - click and drag to look
around the experiment under construction (with
sound!) (requires QuickTime)
The assembly of the CMS detector, step by step,
through a 3D animation

The term Compact Muon Solenoid comes from the relatively compact size of the detector, the fact that it detects muons, and the use of solenoids in the detector.[10]
CMS is also a reference to the center-of-mass system,
an important concept in particle physics.

The CMS Collaboration, S Chatrchyan et al.


(2008-08-14). The CMS experiment at the CERN
LHC. Journal of Instrumentation 3 (8): S08004.
Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8004T. doi:10.1088/17480221/3/08/S08004. Retrieved 2008-08-26. (Full
design documentation)

2.4.8

See also

2.4.9

Notes

Copeland, Ed. Inside the CMS Experiment. Sixty


Symbols. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.

[1] http://www.stfc.ac.uk/publications/PDF/CERN-CMS.
pdf

2.5 VELO

[2] http://cms.web.cern.ch/content/cms-collaboration
[3] http://cms.web.cern.ch/news/tracker-detector
[4] CMS installs the worlds largest silicon detector, CERN
Courier, Feb 15, 2008
[5] Using Russian navy shells - Lucas Taylor
[6] Precise mapping of the magnetic eld in the CMS barrel
yoke using cosmic rays
[7] First lead-ion collisions in the LHC. CERN. 2010. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
[8] New world record - rst pp collisions at 8 TeV. CERN.
2012. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
[9] LHC report: Run 1 - the nal urry. CERN. 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
[10] Aczel, Ammir D. Present at the Creation: Discovering
the Higgs Boson. Random House, 2012

2.4.10

References

Della Negra, Michel; Petrilli, Achille; Herve, Alain;


Foa, Lorenzo; (2006). CMS Physics Technical Design Report Volume I: Software and Detector Performance (PDF). CERN.

2.4.11

External links

CMS home page


CMS Outreach
CMS Times
CMS section from US/LHC Website

Coordinates:
461427.64N
46.2410111N 6.0969333E

6548.96E

LHCb (standing for "Large Hadron Collider beauty")


is one of seven particle physics detector experiments collecting data at the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at
CERN. LHCb is a specialized b-physics experiment, that
is measuring the parameters of CP violation in the interactions of b-hadrons (heavy particles containing a bottom
quark). Such studies can help to explain the MatterAntimatter asymmetry of the Universe. The detector is
also able to perform measurements of production cross
sections and electroweak physics in the forward region.
Approximately 840 people from 60 scientic institutes,
representing 16 countries, form the collaboration who
built and operate the detector.[1] The experiment is located at point 8 on the LHC tunnel close to FerneyVoltaire, France just over the border from Geneva. The
(small) MoEDAL experiment will share the same cavern.

2.5.1 Physics goals


The experiment has wide physics program covering many
important aspects of Heavy Flavor (both beauty and
charm), Electroweak and QCD physics. Six key measurements have been identied involving B mesons. These are
described in a roadmap document [2] that form the core
physics programme for the rst high energy LHC running
in 20102012. They include:
Measuring the branching ratio of the rare B +
decay.
Measuring the forward-backward asymmetry of the
muon pair in the avour changing neutral current B
K* + decay. Such a avour changing neutral current cannot occur at tree-level in the Standard

50

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS
Model of Particle Physics, and only occurs through
box and loop Feynman diagrams; properties of the
decay can be strongly modied by new Physics.

Measuring the CP violating phase in the decay B


J/ , caused by interference between the decays with and without B oscillations. This phase is
one of the CP observables with the smallest theoretical uncertainty in the Standard Model, and can be
signicantly modied by new Physics.

Measuring properties of radiative B decays, i.e.


B meson decays with photons in the nal states.
Specically, these are again avour changing neutral current decays.

Tree-level determination of the unitarity triangle angle .


Subsystems

Charmless charged two-body B decays.

2.5.2

The LHCb detector

The vertex detector (VELO) is built around the proton


interaction region.[3][4] It is used to measure the particle
trajectories close to the interaction point in order to precisely separate primary and secondary vertices.
The detector operates at 7 millimetres (0.28 in) from the
LHC beam. This implies an enormous ux of particles;
The VELO has been designed to withstand integrated uences of more than 1014 p/cm2 per year for a period of
about three years. The detector operates in vacuum and is
cooled to approximately 25 C (13 F) using a biphase
CO2 system. The data of the VELO detector are amplied and read out by the Beetle ASIC.

The RICH-1 detector (Ring imaging Cherenkov detector)


is located directly after the vertex detector. It is used for
The fact that the two b-hadrons are predominantly pro- particle identication of low-momentum tracks.
duced in the same forward cone is exploited in the layout
of the LHCb detector. The LHCb detector is a single The main tracking system is placed before and after the
arm forward spectrometer with a polar angular coverage dipole magnet. It is used to reconstruct the trajectories
from 10 to 300 milliradians (mrad) in the horizontal and of charged particles and to measure their momenta. The
250 mrad in the vertical plane. The asymmetry between tracker consists of three subdetectors:
the horizontal and vertical plane is determined by a large
dipole magnet with the main eld component in the ver The Tracker Turicensis, a silicon strip detector lotical direction.
cated before the LHCb dipole magnet

2.6. LHCF

51

The Outer Tracker. A straw-tube based detector lo- 2.5.6 External links
cated after the dipole magnet covering the outer part
of the detector acceptance
LHCb Public Webpage
The Inner Tracker, silicon strip based detector located after the dipole magnet covering the inner part
of the detector acceptance
Following the tracking system is RICH-2. It allows the
identication of the particle type of high-momentum
tracks.
The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters provide
measurements of the energy of electrons, photons, and
hadrons. These measurements are used at trigger level
to identify the particles with large transverse momentum
(high-Pt particles).

LHCb section from US/LHC Website


A. Augusto Alves Jr. et al. (LHCb Collaboration) (2008). The LHCb Detector at the
LHC. Journal of Instrumentation 3 (8): S08005.
Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8005T. doi:10.1088/17480221/3/08/S08005. (Full design documentation)

2.6 LHCf

The muon system is used to identify and trigger on muons


in the events.

2.5.3

Results

During the 2011 proton-proton run LHCb recorded a luminosity of 1 fb1 [5] at energy 7 TeV. In 2012 about 2
fb1 was collected at 8 TeV.[6] These datasets allow them
to carry out the physics program of precision Standard
Model tests with many additional measurements. The
analysis led to evidence for the avour changing neutral
current decay B .[7] This measurement impacts
the parameter space of supersymmetry. CP violation was
studied in various particle systems such as B , Kaons, and
The LHCf experiment, the smallest of the seven experiments on
D0 .[8] New Xi baryons were observed in 2014.[9]
the LHC

2.5.4

See also

CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research


Large Hadron Collider
B-factory

2.5.5

References

[1] , Collaboration webpage


[2] , Roadmap for selected key measurements of LHCb

The LHCf ("Large Hadron Collider forward") is a


special-purpose Large Hadron Collider experiment for
astroparticle (cosmic ray) physics, and one of seven detectors in the LHC accelerator at CERN. The other six
are: ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, MoEDAL, TOTEM, and
LHCb. LHCf is designed to study the particles generated
in the "forward" region of collisions, those almost directly
in line with the colliding proton beams. It therefore consists of two detectors, 140 m on either side of the interaction point. Because of this large distance, it can co-exist
with a more conventional detector surrounding the interaction point, and shares the interaction point IP1 with the
much larger general-purpose ATLAS experiment.

[3] , The LHCb VELO (from the VELO group)


[4] , VELO Public Pages

2.6.1 Purpose

[5] , 2011 LHC Luminosity Plots


[6] , 2012 LHC Luminosity Plots
[7] , Arxiv: First evidence for the decay Bs + [8] ArXiv Search.
[9] LHCb experiment observes two new baryon particles
never seen before. 19 Nov 2014.

The LHCf is intended to measure the energy and numbers


of neutral pions (0) produced by the collider. This will
hopefully help explain the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The results will complement other high-energy
cosmic ray measurements from the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, and the Telescope Array Project in
Utah.

52

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS

2.6.2

See also

2.6.3

References

LHCf section on US/LHC Website

2.7.3 External links


FP420 R&D Project website
Papers and Reviews

LHCf: a tiny new experiment joins the LHC, CERN


Courier, Nov 1, 2006, retrieved on 2009-03-25.
(Describes the location of the experiment.)

2.8 TOTEM

The LHCf experiment at LHC

For other uses, see Totem (disambiguation).

Technical Design Report of LHCf


O Adriani et al. (LHCf Collaboration) (2008). The
LHCf detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Journal of Instrumentation 3 (8): S08006.
Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8006T. doi:10.1088/17480221/3/08/S08006. (Full design documentation)

TOTal Elastic and diractive cross section Measurement (TOTEM) is one of the seven detector experiments
at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The other six are:
ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, and MoEDAL.
It shares intersection point IP5 with the Compact Muon
Solenoid. The detector aims at measurement of total
cross section, elastic scattering, and diractive processes.

O Adriani et al.
(LHCf Collaboration)
(2013).
LHCf detector performance during the 2009-2010 LHC run.
International 2.8.1 See also
Journal of Modern Physics A 28 (25):
CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Re1330036-1.
Bibcode:2013IJMPA..2830036A.
search
doi:10.1142/S0217751X13300366. (Full design
documentation)
Large Hadron Collider
Coordinates:
6.05500E

461409N 60318E / 46.23583N

2.7 FP420 experiment

2.8.2 Further reading


G. Anelli et al. (TOTEM Collaboration) (2008).
The TOTEM Experiment at the CERN Large
Hadron Collider.
Journal of Instrumentation
3 (8): S08007. Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8007T.
doi:10.1088/1748-0221/3/08/S08007. (Full design
documentation)

The FP420 R&D project or the FP420 experiment was


an international collaboration with members from 29 institutes from 10 countries.[1] The aim was to assess the
feasibility of installing proton tagging detectors at 420 m
from the interaction points of the ATLAS and CMS ex- 2.8.3 External links
periments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One notable member of the team was Brian Cox, who has been
TOTEM Public Webpage
involved with BBC in the production of television science
TOTEM section on US/LHC Website
documentaries including Horizon, Wonders of the Solar
System in 2010 and Wonders of the Universe in 2011.
By detecting protons that have lost less than 1% of their Coordinates: 461835N 60435E / 46.30972N
longitudinal momentum, it is possible to obtain infor- 6.07639E
mation that could yield insight on various phenomena
of high-energy physics. These measurements would be
unique at the LHC, and would be dicult to obtain at
both existing and future linear colliders.

2.7.1

See also

List of Large Hadron Collider experiments

2.7.2

References

[1] FP420 R&D Project. Retrieved 2010-03-31.

Chapter 3

Technology
3.1 Beetle (ASIC)

For testability and calibration purposes, a charge injector


with adjustable pulse height is implemented. The bias settings and various other parameters can be controlled via
a standard IC-interface. The chip is radiation hardened
to an accumulated dose of more than 100 Mrad. Robustness against single event upset is achieved by redundant
logic.

3.1.2 External links


Beetle - a readout chip for LHCb
The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment

3.2 LHC Computing Grid


Beetle chip

The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), forThe Beetle ASIC is an analog readout chip. It is devel- merly (until 2006)[1] the LHC Computing Grid (LCG),
oped for the LHCb experiment at CERN.
is an international collaborative project that consists of a
grid-based computer network infrastructure incorporating over 170 computing centers in 36 countries, as of
3.1.1 Overview
2012. It was designed by CERN to handle the prodigious volume of data produced by Large Hadron Collider
The chip integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge- (LHC) experiments.[2][3]
sensitive pre-ampliers and shapers. The pulse shape can
14
be chosen such that it complies with LHCb specications: By 2012, data from over 300 trillion (310 ) LHC
[4]
a peaking time of 25 ns with a remainder of the peak proton-proton collisions had been analyzed, and LHC
voltage after 25 ns of less than 30%. A comparator per collision data was being produced at approximately 25
channel with congurable polarity provides a binary sig- petabytes per year. As of 2012, The LHC Computing
nal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed Grid had become the worlds largest computing grid comprising over 170 computing facilities in a worldwide netand brought o chip via LVDS drivers.
work across 36 countries.[4][5][6]
Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with
the LHC bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an
analog pipeline. This ring buer has a programmable la- 3.2.1 Background
tency of a maximum of 160 sampling intervals and an integrated derandomising buer of 16 stages. For analogue The Large Hadron Collider at CERN was designed to
readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto one prove or disprove the existence of the Higgs boson, an
or four ports. A binary readout mode operates at up to important but elusive piece of knowledge that had been
80 MHz output rate on two ports. Current drivers bring sought by particle physicists for over 40 years. A very
the serialised data o chip.
powerful particle accelerator was needed, because Higgs
The chip can accept trigger rates up to 1.1 MHz to per- bosons might not be seen in lower energy experiments,
form a dead-timeless readout within 900 ns per trigger. and because vast numbers of collisions would need to
53

54

CHAPTER 3. TECHNOLOGY

be studied. Such a collider would also produce unprecedented quantities of collision data requiring analysis. Therefore advanced computing facilities were needed
to process the data.

trieved 2012-12-20.
[2] What is the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid?, CERN,
January 2011, retrieved 2012-01-11
[3] Welcome, CERN, January 2011, retrieved 2012-01-11

3.2.2

Description

A design report was published in 2005.[7] It was announced to be ready for data on 3 October 2008.[8] A popular 2008 press article predicted the internet could soon
be made obsolete by its technology.[9] CERN had to publish its own articles trying to clear up the confusion.[10] It
incorporates both private ber optic cable links and existing high-speed portions of the public Internet. At the end
of 2010, the Grid consisted of some 200,000 processing
cores and 150 petabytes of disk space, distributed across
34 countries.[11]
The data stream from the detectors provides approximately 300 GByte/s of data, which after ltering for interesting events, results in a raw data stream of about
300 MByte/s. The CERN computer center, considered
Tier 0 of the LHC Computing Grid, has a dedicated 10
Gbit/s connection to the counting room.
The project was expected to generate 27 TB of raw data
per day, plus 10 TB of event summary data, which represents the output of calculations done by the CPU farm
at the CERN data center. This data is sent out from
CERN to eleven Tier 1 academic institutions in Europe,
Asia, and North America, via dedicated 10 Gbit/s links.
This is called the LHC Optical Private Network.[12] More
than 150 Tier 2 institutions are connected to the Tier 1
institutions by general-purpose national research and education networks.[13] The data produced by the LHC on
all of its distributed computing grid is expected to add up
to 1015 PB of data each year.[14] In total, the four main
detectors at the LHC produced 13 petabytes of data in
2010.[11]

[4] Hunt for Higgs boson hits key decision point


[5] Worldwide LHC Computing Grid main page 14 November 2012: "[A] global collaboration of more than 170 computing centres in 36 countries ... to store, distribute and
analyse the ~25 Petabytes (25 million Gigabytes) of data
annually generated by the Large Hadron Collider
[6] What is the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid? (Public 'About' page) 14 November 2012: Currently WLCG
is made up of more than 170 computing centers in 36
countries...The WLCG is now the worlds largest computing grid
[7] LHC Computing Grid: Technical Design Report. document
LCG-TDR-001, CERN-LHCC-2005-024 (The LCG TDR
Editorial Board). 20 June 2005. ISBN 92-9083-253-3.
Retrieved 2 October 2011.
[8] LHC GridFest. CERN. 2008.
[9] Jonathan Leake (6 April 2008). Coming soon: superfast internet. The Times (London). Retrieved 25 January
2013.
[10] The Grid: separating fact from ction. CERN. May
2008. Retrieved 25 January 2013. Adapted from an article originally published in Symmetry Breaking.
[11] Geo Brumel (19 January 2011). High-energy physics:
Down the petabyte highway. Nature 469: 282283.
doi:10.1038/469282a. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
[12] Network transfer architecture. CERN. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
[13] nal-draft-4-key
[14] Brodkin, Jon (28 April 2008). Parallel Internet: Inside
the Worldwide LHC computing grid. Techworld.com.

The Tier 1 institutions receive specic subsets of the raw


data, for which they serve as a backup repository for
CERN. They also perform reprocessing when recalibra- 3.2.5 External links
tion is necessary.[13] The primary conguration for the
computers used in the grid is based on Scientic Linux.
Ocial website. CERN. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
Distributed computing resources for analysis by enduser physicists are provided by the Open Science
Grid, Enabling Grids for E-sciencE,[13] and LHC@home
projects.

3.2.3

See also

Openlab (CERN)

GridCaf". Educational web site.

3.3 LHC@home
LHC@home is a distributed computing project for
particle physics based on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform.

LHC@home consists of two applications: LHC@home


Classic, SixTrack, which went live in September 2004
3.2.4 References
and is used to upgrade and maintain the particle acceler[1] Hayes, Jacqui (21 December 2011). Happy 10th Birth- ator Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Orgaday, WLCG!". International Grid Science This Week. Re- nization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and LHC@home

3.4. PROTON SYNCHROTRON BOOSTER

55

2.0, Test4Theory, which went live in August 2011 and is 3.3.3 References
used to simulate high-energy particle collisions to proLHC@Home Classic - Credit
vide a reference to test the measurements performed at [1] Willy de Zutter.
overview. boincstats.com. Retrieved 16 December
the LHC.
2011.

The applications are run with the help of about fteen


thousand active volunteered computers processing at a [2] Willy de Zutter. LHC Test4Theory@Home - Credit
combined more than 15.5 teraFLOPS on average as of
overview. boincstats.com. Retrieved 16 December
June 2014.[1][2] LHC@home uses idle computer process2011.
ing resources from volunteers computers to perform calculations on individual workunits, which are sent to a central project server upon completion. The project is cross- 3.3.4 External links
platform, and runs on a variety of hardware congurations. Test4Theory uses VirtualBox, an x86 virtualization
LHC@home Project Page
software package.
LHC@home Classic Project Page

3.3.1

SixTrack

The project was rst introduced as a beta on 1 September 2004 and a record 1000 users signed up within 24
hours. The project went public, with a 5000 user limit,
on September 29 to commemorate CERNs 50th anniversary. Currently there is no user limit and qualication.
Data from the project is utilized by engineers to improve
the operation and eciency of the accelerator, and to predict possible problems that could arise from adjustment
or modication of the LHCs equipment. The project is
administered by volunteers, and receives no funding from
CERN. There are currently no plans to use the project to
do computation on the data that will be collected by the
LHC.

SixTrack homepage
Test4Theory Project Page

3.4 Proton Synchrotron Booster

The project software involves a program called SixTrack,


created by Frank Schmidt, downloaded via BOINC onto
participant computers running Windows, Linux or Mac
OS X. SixTrack simulates particles accelerating through
the 27 km (17 mi)-long LHC to nd their orbit stability.
In one workunit, 60 particles are simulated travelling
100,000 or 1,000,000 loops, which would take about
The surface above the PS Booster at CERN. The ring-shaped
10 seconds in an actual run. This is sixtrack.
The orbit stability data is used to detect if a particle in orbit goes o-course and runs into the tube
wallif this happened too often in actual running,
this would cause damage to the accelerator which
would need repairs.

accelerator is visible as a circular building that rises from the


ground.

The Proton Synchrotron Booster, a synchrotron, is the


rst and smallest circular proton accelerator in the accelerator chain at the CERN Large Hadron Collider injec A new experimental version called SixTrackbnl tion complex . The accelerator was built in 1972, and
started to be sent to computers in early November. contains four superimposed rings with a radius of 25 meters. It takes protons with an energy of 50 MeV from the
Gareld is a newer application, although not many linear accelerator Linac2 and accelerates them up to 1.4
workunits have been seen lately.
GeV, ready to be injected into the Proton Synchrotron.

3.3.2

See also

Citizen Cyberscience Centre


LHC Computing Grid
List of distributed computing projects

3.4.1 See also


3.4.2 External links
PS Booster Machine: layout and photographs

56

CHAPTER 3. TECHNOLOGY

3.5 VELO

3.5.2 The LHCb detector

/ The fact that the two b-hadrons are predominantly produced in the same forward cone is exploited in the layout
of the LHCb detector. The LHCb detector is a single
LHCb (standing for "Large Hadron Collider beauty") arm forward spectrometer with a polar angular coverage
is one of seven particle physics detector experiments col- from 10 to 300 milliradians (mrad) in the horizontal and
lecting data at the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at 250 mrad in the vertical plane. The asymmetry between
CERN. LHCb is a specialized b-physics experiment, that the horizontal and vertical plane is determined by a large
is measuring the parameters of CP violation in the inter- dipole magnet with the main eld component in the veractions of b-hadrons (heavy particles containing a bottom tical direction.
quark). Such studies can help to explain the MatterAntimatter asymmetry of the Universe. The detector is
also able to perform measurements of production cross
sections and electroweak physics in the forward region.
Approximately 840 people from 60 scientic institutes,
representing 16 countries, form the collaboration who
built and operate the detector.[1] The experiment is located at point 8 on the LHC tunnel close to FerneyVoltaire, France just over the border from Geneva. The
(small) MoEDAL experiment will share the same cavern.
Coordinates:
461427.64N
46.2410111N 6.0969333E

3.5.1

6548.96E

Physics goals

The experiment has wide physics program covering many


important aspects of Heavy Flavor (both beauty and
charm), Electroweak and QCD physics. Six key measurements have been identied involving B mesons. These are
described in a roadmap document [2] that form the core
physics programme for the rst high energy LHC running
in 20102012. They include:
Measuring the branching ratio of the rare B +
decay.
Measuring the forward-backward asymmetry of the
muon pair in the avour changing neutral current B
K* + decay. Such a avour changing neutral current cannot occur at tree-level in the Standard
Model of Particle Physics, and only occurs through
box and loop Feynman diagrams; properties of the
decay can be strongly modied by new Physics.
Measuring the CP violating phase in the decay B
J/ , caused by interference between the decays with and without B oscillations. This phase is
one of the CP observables with the smallest theoretical uncertainty in the Standard Model, and can be
signicantly modied by new Physics.

Subsystems
The vertex detector (VELO) is built around the proton
interaction region.[3][4] It is used to measure the particle
trajectories close to the interaction point in order to precisely separate primary and secondary vertices.

Measuring properties of radiative B decays, i.e.


The detector operates at 7 millimetres (0.28 in) from the
B meson decays with photons in the nal states.
LHC beam. This implies an enormous ux of particles;
Specically, these are again avour changing neuThe VELO has been designed to withstand integrated utral current decays.
ences of more than 1014 p/cm2 per year for a period of
Tree-level determination of the unitarity triangle an- about three years. The detector operates in vacuum and is
cooled to approximately 25 C (13 F) using a biphase
gle .
CO2 system. The data of the VELO detector are ampli Charmless charged two-body B decays.
ed and read out by the Beetle ASIC.

3.5. VELO

57

The RICH-1 detector (Ring imaging Cherenkov detector)


is located directly after the vertex detector. It is used for
particle identication of low-momentum tracks.

[3] , The LHCb VELO (from the VELO group)

The main tracking system is placed before and after the


dipole magnet. It is used to reconstruct the trajectories
of charged particles and to measure their momenta. The
tracker consists of three subdetectors:

[5] , 2011 LHC Luminosity Plots

The Tracker Turicensis, a silicon strip detector located before the LHCb dipole magnet

[4] , VELO Public Pages

[6] , 2012 LHC Luminosity Plots


[7] , Arxiv: First evidence for the decay Bs + [8] ArXiv Search.
[9] LHCb experiment observes two new baryon particles
never seen before. 19 Nov 2014.

The Outer Tracker. A straw-tube based detector located after the dipole magnet covering the outer part
of the detector acceptance
3.5.6
The Inner Tracker, silicon strip based detector located after the dipole magnet covering the inner part
of the detector acceptance
Following the tracking system is RICH-2. It allows the
identication of the particle type of high-momentum
tracks.
The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters provide
measurements of the energy of electrons, photons, and
hadrons. These measurements are used at trigger level
to identify the particles with large transverse momentum
(high-Pt particles).
The muon system is used to identify and trigger on muons
in the events.

3.5.3

Results

During the 2011 proton-proton run LHCb recorded a luminosity of 1 fb1 [5] at energy 7 TeV. In 2012 about 2
fb1 was collected at 8 TeV.[6] These datasets allow them
to carry out the physics program of precision Standard
Model tests with many additional measurements. The
analysis led to evidence for the avour changing neutral
current decay B .[7] This measurement impacts
the parameter space of supersymmetry. CP violation was
studied in various particle systems such as B , Kaons, and
D0 .[8] New Xi baryons were observed in 2014.[9]

3.5.4

See also

CERN: European Organization for Nuclear Research


Large Hadron Collider
B-factory

3.5.5

References

[1] , Collaboration webpage


[2] , Roadmap for selected key measurements of LHCb

External links

LHCb Public Webpage


LHCb section from US/LHC Website
A. Augusto Alves Jr. et al. (LHCb Collaboration) (2008). The LHCb Detector at the
LHC. Journal of Instrumentation 3 (8): S08005.
Bibcode:2008JInst...3S8005T. doi:10.1088/17480221/3/08/S08005. (Full design documentation)

Chapter 4

Theory
4.1 Standard Model
This article is about the Standard Model of particle
physics. For other uses, see Standard model (disambiguation).
This article is a non-mathematical general overview of the
Standard Model. For a mathematical description, see the
article Standard Model (mathematical formulation).
The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory

relativity, or account for the accelerating expansion of


the universe (as possibly described by dark energy). The
model does not contain any viable dark matter particle
that possesses all of the required properties deduced from
observational cosmology. It also does not incorporate
neutrino oscillations (and their non-zero masses). Although the Standard Model is believed to be theoretically
self-consistent[3] and has demonstrated huge and continued successes in providing experimental predictions, it
does leave some phenomena unexplained.
The development of the Standard Model was driven by
theoretical and experimental particle physicists alike. For
theorists, the Standard Model is a paradigm of a quantum
eld theory, which exhibits a wide range of physics including spontaneous symmetry breaking, anomalies, nonperturbative behavior, etc. It is used as a basis for building more exotic models that incorporate hypothetical particles, extra dimensions, and elaborate symmetries (such
as supersymmetry) in an attempt to explain experimental
results at variance with the Standard Model, such as the
existence of dark matter and neutrino oscillations.

4.1.1 Historical background

The Standard Model of elementary particles, with the three


generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and
the Higgs boson in the fth.

concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear


interactions, which mediate the dynamics of the known
subatomic particles. It was developed throughout the latter half of the 20th century, as a collaborative eort of
scientists around the world.[1] The current formulation
was nalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental conrmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, discoveries of the top quark (1995), the tau neutrino (2000), and
more recently the Higgs boson (2013), have given further
credence to the Standard Model. Because of its success
in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, the
Standard Model is sometimes regarded as a theory of
almost everything.

The rst step towards the Standard Model was Sheldon


Glashow's discovery in 1961 of a way to combine the
electromagnetic and weak interactions.[4] In 1967 Steven
Weinberg[5] and Abdus Salam[6] incorporated the Higgs
mechanism[7][8][9] into Glashows electroweak theory,
giving it its modern form.
The Higgs mechanism is believed to give rise to the
masses of all the elementary particles in the Standard
Model. This includes the masses of the W and Z bosons,
and the masses of the fermions, i.e. the quarks and
leptons.

After the neutral weak currents caused by Z boson exchange were discovered at CERN in 1973,[10][11][12][13]
the electroweak theory became widely accepted and
Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg shared the 1979 Nobel
The Standard Model falls short of being a complete the- Prize in Physics for discovering it. The W and Z bosons
ory of fundamental interactions. It does not incorporate were discovered experimentally in 1981, and their masses
the full theory of gravitation[2] as described by general were found to be as the Standard Model predicted.
58

4.1. STANDARD MODEL

59

The theory of the strong interaction, to which many


contributed, acquired its modern form around 197374,
when experiments conrmed that the hadrons were composed of fractionally charged quarks.

statistics theorem, fermions respect the Pauli exclusion


principle. Each fermion has a corresponding antiparticle.

The fermions of the Standard Model are classied according to how they interact (or equivalently, by what
charges they carry). There are six quarks (up, down,
charm, strange, top, bottom), and six leptons (electron,
4.1.2 Overview
electron neutrino, muon, muon neutrino, tau, tau neutrino). Pairs from each classication are grouped together
At present, matter and energy are best understood in to form a generation, with corresponding particles exterms of the kinematics and interactions of elementary hibiting similar physical behavior (see table).
particles. To date, physics has reduced the laws governing the behavior and interaction of all known forms of The dening property of the quarks is that they carry
matter and energy to a small set of fundamental laws and color charge, and hence, interact via the strong interactheories. A major goal of physics is to nd the com- tion. A phenomenon called color connement results in
mon ground that would unite all of these theories into quarks being perpetually (or at least since very soon after
one integrated theory of everything, of which all the other the start of the Big Bang) bound to one another, formknown laws would be special cases, and from which the ing color-neutral composite particles (hadrons) containbehavior of all matter and energy could be derived (at ing either a quark and an antiquark (mesons) or three
quarks (baryons). The familiar proton and the neutron
least in principle).[14]
are the two baryons having the smallest mass. Quarks
also carry electric charge and weak isospin. Hence they
interact with other fermions both electromagnetically and
4.1.3 Particle content
via the weak interaction.
The Standard Model includes members of several classes The remaining six fermions do not carry colour charge
of elementary particles (fermions, gauge bosons, and the and are called leptons. The three neutrinos do not carry
Higgs boson), which in turn can be distinguished by other electric charge either, so their motion is directly inucharacteristics, such as color charge.
enced only by the weak nuclear force, which makes them
notoriously dicult to detect. However, by virtue of carrying an electric charge, the electron, muon, and tau all
Fermions
interact electromagnetically.

eL

YW

uR
dL
H
R

g
dL

W+
uL

T3
dR

g8 3
g

H*
L

Z0
dR

uR
W-

+
eR

Each member of a generation has greater mass than the


corresponding particles of lower generations. The rst
generation charged particles do not decay; hence all ordinary (baryonic) matter is made of such particles. Specifically, all atoms consist of electrons orbiting atomic nuclei ultimately constituted of up and down quarks. Second and third generations charged particles, on the other
hand, decay with very short half lives, and are observed
only in very high-energy environments. Neutrinos of all
generations also do not decay, and pervade the universe,
but rarely interact with baryonic matter.

uL
-

eL

Gauge bosons
eR

In the Standard Model, gauge bosons are dened as force


carriers that mediate the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental interactions.

Interactions in physics are the ways that particles inuence other particles. At a macroscopic level, electromagnetism allows particles to interact with one another
via electric and magnetic elds, and gravitation allows
particles with mass to attract one another in accordance
with Einsteins theory of general relativity. The Standard
Model explains such forces as resulting from matter parThe Standard Model includes 12 elementary particles ticles exchanging other particles, known as force mediof spin- known as fermions. According to the spin- ating particles (strictly speaking, this is only so if interThe pattern of weak isospin, T3 , weak hypercharge, YW, and
color charge of all known elementary particles, rotated by the
weak mixing angle to show electric charge, Q, roughly along
the vertical. The neutral Higgs eld (gray square) breaks the
electroweak symmetry and interacts with other particles to give
them mass.

60

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
cept of a force-mediating particle) fails in other situations. These include low-energy quantum chromodynamics, bound states, and solitons.
The gauge bosons of the Standard Model all have spin (as
do matter particles). The value of the spin is 1, making
them bosons. As a result, they do not follow the Pauli
exclusion principle that constrains fermions: thus bosons
(e.g. photons) do not have a theoretical limit on their spatial density (number per volume). The dierent types of
gauge bosons are described below.
Photons mediate the electromagnetic force between
electrically charged particles. The photon is massless and is well-described by the theory of quantum
electrodynamics.

Summary of interactions between particles described by the Standard Model.

The above interactions form the basis of the standard model.


Feynman diagrams in the standard model are built from these
vertices. Modications involving Higgs boson interactions and
neutrino oscillations are omitted. The charge of the W bosons
is dictated by the fermions they interact with; the conjugate of
each listed vertex (i.e. reversing the direction of arrows) is also
allowed.

preting literally what is actually an approximation method


known as perturbation theory). When a force-mediating
particle is exchanged, at a macroscopic level the eect
is equivalent to a force inuencing both of them, and
the particle is therefore said to have mediated (i.e., been
the agent of) that force. The Feynman diagram calculations, which are a graphical representation of the perturbation theory approximation, invoke force mediating
particles, and when applied to analyze high-energy scattering experiments are in reasonable agreement with the
data. However, perturbation theory (and with it the con-

The W+, W, and Z gauge bosons mediate the weak


interactions between particles of dierent avors
(all quarks and leptons). They are massive, with
the Z being more massive than the W. The weak
interactions involving the W exclusively act on
left-handed particles and right-handed antiparticles.
Furthermore, the W carries an electric charge of
+1 and 1 and couples to the electromagnetic interaction. The electrically neutral Z boson interacts with both left-handed particles and antiparticles. These three gauge bosons along with the photons are grouped together, as collectively mediating
the electroweak interaction.
The eight gluons mediate the strong interactions between color charged particles (the quarks). Gluons
are massless. The eightfold multiplicity of gluons
is labeled by a combination of color and anticolor
charge (e.g. redantigreen).[nb 1] Because the gluons
have an eective color charge, they can also interact
among themselves. The gluons and their interactions
are described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics.
The interactions between all the particles described by the
Standard Model are summarized by the diagrams on the
right of this section.

Higgs boson
Main article: Higgs boson
The Higgs particle is a massive scalar elementary particle
theorized by Robert Brout, Franois Englert, Peter Higgs,
Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and Tom Kibble in 1964
(see 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers) and is a key
building block in the Standard Model.[7][8][9][15] It has no
intrinsic spin, and for that reason is classied as a boson
(like the gauge bosons, which have integer spin).

4.1. STANDARD MODEL


The Higgs boson plays a unique role in the Standard
Model, by explaining why the other elementary particles, except the photon and gluon, are massive. In particular, the Higgs boson explains why the photon has no
mass, while the W and Z bosons are very heavy. Elementary particle masses, and the dierences between
electromagnetism (mediated by the photon) and the weak
force (mediated by the W and Z bosons), are critical
to many aspects of the structure of microscopic (and
hence macroscopic) matter. In electroweak theory, the
Higgs boson generates the masses of the leptons (electron, muon, and tau) and quarks. As the Higgs boson is
massive, it must interact with itself.

61
Construction of the Standard Model Lagrangian
Technically, quantum eld theory provides the mathematical framework for the Standard Model, in which a
Lagrangian controls the dynamics and kinematics of the
theory. Each kind of particle is described in terms of a
dynamical eld that pervades space-time. The construction of the Standard Model proceeds following the modern method of constructing most eld theories: by rst
postulating a set of symmetries of the system, and then by
writing down the most general renormalizable Lagrangian
from its particle (eld) content that observes these symmetries.

Because the Higgs boson is a very massive particle and


also decays almost immediately when created, only a very
high-energy particle accelerator can observe and record
it. Experiments to conrm and determine the nature of
the Higgs boson using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
at CERN began in early 2010, and were performed at
Fermilab's Tevatron until its closure in late 2011. Mathematical consistency of the Standard Model requires that
any mechanism capable of generating the masses of elementary particles become visible at energies above 1.4
TeV;[16] therefore, the LHC (designed to collide two 7 to
8 TeV proton beams) was built to answer the question of
whether the Higgs boson actually exists.[17]

The global Poincar symmetry is postulated for all relativistic quantum eld theories. It consists of the familiar translational symmetry, rotational symmetry and the
inertial reference frame invariance central to the theory
of special relativity. The local SU(3)SU(2)U(1) gauge
symmetry is an internal symmetry that essentially denes
the Standard Model. Roughly, the three factors of the
gauge symmetry give rise to the three fundamental interactions. The elds fall into dierent representations of
the various symmetry groups of the Standard Model (see
table). Upon writing the most general Lagrangian, one
nds that the dynamics depend on 19 parameters, whose
numerical values are established by experiment. The paOn 4 July 2012, the two main experiments at the LHC rameters are summarized in the table above (note: with
(ATLAS and CMS) both reported independently that the Higgs mass is at 125 GeV, the Higgs self-coupling
they found a new particle with a mass of about 125 strength ~ 1/8).
GeV/c2 (about 133 proton masses, on the order of 1025
kg), which is consistent with the Higgs boson. Although
it has several properties similar to the predicted sim- Quantum chromodynamics sector Main article:
plest Higgs,[18] they acknowledged that further work Quantum chromodynamics
would be needed to conclude that it is indeed the Higgs
boson, and exactly which version of the Standard Model The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) sector denes the
Higgs is best supported if conrmed.[19][20][21][22][23]
interactions between quarks and gluons, with SU(3) syma
On 14 March 2013 the Higgs Boson was tentatively con- metry, generated by T . Since leptons do not interact with
[24]
gluons,
they
are
not
aected
by this sector. The Dirac Larmed to exist.
grangian of the quarks coupled to the gluon elds is given
by

Full particle count


LQCD = iU ( igs Ga T a ) U +iD( igs Ga T a ) D.
Counting particles by a rule that distinguishes between particles and their corresponding antiparticles, and
a

among the many color states of quarks and gluons, gives G is the SU(3) gauge eld containing the gluons, are
[25]
the Dirac matrices, D and U are the Dirac spinors associa total of 61 elementary particles.
ated with up- and down-type quarks, and g is the strong
coupling constant.

4.1.4

Theoretical aspects

Electroweak sector Main article: Electroweak interaction

Main article: Standard Model (mathematical formulaThe electroweak sector is a YangMills gauge theory with
tion)
the simple symmetry group U(1)SU(2)L,

62

LEW =

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

i g 1 YW B g 1 L W

2
2

where B is the U(1) gauge eld; YW is the weak hy is the


perchargethe generator of the U(1) group; W
three-component SU(2) gauge eld; L are the Pauli matricesinnitesimal generators of the SU(2) group. The
subscript L indicates that they only act on left fermions;
g and g are coupling constants.

of the excess (3.4 sigma) is not enough to claim a break


from the Standard Model, the results are a potential sign
of something amiss and are likely to impact existing theories, including those attempting to deduce the properties
of Higgs bosons.[28]
On December 13, 2012, physicists reported the constancy, over space and time, of a basic physical constant
of nature that supports the standard model of physics.
The scientists, studying methanol molecules in a distant
galaxy, found the change (/) in the proton-to-electron
mass ratio to be equal to "(0.0 1.0) 107 at redshift
z = 0.89 and consistent with a null result".[29][30]

Higgs sector Main article: Higgs mechanism


In the Standard Model, the Higgs eld is a complex scalar 4.1.6 Challenges
of the group SU(2)L:
See also: Physics beyond the Standard Model
1
=
2

+
0

Self-consistency of the Standard Model (currently formulated as a non-abelian gauge theory quantized through
path-integrals) has not been mathematically proven.
where the indices + and 0 indicate the electric charge (Q) While regularized versions useful for approximate comof the components. The weak isospin (YW) of both com- putations (for example lattice gauge theory) exist, it is not
ponents is 1.
known whether they converge (in the sense of S-matrix
elements) in the limit that the regulator is removed. A
Before symmetry breaking, the Higgs Lagrangian is:
key question related to the consistency is the YangMills
existence and mass gap problem.
(
)(
(
)
(
))
)
i
i Experiments indicate
2 (
2 2 mass, which the

LH =
g YW B + g W
+
g YW B + g W
that neutrinos
vhave
,
2
2
classic Standard Model 4did not allow.[31] To accommodate this nding, the classic Standard Model can be modwhich can also be written as:
ied to include neutrino mass.
,

If one insists on using only Standard Model particles, this


(
) 2
(
)
2 (
can)be


i

2 achieved by adding a non-renormalizable interac


LH = +
tion
v 2 of .leptons with the Higgs boson.[32] On a fundameng YW B + g W

2
4
tal level, such an interaction emerges in the seesaw mechanism where heavy right-handed neutrinos are added to
the theory. This is natural in the left-right symmetric ex4.1.5 Tests and predictions
tension of the Standard Model [33][34] and in certain grand
The Standard Model (SM) predicted the existence of the unied theories.[35] As long as new physics appears below
W and Z bosons, gluon, and the top and charm quarks or around 1014 GeV, the neutrino masses can be of the
before these particles were observed. Their predicted right order of magnitude.
properties were experimentally conrmed with good preTheoretical and experimental research has attempted to
cision. To give an idea of the success of the SM, the folextend the Standard Model into a Unied eld theory or
lowing table compares the measured masses of the W and
a Theory of everything, a complete theory explaining all
Z bosons with the masses predicted by the SM:
physical phenomena including constants. Inadequacies of
The SM also makes several predictions about the decay the Standard Model that motivate such research include:
of Z bosons, which have been experimentally conrmed
by the Large Electron-Positron Collider at CERN.
It does not attempt to explain gravitation, although
In May 2012 BaBar Collaboration reported that their recently analyzed data may suggest possible aws in the
Standard Model of particle physics.[26][27] These data
show that a particular type of particle decay called B
to D-star-tau-nu happens more often than the Standard
Model says it should. In this type of decay, a particle
called the B-bar meson decays into a D meson, an antineutrino and a tau-lepton. While the level of certainty

a theoretical particle known as a graviton would


help explain it, and unlike for the strong and electroweak interactions of the Standard Model, there
is no known way of describing general relativity,
the canonical theory of gravitation, consistently in
terms of quantum eld theory. The reason for this
is, among other things, that quantum eld theories
of gravity generally break down before reaching the

4.1. STANDARD MODEL


Planck scale. As a consequence, we have no reliable
theory for the very early universe;
Some consider it to be ad hoc and inelegant, requiring 19 numerical constants whose values are unrelated and arbitrary. Although the Standard Model,
as it now stands, can explain why neutrinos have
masses, the specics of neutrino mass are still unclear. It is believed that explaining neutrino mass
will require an additional 7 or 8 constants, which are
also arbitrary parameters;

63
J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics
Lagrangian
Open questions: BTeV experiment, CP violation,
Neutrino masses, Quark matter, Quantum triviality
Penguin diagram
Quantum eld theory
Standard Model: Mathematical formulation of,
Physics beyond the Standard Model

The Higgs mechanism gives rise to the hierarchy


problem if some new physics (coupled to the Higgs) 4.1.8 Notes and references
is present at high energy scales. In these cases in order for the weak scale to be much smaller than the [1] Technically, there are nine such coloranticolor combinaPlanck scale, severe ne tuning of the parameters is
tions. However, there is one color-symmetric combination that can be constructed out of a linear superposition
required; there are, however, other scenarios that inof the nine combinations, reducing the count to eight.
clude quantum gravity in which such ne tuning can
be avoided. [36] There are also issues of Quantum
triviality, which suggests that it may not be possible
to create a consistent quantum eld theory involving 4.1.9 References
elementary scalar particles.
It should be modied so as to be consistent with
the emerging Standard Model of cosmology. In
particular, the Standard Model cannot explain the
observed amount of cold dark matter (CDM) and
gives contributions to dark energy which are many
orders of magnitude too large. It is also dicult to
accommodate the observed predominance of matter over antimatter (matter/antimatter asymmetry).
The isotropy and homogeneity of the visible universe over large distances seems to require a mechanism like cosmic ination, which would also constitute an extension of the Standard Model.
Currently, no proposed Theory of Everything has been
widely accepted or veried.

4.1.7

See also

Fundamental interaction:
Quantum electrodynamics
Strong interaction: Color charge, Quantum
chromodynamics, Quark model
Weak interaction: Electroweak theory, Fermi
theory of beta decay, Weak hypercharge,
Weak isospin
Gauge theory: Nontechnical introduction to gauge
theory
Generation
Higgs mechanism: Higgs boson, Higgsless model
J. C. Ward

[1] R. Oerter (2006). The Theory of Almost Everything: The


Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics
(Kindle ed.). Penguin Group. p. 2. ISBN 0-13-2366789.
[2] Sean Carroll, Ph.D., Cal Tech, 2007, The Teaching Company, Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The Dark Side of the
Universe, Guidebook Part 2 page 59, Accessed Oct. 7,
2013, "...Standard Model of Particle Physics: The modern theory of elementary particles and their interactions ...
It does not, strictly speaking, include gravity, although its
often convenient to include gravitons among the known
particles of nature...
[3] In fact, there are mathematical issues regarding quantum
eld theories still under debate (see e.g. Landau pole),
but the predictions extracted from the Standard Model by
current methods applicable to current experiments are all
self-consistent. For a further discussion see e.g. Chapter
25 of R. Mann (2010). An Introduction to Particle Physics
and the Standard Model. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-42008298-2.
[4] S.L. Glashow (1961). Partial-symmetries of weak
interactions.
Nuclear Physics 22 (4): 579588.
Bibcode:1961NucPh..22..579G.
doi:10.1016/00295582(61)90469-2.
[5] S. Weinberg (1967).
A Model of LepPhysical Review Letters 19 (21):
tons.
12641266.
Bibcode:1967PhRvL..19.1264W.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.19.1264.
[6] A. Salam (1968). N. Svartholm, ed. Elementary Particle Physics: Relativistic Groups and Analyticity. Eighth
Nobel Symposium. Stockholm: Almquvist and Wiksell.
p. 367.
[7] F. Englert, R. Brout (1964). Broken Symmetry and the
Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons. Physical Review Letters 13 (9): 321323. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..321E.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.321.

64

[8] P.W. Higgs (1964). Broken Symmetries and the


Masses of Gauge Bosons. Physical Review Letters
13 (16): 508509. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..508H.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.508.
[9] G.S. Guralnik, C.R. Hagen, T.W.B. Kibble
(1964).
Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles.
Physical Review Letters 13
(20):
585587.
Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..585G.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.585.

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

[22] Conrmed: CERN discovers new particle likely to be the


Higgs boson. YouTube. Russia Today. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
[23] D. Overbye (4 July 2012). A New Particle Could Be
Physics Holy Grail. New York Times. Retrieved 201207-04.
[24] New results indicate that new particle is a Higgs boson.
CERN. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-06.

[10] F.J. Hasertet al. (1973). Search for elastic muonneutrino electron scattering. Physics Letters B 46 (1):
121. Bibcode:1973PhLB...46..121H. doi:10.1016/03702693(73)90494-2.

[25] S. Braibant, G. Giacomelli, M. Spurio (2009). Particles


and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics. Springer. pp. 313314. ISBN 978-94-0072463-1.

[11] F.J. Hasert et al. (1973). Observation of neutrino-like


interactions without muon or electron in the Gargamelle
neutrino experiment.
Physics Letters B 46 (1):
138. Bibcode:1973PhLB...46..138H. doi:10.1016/03702693(73)90499-1.

[26] BABAR Data in Tension with the Standard Model.


SLAC. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-06.

[12] F.J. Hasert et al. (1974). Observation of neutrino-like


interactions without muon or electron in the Gargamelle
Nuclear Physics B 73 (1):
neutrino experiment.
1. Bibcode:1974NuPhB..73....1H. doi:10.1016/05503213(74)90038-8.
[13] D. Haidt (4 October 2004). The discovery of the weak
neutral currents. CERN Courier. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
[14] Details can be worked out if the situation is simple
enough for us to make an approximation, which is almost
never, but often we can understand more or less what is
happening. from The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol
1. pp. 27
[15] G.S. Guralnik (2009).
The History of the
Guralnik, Hagen and Kibble development of
the Theory of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Gauge Particles.
International Journal of Modern Physics A 24 (14): 26012627.
arXiv:0907.3466.
Bibcode:2009IJMPA..24.2601G.
doi:10.1142/S0217751X09045431.
[16] B.W. Lee, C. Quigg, H.B. Thacker (1977). Weak
interactions at very high energies: The role of
the Higgs-boson mass.
Physical Review D 16
(5): 15191531.
Bibcode:1977PhRvD..16.1519L.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.16.1519.
[17] Huge $10 billion collider resumes hunt for 'God particle'". CNN. 11 November 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
[18] M. Strassler (10 July 2012). Higgs Discovery: Is it a
Higgs?". Retrieved 2013-08-06.
[19] CERN experiments observe particle consistent with
long-sought Higgs boson. CERN. 4 July 2012. Retrieved
2012-07-04.
[20] Observation of a New Particle with a Mass of 125 GeV.
CERN. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
[21] ATLAS Experiment. ATLAS. 1 January 2006. Retrieved 2012-07-05.

[27] BaBar
Collaboration
(2012).
Evidence
for an excess of B D(*) decays.
Physical Review Letters 109 (10):
101802.
arXiv:1205.5442.
Bibcode:2012PhRvL.109j1802L.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.101802.
[28] BaBar data hint at cracks in the Standard Model. e! Science News. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
[29] J. Bagdonaite et al. (2012). A Stringent Limit
on a Drifting Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio
from Alcohol in the Early Universe.
Science
339 (6115):
46.
Bibcode:2013Sci...339...46B.
doi:10.1126/science.1224898.
[30] C. Moskowitz (13 December 2012). Phew! Universes
Constant Has Stayed Constant. Space.com. Retrieved
2012-12-14.
[31] Particle chameleon caught in the act of changing.
CERN. 31 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
[32] S. Weinberg (1979).
Baryon and Lepton Nonconserving Processes.
Physical Review Letters
43 (21): 1566.
Bibcode:1979PhRvL..43.1566W.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.1566.
[33] P. Minkowski (1977). " e at a Rate of One
Out of 109 Muon Decays?". Physics Letters B 67 (4):
421. Bibcode:1977PhLB...67..421M. doi:10.1016/03702693(77)90435-X.
[34] R. N. Mohapatra, G. Senjanovic (1980).
Neutrino Mass and Spontaneous Parity Nonconservation.
Physical Review Letters 44 (14):
912915.
Bibcode:1980PhRvL..44..912M.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.44.912.
[35] M. Gell-Mann, P. Ramond and R. Slansky (1979). F. van
Nieuwenhuizen and D. Z. Freedman, ed. Supergravity.
North Holland. pp. 315321. ISBN 0-444-85438-X.
[36] Salvio,
Strumia
(2014-03-17).
Agravity.
JHEP
1406
(2014)
080.
arXiv:1403.4226.
Bibcode:2014JHEP...06..080S.
doi:10.1007/JHEP06(2014)080.

4.1. STANDARD MODEL

4.1.10

Further reading

R. Oerter (2006). The Theory of Almost Everything:


The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics. Plume.
B.A. Schumm (2004). Deep Down Things: The
Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7971-X.
Introductory textbooks
I. Aitchison, A. Hey (2003). Gauge Theories in Particle Physics: A Practical Introduction. Institute of
Physics. ISBN 978-0-585-44550-2.
W. Greiner, B. Mller (2000). Gauge Theory of
Weak Interactions. Springer. ISBN 3-540-676724.
G.D. Coughlan, J.E. Dodd, B.M. Gripaios (2006).
The Ideas of Particle Physics: An Introduction for
Scientists. Cambridge University Press.
D.J. Griths (1987). Introduction to Elementary
Particles. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-603864.
G.L. Kane (1987). Modern Elementary Particle
Physics. Perseus Books. ISBN 0-201-11749-5.

65
E.S. Abers, B.W. Lee (1973).
Gauge
theories.
Physics Reports 9:
1141.
Bibcode:1973PhR.....9....1A. doi:10.1016/03701573(73)90027-6.
M. Baak et al.
(2012).
The Electroweak
Fit of the Standard Model after the Discovery of a New Boson at the LHC.
The European Physical Journal C 72 (11).
arXiv:1209.2716. Bibcode:2012EPJC...72.2205B.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-2205-9.
Y. Hayato et al. (1999). Search for Proton Decay through p K + in a Large
Water Cherenkov Detector.
Physical Re1529.
arXiv:hepview Letters 83 (8):
ex/9904020.
Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.1529H.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.1529.
S.F. Novaes (2000). Standard Model: An Introduction. arXiv:hep-ph/0001283 [hep-ph].
D.P. Roy (1999). Basic Constituents of Matter and their Interactions A Progress Report.
arXiv:hep-ph/9912523 [hep-ph].
F. Wilczek (2004).
The Universe Is A
Strange Place.
Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements 134: 3.
arXiv:astroph/0401347.
Bibcode:2004NuPhS.134....3W.
doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2004.08.001.

Advanced textbooks
T.P. Cheng, L.F. Li (2006). Gauge theory of elementary particle physics. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-851961-3. Highlights the gauge theory
aspects of the Standard Model.
J.F. Donoghue, E. Golowich, B.R. Holstein (1994).
Dynamics of the Standard Model. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47652-2. Highlights dynamical and phenomenological aspects of
the Standard Model.
L. O'Raifeartaigh (1988). Group structure of gauge
theories. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52134785-8.
Nagashima Y. Elementary Particle Physics: Foundations of the Standard Model, Volume 2. (Wiley
2013) 920
Schwartz, M.D. Quantum Field Theory and the
Standard Model (ambridge University Press 2013)
952 pages
Langacker P. The standard model and beyond.
(CRC Press, 2010) 670 pages Highlights grouptheoretical aspects of the Standard Model.
Journal articles

4.1.11 External links


"The Standard Model explained in Detail by
CERNs John Ellis" omega tau podcast.
"LHC sees hint of lightweight Higgs boson" "New
Scientist".
"Standard Model may be found incomplete," New
Scientist.
"Observation of the Top Quark" at Fermilab.
"The Standard Model Lagrangian." After electroweak symmetry breaking, with no explicit Higgs
boson.
"Standard Model Lagrangian" with explicit Higgs
terms. PDF, PostScript, and LaTeX versions.
"The particle adventure." Web tutorial.
Nobes, Matthew (2002) Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics on Kuro5hin: Part
1, Part 2, Part 3a, Part 3b.
"The Standard Model" The Standard Model on the
CERN web site explains how the basic building
blocks of matter interact, governed by four fundamental forces.

66

4.2 Particle physics

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
of other particles.[3]

All particles, and their interactions observed to date,


For other uses of the word particle in physics and can be described almost entirely by a quantum eld theelsewhere, see particle (disambiguation).
ory called the Standard Model.[4] The Standard Model,
as currently formulated, has 61 elementary particles.[3]
Particle physics is a branch of physics which studies the Those elementary particles can combine to form composnature of particles that are the constituents of what is usu- ite particles, accounting for the hundreds of other species
ally referred to as matter and radiation. In current un- of particles that have been discovered since the 1960s.
derstanding, particles are excitations of quantum elds The Standard Model has been found to agree with almost
and interact following their dynamics. Although the word all the experimental tests conducted to date. However,
"particle" can be used in reference to many objects (e.g. most particle physicists believe that it is an incomplete dea proton, a gas particle, or even household dust), the term scription of nature, and that a more fundamental theory
particle physics usually refers to the study of smallest awaits discovery (See Theory of Everything). In recent
particles and the fundamental elds that must be dened years, measurements of neutrino mass have provided the
in order to explain the observed particles. These cannot rst experimental deviations from the Standard Model.
be dened by a combination of other fundamental elds.
The current set of fundamental elds and their dynamics
are summarized in a theory called the Standard Model, 4.2.2 History
therefore particle physics is largely the study of the Standard Models particle content and its possible extensions, Main article: History of subatomic physics
with the recent nding of Higgs boson.[1][2]
The idea that all matter is composed of elementary particles dates to at least the 6th century BC.[5] In the 19th
4.2.1 Subatomic particles
century, John Dalton, through his work on stoichiometry,
concluded that each element of nature was composed of
a single, unique type of particle.[6] The word atom, after the Greek word atomos meaning indivisible, denotes the smallest particle of a chemical element since
then, but physicists soon discovered that atoms are not, in
fact, the fundamental particles of nature, but conglomerates of even smaller particles, such as the electron. The
early 20th-century explorations of nuclear physics and
quantum physics culminated in proofs of nuclear ssion
in 1939 by Lise Meitner (based on experiments by Otto
Hahn), and nuclear fusion by Hans Bethe in that same
year; both discoveries also led to the development of
nuclear weapons. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, a bewildering variety of particles were found in scattering experiments. It was referred to as the "particle zoo". That
term was deprecated after the formulation of the StanThe particle content of the Standard Model of Physics
dard Model during the 1970s in which the large number of particles was explained as combinations of a (relModern particle physics research is focused on subatomic
atively) small number of fundamental particles.
particles, including atomic constituents such as electrons,
protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are composite particles called baryons, made of quarks), pro4.2.3 Standard Model
duced by radioactive and scattering processes, such as
photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of
exotic particles. Dynamics of particles is also governed Main article: Standard Model
by quantum mechanics; they exhibit waveparticle duality, displaying particle-like behavior under certain ex- The current state of the classication of all elementary
perimental conditions and wave-like behavior in others. particles is explained by the Standard Model. It describes
In more technical terms, they are described by quantum the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental instate vectors in a Hilbert space, which is also treated in teractions, using mediating gauge bosons. The species
quantum eld theory. Following the convention of par- of gauge bosons are the gluons, W, W+ and Z bosons,
ticle physicists, the term elementary particles is applied and the photons.[4] The Standard Model also contains 24
to those particles that are, according to current under- fundamental particles, (12 particles and their associated
standing, presumed to be indivisible and not composed anti-particles), which are the constituents of all matter.[7]

4.2. PARTICLE PHYSICS

67

Finally, the Standard Model also predicted the existence


of a type of boson known as the Higgs boson. Early in the
morning on 4 July 2012, physicists with the Large Hadron
Collider at CERN announced they have found a new particle that behaves similarly to what is expected from the
Higgs boson.[8]

The techniques required to do modern, experimental,


particle physics are quite varied and complex, constituting a sub-specialty nearly completely distinct from the
theoretical side of the eld.

4.2.4

Theoretical particle physics attempts to develop the


models, theoretical framework, and mathematical tools
to understand current experiments and make predictions
for future experiments. See also theoretical physics.
There are several major interrelated eorts being made
in theoretical particle physics today. One important
branch attempts to better understand the Standard Model
and its tests. By extracting the parameters of the Standard Model, from experiments with less uncertainty,
this work probes the limits of the Standard Model and
therefore expands our understanding of natures building
blocks. Those eorts are made challenging by the diculty of calculating quantities in quantum chromodynamics. Some theorists working in this area refer to themselves as phenomenologists and they may use the tools
of quantum eld theory and eective eld theory. Others
make use of lattice eld theory and call themselves lattice
theorists.

Experimental laboratories

In particle physics, the major international laboratories


are located at the:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (Long Island,
United States). Its main facility is the Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which collides heavy
ions such as gold ions and polarized protons. It is
the worlds rst heavy ion collider, and the worlds
only polarized proton collider.[9]

4.2.5 Theory

Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk,


Russia). Its main projects are now the electronpositron colliders VEPP-2000,[10] operated since
2006, and VEPP-4,[11] started experiments in 1994.
Earlier facilities include the rst electron-electron
beam-beam collider VEP-1, which conducted experiments from 1964 to 1968; the electron-positron
colliders VEPP-2, operated from 1965 to 1974; and, Another major eort is in model building where model
its successor VEPP-2M,[12] performed experiments builders develop ideas for what physics may lie beyond
the Standard Model (at higher energies or smaller disfrom 1974 to 2000.[13]
tances). This work is often motivated by the hierarchy
CERN, (Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva). Its problem and is constrained by existing experimental data.
main project is now the Large Hadron Collider It may involve work on supersymmetry, alternatives to the
(LHC), which had its rst beam circulation on 10 Higgs mechanism, extra spatial dimensions (such as the
September 2008, and is now the worlds most en- Randall-Sundrum models), Preon theory, combinations
ergetic collider of protons. It also became the of these, or other ideas.
most energetic collider of heavy ions after it beA third major eort in theoretical particle physics is
gan colliding lead ions. Earlier facilities include the
string theory. String theorists attempt to construct a uniLarge ElectronPositron Collider (LEP), which was
ed description of quantum mechanics and general relstopped on 2 November 2000 and then dismantled
ativity by building a theory based on small strings, and
to give way for LHC; and the Super Proton Synbranes rather than particles. If the theory is successful, it
chrotron, which is being reused as a pre-accelerator
may
be considered a "Theory of Everything".
for the LHC.[14]
There are also other areas of work in theoretical particle
DESY (Hamburg, Germany). Its main facility is the physics ranging from particle cosmology to loop quantum
Hadron Elektron Ring Anlage (HERA), which col- gravity.
lides electrons and positrons with protons.[15]
This division of eorts in particle physics is reected
Fermilab, (Batavia, United States). Its main facility in the names of categories on the arXiv, a preprint
until 2011 was the Tevatron, which collided protons archive:[18] hep-th (theory), hep-ph (phenomenology),
and antiprotons and was the highest-energy parti- hep-ex (experiments), hep-lat (lattice gauge theory).
cle collider on earth until the Large Hadron Collider
surpassed it on 29 November 2009.[16]

4.2.6 Practical applications

KEK, (Tsukuba, Japan). It is the home of a number of experiments such as the K2K experiment, a In principle, all physics (and practical applications develneutrino oscillation experiment and Belle, an exper- oped therefrom) can be derived from the study of fundaiment measuring the CP violation of B mesons.[17] mental particles. In practice, even if particle physics is
taken to mean only high-energy atom smashers, many
Many other particle accelerators do exist.
technologies have been developed during these pioneer-

68

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

ing investigations that later nd wide uses in society. 4.2.8 See also
Cyclotrons are used to produce medical isotopes for re Atomic physics
search and treatment (for example, isotopes used in PET
imaging), or used directly for certain cancer treatments.
High pressure
The development of Superconductors has been pushed
forward by their use in particle physics. The World Wide
International Conference on High Energy Physics
Web and touchscreen technology were initially developed
Introduction to quantum mechanics
at CERN.
Additional applications are found in medicine, national
security, industry, computing, science, and workforce development, illustrating a long and growing list of benecial practical applications with contributions from particle physics.[19]

List of accelerators in particle physics


List of particles
Magnetic monopole
Micro black hole

4.2.7

Future

The primary goal, which is pursued in several distinct


ways, is to nd and understand what physics may lie
beyond the standard model. There are several powerful experimental reasons to expect new physics, including
dark matter and neutrino mass. There are also theoretical
hints that this new physics should be found at accessible
energy scales. Furthermore, there may be surprises that
will give us opportunities to learn about nature.

Number theory
Resonance (particle physics)
Self-consistency principle in high energy Physics
Non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamical theory
Standard Model (mathematical formulation)
Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System

Timeline of particle physics


Much of the eort to nd this new physics are focused
on new collider experiments. The Large Hadron Col Unparticle physics
lider (LHC) was completed in 2008 to help continue the
Tetraquark
search for the Higgs boson, supersymmetric particles, and
other new physics. An intermediate goal is the construction of the International Linear Collider (ILC), which will
complement the LHC by allowing more precise measure- 4.2.9 References
ments of the properties of newly found particles. In Au[1] http://home.web.cern.ch/topics/higgs-boson
gust 2004, a decision for the technology of the ILC was
taken but the site has still to be agreed upon.
[2] http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/
In addition, there are important non-collider experiments
that also attempt to nd and understand physics beyond
the Standard Model. One important non-collider eort
is the determination of the neutrino masses, since these
masses may arise from neutrinos mixing with very heavy
particles. In addition, cosmological observations provide
many useful constraints on the dark matter, although it
may be impossible to determine the exact nature of the
dark matter without the colliders. Finally, lower bounds
on the very long lifetime of the proton put constraints on
Grand Unied Theories at energy scales much higher than
collider experiments will be able to probe any time soon.
In May 2014, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization
Panel released its report on particle physics funding priorities for the United States over the next decade. This report emphasized continued U.S. participation in the LHC
and ILC, and expansion of the Long Baseline Neutrino
Experiment, among other recommendations.
In early October 2014 the LHC discovered a new particle that was found to have four quarks, named the
tetraquark.[20]

laureates/2013/advanced-physicsprize2013.pdf
[3] Braibant, S.; Giacomelli, G.; Spurio, M. (2009). Particles
and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics. Springer. pp. 313314. ISBN 978-94-0072463-1.
[4] Particle Physics and Astrophysics Research. The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
[5] Fundamentals of Physics and Nuclear Physics (PDF).
Retrieved 21 July 2012.
[6] Scientic Explorer:
Quasiparticles.
Sciexplorer.blogspot.com. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 21
July 2012.
[7] Nakamura, K (1 July 2010). Review of Particle Physics.
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics
Bibcode:2010JPhG...37g5021N.
37 (7A): 075021.
doi:10.1088/0954-3899/37/7A/075021.
[8] Mann, Adam (28 March 2013). Newly Discovered Particle Appears to Be Long-Awaited Higgs Boson - Wired
Science. Wired.com. Retrieved 6 February 2014.

4.3. SUPERPARTNER

69

[9] Brookhaven National Laboratory A Passion for Discovery. Bnl.gov. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
[10] index. Vepp2k.inp.nsk.su. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
[11] The
VEPP-4
accelerating-storage
V4.inp.nsk.su. Retrieved 21 July 2012.

complex.

[12] VEPP-2M collider complex (in Russian). Inp.nsk.su.


Retrieved 21 July 2012.
[13] The Budker Institute Of Nuclear Physics. English Russia. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
[14] Welcome to. Info.cern.ch. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
[15] Germanys largest accelerator centre Deutsches
Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Desy.de. Retrieved 23
June 2012.
[16] Fermilab | Home. Fnal.gov. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
[17] Kek | High Energy Accelerator Research Organization.
Legacy.kek.jp. Retrieved 23 June 2012.

Robinson, Matthew B.; Cleaver, Gerald; Cleaver,


Gerald B. (2009). A Simple Introduction to Particle Physics Part II. arXiv:0908.1395 [hep-th].
Griths, David J. (1987). Introduction to Elementary Particles. Wiley, John & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0471-60386-4.
Kane, Gordon L. (1987). Modern Elementary Particle Physics. Perseus Books. ISBN 0-201-11749-5.
Perkins, Donald H. (1999). Introduction to High Energy Physics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-62196-8.
Povh, Bogdan (1995). Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts. Springer-Verlag.
ISBN 0-387-59439-6.
Boyarkin, Oleg (2011). Advanced Particle Physics
Two-Volume Set. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-43980412-4.

[18] arxiv.org
[19] Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Benets to Society.
Fnal.gov. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
[20] Universe Today; Benets to Society. Universe Today.
Retrieved 8 October 2014.

4.2.10

Further reading

Introductory reading
Close, Frank (2004). Particle Physics: A Very Short
Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19280434-0.
Close, Frank; Marten, Michael; Sutton, Christine
(2004). The Particle Odyssey: A Journey to the
Heart of the Matter. Oxford University Press. ISBN
9780198609438.
Ford, Kenneth W. (2005). The Quantum World.
Harvard University Press.

4.2.11 External links


Symmetry magazine
Fermilab
Particle physics it matters the Institute of Physics
Nobes, Matthew (2002) Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics on Kuro5hin: Part
1, Part 2, Part 3a, Part 3b.
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research
The Particle Adventure educational project sponsored by the Particle Data Group of the Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

4.3 Superpartner

Oerter, Robert (2006). The Theory of Almost Ev- In particle physics, a superpartner (also sparticle) is
erything: The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph a hypothetical elementary particle. Supersymmetry is
of Modern Physics. Plume.
one of the synergistic theories in current high-energy
physics that predicts the existence of these shadow
Schumm, Bruce A. (2004). Deep Down Things: The
particles.[1][2]
Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics. Johns HopThe word superpartner is a portmanteau of supersymmekins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7971-X.
try and partner. The word sparticle is a portmanteau of
Close, Frank (2006). The New Cosmic Onion. supersymmetry and particle.
Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-58488-798-2.
Advanced reading
Robinson, Matthew B.; Bland, Karen R.; Cleaver,
Gerald. B.; Dittmann, Jay R. (2008). A Simple
Introduction to Particle Physics. arXiv:0810.3328
[hep-th].

4.3.1 Theoretical predictions


According to the supersymmetry theory, each fermion
should have a partner boson, the fermions superpartner,
and each boson should have a partner fermion. Exact unbroken supersymmetry would predict that a particle and

70

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

its superpartners would have the same mass. No superpartners of the Standard Model particles have yet been
found. This may indicate that supersymmetry is incorrect, or it may also be the result of the fact that supersymmetry is not an exact, unbroken symmetry of nature. If
superpartners are found, their masses would indicate the
scale at which supersymmetry is broken.[1][3]
For particles that are real scalars (such as an axion), there
is a fermion superpartner as well as a second, real scalar
eld. For axions, these particles are often referred to as
axinos and saxions.
In extended supersymmetry there may be more than one
superparticle for a given particle. For instance, with two
copies of supersymmetry in four dimensions, a photon
would have two fermion superpartners and a scalar superpartner.
In zero dimensions it is possible to have supersymmetry,
but no superpartners. However, this is the only situation
where supersymmetry does not imply the existence of superpartners.

[2] Overbye, Dennis (May 15, 2007). A Giant Takes


On Physics Biggest Questions. The New York Times
(Manhattan, New York: Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). p.
F1. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 21
February 2011.
[3] Quigg, Chris (January 17, 2008). Sidebar: Solving the
Higgs Puzzle. Scientic American (Nature Publishing
Group). ISSN 0036-8733. OCLC 1775222. Archived
from the original on 2011-02-22. Retrieved 21 February
2011.
[4] Jamieson, Valerie (13 December 2013). Higgs Nobel
bash: I was at the party of the universe. New Scientist.
Retrieved 20 December 2013. So far the Higgs hasn't
given many supersymmetric clues.

4.3.5 External links


Argonne National Laboratory
Large Hadron Collider
CERN homepage

4.3.2

Recreating superpartners

If the supersymmetry theory is correct, it should be pos- 4.4 Supersymmetry


sible to recreate these particles in high-energy particle accelerators. Doing so will not be an easy task; these parti- SUSY redirects here. For other uses, see Susy (disamcles may have masses up to a thousand times greater than biguation).
their corresponding real particles.[1]
Some researchers have hoped the Large Hadron Collider For the episode of the American TV series Angel, see
at CERN might produce evidence for the existence of su- Supersymmetry (Angel)
perpartner particles.[1] However, as of 2013, no such evIn particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a proidence has been found.[4]
posed extension of spacetime symmetry that relates two
basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have
an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half4.3.3 See also
integer spin.[1] Each particle from one group is associated with a particle from the other, called its superpartner,
Chargino
whose spin diers by a half-integer. In a theory with perfectly unbroken supersymmetry, each pair of superpart Gluino
ners shares the same mass and internal quantum numbers
Gravitino as a superpartner of the hypothetical besides spin - for example, a selectron (superpartner
graviton
electron) would be a boson version of the electron, and
would have the same mass energy and thus be equally
Neutralino
easy to nd in the lab. However, since no superpartners have been observed yet, supersymmetry must be a
Sfermion
spontaneously broken symmetry if it exists. If supersymmetry is a true symmetry of nature, it would explain many
Higgsino
mysterious features of particle physics and would help
solve paradoxes such as the cosmological constant prob4.3.4 References
lem. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is
one of the best studied candidates for physics beyond the
[1] Langacker, Paul (November 22, 2010).
Sprouse, Standard Model.
Gene D., ed. Meet a superpartner at the LHC.
Physics (New York: American Physical Society) 3 (98).
Bibcode:2010PhyOJ...3...98L. doi:10.1103/Physics.3.98.
ISSN 1943-2879. OCLC 233971234. Archived from the
original on 2011-02-22. Retrieved 21 February 2011.

The failure of the Large Hadron Collider to nd evidence


for supersymmetry has led some physicists to suggest that
the theory should be abandoned as a solution to such problems, as any superpartners that exist would now need to

4.4. SUPERSYMMETRY
be too massive to solve the paradoxes anyway.[2] Experiments with the Large Hadron Collider also yielded extremely rare particle decay events which casts doubt on
many versions of supersymmetry.[3]

71
proposed theories of physics.

The rst realistic supersymmetric version of the Standard Model was proposed in 1981 by Howard Georgi and
Savas Dimopoulos and is called the Minimal SupersymSupersymmetry diers notably from currently known metric Standard Model or MSSM for short. It was prosymmetries in that it establishes a symmetry between posed to solve the hierarchy problem and predicts superclassical and quantum physics, which up to now has not partners with masses between 100 GeV and 1 TeV.
been observed in any other domain. While any num- As of September 2011, no meaningful signs of the suber of bosons can occupy the same quantum state, for perpartners have been observed.[17][18] The Large Hadron
fermions this is not possible because of the exclusion prin- Collider at CERN is producing the worlds highest energy
ciple, which allows only one fermion in a given state. But collisions and oers the best chance at discovering superwhen the occupation numbers become large, quantum particles for the foreseeable future.
physics approaches the classical limit. This means that
while bosons also exist in classical physics, fermions do After the discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012, it was
not. That makes it dicult to expect that bosons pos- expected that supersymmetric particles would be found at
sess the same quantum numbers as fermions.[4] There is CERN, but there has been still no evidence of them. The
only indirect evidence for the existence of supersymme- LHCb and CMS experiments at the LHC made the rst
try, primarily in the form of evidence for gauge coupling denitive observation of a Strange B meson decaying into
unication.[5] However this refers only to electroweak and two muons, conrming a standard model prediction, but
[19]
strong interactions and does not provide the ultimate uni- a blow for those hoping for signs of supersymmetry.
cation of all interactions, since it leaves gravitation un- Neil Turok at Perimeter Institute concedes that theorists
are disheartened at that situation, and that they are at a
touched.
crossroad in theoretical (and particle) physics, calling it a
deep crisis. He described the LHC results as simple,
yet extremely puzzling and said we have to get peo4.4.1 History
ple to try to nd the new principles that will explain the
simplicity.[20]
A supersymmetry relating mesons and baryons was rst
proposed, in the context of hadronic physics, by Hironari
Miyazawa in 1966. This supersymmetry did not involve
spacetime, that is it concerned internal symmetry, and 4.4.2 Motivations
was badly broken. His work was largely ignored at the
A central motivation for supersymmetry close to the TeV
time.[6][7][8][9]
energy scale is the resolution of the hierarchy problem
J. L. Gervais and B. Sakita (in 1971),[10] Yu. A. Golof the Standard Model. Without the extra supersymmetfand and E. P. Likhtman (also in 1971), and D.V. Volkov ric particles, the Higgs boson mass is subject to quanand V.P. Akulov (in 1972),[11] independently rediscovtum corrections which are so large as to naturally drive it
ered supersymmetry in the context of quantum eld the- close to the Planck mass barring its ne tuning to an exory, a radically new type of symmetry of spacetime and traordinarily tiny value. In the supersymmetric theory, on
fundamental elds, which establishes a relationship be- the other hand, these quantum corrections are canceled
tween elementary particles of dierent quantum nature, by those from the corresponding superpartners above the
bosons and fermions, and unies spacetime and internal supersymmetry breaking scale, which becomes the new
symmetries of the microscopic world. Supersymmetry characteristic natural scale for the Higgs mass. Other
with a consistent Lie-algebraic graded structure on which attractive features of TeV-scale supersymmetry are the
the GervaisSakita rediscovery was based directly rst fact that it often provides a candidate dark matter pararose in 1971[12] in the context of an early version of ticle at a mass scale consistent with thermal relic abunstring theory by Pierre Ramond, John H. Schwarz and dance calculations,[21][22] provides a natural mechanism
Andr Neveu.
for electroweak symmetry breaking and allows for the
Finally, J. Wess and B. Zumino (in 1974)[13] identi- precise high-energy unication of the weak, the strong
ed the characteristic renormalization features of four- and electromagnetic interactions. Therefore, scenarios
dimensional supersymmetric eld theories, which sin- where supersymmetric partners appear with masses not
gled them out as remarkable QFTs, and they and Abdus much greater than 1 TeV are considered the most wellSalam and their fellow researchers introduced early par- motivated by theorists.[23] These scenarios would imply
ticle physics applications. The mathematical structure that experimental traces of the superpartners should beof supersymmetry (Graded Lie superalgebras) has sub- gin to emerge in high-energy collisions at the LHC relasequently been applied successfully to other areas of tively soon. As of September 2011, no meaningful signs
physics, in a variety of elds, ranging from nuclear of the superpartners have been observed,[17][18] which
physics,[14][15] critical phenomena,[16] quantum mechan- is beginning to signicantly constrain the most popular
ics to statistical physics. It remains a vital part of many incarnations of supersymmetry. However, the total pa-

72

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

rameter space of consistent supersymmetric extensions of the spin-statistics theorem, bosonic elds commute while
the Standard Model is extremely diverse and can not be fermionic elds anticommute. Combining the two kinds
denitively ruled out at the LHC.
of elds into a single algebra requires the introduction of a
Supersymmetry is also motivated by solutions to several Z2 -grading under which the bosons are the even elements
theoretical problems, for generally providing many de- and the fermions are the odd elements. Such an algebra
sirable mathematical properties, and for ensuring sensi- is called a Lie superalgebra.
ble behavior at high energies. Supersymmetric quantum
eld theory is often much easier to analyze, as many more
problems become exactly solvable. When supersymmetry is imposed as a local symmetry, Einsteins theory of
general relativity is included automatically, and the result
is said to be a theory of supergravity. It is also a necessary feature of the most popular candidate for a theory of
everything, superstring theory.
Another theoretically appealing property of supersymmetry is that it oers the only loophole to the Coleman
Mandula theorem, which prohibits spacetime and internal
symmetries from being combined in any nontrivial way,
for quantum eld theories like the Standard Model under very general assumptions. The Haag-LopuszanskiSohnius theorem demonstrates that supersymmetry is the
only way spacetime and internal symmetries can be consistently combined.[24]

4.4.3

Applications

The simplest supersymmetric extension of the Poincar


algebra is the Super-Poincar algebra. Expressed in terms
of two Weyl spinors, has the following anti-commutation
relation:

{Q , Q}
= 2( ) P

and all other anti-commutation relations between the Qs


and commutation relations between the Qs and Ps vanish.
In the above expression P = i are the generators of
translation and are the Pauli matrices.
There are representations of a Lie superalgebra that are
analogous to representations of a Lie algebra. Each Lie
algebra has an associated Lie group and a Lie superalgebra can sometimes be extended into representations of a
Lie supergroup.
The Supersymmetric Standard Model

Extension of possible symmetry groups

Main article: Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

One reason that physicists explored supersymmetry is because it oers an extension to the more familiar symmetries of quantum eld theory. These symmetries are
grouped into the Poincar group and internal symmetries and the ColemanMandula theorem showed that under certain assumptions, the symmetries of the S-matrix
must be a direct product of the Poincar group with a
compact internal symmetry group or if there is no mass
gap, the conformal group with a compact internal symmetry group. In 1971 Golfand and Likhtman were the
rst to show that the Poincar algebra can be extended
through introduction of four anticommuting spinor generators (in four dimensions), which later became known
as supercharges. In 1975 the Haag-Lopuszanski-Sohnius
theorem analyzed all possible superalgebras in the general
form, including those with an extended number of the supergenerators and central charges. This extended superPoincar algebra paved the way for obtaining a very large
and important class of supersymmetric eld theories.

Incorporating supersymmetry into the Standard Model


requires doubling the number of particles since there is
no way that any of the particles in the Standard Model can
be superpartners of each other. With the addition of new
particles, there are many possible new interactions. The
simplest possible supersymmetric model consistent with
the Standard Model is the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) which can include the necessary additional new particles that are able to be superpartners of
those in the Standard Model.

One of the main motivations for SUSY comes from the


quadratically divergent contributions to the Higgs mass
squared. The quantum mechanical interactions of the
Higgs boson causes a large renormalization of the Higgs
mass and unless there is an accidental cancellation, the
natural size of the Higgs mass is the highest scale possible. This problem is known as the hierarchy problem. Supersymmetry reduces the size of the quantum corrections
by having automatic cancellations between fermionic and
bosonic Higgs interactions. If supersymmetry is restored
The supersymmetry algebra
Main article: at the weak scale, then the Higgs mass is related to suSupersymmetry algebra
persymmetry breaking which can be induced from small
non-perturbative eects explaining the vastly dierent
Traditional symmetries in physics are generated by ob- scales in the weak interactions and gravitational interacjects that transform under the tensor representations of tions.
the Poincar group and internal symmetries. Supersym- In many supersymmetric Standard Models there is a
metries, on the other hand, are generated by objects that heavy stable particle (such as neutralino) which could
transform under the spinor representations. According to serve as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)

4.4. SUPERSYMMETRY

73
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics
Main article: Supersymmetric quantum mechanics
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics adds the SUSY superalgebra to quantum mechanics as opposed to quantum
eld theory. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics often
comes up when studying the dynamics of supersymmetric
solitons, and due to the simplied nature of having elds
which are only functions of time (rather than space-time),
a great deal of progress has been made in this subject and
it is now studied in its own right.

Cancellation of the Higgs boson quadratic mass renormalization between fermionic top quark loop and scalar stop squark
tadpole Feynman diagrams in a supersymmetric extension of the
Standard Model

dark matter candidate. The existence of a supersymmetric dark matter candidate is closely tied to R-parity.
The standard paradigm for incorporating supersymmetry
into a realistic theory is to have the underlying dynamics of the theory be supersymmetric, but the ground state
of the theory does not respect the symmetry and supersymmetry is broken spontaneously. The supersymmetry
break can not be done permanently by the particles of the
MSSM as they currently appear. This means that there
is a new sector of the theory that is responsible for the
breaking. The only constraint on this new sector is that
it must break supersymmetry permanently and must give
superparticles TeV scale masses. There are many models
that can do this and most of their details do not matter.
In order to parameterize the relevant features of supersymmetry breaking, arbitrary soft SUSY breaking terms
are added to the theory which temporarily break SUSY
explicitly but could never arise from a complete theory of
supersymmetry breaking.

SUSY quantum mechanics involves pairs of


Hamiltonians which share a particular mathematical relationship, which are called partner Hamiltonians.
(The potential energy terms which occur in the Hamiltonians are then called partner potentials.) An introductory
theorem shows that for every eigenstate of one Hamiltonian, its partner Hamiltonian has a corresponding
eigenstate with the same energy. This fact can be
exploited to deduce many properties of the eigenstate
spectrum. It is analogous to the original description of
SUSY, which referred to bosons and fermions. We can
imagine a bosonic Hamiltonian, whose eigenstates are
the various bosons of our theory. The SUSY partner
of this Hamiltonian would be fermionic, and its
eigenstates would be the theorys fermions. Each boson
would have a fermionic partner of equal energy.
Supersymmetry: Applications to condensed matter
physics

SUSY concepts have provided useful extensions to the


WKB approximation. In addition, SUSY has been
applied to disorder averaged systems both quantum
and non-quantum (through statistical mechanics). The
Fokker-Planck equation being an example of a nonquantum theory. The `supersymmetry' in all these systems arises from the fact that one is modelling one particle and as such the`statistics don't matter. The use of the
supersymmetry method provides a mathematical rigorous
alternative to the replica trick, but only in non-interacting
systems, which attempts to address the so-called `probGauge-coupling unication Main article: Minimal
lem of the denominator' under disorder averaging. For
Supersymmetric Standard Model Gauge-coupling
more on the applications of supersymmetry in condensed
unication
matter physics see the book[25]
One piece of evidence for supersymmetry existing is
gauge coupling unication. The renormalization group
evolution of the three gauge coupling constants of the
Standard Model is somewhat sensitive to the present particle content of the theory. These coupling constants
do not quite meet together at a common energy scale
if we run the renormalization group using the Standard
Model.[5] With the addition of minimal SUSY joint convergence of the coupling constants is projected at approximately 1016 GeV.[5]

Supersymmetry in optics
Integrated optics was recently found[26] to provide a
fertile ground on which certain ramications of SUSY
can be explored in readily-accessible laboratory settings.
Making use of the analogous mathematical structure of
the quantum-mechanical Schrdinger equation and the
wave equation governing the evolution of light in onedimensional settings, one may interpret the refractive in-

74

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

dex distribution of a structure as a potential landscape in


which optical wave packets propagate. Along these lines,
a new class of functional optical structures with possible
applications in phase matching, mode conversion[27] and
space-division multiplexing becomes possible. SUSY
transformations have been also proposed as a way to address inverse scattering problems in optics and as a onedimensional transformation optics [28]

Mathematics
SUSY is also sometimes studied mathematically for its
intrinsic properties. This is because it describes complex
elds satisfying a property known as holomorphy, which
allows holomorphic quantities to be exactly computed.
This makes supersymmetric models useful toy models of
more realistic theories. A prime example of this has been
the demonstration of S-duality in four-dimensional gauge
theories[29] that interchanges particles and monopoles.
The proof of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem is much
simplied by the use of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

4.4.4

In four dimensions there are the following theories, with


the corresponding multiplets[30] (CPT adds a copy, whenever they are not invariant under such symmetry)
N=1
Chiral multiplet: (0,1 2 ) Vector multiplet: (1 2 ,1) Gravitino multiplet: (1,3 2 ) Graviton multiplet: (3 2 ,2)
N=2
hypermultiplet: (-1 2 ,02 ,1 2 ) vector multiplet: (0,1 2 2 ,1)
supergravity multiplet: (1,3 2 2 ,2)
N=4
Vector multiplet: (1,-1 2 4 ,06 ,1 2 4 ,1) Supergravity multiplet: (0,1 2 4 ,16 ,3 2 4 ,2)
N=8
Supergravity
multiplet:
1 56 70 1 56 28 3 8
2 ,0 , 2 ,1 , 2 ,2)

(2,-3 2 8 ,128 ,-

General supersymmetry
Supersymmetry in alternate numbers of dimensions

Supersymmetry appears in many dierent contexts in


theoretical physics that are closely related. It is possible It is possible to have supersymmetry in dimensions other
to have multiple supersymmetries and also have super- than four. Because the properties of spinors change drastically between dierent dimensions, each dimension has
symmetric extra dimensions.
its characteristic. In d dimensions, the size of spinors
is roughly 2d/2 or 2(d 1)/2 . Since the maximum number of supersymmetries is 32, the greatest number of diExtended supersymmetry
mensions in which a supersymmetric theory can exist is
eleven.
Main article: Extended supersymmetry
It is possible to have more than one kind of supersymmetry transformation. Theories with more than one supersymmetry transformation are known as extended supersymmetric theories. The more supersymmetry a theory
has, the more constrained the eld content and interactions are. Typically the number of copies of a supersymmetry is a power of 2, i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8. In four dimensions, a spinor has four degrees of freedom and thus the
minimal number of supersymmetry generators is four in
four dimensions and having eight copies of supersymmetry means that there are 32 supersymmetry generators.

4.4.5 Supersymmetry as a quantum group

The maximal number of supersymmetry generators possible is 32. Theories with more than 32 supersymmetry
generators automatically have massless elds with spin
greater than 2. It is not known how to make massless
elds with spin greater than two interact, so the maximal number of supersymmetry generators considered is
32. This corresponds to an N = 8 supersymmetry theory.
Theories with 32 supersymmetries automatically have a
graviton.

4.4.6 Supersymmetry in quantum gravity

Main article: Supersymmetry as a quantum group


Supersymmetry can be reinterpreted in the language of
noncommutative geometry and quantum groups. In particular, it involves a mild form of noncommutativity,
namely supercommutativity. See the main article for
more details.

Supersymmetry is part of a larger enterprise of theoretical physics to unify everything we know about the physical world into a single fundamental framework of physical laws, known as the quest for a Theory of Everything
(TOE). A signicant part of this larger enterprise is the
quest for a theory of quantum gravity, which would unify
the classical theory of general relativity and the Standard

4.4. SUPERSYMMETRY
Model, which explains the other three basic forces in
physics (electromagnetism, the strong interaction, and the
weak interaction), and provides a palette of fundamental
particles upon which all four forces act. Two of the most
active approaches to forming a theory of quantum gravity are string theory and loop quantum gravity (LQG), although in theory, supersymmetry could be a component
of other theoretical approaches as well.
For string theory to be consistent, supersymmetry appears
to be required at some level (although it may be a strongly
broken symmetry). In particle theory, supersymmetry is
recognized as a way to stabilize the hierarchy between the
unication scale and the electroweak scale (or the Higgs
boson mass), and can also provide a natural dark matter candidate. String theory also requires extra spatial
dimensions which have to be compactied as in Kaluza
Klein theory.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) predicts no additional spatial dimensions, nor anything else about particle physics.
These theories can be formulated in three spatial dimensions and one dimension of time, although in some LQG
theories dimensionality is an emergent property of the
theory, rather than a fundamental assumption of the theory. Also, LQG is a theory of quantum gravity which
does not require supersymmetry. Lee Smolin, one of the
originators of LQG, has proposed that a loop quantum
gravity theory incorporating either supersymmetry or extra dimensions, or both, be called loop quantum gravity
II.
If experimental evidence conrms supersymmetry in the
form of supersymmetric particles such as the neutralino
that is often believed to be the lightest superpartner, some
people believe this would be a major boost to string theory. Since supersymmetry is a required component of
string theory, any discovered supersymmetry would be
consistent with string theory. If the Large Hadron Collider and other major particle physics experiments fail to
detect supersymmetric partners or evidence of extra dimensions, many versions of string theory which had predicted certain low mass superpartners to existing particles
may need to be signicantly revised. The failure of experiments to discover either supersymmetric partners or
extra spatial dimensions, as of 2013, has encouraged loop
quantum gravity researchers.

4.4.7

Falsiability

SUSY is often criticized in that its greatest strength and


weakness is that it is not falsiable, because its breaking
mechanism and the minimum mass above which it is restored are unknown. This minimum mass can be pushed
upwards to arbitrarily large values, without disproving the
symmetry, and a non-falsiable theory is generally considered unscientic. However, many theoretical physicists continue to focus on supersymmetry because of its
usefulness as a tool in quantum eld theory, its interest-

75
ing mathematical properties, and the possibility that extremely high energy physics (as in around the time of the
big bang) are described by supersymmetric theories.

4.4.8 Current status


Supersymmetric models are constrained by a variety of
experiments, including measurements of low-energy observables, for example the anomalous magnetic moment
of the muon at Brookhaven; the WMAP dark matter density measurement and direct detection experiments, for
example XENON100; and by particle collider experiments, including B-physics, Higgs phenomenology and
direct searches for superpartners (sparticles), at the Large
ElectronPositron Collider, Tevatron and the LHC.
Historically, the tightest limits were from direct production at colliders. The rst mass limits for squarks and
gluinos were made at CERN by the UA1 experiment and
the UA2 experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron.
LEP later set very strong limits.[31] In 2006 these limits
were extended by the D0 experiment.[32][33]
From 2003, WMAP's dark matter density measurements
have strongly constrained supersymmetry models, which
have to be tuned to invoke a particular mechanism to sufciently reduce the neutralino density.
Prior to the launch of the LHC, in 2009, ts of available
data to CMSSM and NUHM1 indicated that squarks and
gluinos were most likely to have masses in 500 to 800
GeV range, though values as high as 2.5 TeV were allowed with low probabilities. Neutralinos and sleptons
were expected to be quite light, with the lightest neutralino and the lightest stau most likely to be found between 100 to 150 GeV.[34]
As of 2014, the LHC has found no evidence for supersymmetry, and, as a result, has surpassed existing experimental limits from Large ElectronPositron Collider
and Tevatron and partially excluded the aforementioned
expected ranges.[35][36][37][38] Based on the data sample
collected by the CMS detector at the LHC through the
summer of 2011, CMSSM squarks have been excluded
up to the mass of 1.1 TeV and gluinos have been excluded up to 500 GeV.[39] Searches are only applicable
for a nite set of tested points because simulation using
the Monte Carlo method must be made so that limits for
that particular model can be calculated. This complicates
matters because dierent experiments have looked at different sets of points. Some extrapolation between points
can be made within particular models but it is dicult to
set general limits even for the Minimal Supersymmetric
Standard Model.
In 2011 and 2012, the LHC discovered a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV, and with couplings
to fermions and bosons which are consistent with the
Standard Model. The MSSM predicts that the mass of
the lightest Higgs boson should not be much higher than

76

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

the mass of the Z boson, and, in the absence of ne tun Supergeometry


ing (with the supersymmetry breaking scale on the or Supergravity
der of 1 TeV), should not exceed 130 GeV. Furthermore,
for values of the MSSM parameter tan 3, it predicts
Supergroup
Higgs mass below 114 GeV over most of the parame Superspace
ter space.[40] This region of Higgs mass was excluded by
LEP by 2000. The LHC result is somewhat problematic
for the minimal supersymmetric model, as the value of
4.4.10 References
125 GeV is relatively large for the model and can only be
achieved with large radiative loop corrections from top [1] Sean Carroll, Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The Dark Side
squarks, which many theorists consider to be unnatural
of the Universe, The Teaching Company, Guidebook Part
(see naturalness and ne tuning).[41]
2 page 60, Accessed Oct. 7, 2013, "...Supersymmetry -There are eight arguments against supersymmetry. (1)
The LUX experiment for cold dark matter has not observed neutralinos. (2) The large size of the WMAP cold
spot is larger than predicted by Lambda cold dark matter
models. (3) The large-scale ow of galaxies is larger than
predicted by Lambda CDM models. (4) The number of
faint dwarf galaxies is smaller than predicted by Lambda
CDM models. (5) Neither the ATLAS nor the CMS collaboration have observed gluinos and squarks. (6) The
rest mass, interaction cross-section and decay rates of
the Higgs boson are compatible with the standard theory, but not with earlier predictions by supersymmetric
models. (7) Dirac fermions can be described by a gravitation theory which includes Cartan torsion (EinsteinCartan theory), supersymmetry is not required. (8) The
mass hierarchy problem of Grand Unied theories need
not arise if Grand Unication does not exist. The proton decay predicted by Grand Unied theories has not
been observed. The quantization of electric charge can
be explained by theories which include Dirac magnetic
monopoles, so Grand Unication is not necessary.[42]

A hypothetical symmetry relating bosons to fermions...


[2] Wolchover,
Natalie
(November
29,
2012).
Supersymmetry Fails Test, Forcing Physics to Seek New
Ideas. Scientic American.
[3] M. Hogenboom (24 July 2013). Ultra-rare decay conrmed in LHC. BBC. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
[4] Richard M. Weiner (2013).
Spin-statisticsquantum
number
connection
and
superPhysical Review D 87 (5).
symmetry.
arXiv:1302.0969.
Bibcode:2013PhRvD..87e5003W.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.87.055003.
[5] Gordon L. Kane, The Dawn of Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Scientic American, June 2003, page 60 and
The frontiers of physics, special edition, Vol 15, #3, page
8 Indirect evidence for supersymmetry comes from the
extrapolation of interactions to high energies.
[6] H. Miyazawa (1966).
Baryon Number Changing Currents.
Prog.
Theor.
Phys.
36 (6):
12661276.
Bibcode:1966PThPh..36.1266M.
doi:10.1143/PTP.36.1266.

In spite of the null searches and the heavy Higgs, a [7]


recent analysis of the constrained minimal supersymmetric Standard Model, the CMSSM, suggests that the
model is still compatible with all present experimental constraints.[43] The preferred masses for squarks and [8]
gluinos is about 2 TeV. The resulting ne-tuning of the
Higgs boson mass and Z-boson mass (see mu problem
and little hierarchy problem), however, is considered un- [9]
natural, and some theorists now favor extended supersymmetry models, for example, the NMSSM.
[10]

4.4.9

See also

Supersymmetric gauge theory


WessZumino model
Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
Supersymmetry as a quantum group
Quantum group
Supercharge
Supereld

H. Miyazawa (1968). Spinor Currents and Symmetries of Baryons and Mesons. Phys. Rev. 170
(5): 15861590.
Bibcode:1968PhRv..170.1586M.
doi:10.1103/PhysRev.170.1586.
Michio Kaku, Quantum Field Theory, ISBN 0-19509158-2, pg 663.
Peter Freund, Introduction to Supersymmetry, ISBN 0521-35675-X, pages 26-27, 138.
Gervais, J. -L.; Sakita, B. (1971). Field theory interpretation of supergauges in dual models. Nuclear
Physics B 34 (2): 632. Bibcode:1971NuPhB..34..632G.
doi:10.1016/0550-3213(71)90351-8.

[11] D.V. Volkov, V.P. Akulov, Pisma Zh.Eksp.Teor.Fiz. 16


(1972) 621; Phys.Lett. B46 (1973) 109; V.P. Akulov,
D.V. Volkov, Teor.Mat.Fiz. 18 (1974) 39
[12] Ramond,
P. (1971).
Dual Theory for
Free Fermions.
Physical Review D 3
Bibcode:1971PhRvD...3.2415R.
(10):
2415.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.3.2415.
[13] Wess, J.; Zumino, B. (1974). Supergauge transformations in four dimensions. Nuclear Physics B 70:
39. Bibcode:1974NuPhB..70...39W. doi:10.1016/05503213(74)90355-1.

4.4. SUPERSYMMETRY

77

[14] http://users.physik.fu-berlin.de/~{}kleinert/kleinert/?p=
supersym suggested here

[31] LEPSUSYWG, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments, charginos, large m0 LEPSUSYWG/01-03.1

[15] Iachello, F. (1980).


Dynamical Supersymmetries in Nuclei.
Physical Review Letters
44 (12):
772.
Bibcode:1980PhRvL..44..772I.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.44.772.

[32] The D0-Collaboration (2009).


Search for associated production of charginos and neutralinos in
the trilepton nal state using 2.3 fb1 of data.
arXiv:0901.0646.
Bibcode:2009PhLB..680...34D.
doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2009.08.011.

[16] Friedan, D.; Qiu, Z.; Shenker, S. (1984). Conformal Invariance, Unitarity, and Critical Exponents in Two Dimensions. Physical Review Letters
Bibcode:1984PhRvL..52.1575F.
52 (18): 1575.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.52.1575.
[17] ATLAS SUSY search documents
[18] CMS SUSY search documents
[19] CERN latest data shows no sign of supersymmetry yet
Phys.Org, 25 July 2013

[33] The D0 Collaboration (2006). Search for squarks


and gluinos in events with jets and missing trans
verse energy in p
p collisions at
s =1.96 TeV.
arXiv:0712.3805.
Bibcode:2008PhLB..660..449D.
doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.01.042.
[34] O. Buchmueller et al.. Likelihood Functions for Supersymmetric Observables in Frequentist Analyses of the
CMSSM and NUHM1. arXiv:0907.5568.
[35] Implications of Initial LHC Searches for Supersymmetry

[20] Perimeter Institute and the crisis in modern physics Paul


Wells, 5 Sep 2013

[36] Fine-tuning implications for complementary dark matter


and LHC SUSY searches

[21] Jonathan Feng: Supersymmetric Dark Matter (pdf), University of California, Irvine, 11 May 2007

[37] What LHC tells about SUSY


[38] Early SUSY searches at the LHC

[22] Torsten Bringmann: The WIMP Miracle (pdf) University of Hamburg


[23]
[24]

[25]
[26]

[39] CMS Collaboration; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.;


Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic,
M.; Er, J.; Fabjan, C.; Toropin, Yu; Dermenev, A;
http://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/lhcposts/
Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N;
what-do-current-mid-august-2011-lhc-results-imply-about-supersymmetry/
Matveev, V; Hrubec, A; Jeitler, A; Troitsky, S; Swain,
A; Liko, O; Mikulec, M; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.;
R. Haag, J. T. Lopuszanski and M. Sohnius, "All Possible
Trocino, H.; Wood, R.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik,
Generators Of Supersymmetries Of The S Matrix", Nucl.
A et al. (November 2011). Search for Supersymmetry
Phys. B 88 (1975) 257
at the LHC in Events with Jets and Missing Transverse
Supersymmetry in Disorder and Chaos, Konstantin Efetov,
Energy. Physical Review Letters 107 (22): 221804.
Cambridge university press, 1997.
arXiv:1109.2352.
Bibcode:2011PhRvL.107v1804C.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.221804.
PMID
Miri,
M.-A.;
Heinrich,
M.;
El-Ganainy,
22182023.
R.;
Christodoulides,
D.
N.
(2013).
Superymmetric optical structures.
Physi- [40] Marcela Carena and Howard E. Haber; Haber (1970).
Higgs Boson Theory and Phenomenology. Progress
cal Review Letters (APS) 110 (23):
233902.
in Particle and Nuclear Physics 50: 63. arXiv:heparXiv:1304.6646.
Bibcode:2013PhRvL.110w3902M.
ph/0208209v3.
Bibcode:2003PrPNP..50...63C.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.233902. Retrieved April
doi:10.1016/S0146-6410(02)00177-1.
2014.

[27] Heinrich, M.; Miri, M.-A.; Sttzer, S.; El-Ganainy,


R.; Nolte, S.; Szameit, A.; Christodoulides,
D. N. (2014).
Superymmetric mode convertNature Communications (NPG) 5: 3698.
ers.
arXiv:1401.5734.
Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E3698H.
doi:10.1038/ncomms4698. Retrieved April 2014.
[28] Miri, M.-A.; Heinrich; Christodoulides, D. N. (2014).
SUSY-inspired
one-dimensional
transformation
optics. Optica (OSA) 1: 89. arXiv:1408.0832.
doi:10.1364/OPTICA.1.000089.
Retrieved August
2014.
[29] Krasnitz, Michael (2002). Correlation functions in supersymmetric gauge theories from supergravity uctuauctuations hHKtions. Princeton University Department of
Physics: Princeton University Department of Physics. p.
91.
[30] Polchinski,J. String theory. Vol. 2: Superstring theory and
beyond, Appendix B

[41] Patrick Draper et al (December 2011).


Implications of a 125 GeV Higgs for the
MSSM
and
Low-Scale
SUSY
Breaking.
arXiv:1112.3068.
Bibcode:2012PhRvD..85i5007D.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.85.095007.
[42] R. W. Khne: Quantum Field Theory with ElectricMagnetic Duality and Spin-Mass Duality but Without
Grand Unication and Supersymmetry. African Review
of Physics 6 (2011) 165-179.
[43] Global Fits of the cMSSM and NUHM including the
LHC Higgs discovery and new XENON100 constraints,
C. Strege, G. Bertone, F. Feroz, M. Fornasa, R. Ruiz de
Austri, R. Trotta, arXiv:1212.2636

4.4.11 Further reading


Supersymmetry and Supergravity page in String
Theory Wiki lists more books and reviews.

78
Theoretical introductions, free and online
S. Martin (2011). A Supersymmetry Primer.
arXiv:hep-ph/9709356.
Joseph D. Lykken (1996). Introduction to Supersymmetry. arXiv:hep-th/9612114.
Manuel Drees (1996). An Introduction to Supersymmetry. arXiv:hep-ph/9611409.
Adel Bilal (2001). Introduction to Supersymmetry. arXiv:hep-th/0101055.
An Introduction to Global Supersymmetry by Philip
Arygres, 2001
Monographs
Weak Scale Supersymmetry by Howard Baer and
Xerxes Tata, 2006.
Cooper, F., A. Khare and U. Sukhatme. Supersymmetry in Quantum Mechanics. Phys. Rep. 251
(1995) 267-85 (arXiv:hep-th/9405029).
Junker, G. Supersymmetric Methods in Quantum and
Statistical Physics, Springer-Verlag (1996).
Gordon L. Kane.Supersymmetry: Unveiling the Ultimate Laws of Nature Basic Books, New York
(2001). ISBN 0-7382-0489-7.
Gordon L. Kane and Shifman, M., eds. The Supersymmetric World: The Beginnings of the Theory,
World Scientic, Singapore (2000). ISBN 981-024522-X.
Weinberg, Steven, The Quantum Theory of Fields,
Volume 3: Supersymmetry, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, (1999). ISBN 0-521-66000-9.

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
Measurement of the negative muon anomalous magnetic moment to 0.7 ppm. Physical
Review Letters 92 (16): 161802. arXiv:hepex/0401008.
Bibcode:2004PhRvL..92p1802B.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.161802.
PMID
15169217.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (Jan. 8, 2004).
New g2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model. Press Release.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Sept 25,
2006). Fermilabs CDF scientists have discovered the
quick-change behavior of the B-sub-s meson. Press
Release.

4.4.12 External links


What do current LHC results (mid-August 2011)
imply about supersymmetry? Matt Strassler
ATLAS Experiment Supersymmetry search documents
CMS Experiment Supersymmetry search documents
Particle wobble shakes up supersymmetry, Cosmos magazine, September 2006
LHC results put supersymmetry theory 'on the spot'
BBC news 27/8/2011
SUSY running out of hiding places BBC news
12/11/2012
Supersymmetry in optics? Skulls in the Stars blog
22/08/2013

4.5 Higgs boson

Wess, Julius, and Jonathan Bagger, Supersymme- The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary partry and Supergravity, Princeton University Press, ticle in the Standard Model of particle physics. Its main
Princeton, (1992). ISBN 0-691-02530-4.
relevance is that it is the smallest possible excitation of
the Higgs eld[6][7] a eld that unlike the more famil Duplij, Steven; Siegel, Warren; Bagger, Jonathan iar electromagnetic eld cannot be turned o, but in(eds.) (2005). Concise Encyclopedia of Supersym- stead takes a non-zero constant value almost everywhere.
metry, Springer, Berlin/New York, (Second print- The presence of this eld explains why some fundamening) ISBN 978-1-4020-1338-6
tal particles have mass while the symmetries controlling
their interactions should require them to be massless, and
why the weak force has a much shorter range than the
On experiments
electromagnetic force.
Bennett GW, et al.; Muon (g2) Collaboration;
Bousquet; Brown; Bunce; Carey; Cushman; Danby;
Debevec; Deile; Deng; Dhawan; Druzhinin;
Duong; Farley; Fedotovich; Gray; Grigoriev;
Grosse-Perdekamp; Grossmann; Hare; Hertzog;
Huang; Hughes; Iwasaki; Jungmann; Kawall;
Khazin; Krienen; Kronkvist et al.
(2004).

Despite being present everywhere, the existence of the


Higgs eld has been very hard to conrm, because it
is extremely hard to create excitations (i.e. Higgs particles). The search for this elusive particle has taken
more than 40 years and led to the construction of one
of the worlds most expensive and complex experimental facilities to date, CERN's Large Hadron Collider,[8]

4.5. HIGGS BOSON

79

able to create Higgs bosons and other particles for observation and study. On 4 July 2012, the discovery of a
new particle with a mass between 125 and 127 GeV/c2
was announced; physicists suspected that it was the Higgs
boson.[9][10][11] By March 2013, the particle had been
proven to behave, interact and decay in many of the ways
predicted by the Standard Model, and was also tentatively
conrmed to have positive parity and zero spin,[1] two
fundamental attributes of a Higgs boson. This appears
to be the rst elementary scalar particle discovered in
nature.[12] More data is needed to know if the discovered
particle exactly matches the predictions of the Standard
Model, or whether, as predicted by some theories, multiple Higgs bosons exist.[3]

4.5.1 A non-technical summary

In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a boson


with no spin, electric charge, or colour charge. It is also
very unstable, decaying into other particles almost immediately. It is a quantum excitation of one of the four
components of the Higgs eld. The latter constitutes a
scalar eld, with two neutral and two electrically charged
components, and forms a complex doublet of the weak
isospin SU(2) symmetry. The eld has a "Mexican hat"
shaped potential with nonzero strength everywhere (including otherwise empty space), which in its vacuum state
breaks the weak isospin symmetry of the electroweak interaction. When this happens, three components of the
Higgs eld are absorbed by the SU(2) and U(1) gauge
bosons (the "Higgs mechanism") to become the longitudinal components of the now-massive W and Z bosons
of the weak force. The remaining electrically neutral
component separately couples to other particles known
as fermions (via Yukawa couplings), causing these to
acquire mass as well. Some versions of the theory predict more than one kind of Higgs elds and bosons. Alternative Higgsless models would have been considered
if the Higgs boson was not discovered.

an unusual kind of eld existed throughout the universe.


It would cause existing particles to acquire mass instead
of new massless particles being formed. By 1972 it had
been developed into a comprehensive theory and proved
capable of giving sensible results. Although there was
not yet any proof of such a eld, calculations consistently
gave answers and predictions that were conrmed by experiments, including very accurate predictions of several
other particles,[Note 7] so scientists began to believe this
might be true and to search for proof whether or not a
Higgs eld exists in nature.

Higgs terminology

Overview

In particle physics, elementary particles and forces give


rise to the world around us. Nowadays, physicists explain
the behaviour of these particles and how they interact using the Standard Modela widely accepted and remarkably accurate[17] framework based on gauge invariance
and symmetries, believed to explain almost everything in
The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of
the world we see, other than gravity.[18]
six physicists who, in 1964, proposed the mechanism
that suggested the existence of such a particle. Al- But by around 1960 all attempts to create a gauge inthough Higgss name has come to be associated with variant theory for two of the four fundamental forces had
this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and consistently failed at one crucial point: although gauge in1972 each independently developed dierent parts of it. variance seemed extremely important, it seemed to make
In mainstream media the Higgs boson has often been any theory of electromagnetism and the weak force go
called the God particle, from a 1993 book on the haywire, by demanding that either many particles with
topic; the nickname is strongly disliked by many physi- mass were massless or that non-existent forces and masscists, including Higgs, who regard it as inappropriate less particles had to exist. Scientists had no idea how to
sensationalism.[13][14] On December 10, 2013 two of the get past this point.
original researchers, Peter Higgs and Franois Englert, Work done on superconductivity and broken symmewere awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work tries around 1960 led physicist Philip Anderson to suggest
and prediction.[15] Englerts co-researcher Robert Brout in 1962 a new kind of solution that might hold the key.
had died in 2011 and the Nobel Prize is not ordinarily In 1964 a theory was created by 3 dierent groups of regiven posthumously.
searchers, that showed the problems could be resolved if

If this eld did exist, this would be a monumental discovery for science and human knowledge, and is expected to
open doorways to new knowledge in many disciplines. If
not, then other more complicated theories would need to
be explored. The easiest proof whether or not the eld existed was by searching for a new kind of particle it would
have to give o, known as Higgs bosons or the Higgs
particle. These would be extremely dicult to nd, so
it was only many years later that experimental technology
became sophisticated enough to answer the question.
While several symmetries in nature are spontaneously
broken through a form of the Higgs mechanism, in the
context of the Standard Model the term Higgs mechanism almost always means symmetry breaking of the
electroweak eld. It is considered proven, but the exact cause has been exceedingly dicult to prove. Af-

80
ter 50 years, the Higgs bosons existence apparently
proven in 2013 would nally conrm that the Standard
Model is essentially correct and allow further development, while its non-existence would mean that other theories are needed instead.

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
sible to predict how seemingly esoteric knowledge may
aect society in the future.[40][42]
Other observers highlight technological spin-os from
this and related particle physics activities, which have already brought major developments to society. For example, the World Wide Web as used today was created
by physicists working in global collaborations on particle
experiments at CERN to share their results, and the results of massive amounts of data produced by the Large
Hadron Collider have already led to signicant advances
in distributed and cloud computing, now well established
within mainstream services.[41]

Various analogies have also been invented to describe


the Higgs eld and boson, including analogies with wellknown symmetry breaking eects such as the rainbow
and prism, electric elds, ripples, and resistance of
macro objects moving through media, like people moving
through crowds or some objects moving through syrup or
molasses. However, analogies based on simple resistance
to motion are inaccurate as the Higgs eld does not work Stephen Hawking in the preface of his book Starmus
by resisting motion.
wrote, The Higgs potential has the worrisome feature
that it might become metastable at energies above 100bn
gigaelectronvolts. This could mean that the universe
4.5.2 Signicance
could undergo catastrophic vacuum decay, with a bubble
of the true vacuum expanding at the speed of light. This
Scientic impact
could happen at any time and we wouldn't see it coming.
Hawking however claried that the only way to accelerate
Evidence of the Higgs eld and its properties has been exparticles above 100bn gigaelectronvolts was with a partitremely signicant scientically, for many reasons. The
cle accelerator larger than the Earth.[45][46]
Higgs bosons importance is largely that it is able to be examined using existing knowledge and experimental technology, as a way to conrm and study the entire Higgs
4.5.3 History
eld theory.[6][7] Conversely, proof that the Higgs eld
and boson do not exist would also have been signicant.
See also: 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers and Higgs
In discussion form, the relevance includes:
mechanism
Particle physicists study matter made from fundamental
Real world impact
As yet, there are no known immediate technological benets of nding the Higgs particle. However, observers in
both media and science point out that when fundamental
discoveries are made about our world, their practical uses
can take decades to emerge, but are often world-changing
when they do.[40][41][42] A common pattern for fundamental discoveries is for practical applications to follow later,
once the discovery has been explored further, at which
point they become the basis for social change and new
technologies.
For example, in the rst half of the 20th century it
was not expected that quantum mechanics would make
possible transistors and microchips, mobile phones and
computers, lasers and M.R.I. scanners.[43] Radio waves
were described by their co-discoverer in 1888 as an
interesting laboratory experiment with no useful purpose whatsoever,[44] and are now used in innumerable
ways (radar, weather prediction, medicine, television,
wireless computing and emergency response), positrons
are used in hospital tomography scans, and special and
general relativity, which explain black holes also enable
satellite-based GPS and satellite navigation (satnav).[43]
Electric power generation and transmission, motors, and
lighting all stemmed from previous theoretical work
on electricity and magnetism; air conditioning and
refrigeration resulted from thermodynamics. It is impos-

Nobel Prize Laureate Peter Higgs in Stockholm, December 2013

particles whose interactions are mediated by exchange


particles - gauge bosons - acting as force carriers. At
the beginning of the 1960s a number of these particles had been discovered or proposed, along with theories suggesting how they relate to each other, some
of which had already been reformulated as eld theories in which the objects of study are not particles and

4.5. HIGGS BOSON


forces, but quantum elds and their symmetries.[47]:150
However, attempts to unify known fundamental forces
such as the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force were known to be incomplete. One known
omission was that gauge invariant approaches, including non-abelian models such as YangMills theory
(1954), which held great promise for unied theories, also seemed to predict known massive particles as
massless.[48] Goldstones theorem, relating to continuous
symmetries within some theories, also appeared to rule
out many obvious solutions,[49] since it appeared to show
that zero-mass particles would have to also exist that were
simply not seen.[50] According to Guralnik, physicists
had no understanding how these problems could be
overcome.[50]

81
cases and speculated it might be possible in truly relativistic cases.[57]

These approaches were quickly developed into a full


relativistic model, independently and almost simultaneously, by three groups of physicists: by Franois Englert and Robert Brout in August 1964;[58] by Peter
Higgs in October 1964;[59] and by Gerald Guralnik,
Carl Hagen, and Tom Kibble (GHK) in November
1964.[60] Higgs also wrote a short but important[51] response published in September 1964 to an objection by
Gilbert,[61] which showed that if calculating within the
radiation gauge, Goldstones theorem and Gilberts objection would become inapplicable.[Note 10] (Higgs later
described Gilberts objection as prompting his own
paper.[62] ) Properties of the model were further considParticle physicist and mathematician Peter Woit sum- ered by Guralnik in 1965,[63] by Higgs in 1966,[64] by
marised the state of research at the time:
Kibble in 1967,[65] and further by GHK in 1967.[66] The
original three 1964 papers showed that when a gauge
theory is combined with an additional eld that spontaYang and Mills work on non-abelian gauge
neously breaks the symmetry, the gauge bosons can contheory had one huge problem: in perturbation
sistently acquire a nite mass.[51][52][67] In 1967, Steven
theory it has massless particles which dont
Weinberg[68] and Abdus Salam[69] independently showed
correspond to anything we see. One way of
how a Higgs mechanism could be used to break the elecgetting rid of this problem is now fairly welltroweak symmetry of Sheldon Glashow's unied model
understood, the phenomenon of connement
for the weak and electromagnetic interactions[70] (itself
realized in QCD, where the strong interactions
an extension of work by Schwinger), forming what beget rid of the massless gluon states at long
came the Standard Model of particle physics. Weinberg
distances. By the very early sixties, people had
was the rst to observe that this would also provide mass
begun to understand another source of massterms for the fermions.[71] [Note 11]
less particles: spontaneous symmetry breaking
However, the seminal papers on spontaneous breaking of
of a continuous symmetry. What Philip Angauge symmetries were at rst largely ignored, because
derson realized and worked out in the summer
it was widely believed that the (non-Abelian gauge) theof 1962 was that, when you have both gauge
ories in question were a dead-end, and in particular that
symmetry and spontaneous symmetry breakthey could not be renormalised. In 197172, Martinus
ing, the NambuGoldstone massless mode can
Veltman
and Gerard 't Hooft proved renormalisation of
combine with the massless gauge eld modes
YangMills
was possible in two papers covering massless,
to produce a physical massive vector eld. This
and
then
massive,
elds.[71] Their contribution, and othis what happens in superconductivity, a subject
ers work on the renormalization group - including subabout which Anderson was (and is) one of the
stantial theoretical work by Russian physicists[72] - was
leading experts. [text condensed] [48]
eventually enormously profound and inuential,[73] but
even with all key elements of the eventual theory pubThe Higgs mechanism is a process by which vector bosons lished there was still almost no wider interest. For excan get rest mass without explicitly breaking gauge in- ample, Coleman found in a study that essentially no-one
variance, as a byproduct of spontaneous symmetry break- paid any attention to Weinbergs paper prior to 1971[74]
ing.[51][52] The mathematical theory behind spontaneous now the most cited in particle physics[75] and even
symmetry breaking was initially conceived and published in 1970 according to Politzer, Glashows teaching of the
within particle physics by Yoichiro Nambu in 1960,[53] weak interaction contained no mention of Weinbergs,
the concept that such a mechanism could oer a possi- Salams, or Glashows own work.[73] In practice, Politzer
ble solution for the mass problem was originally sug- states, almost everyone learned of the theory due to physigested in 1962 by Philip Anderson (who had previously cist Benjamin Lee, who combined the work of Veltman
written papers on broken symmetry and its outcomes and 't Hooft with insights by others, and popularised the
in superconductivity[54] and concluded in his 1963 pa- completed theory.[73] In this way, from 1971, interest and
per on Yang-Mills theory that considering the supercon- acceptance exploded [73] and the ideas were quickly abducting analog... [t]hese two types of bosons seem ca- sorbed in the mainstream.[71][73]
pable of canceling each other out... leaving nite mass
bosons),[55]:45[56] and Abraham Klein and Benjamin The resulting electroweak theory and Standard Model
Lee showed in March 1964 that Goldstones theorem have correctly predicted (among other discoveries) weak
could be avoided this way in at least some non-relativistic neutral currents, three bosons, the top and charm quarks,

82
and with great precision, the mass and other properties of
some of these.[Note 7] Many of those involved eventually
won Nobel Prizes or other renowned awards. A 1974
paper and comprehensive review in Reviews of Modern Physics commented that while no one doubted the
[mathematical] correctness of these arguments, no one
quite believed that nature was diabolically clever enough
to take advantage of them,[76]:9 adding that the theory
had so far produced meaningful answers that accorded
with experiment, but it was unknown whether the theory was actually correct.[76]:9,36(footnote),4344,47 By 1986
and again in the 1990s it became possible to write that
understanding and proving the Higgs sector of the Standard Model was the central problem today in particle
physics. [77][78]

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
tor bosons, the Higgs mechanism also predicts the ratio between the W boson and Z boson masses as well
as their couplings with each other and with the Standard
Model quarks and leptons. Subsequently, many of these
predictions have been veried by precise measurements
performed at the LEP and the SLC colliders, thus overwhelmingly conrming that some kind of Higgs mechanism does take place in nature,[83] but the exact manner
by which it happens has not yet been discovered. The
results of searching for the Higgs boson are expected to
provide evidence about how this is realized in nature.

4.5.4 Theoretical properties


Main article: Higgs mechanism

Summary and impact of the PRL papers


The three papers written in 1964 were each recognised as
milestone papers during Physical Review Letters 's 50th
anniversary celebration.[67] Their six authors were also
awarded the 2010 J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics for this work.[79] (A controversy also arose
the same year, because in the event of a Nobel Prize only
up to three scientists could be recognised, with six being
credited for the papers.[80] ) Two of the three PRL papers
(by Higgs and by GHK) contained equations for the hypothetical eld that eventually would become known as
the Higgs eld and its hypothetical quantum, the Higgs
boson.[59][60] Higgs subsequent 1966 paper showed the
decay mechanism of the boson; only a massive boson can
decay and the decays can prove the mechanism.
In the paper by Higgs the boson is massive, and in a
closing sentence Higgs writes that an essential feature
of the theory is the prediction of incomplete multiplets
of scalar and vector bosons".[59] (Frank Close comments
that 1960s gauge theorists were focused on the problem
of massless vector bosons, and the implied existence of
a massive scalar boson was not seen as important; only
Higgs directly addressed it.[81]:154, 166, 175 ) In the paper
by GHK the boson is massless and decoupled from the
massive states.[60] In reviews dated 2009 and 2011, Guralnik states that in the GHK model the boson is massless only in a lowest-order approximation, but it is not
subject to any constraint and acquires mass at higher orders, and adds that the GHK paper was the only one
to show that there are no massless Goldstone bosons in
the model and to give a complete analysis of the general
Higgs mechanism.[50][82] All three reached similar conclusions, despite their very dierent approaches: Higgs
paper essentially used classical techniques, Englert and
Brouts involved calculating vacuum polarization in perturbation theory around an assumed symmetry-breaking
vacuum state, and GHK used operator formalism and
conservation laws to explore in depth the ways in which
Goldstones theorem may be worked around.[51]

Theoretical need for the Higgs

"Symmetry breaking illustrated": At high energy levels (left) the


ball settles in the center, and the result is symmetrical. At lower
energy levels (right), the overall rules remain symmetrical, but
the Mexican hat potential comes into eect: local symmetry
inevitably becomes broken since eventually the ball must at random roll one way or another.

Gauge invariance is an important property of modern particle theories such as the Standard Model, partly due to
its success in other areas of fundamental physics such
as electromagnetism and the strong interaction (quantum
chromodynamics). However, there were great diculties
in developing gauge theories for the weak nuclear force or
a possible unied electroweak interaction. Fermions with
a mass term would violate gauge symmetry and therefore cannot be gauge invariant. (This can be seen by examining the Dirac Lagrangian for a fermion in terms of
left and right handed components; we nd none of the
spin-half particles could ever ip helicity as required for
mass, so they must be massless.[Note 12] ) W and Z bosons
are observed to have mass, but a boson mass term contains terms, which clearly depend on the choice of gauge
and therefore these masses too cannot be gauge invariant. Therefore it seems that none of the standard model
fermions or bosons could begin with mass as an inbuilt property except by abandoning gauge invariance. If
gauge invariance were to be retained, then these particles had to be acquiring their mass by some other mechanism or interaction. Additionally, whatever was giving
these particles their mass, had to not break gauge invariIn addition to explaining how mass is acquired by vec- ance as the basis for other parts of the theories where it

4.5. HIGGS BOSON

83

worked well, and had to not require or predict unexpected Properties of the Standard Model Higgs
massless particles and long-range forces (seemingly an inevitable consequence of Goldstones theorem) which did In the Standard Model, the Higgs eld consists of four
components, two neutral ones and two charged componot actually seem to exist in nature.
nent elds. Both of the charged components and one of
A solution to all of these overlapping problems came
the neutral elds are Goldstone bosons, which act as the
from the discovery of a previously unnoticed borderlongitudinal third-polarization components of the masline case hidden in the mathematics of Goldstones
sive W+ , W , and Z bosons. The quantum of the remain[Note 10]
theorem,
that under certain conditions it might
ing neutral component corresponds to (and is theoretitheoretically be possible for a symmetry to be brocally realised as) the massive Higgs boson.[86] Since the
ken without disrupting gauge invariance and without any
Higgs eld is a scalar eld (meaning it does not transform
new massless particles or forces, and having sensible
under Lorentz transformations), the Higgs boson has no
(renormalisable) results mathematically: this became
spin. The Higgs boson is also its own antiparticle and is
known as the Higgs mechanism.
CP-even, and has zero electric and colour charge.[87]
The Standard Model hypothesizes a eld which is responThe Minimal Standard Model does not predict the mass
sible for this eect, called the Higgs eld (symbol:
of the Higgs boson.[88] If that mass is between 115 and
), which has the unusual property of a non-zero ampli180 GeV/c2 , then the Standard Model can be valid at
tude in its ground state; i.e., a non-zero vacuum expectaenergy scales all the way up to the Planck scale (1019
tion value. It can have this eect because of its unusual
GeV).[89] Many theorists expect new physics beyond the
Mexican hat shaped potential whose lowest point is
Standard Model to emerge at the TeV-scale, based on
not at its centre. Below a certain extremely high energy
unsatisfactory properties of the Standard Model.[90] The
level the existence of this non-zero vacuum expectation
highest possible mass scale allowed for the Higgs boson
spontaneously breaks electroweak gauge symmetry which
(or some other electroweak symmetry breaking mechain turn gives rise to the Higgs mechanism and triggers the
nism) is 1.4 TeV; beyond this point, the Standard Model
acquisition of mass by those particles interacting with the
becomes inconsistent without such a mechanism, because
eld. This eect occurs because scalar eld components
unitarity is violated in certain scattering processes.[91]
of the Higgs eld are absorbed by the massive bosons
as degrees of freedom, and couple to the fermions via It is also possible, although experimentally dicult, to
Yukawa coupling, thereby producing the expected mass estimate the mass of the Higgs boson indirectly. In the
terms. In eect when symmetry breaks under these con- Standard Model, the Higgs boson has a number of indiditions, the Goldstone bosons that arise interact with the rect eects; most notably, Higgs loops result in tiny corHiggs eld (and with other particles capable of interacting rections to masses of W and Z bosons. Precision meawith the Higgs eld) instead of becoming new massless surements of electroweak parameters, such as the Fermi
particles, the intractable problems of both underlying the- constant and masses of W/Z bosons, can be used to calcuories neutralise each other, and the residual outcome is late constraints on the mass of the Higgs. As of July 2011,
that elementary particles acquire a consistent mass based the precision electroweak measurements tell us that the
on how strongly they interact with the Higgs eld. It is mass of the Higgs boson is likely to be less than about
the simplest known process capable of giving mass to the 161 GeV/c2 at 95% condence level (this upper limit
gauge bosons while remaining compatible with gauge the- would increase to 185 GeV/c2 if the lower bound of 114.4
ories.[84] Its quantum would be a scalar boson, known as GeV/c2 from the LEP-2 direct search is allowed for[83] ).
These indirect constraints rely on the assumption that the
the Higgs boson.[85]
Standard Model is correct. It may still be possible to discover a Higgs boson above these masses if it is accomLeptons
Quarks
panied by other particles beyond those predicted by the

e
e
q
Standard Model.[92]

Weak
Bosons

g
Gluons

Production

If Higgs particle theories are correct, then a Higgs particle can be produced much like other particles that are
studied, in a particle collider. This involves accelerating
a large number of particles to extremely high energies
H
and extremely close to the speed of light, then allowing
Higgs Boson
them to smash together. Protons and lead ions (the bare
nuclei of lead atoms) are used at the LHC. In the extreme
Summary of interactions between certain particles described by energies of these collisions, the desired esoteric particles
will occasionally be produced and this can be detected
the Standard Model.
and studied; any absence or dierence from theoretiPhoton

84

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

cal expectations can also be used to improve the theory.


The relevant particle theory (in this case the Standard
Model) will determine the necessary kinds of collisions
and detectors. The Standard Model predicts that Higgs
bosons could be formed in a number of ways,[93][94][95]
although the probability of producing a Higgs boson in
any collision is always expected to be very smallfor
example, only 1 Higgs boson per 10 billion collisions in
the Large Hadron Collider.[Note 13] The most common expected processes for Higgs boson production are:
Gluon fusion. If the collided particles are hadrons
such as the proton or antiprotonas is the case in
the LHC and Tevatronthen it is most likely that
two of the gluons binding the hadron together collide. The easiest way to produce a Higgs particle is
if the two gluons combine to form a loop of virtual
quarks. Since the coupling of particles to the Higgs
boson is proportional to their mass, this process is
more likely for heavy particles. In practice it is
enough to consider the contributions of virtual top
and bottom quarks (the heaviest quarks). This process is the dominant contribution at the LHC and
Tevatron being about ten times more likely than any
of the other processes.[93][94]

The Standard Model prediction for the decay width of the Higgs
particle depends on the value of its mass.

Decay

Quantum mechanics predicts that if it is possible for a


particle to decay into a set of lighter particles, then it will
eventually do so.[97] This is also true for the Higgs boson. The likelihood with which this happens depends on
a variety of factors including: the dierence in mass, the
strength of the interactions, etc. Most of these factors
are xed by the Standard Model, except for the mass of
the Higgs boson itself. For a Higgs boson with a mass of
126 GeV/c2 the SM predicts a mean life time of about
22 [Note 2]
Higgs Strahlung. If an elementary fermion collides 1.610 s.
with an anti-fermione.g., a quark with an antiquark or an electron with a positronthe two can
merge to form a virtual W or Z boson which, if
it carries sucient energy, can then emit a Higgs
boson. This process was the dominant production
mode at the LEP, where an electron and a positron
collided to form a virtual Z boson, and it was the second largest contribution for Higgs production at the
Tevatron. At the LHC this process is only the third
largest, because the LHC collides protons with protons, making a quark-antiquark collision less likely
than at the Tevatron. Higgs Strahlung is also known
The Standard Model prediction for the branching ratios of the
as associated production.[93][94][95]
dierent decay modes of the Higgs particle depends on the value
of its mass.

Weak boson fusion. Another possibility when two


(anti-)fermions collide is that the two exchange a
virtual W or Z boson, which emits a Higgs boson.
The colliding fermions do not need to be the same
type. So, for example, an up quark may exchange
a Z boson with an anti-down quark. This process
is the second most important for the production of
Higgs particle at the LHC and LEP.[93][95]

Since it interacts with all the massive elementary particles


of the SM, the Higgs boson has many dierent processes
through which it can decay. Each of these possible processes has its own probability, expressed as the branching
ratio; the fraction of the total number decays that follows
that process. The SM predicts these branching ratios as a
function of the Higgs mass (see plot).

Top fusion. The nal process that is commonly considered is by far the least likely (by two orders of
magnitude). This process involves two colliding gluons, which each decay into a heavy quarkantiquark
pair. A quark and antiquark from each pair can then
combine to form a Higgs particle.[93][94]

One way that the Higgs can decay is by splitting into


a fermionantifermion pair. As general rule, the Higgs
is more likely to decay into heavy fermions than light
fermions, because the mass of a fermion is proportional
to the strength of its interaction with the Higgs.[99] By
this logic the most common decay should be into a top
antitop quark pair. However, such a decay is only possi-

4.5. HIGGS BOSON


ble if the Higgs is heavier than ~346 GeV/c2 , twice the
mass of the top quark. For a Higgs mass of 126 GeV/c2
the SM predicts that the most common decay is into a
bottomantibottom quark pair, which happens 56.1% of
the time.[98] The second most common fermion decay at
that mass is a tauantitau pair, which happens only about
6% of the time.[98]
Another possibility is for the Higgs to split into a pair of
massive gauge bosons. The most likely possibility is for
the Higgs to decay into a pair of W bosons (the light blue
line in the plot), which happens about 23.1% of the time
for a Higgs boson with a mass of 126 GeV/c2 .[98] The W
bosons can subsequently decay either into a quark and an
antiquark or into a charged lepton and a neutrino. However, the decays of W bosons into quarks are dicult to
distinguish from the background, and the decays into leptons cannot be fully reconstructed (because neutrinos are
impossible to detect in particle collision experiments). A
cleaner signal is given by decay into a pair of Z-bosons
(which happens about 2.9% of the time for a Higgs with
a mass of 126 GeV/c2 ),[98] if each of the bosons subsequently decays into a pair of easy-to-detect charged leptons (electrons or muons).

85
the gauge bosons, and could accommodate a 125 GeV/c2
neutral Higgs boson.
The key method to distinguish between these dierent
models involves study of the particles interactions (coupling) and exact decay processes (branching ratios),
which can be measured and tested experimentally in particle collisions. In the Type-I 2HDM model one Higgs
doublet couples to up and down quarks, while the second
doublet does not couple to quarks. This model has two interesting limits, in which the lightest Higgs couples to just
fermions (gauge-phobic") or just gauge bosons (fermiophobic), but not both. In the Type-II 2HDM model,
one Higgs doublet only couples to up-type quarks, the
other only couples to down-type quarks.[100] The heavily researched Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
(MSSM) includes a Type-II 2HDM Higgs sector, so it
could be disproven by evidence of a Type-I 2HDM Higgs.

In other models the Higgs scalar is a composite particle. For example, in technicolor the role of the Higgs
eld is played by strongly bound pairs of fermions called
techniquarks. Other models, feature pairs of top quarks
(see top quark condensate). In yet other models, there
is no Higgs eld at all and the electroweak symmetry is
Decay into massless gauge bosons (i.e., gluons or broken using extra dimensions.[101][102]
photons) is also possible, but requires intermediate loop
of virtual heavy quarks (top or bottom) or massive gauge
bosons.[99] The most common such process is the decay into a pair of gluons through a loop of virtual heavy
quarks. This process, which is the reverse of the gluon
fusion process mentioned above, happens approximately
8.5% of the time for a Higgs boson with a mass of 126
GeV/c2 .[98] Much rarer is the decay into a pair of photons mediated by a loop of W bosons or heavy quarks,
which happens only twice for every thousand decays.[98]
However, this process is very relevant for experimental A one-loop Feynman diagram of the rst-order correction to the
searches for the Higgs boson, because the energy and mo- Higgs mass. In the Standard Model the eects of these corrections
mentum of the photons can be measured very precisely, are potentially enormous, giving rise to the so-called hierarchy
giving an accurate reconstruction of the mass of the de- problem.
caying particle.[99]
Further theoretical issues and hierarchy problem
Alternative models
Main article: Alternatives to the Standard Model Higgs

Main articles: Hierarchy problem and Hierarchy problem


The Higgs mass

The Minimal Standard Model as described above is the


simplest known model for the Higgs mechanism with just
one Higgs eld. However, an extended Higgs sector with
additional Higgs particle doublets or triplets is also possible, and many extensions of the Standard Model have
this feature. The non-minimal Higgs sector favoured
by theory are the two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDM),
which predict the existence of a quintet of scalar particles: two CP-even neutral Higgs bosons h0 and H0 , a CPodd neutral Higgs boson A0 , and two charged Higgs particles H . Supersymmetry (SUSY) also predicts relations between the Higgs-boson masses and the masses of

The Standard Model leaves the mass of the Higgs boson


as a parameter to be measured, rather than a value to be
calculated. This is seen as theoretically unsatisfactory,
particularly as quantum corrections (related to interactions with virtual particles) should apparently cause the
Higgs particle to have a mass immensely higher than that
observed, but at the same time the Standard Model requires a mass of the order of 100 to 1000 GeV to ensure
unitarity (in this case, to unitarise longitudinal vector boson scattering).[103] Reconciling these points appears to
require explaining why there is an almost-perfect cancellation resulting in the visible mass of ~ 125 GeV, and

86
it is not clear how to do this. Because the weak force
is about 1032 times stronger than gravity, and (linked to
this) the Higgs bosons mass is so much less than the
Planck mass or the grand unication energy, it appears
that either there is some underlying connection or reason for these observations which is unknown and not described by the Standard Model, or some unexplained and
extremely precise ne-tuning of parameters however at
present neither of these explanations is proven. This is
known as a hierarchy problem.[104] More broadly, the hierarchy problem amounts to the worry that a future theory
of fundamental particles and interactions should not have
excessive ne-tunings or unduly delicate cancellations,
and should allow masses of particles such as the Higgs boson to be calculable. The problem is in some ways unique
to spin-0 particles (such as the Higgs boson), which can
give rise to issues related to quantum corrections that do
not aect particles with spin.[103] A number of solutions
have been proposed, including supersymmetry, conformal solutions and solutions via extra dimensions such as
braneworld models.

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
been found, particle physicists require that the statistical
analysis of two independent particle detectors each indicate that there is lesser than a one-in-a-million chance
that the observed decay signatures are due to just background random Standard Model eventsi.e., that the observed number of events is more than 5 standard deviations (sigma) dierent from that expected if there was
no new particle. More collision data allows better conrmation of the physical properties of any new particle
observed, and allows physicists to decide whether it is indeed a Higgs boson as described by the Standard Model
or some other hypothetical new particle.

To nd the Higgs boson, a powerful particle accelerator


was needed, because Higgs bosons might not be seen in
lower-energy experiments. The collider needed to have a
high luminosity in order to ensure enough collisions were
seen for conclusions to be drawn. Finally, advanced computing facilities were needed to process the vast amount
of data (25 petabytes per year as at 2012) produced
by the collisions.[105] For the announcement of 4 July
2012, a new collider known as the Large Hadron Collider
There are also issues of Quantum triviality, which sug- was constructed at CERN with a planned eventual colligests that it may not be possible to create a consistent sion energy of 14 TeVover seven times any previous
quantum eld theory involving elementary scalar parti- colliderand over 300 trillion (31014 ) LHC proton
cles.
proton collisions were analysed by the LHC Computing
Grid, the worlds largest computing grid (as of 2012),
comprising over 170 computing facilities in a worldwide
network across 36 countries.[105][106][107]
4.5.5 Experimental search
Main article: Search for the Higgs boson
Search prior to 4 July 2012
To produce Higgs bosons, two beams of particles are
accelerated to very high energies and allowed to collide
within a particle detector. Occasionally, although rarely,
a Higgs boson will be created eetingly as part of the collision byproducts. Because the Higgs boson decays very
quickly, particle detectors cannot detect it directly. Instead the detectors register all the decay products (the decay signature) and from the data the decay process is reconstructed. If the observed decay products match a possible decay process (known as a decay channel) of a Higgs
boson, this indicates that a Higgs boson may have been
created. In practice, many processes may produce similar decay signatures. Fortunately, the Standard Model
precisely predicts the likelihood of each of these, and
each known process, occurring. So, if the detector detects more decay signatures consistently matching a Higgs
boson than would otherwise be expected if Higgs bosons
did not exist, then this would be strong evidence that the
Higgs boson exists.

The rst extensive search for the Higgs boson was conducted at the Large ElectronPositron Collider (LEP)
at CERN in the 1990s. At the end of its service in
2000, LEP had found no conclusive evidence for the
Higgs.[Note 14] This implied that if the Higgs boson were to
exist it would have to be heavier than 114.4 GeV/c2 .[108]
The search continued at Fermilab in the United States,
where the Tevatronthe collider that discovered the top
quark in 1995had been upgraded for this purpose.
There was no guarantee that the Tevatron would be able
to nd the Higgs, but it was the only supercollider that was
operational since the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was
still under construction and the planned Superconducting
Super Collider had been cancelled in 1993 and never
completed. The Tevatron was only able to exclude further ranges for the Higgs mass, and was shut down on
30 September 2011 because it no longer could keep up
with the LHC. The nal analysis of the data excluded
the possibility of a Higgs boson with a mass between 147
GeV/c2 and 180 GeV/c2 . In addition, there was a small
(but not signicant) excess of events possibly indicating
a Higgs boson with a mass between 115 GeV/c2 and 140
GeV/c2 .[109]

Because Higgs boson production in a particle collision is


likely to be very rare (1 in 10 billion at the LHC),[Note 13]
and many other possible collision events can have similar
decay signatures, the data of hundreds of trillions of collisions needs to be analysed and must show the same picture before a conclusion about the existence of the Higgs The Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland, was
boson can be reached. To conclude that a new particle has designed specically to be able to either conrm or ex-

4.5. HIGGS BOSON


clude the existence of the Higgs boson. Built in a 27 km
tunnel under the ground near Geneva originally inhabited
by LEP, it was designed to collide two beams of protons,
initially at energies of 3.5 TeV per beam (7 TeV total),
or almost 3.6 times that of the Tevatron, and upgradeable to 2 7 TeV (14 TeV total) in future. Theory suggested if the Higgs boson existed, collisions at these energy levels should be able to reveal it. As one of the most
complicated scientic instruments ever built, its operational readiness was delayed for 14 months by a magnet
quench event nine days after its inaugural tests, caused
by a faulty electrical connection that damaged over 50
superconducting magnets and contaminated the vacuum
system.[110][111][112]
Data collection at the LHC nally commenced in March
2010.[113] By December 2011 the two main particle
detectors at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS, had narrowed down the mass range where the Higgs could exist to around 116-130 GeV (ATLAS) and 115-127 GeV
(CMS).[114][115] There had also already been a number
of promising event excesses that had evaporated and
proven to be nothing but random uctuations. However
from around May 2011,[116] both experiments had seen
among their results, the slow emergence of a small yet
consistent excess of gamma and 4-lepton decay signatures
and several other particle decays, all hinting at a new particle at a mass around 125 GeV.[116] By around November 2011, the anomalous data at 125 GeV was becoming
too large to ignore (although still far from conclusive),
and the team leaders at both ATLAS and CMS each privately suspected they might have found the Higgs.[116] On
November 28, 2011, at an internal meeting of the two
team leaders and the director general of CERN, the latest analyses were discussed outside their teams for the
rst time, suggesting both ATLAS and CMS might be
converging on a possible shared result at 125 GeV, and
initial preparations commenced in case of a successful
nding.[116] While this information was not known publicly at the time, the narrowing of the possible Higgs range
to around 115130 GeV and the repeated observation of
small but consistent event excesses across multiple channels at both ATLAS and CMS in the 124-126 GeV region
(described as tantalising hints of around 2-3 sigma)
were public knowledge with a lot of interest.[117] It was
therefore widely anticipated around the end of 2011, that
the LHC would provide sucient data to either exclude
or conrm the nding of a Higgs boson by the end of
2012, when their 2012 collision data (with slightly higher
8 TeV collision energy) had been examined.[117][118]

Discovery of candidate boson at CERN

87
this would include a major announcement, but it was
unclear whether this would be a stronger signal or
a formal discovery.[124][125] Speculation escalated to a
fevered pitch when reports emerged that Peter Higgs,
who proposed the particle, was to be attending the
seminar,[126][127] and that ve leading physicists had
been invited generally believed to signify the ve living
1964 authors with Higgs, Englert, Guralnik, Hagen attending and Kibble conrming his invitation (Brout having died in 2011).[128][129] )
On 4 July 2012 both of the CERN experiments
announced they had independently made the same
discovery:[130] CMS of a previously unknown boson with
mass 125.3 0.6 GeV/c2[119][120] and ATLAS of a boson
with mass 126.0 0.6 GeV/c2 .[131][132] Using the combined analysis of two interaction types (known as 'channels), both experiments independently reached a local
signicance of 5-sigma - less than a one in three-anda-half million chance of error. When additional channels
were taken into account, the CMS signicance was reduced to 4.9-sigma.[120]
The two teams had been working 'blinded' from each
other from around late 2011 or early 2012,[116] meaning
they did not discuss their results with each other, providing additional certainty that any common nding was genuine validation of a particle.[105] This level of evidence,
conrmed independently by two separate teams and experiments, meets the formal level of proof required to
announce a conrmed discovery.
On 31 July 2012, the ATLAS collaboration presented additional data analysis on the observation of a new particle, including data from a third channel, which improved
the signicance to 5.9-sigma (1 in 588 million chance of
being due to random background eects) and mass 126.0
0.4 (stat) 0.4 (sys) GeV/c2 , [132] and CMS improved
the signicance to 5-sigma and mass 125.3 0.4 (stat)
0.5 (sys) GeV/c2 .[119]
The new particle tested as a possible Higgs boson
Following the 2012 discovery, it was still unconrmed
whether or not the 125 GeV/c2 particle was a Higgs boson. On one hand, observations remained consistent with
the observed particle being the Standard Model Higgs
boson, and the particle decayed into at least some of
the predicted channels. Moreover, the production rates
and branching ratios for the observed channels broadly
matched the predictions by the Standard Model within
the experimental uncertainties. However, the experimental uncertainties currently still left room for alternative explanations, meaning an announcement of the discovery of
a Higgs boson would have been premature.[99] To allow
more opportunity for data collection, the LHCs proposed
2012 shutdown and 201314 upgrade were postponed by
7 weeks into 2013.[133]

On 22 June 2012 CERN announced an upcoming seminar covering tentative ndings for 2012,[121][122] and
shortly afterwards (from around 1 July 2012 according to an analysis of the spreading rumour in social
media[123] ) rumours began to spread in the media that In November 2012, in a conference in Kyoto researchers

88

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

said evidence gathered since July was falling into line


with the basic Standard Model more than its alternatives,
with a range of results for several interactions matching that theorys predictions.[134] Physicist Matt Strassler
highlighted considerable evidence that the new particle is not a pseudoscalar negative parity particle (consistent with this required nding for a Higgs boson), evaporation or lack of increased signicance for previous
hints of non-Standard Model ndings, expected Standard
Model interactions with W and Z bosons, absence of signicant new implications for or against supersymmetry,
and in general no signicant deviations to date from the
results expected of a Standard Model Higgs boson.[135]
However some kinds of extensions to the Standard Model
would also show very similar results;[136] so commentators noted that based on other particles that are still being
understood long after their discovery, it may take years to
be sure, and decades to fully understand the particle that
has been found.[134][135]

son consistent with the Standard Model]. This,


coupled with the measured interactions of the
new particle with other particles, strongly indicates that it is a Higgs boson. [1]
This also makes the particle the rst elementary scalar
particle to be discovered in nature.[12]
Examples of tests used to validate whether the 125 GeV
particle is a Higgs boson:[135][147]

4.5.6 Public discussion


Naming
Names used by physicists The name most strongly
associated with the particle and eld is the Higgs
boson[81]:168 and Higgs eld. For some time the particle was known by a combination of its PRL author names (including at times Anderson), for example
the BroutEnglertHiggs particle, the Anderson-Higgs
particle, or the EnglertBroutHiggsGuralnikHagen
Kibble mechanism,[Note 15] and these are still used at
times.[51][154] Fueled in part by the issue of recognition
and a potential shared Nobel Prize,[154][155] the most appropriate name is still occasionally a topic of debate as
at 2012.[154] (Higgs himself prefers to call the particle either by an acronym of all those involved, or the scalar
boson, or the so-called Higgs particle.[155] )

These ndings meant that as of January 2013, scientists


were very sure they had found an unknown particle of
mass ~ 125 GeV/c2 , and had not been misled by experimental error or a chance result. They were also sure, from
initial observations, that the new particle was some kind
of boson. The behaviours and properties of the particle,
so far as examined since July 2012, also seemed quite
close to the behaviours expected of a Higgs boson. Even
so, it could still have been a Higgs boson or some other
unknown boson, since future tests could show behaviours
that do not match a Higgs boson, so as of December 2012
CERN still only stated that the new particle was consistent with the Higgs boson,[9][11] and scientists did not yet A considerable amount has been written on how Higgs
positively say it was the Higgs boson.[137] Despite this, in name came to be exclusively used. Two main explanalate 2012, widespread media reports announced (incor- tions are oered.
rectly) that a Higgs boson had been conrmed during the
year.[138]
In January 2013, CERN director-general Rolf-Dieter
Heuer stated that based on data analysis to date, an answer could be possible 'towards mid-2013,[144] and the
deputy chair of physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory stated in February 2013 that a denitive answer might require another few years after the colliders
2015 restart.[145] In early March 2013, CERN Research
Director Sergio Bertolucci stated that conrming spin0 was the major remaining requirement to determine
whether the particle is at least some kind of Higgs
boson.[146]

Nickname The Higgs boson is often referred to as


the God particle in popular media outside the scientic community. The nickname comes from the title of the 1993 book on the Higgs boson and particle
physics - The God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? by Nobel Physics prizewinner and Fermilab director Leon Lederman.[17] Lederman wrote it in the context of failing US government
support for the Superconducting Super Collider,[165] a
part-constructed titanic[166][167] competitor to the Large
Hadron Collider with planned collision energies of 2
was championed by Lederman since its 1983
Conrmation of new particle as a Higgs boson, and 20 TeV that
[165][168][169]
inception
and shut down in 1993. The book
current status
sought in part to promote awareness of the signicance
and need for such a project in the face of its possible loss
On 14 March 2013 CERN conrmed that:
of funding.[170]
CMS and ATLAS have compared a number
of options for the spin-parity of this particle,
and these all prefer no spin and positive parity [two fundamental criteria of a Higgs bo-

While media use of this term may have contributed to


wider awareness and interest,[171] many scientists feel
the name is inappropriate[13][14][172] since it is sensational hyperbole and misleads readers;[173] the particle

4.5. HIGGS BOSON


also has nothing to do with God,[173] leaves open numerous questions in fundamental physics, and does not explain the ultimate origin of the universe. Higgs, an atheist,
was reported to be displeased and stated in a 2008 interview that he found it embarrassing because it was
the kind of misuse... which I think might oend some
people.[173][174][175] Science writer Ian Sample stated in
his 2010 book on the search that the nickname is universally hate[d]" by physicists and perhaps the worst derided in the history of physics, but that (according to
Lederman) the publisher rejected all titles mentioning
Higgs as unimaginative and too unknown.[176]

89
orable, and [it] has some physics connection too.[179]
The name Higgson was suggested as well, in an opinion piece in the Institute of Physics' online publication
physicsworld.com.[180]
Media explanations and analogies

There has been considerable public discussion of analogies and explanations for the Higgs particle and how the
eld creates mass,[181][182] including coverage of explanatory attempts in their own right and a competition in 1993
for the best popular explanation by then-UK Minister for
Lederman begins with a review of the long human search Science Sir William Waldegrave[183] and articles in newsfor knowledge, and explains that his tongue-in-cheek title papers worldwide.
draws an analogy between the impact of the Higgs eld
on the fundamental symmetries at the Big Bang, and the
apparent chaos of structures, particles, forces and interactions that resulted and shaped our present universe, with
the biblical story of Babel in which the primordial single language of early Genesis was fragmented into many
disparate languages and cultures.[177]
Today ... we have the standard model,
which reduces all of reality to a dozen or so
particles and four forces. ... Its a hard-won
simplicity [...and...] remarkably accurate. But
it is also incomplete and, in fact, internally
inconsistent... This boson is so central to the
state of physics today, so crucial to our nal
understanding of the structure of matter, yet
so elusive, that I have given it a nickname:
the God Particle. Why God Particle? Two
reasons. One, the publisher wouldn't let us call
it the Goddamn Particle, though that might be
a more appropriate title, given its villainous
nature and the expense it is causing. And
two, there is a connection, of sorts, to another
book, a much older one...
Leon M. Lederman and Dick Teresi, The
God Particle: If the Universe is the Answer,
What is the Question[17] p. 22

Photograph of light passing through a dispersive prism: the rainbow eect arises because photons are not all aected to the same
degree by the dispersive material of the prism.

An educational collaboration involving an LHC physicist


and a High School Teachers at CERN educator suggests
Lederman whimsically asks whether the Higgs boson was that dispersion of light responsible for the rainbow and
added just to perplex and confound those seeking knowl- dispersive prism is a useful analogy for the Higgs elds
[184]
edge of the universe, and whether physicists will be con- symmetry breaking and mass-causing eect.
founded by it as recounted in that story, or ultimately surmount the challenge and understand how beautiful is the
universe [God has] made.[178]
Matt Strassler uses electric elds as an analogy:[185]
Other proposals A renaming competition by British
newspaper The Guardian in 2009 resulted in their science correspondent choosing the name the champagne
bottle boson as the best submission: The bottom of a
champagne bottle is in the shape of the Higgs potential
and is often used as an illustration in physics lectures.
So its not an embarrassingly grandiose name, it is mem-

Some particles interact with the Higgs eld


while others dont. Those particles that feel the
Higgs eld act as if they have mass. Something
similar happens in an electric eld charged
objects are pulled around and neutral objects
can sail through unaected. So you can think

90

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
of the Higgs search as an attempt to make
waves in the Higgs eld [create Higgs bosons]
to prove its really there.

A similar explanation was oered by The Guardian:[186]


The Higgs boson is essentially a ripple in a
eld said to have emerged at the birth of the
universe and to span the cosmos to this day
... The particle is crucial however: it is the
smoking gun, the evidence required to show the
theory is right.

J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics


(2010) Hagen, Englert, Guralnik, Higgs, Brout,
and Kibble, for elucidation of the properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking in four-dimensional relativistic gauge theory and of the mechanism for the
consistent generation of vector boson masses [79] (for
the 1964 papers described above)
Wolf Prize (2004) Englert, Brout, and Higgs
Nobel Prize in Physics (2013) - Peter Higgs and
Franois Englert, for the theoretical discovery of a
mechanism that contributes to our understanding of
the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which
recently was conrmed through the discovery of the
predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and
CMS experiments at CERNs Large Hadron Collider

The Higgs elds eect on particles was famously described by physicist David Miller as akin to a room full of
political party workers spread evenly throughout a room:
the crowd gravitates to and slows down famous people but
[192]
does not slow down others.[Note 16] He also drew attention
to well-known eects in solid state physics where an electrons eective mass can be much greater than usual in the Additionally Physical Review Letters' 50-year review
(2008) recognized the 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papresence of a crystal lattice.[187]
pers and Weinbergs 1967 paper A model of Leptons (the
Analogies based on drag eects, including analogies of
most cited paper in particle physics, as of 2012) mile"syrup" or "molasses" are also well known, but can be
stone Letters.[75]
somewhat misleading since they may be understood (incorrectly) as saying that the Higgs eld simply resists Following reported observation of the Higgs-like particle
some particles motion but not others a simple resistive in July 2012, several Indian media outlets reported on the
supposed neglect of credit to Indian physicist Satyendra
eect could also conict with Newtons third law.[189]
Nath Bose after whose work in the 1920s the class of
particles "bosons" is named[193][194] (although physicists
Recognition and awards
have described Boses connection to the discovery as
tenuous).[195]
There has been considerable discussion of how to allocate the credit if the Higgs boson is proven, made more
pointed as a Nobel prize had been expected, and the very 4.5.7 Technical aspects and mathematical
wide basis of people entitled to consideration. These informulation
clude a range of theoreticians who made the Higgs mechanism theory possible, the theoreticians of the 1964 PRL See also: Standard Model (mathematical formulation)
papers (including Higgs himself), the theoreticians who
derived from these, a working electroweak theory and
the Standard Model itself, and also the experimentalists In the Standard Model, the Higgs eld is a fourat CERN and other institutions who made possible the component scalar eld that forms a complex doublet of
proof of the Higgs eld and boson in reality. The Nobel the weak isospin SU(2) symmetry:
prize has a limit of 3 persons to share an award, and some
possible winners are already prize holders for other work,
or are deceased (the prize is only awarded to persons in
their lifetime). Existing prizes for works relating to the while the eld has charge +1/2 under the weak hyperHiggs eld, boson, or mechanism include:
charge U(1) symmetry (in the convention where the electric charge, Q, the weak isospin, I3 , and the weak hyper Nobel Prize in Physics (1979) Glashow, Salam, charge, Y, are related by Q = I3 + Y).[196]
and Weinberg, for contributions to the theory of
[196]
the unied weak and electromagnetic interaction be- The Higgs part of the Lagrangian is
tween elementary particles [190]
Nobel Prize in Physics (1999) 't Hooft and
Veltman, for elucidating the quantum structure of
where Wa and B are the gauge bosons of the SU(2)
electroweak interactions in physics [191]
and U(1) symmetries, g and g their respective coupling
Nobel Prize in Physics (2008) Nambu (shared), constants, a = a /2 (where a are the Pauli matrifor the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous ces) a complete set generators of the SU(2) symmetry,
and > 0 and 2 > 0 , so that the ground state breaks
broken symmetry in subatomic physics [53]

4.5. HIGGS BOSON

91

where the masses of the fermions are miu,d,e =

iu,d,e v/ 2 , and iu,d,e denote the eigenvalues of the


Yukawa matrices.[196]

4.5.8 See also


Standard Model
Quantum gauge theory
Introduction to quantum mechanics
Noncommutative
standard
model
noncommutative geometry generally
The potential for the Higgs eld, plotted as function of 0 and
3 . It has a Mexican-hat or champagne-bottle prole at the
ground.

and

Standard Model (mathematical formulation) (and


especially Standard Model elds overview and mass
terms and the Higgs mechanism)
Other

the SU(2) symmetry (see gure). The ground state of


the Higgs eld (the bottom of the potential) is degenerate with dierent ground states related to each other by a
SU(2) gauge transformation. It is always possible to pick
a gauge such that in the ground state 1 = 2 = 3 = 0
. The expectation value of 0 in the ground state (the
vacuum expectation value or vev) is then 0 = v ,
||
. The measured value of this paramewhere v =

ter is ~246 GeV/c2 .[99] It has units of mass, and is the


only free parameter of the Standard Model that is not a
dimensionless number. Quadratic terms in W and B
arise, which give masses to the W and Z bosons:[196]

BoseEinstein statistics
Dalitz plot
Higgs boson in ction
Quantum triviality
ZZ diboson
Scalar boson
Stueckelberg action

4.5.9 Notes
[1] Note that such events also occur due to other processes.
Detection involves a statistically signicant excess of such
events at specic energies.

with their ratio determining the Weinberg angle,


W
|g|
cos W = M
, and leave a massless U(1)
MZ =
2
2
g +g

photon, .
The quarks and the leptons interact with the Higgs eld
through Yukawa interaction terms:

where (d, u, e, )iL,R are left-handed and right-handed


quarks and leptons of the ith generation, ij
u,d,e are matrices of Yukawa couplings where h.c. denotes the hermitian conjugate terms. In the symmetry breaking ground
state, only the terms containing 0 remain, giving rise
to mass terms for the fermions. Rotating the quark and
lepton elds to the basis where the matrices of Yukawa
couplings are diagonal, one gets

[2] In the Standard Model, the total decay width of a Higgs


boson with a mass of 126 GeV/c2 is predicted to be
4.21103 GeV.[98] The mean lifetime is given by =
/ .
[3] The range of a force is inversely proportional to the mass
of the particles transmitting it.[16] In the Standard Model,
forces are carried by virtual particles. These particles
movement and interactions with each other are limited
by the energytime uncertainty principle. As a result, the
more massive a single virtual particle is, the greater its energy, and therefore the shorter the distance it can travel.
A particles mass therefore determines the maximum distance at which it can interact with other particles and on
any force it mediates. By the same token, the reverse is
also true: massless and near-massless particles can carry
long distance forces. (See also: Compton wavelength and
Static forces and virtual-particle exchange) Since experiments have shown that the weak force acts over only a

92

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

very short range, this implies that there must exist massive gauge bosons. And indeed, their masses have since
been conrmed by measurement.

would potentially lose all of its present structures and become inhabited by new ones (depending upon the exact
states involved) based upon the same quantum elds.

[4] It is quite common for a law of physics to hold true only if


certain assumptions held true or only under certain conditions. For example, Newtons laws of motion apply only
at speeds where relativistic eects are negligible; and laws
related to conductivity, gases, and classical physics (as opposed to quantum mechanics) may apply only within certain ranges of size, temperature, pressure, or other conditions.

[10] Goldstones theorem only applies to gauges having


manifest Lorentz covariance, a condition that took time
to become questioned. But the process of quantisation requires a gauge to be xed and at this point it becomes possible to choose a gauge such as the 'radiation' gauge which
is not invariant over time, so that these problems can be
avoided. According to Bernstein (1974, p.8):

[5] Electroweak symmetry is broken by the Higgs eld in its


lowest energy state, called its "ground state". At high energy levels this does not happen, and the gauge bosons of
the weak force would therefore be expected to be massless.
[6] By the 1960s, many had already started to see gauge theories as failing to explain particle physics because theorists
had been unable to solve the mass problem or even explain
how gauge theory could provide a solution. So the idea
that the Standard Model which relied on a Higgs eld
not yet proved to exist could be fundamentally incorrect
was far from fanciful. Against this, once the entire model
was developed around 1972, no better theory yet existed,
and its predictions and solutions were so accurate, that it
became the preferred theory anyway. It then became crucial to science, to know whether it was correct.
[7] The success of the Higgs based electroweak theory and
Standard Model is illustrated by their predictions of the
mass of two particles later detected: the W boson (predicted mass: 80.390 0.018 GeV, experimental measurement: 80.387 0.019 GeV), and the Z boson (predicted mass: 91.1874 0.0021, experimental measurement: 91.1876 0.0021 GeV). The existence of the Z
boson was itself another prediction. Other correct predictions included the weak neutral current, the gluon, and
the top and charm quarks, all later proven to exist as the
theory said.
[8] The bubbles eects would be expected to propagate
across the universe at the speed of light from wherever
it occurred. However space is vast with even the nearest
galaxy being over 2 million lightyears from us, and others
being many billions of lightyears distant, so the eect of
such an event would be unlikely to arise here for billions
of years after rst occurring.[35][36]
[9] If the Standard Model is correct, then the particles and
forces we observe in our universe exist as they do, because of underlying quantum elds. Quantum elds can
have states of diering stability, including 'stable', 'unstable' and 'metastable' states (the latter remain stable unless
suciently perturbed). If a more stable vacuum state were
able to arise, then existing particles and forces would no
longer arise as they presently do. Dierent particles or
forces would arise from (and be shaped by) whatever new
quantum states arose. The world we know depends upon
these particles and forces, so if this happened, everything
around us, from subatomic particles to galaxies, and all
fundamental forces, would be reconstituted into new fundamental particles and forces and structures. The universe

the radiation gauge condition A(x) = 0 is


clearly noncovariant, which means that if we
wish to maintain transversality of the photon
in all Lorentz frames, the photon eld A(x)
cannot transform like a four-vector. This is
no catastrophe, since the photon eld is not
an observable, and one can readily show that
the S-matrix elements, which are observable
have covariant structures .... in gauge theories one might arrange things so that one had
a symmetry breakdown because of the noninvariance of the vacuum; but, because the
Goldstone et al. proof breaks down, the zero
mass Goldstone mesons need not appear.
[Emphasis in original]
Bernstein (1974) contains an accessible and comprehensive background and review of this area, see external links
[11] A eld with the Mexican hat potential V () = 2 2 +
4 and 2 < 0 has a minimum not at zero but at some
non-zero value 0 . By expressing the action in terms of
the eld = 0 (where 0 is a constant independent
of position), we nd the Yukawa term has a component
. Since both g and 0 are constants, this looks
g0
exactly like the mass term for a fermion of mass g0 .
The eld is then the Higgs eld.
[12] In the Standard Model, the mass term arising from the
. This
Dirac Lagrangian for any fermion is m
is not invariant under the electroweak symmetry, as can
be seen by writing in terms of left and right handed
components:
= m(L R + R L )
m
i.e., contributions from L L and R R terms do not
appear. We see that the mass-generating interaction is
achieved by constant ipping of particle chirality. Since
the spin-half particles have no right/left helicity pair with
the same SU(2) and SU(3) representation and the same
weak hypercharge, then assuming these gauge charges are
conserved in the vacuum, none of the spin-half particles
could ever swap helicity. Therefore in the absence of some
other cause, all fermions must be massless.
[13] The example is based on the production rate at the LHC
operating at 7 TeV. The total cross-section for producing
a Higgs boson at the LHC is about 10 picobarn,[93] while
the total cross-section for a protonproton collision is 110
millibarn.[96]
[14] Just before LEPs shut down, some events that hinted at
a Higgs were observed, but it was not judged signicant

4.5. HIGGS BOSON

enough to extend its run and delay construction of the


LHC.
[15] Other names have included: the AndersonHiggs
mechanism,[153] HiggsKibble mechanism (by Abdus
Salam)[81] and ABEGHHK'tH mechanism [for Anderson, Brout, Englert, Guralnik, Hagen, Higgs, Kibble and
't Hooft] (by Peter Higgs).[81]
[16] In Millers analogy, the Higgs eld is compared to political party workers spread evenly throughout a room. There
will be some people (in Millers example an anonymous
person) who pass through the crowd with ease, paralleling the interaction between the eld and particles that do
not interact with it, such as massless photons. There will
be other people (in Millers example the British prime
minister) who would nd their progress being continually
slowed by the swarm of admirers crowding around, paralleling the interaction for particles that do interact with the
eld and by doing so, acquire a nite mass.[187][188]

4.5.10

References

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[155] Becker, Kate (2012-03-29). A Higgs by Any Other
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[167] Diaz, Jesus (2012-12-15). This Is [The] Worlds Largest


Super Collider That Never Was. Gizmodo. Retrieved 16
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[168] Abbott, Charles (June 1987). Illinois Issues journal, June


1987. p. 18. Lederman, who considers himself an unocial propagandist for the super collider, said the SSC
could reverse the physics brain drain in which bright young
[157] Woits physics blog Not Even Wrong: Anderson on
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where.
[156] Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!". The Bulletin.
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[158] Sample, Ian (2012-07-04). Higgs bosons many great [169] Kevles, Dan. Good-bye to the SSC: On the Life and
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[159] Rochesters Hagen Sakurai Prize Announcement (Press
Lederman, one of the principal spokesmen for the SSC,
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was an accomplished high-energy experimentalist who
had made Nobel Prize-winning contributions to the devel[160] C.R. Hagen Sakurai Prize Talk (YouTube). 2010.
opment of the Standard Model during the 1960s (although
the prize itself did not come until 1988). He was a xture
[161] Peskin, M. (July 2012). 40 Years of the Higgs Boson.
at congressional hearings on the collider, an unbridled adPresentation at SSI 2012. Standford/SSI 2012. pp. 35.
vocate of its merits.
Retrieved 21 January 2013. quoting Lees ICHEP 1972
presentation at Fermilab: "...which is known as the Higgs [170] Calder, Nigel (2005). Magic Universe:A Grand Tour of
Modern Science. pp. 369370. ISBN 9780191622359.
mechanism... and Lees locution his footnoted explaThe possibility that the next big machine would create
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the Higgs became a carrot to dangle in front of funding
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Particle physics.
Why
cist, Leon lederman [sic], advertised the Higgs as The God
the 'Higgs?".
Science 337 (6100):
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Particle in the title of a book published in 1993 ...Lederdoi:10.1126/science.337.6100.1287. PMID 22984044.
man was involved in a campaign to persuade the US govRetrieved 12 February 2013. Lee ... apparently used
ernment to continue funding the Superconducting Super
the term 'Higgs Boson' as early as 1966... but what
Collider... the ink was not dry on Ledermans book bemay have made the term stick is a seminal paper Steven
fore the US Congress decided to write o the billions of
Weinberg...published in 1967...Weinberg acknowledged
dollars already spent
the mix-up in an essay in the New York Review of Books
in May 2012. (See also original article in New York
Review of Books[163] and Frank Closes 2011 book The [171] Alister McGrath, Higgs boson: the particle of faith, The
Daily Telegraph, Published 15 December 2011. Retrieved
Innity Puzzle[81]:372 (Book extract) which identied the
15 December 2011.
error)
[163] Weinberg, Steven (2012-05-10). The Crisis of Big Science. The New York Review of Books (footnote 1). Retrieved 12 February 2013.

[172] Sample, Ian (3 March 2009). Father of the God particle:


Portrait of Peter Higgs unveiled. London: The Guardian.
Retrieved 24 June 2009.

[173] Chivers, Tom (2011-12-13). How the 'God particle' got


[164] Examples of early papers using the term Higgs boson
its name. The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2012-12include 'A phenomenological prole of the Higgs boson'
03.
(Ellis, Gaillard and Nanopoulos, 1976), 'Weak interaction
theory and neutral currents (Bjorken, 1977), and 'Mass of [174] Key scientist sure God particle will be found soon
Reuters news story. 7 April 2008.
the Higgs boson' (Wienberg, received 1975)

100

CHAPTER 4. THEORY

[175] "Interview: the man behind the 'God particle'", New Sci- [185] Flam, Faye (2012-07-12). Finally A Higgs Boson
entist 13 September 2008, pp. 445 (original interview in
Story Anyone Can Understand. The Philadelphia Inthe Guardian: Father of the 'God Particle', June 30, 2008)
quirer (philly.com). Retrieved 21 January 2013.
[176] Sample, Ian (2010). Massive: The Hunt for the God Par- [186] Sample, Ian (2011-04-28). How will we know when the
Higgs particle has been detected?". The Guardian (Lonticle. pp. 148149 and 278279. ISBN 9781905264957.
don). Retrieved 21 January 2013.
[177] Cole, K. (2000-12-14). One Thing Is Perfectly Clear:
Nothingness Is Perfect. Los Angeles Times. p. 'Sci- [187] Miller, David. A quasi-political Explanation of the Higgs
Boson; for Mr Waldegrave, UK Science Minister 1993.
ence File'. Retrieved 17 January 2013. Consider the early
Retrieved
10 July 2012.
universea state of pure, perfect nothingness; a formless fog of undierentiated stu ... 'perfect symmetry'
[188] Kathryn Grim. Ten things you may not know about the
... What shattered this primordial perfection? One likely
Higgs boson. Symmetry Magazine. Retrieved 10 July
culprit is the so-called Higgs eld ... Physicist Leon Le2012.
derman compares the way the Higgs operates to the biblical story of Babel [whose citizens] all spoke the same [189] David Goldberg, Associate Professor of Physics, Drexel
language ... Like God, says Lederman, the Higgs dierUniversity (2010-10-17). Whats the Matter with the
entiated the perfect sameness, confusing everyone (physiHiggs Boson?". io9.com Ask a physicist. Retrieved 21
cists included) ... [Nobel Prizewinner Richard] Feynman
January 2013.
wondered why the universe we live in was so obviously
askew ... Perhaps, he speculated, total perfection would [190] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979 ocial Nobel Prize
website.
have been unacceptable to God. And so, just as God shattered the perfection of Babel, 'God made the laws only
[191] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999 ocial Nobel Prize
nearly symmetrical'
website.
[178] Lederman, p. 22 et seq:
Something we cannot yet detect and which,
one might say, has been put there to test and
confuse us ... The issue is whether physicists
will be confounded by this puzzle or whether,
in contrast to the unhappy Babylonians, we
will continue to build the tower and, as Einstein put it, 'know the mind of God'.
And the Lord said, Behold the people are
un-confounding my confounding. And the
Lord sighed and said, Go to, let us go down,
and there give them the God Particle so that
they may see how beautiful is the universe I
have made.
[179] Sample, Ian (12 June 2009). Higgs competition: Crack
open the bubbly, the God particle is dead. The Guardian
(London). Retrieved 4 May 2010.
[180] Gordon, Fraser (5 July 2012). Introducing the higgson.
physicsworld.com. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
[181] Wolchover, Natalie (2012-07-03). Higgs Boson Explained: How 'God Particle' Gives Things Mass.
Hungton Post. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
[182] Oliver, Laura (2012-07-04). Higgs boson: how would
you explain it to a seven-year-old?". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 January 2013.
[183] Zimmer, Ben (2012-07-15). Higgs boson metaphors as
clear as molasses. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
[184] The Higgs particle: an analogy for Physics classroom
(section)". www.lhc-closer.es (a collaboration website of
LHCb physicist Xabier Vidal and High School Teachers
at CERN educator Ramon Manzano). Retrieved 201301-09.

[192] ocial Nobel Prize website.


[193] Daigle, Katy (10 July 2012). India: Enough about Higgs,
lets discuss the boson. AP News. Retrieved 10 July
2012.
[194] Bal, Hartosh Singh (19 September 2012). The Bose in
the Boson. New York Times. Retrieved 21 September
2012.
[195] Alikhan, Anvar (16 July 2012). The Spark In A Crowded
Field. Outlook India. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
[196] Peskin & Schroeder 1995, Chapter 20

4.5.11 Further reading


G.S. Guralnik, C.R. Hagen and T.W.B. Kibble
(1968). Broken Symmetries and the Goldstone
Theorem. In R.L. Cool and R.E. Marshak.
Advances in Physics, Vol. 2. Interscience Publishers. pp. 567708. ISBN 978-0470170571.
P. Higgs (1964). Broken Symmetries, Massless Particles and Gauge Fields. Physics Letters 12 (2): 132. Bibcode:1964PhL....12..132H.
doi:10.1016/0031-9163(64)91136-9.
Y. Nambu and G. Jona-Lasinio (1961). Dynamical Model of Elementary Particles Based on an
Analogy with Superconductivity. Physical Review
122: 345358. Bibcode:1961PhRv..122..345N.
doi:10.1103/PhysRev.122.345.
P.W. Anderson (1963).
Plasmons, Gauge
Invariance, and Mass.
Physical Review
Bibcode:1963PhRv..130..439A.
130:
439.
doi:10.1103/PhysRev.130.439.

4.5. HIGGS BOSON


A. Klein and B.W. Lee (1964). Does Spontaneous Breakdown of Symmetry Imply ZeroMass Particles?".
Physical Review Letters 12
(10):
266.
Bibcode:1964PhRvL..12..266K.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.12.266.
W. Gilbert (1964). Broken Symmetries and
Massless Particles.
Physical Review Letters
12 (25): 713. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..12..713G.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.12.713.

4.5.12

External links

Popular science, mass media, and general coverage


Hunting the Higgs Boson at C.M.S. Experiment, at
CERN
The Higgs Boson" by the CERN exploratorium.
Particle Fever, documentary lm about the search
for the Higgs Boson.
The Atom Smashers, documentary lm about the
search for the Higgs Boson at Fermilab.
Collected Articles at the Guardian

101
Guralnik, Gerald (2009).
The History
of the Guralnik, Hagen and Kibble development of the Theory of Spontaneous
Symmetry Breaking and Gauge Particles.
International Journal of Modern Physics A
24 (14): 26012627.
arXiv:0907.3466.
Bibcode:2009IJMPA..24.2601G.
doi:10.1142/S0217751X09045431.,
Guralnik, Gerald (2011). The Beginnings of
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Particle
Physics.
Proceedings of the DPF-2011
Conference, Providence, RI, 813 August
2011. arXiv:1110.2253v1 [physics.hist-ph].,
and Guralnik, Gerald (2013). Heretical
Ideas that Provided the Cornerstone for the
Standard Model of Particle Physics. SPG
MITTEILUNGEN March 2013, No. 39, (p.
14), and Talk at Brown University about the
1964 PRL papers
Philip Anderson (not one of the PRL authors)
on symmetry breaking in superconductivity
and its migration into particle physics and the
PRL papers
Cartoon about the search
Cham, Jorge (2014-02-19). True Tales from the
Road: The Higgs Boson Re-Explained. Piled
Higher and Deeper. Retrieved 2014-02-25.

Video (04:38) CERN Announcement on 4 July


2012, of the discovery of a particle which is sus- Signicant papers and other
pected will be a Higgs Boson.
Observation of a new particle in the search for the
Video1 (07:44) + Video2 (07:44) Higgs Boson ExStandard Model Higgs Boson with the ATLAS deplained by CERN Physicist, Dr. Daniel Whiteson
tector at the LHC
(16 June 2011).
Observation of a new Boson at a mass of 125 GeV
with the CMS experiment at the LHC
HowStuWorks: What exactly is the Higgs Boson?
Carroll, Sean. Higgs Boson with Sean Carroll.
Sixty Symbols. University of Nottingham.
Overbye, Dennis (2013-03-05). Chasing the Higgs
Boson: How 2 teams of rivals at CERN searched
for physics most elusive particle. New York Times
Science pages. Retrieved 22 July 2013. - New York
Times behind the scenes style article on the Higgs
search at ATLAS and CMS
The story of the Higgs theory by the authors of the
PRL papers and others closely associated:
Higgs, Peter (2010). My Life as a Boson.
Talk given at Kings College, London, Nov 24
2010. Retrieved 17 January 2013. (also: )
Kibble, Tom (2009).
EnglertBrout
HiggsGuralnikHagenKibble mechanism
Scholarpedia.
Retrieved 17
(history)".
January 2013. (also: )

Particle Data Group: Review of searches for Higgs


Bosons.
2001, a spacetime odyssey: proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics : Michigan, USA, 2125 May 2001,
(p.86 88), ed. Michael J. Du, James T. Liu,
ISBN 978-981-238-231-3, containing Higgs story
of the Higgs Boson.
A.A. Migdal & A.M. Polyakov, Spontaneous Breakdown of Strong Interaction Symmetry and the Absence of Massless Particles, Sov.J.-JETP 24,91
(1966) - example of a 1966 Russian paper on the
subject.
Introductions to the eld
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, gauge theories,
the Higgs mechanism and all that (Bernstein, Reviews of Modern Physics Jan 1974) - an introduction

102

CHAPTER 4. THEORY
of 47 pages covering the development, history and
mathematics of Higgs theories from around 1950 to
1974.

Chapter 5

Safety
5.1 Safety of particle collisions at
the Large Hadron Collider

of the evidence commissioned by CERN was released in


2008. The report, prepared by a group of physicists aliated to CERN but not involved in the LHC experiments,
rearmed the safety of the LHC collisions in light of further research conducted since the 2003 assessment.[3][4] It
was reviewed and endorsed by a CERN committee of 20
external scientists and by the Executive Committee of the
Division of Particles & Fields of the American Physical
Society,[5][6] and was later published in the peer-reviewed
Journal of Physics G by the UK Institute of Physics, which
also endorsed its conclusions.[3][7]
The report ruled out any doomsday scenario at the LHC,
noting that the physical conditions and collision events
which exist in the LHC, RHIC and other experiments
occur naturally and routinely in the universe without hazardous consequences,[3] including ultra-high-energy cosmic rays observed to impact Earth with energies far
higher than those in any man-made collider.

A simulated particle collision in the LHC.

The safety of high energy particle collisions was a topic


of widespread discussion and topical interest during the
time when the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
and later the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)currently
the worlds largest and most powerful particle acceleratorwere being constructed and commissioned. Concerns arose that such high energy experimentsdesigned
to produce novel particles and forms of matterhad
the potential to create harmful states of matter or even
doomsday scenarios. Claims escalated as commissioning
of the LHC drew closer, around 20082010. The claimed
dangers included the production of stable micro black
holes and the creation of hypothetical particles called
strangelets,[1] and these questions were explored in the
media, on the Internet and at times through the courts.

5.1.1 Background
Main articles:
Collider

Particle collider and Large Hadron

Particle colliders are a type of particle accelerator used


by physicists as a research tool to understand fundamental
aspects of the universe. Their operation involves directed
beams of particles accelerated to very high kinetic energy
and allowed to collide; analysis of the byproducts of these
collisions gives scientists good evidence of the structure
of the subatomic world and the laws of nature governing
it. These may become apparent only at high energies and
for tiny periods of time, and therefore may be hard or
To address these concerns in the context of the LHC, impossible to study in other ways.
CERN mandated a group of independent scientists to re- Because of the high energy levels involved, concerns have
view these scenarios. In a report issued in 2003, they con- arisen at times in the public arena as to whether such colcluded that, like current particle experiments such as the lisions are safe, or whether they might, by reason of their
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the LHC particle extreme energy, trigger unforeseen problems or consecollisions pose no conceivable threat.[2] A second review quences.
103

104

CHAPTER 5. SAFETY

5.1.2 Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

Main article: Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider


Concerns about possible adverse consequences
were raised in connection with the RHIC particle
accelerator.[14][15][16][17] After detailed studies, scientists
reached such conclusions as beyond reasonable doubt,
heavy-ion experiments at RHIC will not endanger
our planet[18] and that there is powerful empirical
evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet
production.[19]

The LHCs CMS detector.

Examples of colliders

Concerns were noted during the construction of the Large


Hadron Collider (LHC), which began operations in 2008,
is the worlds largest and highest-energy particle accelerator complex, intended to collide opposing beams of either
protons or lead nuclei with very high kinetic energy.[8][9]
It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, in Switzerland. The LHCs
main purpose is to explore the validity and limitations of
the Standard Model, the current theoretical picture for
particle physics. The rst particle collisions at the LHC
took place shortly after startup in November 2009, at energies up to 1.2 TeV per beam.[10] On 30 March 2010, the
rst planned collisions took place between two 3.5 TeV
beams, which set another new world record for the highest energy man-made particle collisions.[11] The LHC will
begin to operate at its designed 7 TeV per beam (14 TeV
center-of-mass) after a long shutdown that was scheduled
to begin at the end of 2012.[12] and was later postponed
for a few weeks until early 2013.
Similar concerns had previously also been raised in the
context of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, with Frank
Close, professor of physics at the University of Oxford,
to comment at the time that the chance of [strangelet
creation] is like you winning the major prize on the lottery
3 weeks in succession; the problem is that people believe
it is possible to win the lottery 3 weeks in succession.[13]

Before the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider started operation, critics postulated that the extremely high energy
could produce catastrophic scenarios,[20] such as creating
a black hole, a transition into a dierent quantum mechanical vacuum (see false vacuum), or the creation of
strange matter that is more stable than ordinary matter.
These hypotheses are complex, but many predict that the
Earth would be destroyed in a time frame from seconds to
millennia, depending on the theory considered. However,
the fact that objects of the Solar System (e.g., the Moon)
have been bombarded with cosmic particles of signicantly higher energies than that of RHIC and other man
made colliders for billions of years, without any harm to
the Solar System, were among the most striking arguments that these hypotheses were unfounded.[21]
The other main controversial issue was a demand by critics for physicists to reasonably exclude the probability for
such a catastrophic scenario. Physicists are unable to
demonstrate experimental and astrophysical constraints
of zero probability of catastrophic events, nor that tomorrow Earth will be struck with a "doomsday" cosmic ray
(they can only calculate an upper limit for the likelihood).
The result would be the same destructive scenarios described above, although obviously not caused by humans.
According to this argument of upper limits, RHIC would
still modify the chance for the Earths survival by an innitesimal amount.
Concerns were raised in connection with the RHIC particle accelerator, both in the media[22][23] and in the popular science media.[24] The risk of a doomsday scenario
was indicated by Martin Rees, with respect to the RHIC,
as being at least a 1 in 50,000,000 chance.[25] With regards to the production of strangelets, Frank Close, professor of physics at the University of Oxford, indicates
that the chance of this happening is like you winning
the major prize on the lottery 3 weeks in succession; the
problem is that people believe it is possible to win the
lottery 3 weeks in succession.[13] After detailed studies,
scientists reached such conclusions as beyond reasonable
doubt, heavy-ion experiments at RHIC will not endanger our planet[26] and that there is powerful empirical
evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet
production.[27]

5.1. SAFETY OF PARTICLE COLLISIONS AT THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER


History of discussion
The debate started in 1999 with an exchange of letters in
Scientic American between Walter L. Wagner,[28] and
F. Wilczek,[29] Institute for Advanced Study, in response
to a previous article by M. Mukerjee.[30] The media attention unfolded with an article in U.K. Sunday Times of
July 18, 1999 by J. Leake,[31] closely followed by articles in the U.S. media.[32] The controversy mostly ended
with the report of a committee convened by the director
of Brookhaven National Laboratory, J. H. Marburger, ostensibly ruling out the catastrophic scenarios depicted.[21]
However, the report left open the possibility that relativistic cosmic ray impact products might behave dierently while transiting earth compared to at rest RHIC
products; and the possibility that the qualitative dierence between high-E proton collisions with earth or the
moon might be dierent than gold on gold collisions at
the RHIC. Wagner tried subsequently to stop full energy
collision at RHIC by ling Federal lawsuits in San Francisco and New York, but without success.[33] The New
York suit was dismissed on the technicality that the San
Francisco suit was the preferred forum. The San Francisco suit was dismissed, but with leave to rele if additional information was developed and presented to the
court.[34]
On March 17, 2005, the BBC published an article[35]
implying that researcher Horaiu Nstase believes black
holes have been created at RHIC. However, the original
papers of H. Nstase[36] and the New Scientist article[37]
cited by the BBC state that the correspondence of the hot
dense QCD matter created in RHIC to a black hole is
only in the sense of a correspondence of QCD scattering in Minkowski space and scattering in the AdS 5 X5
space in AdS/CFT; in other words, it is similar mathematically. Therefore, RHIC collisions might be described
by mathematics relevant to theories of quantum gravity
within AdS/CFT, but the described physical phenomena
are not the same.

5.1.3

Large Hadron Collider

Main article: Large Hadron Collider


In the run up to the commissioning of the LHC, Walter L. Wagner (an original opponent of the RHIC), Luis
Sancho (a Spanish science writer) and Otto Rssler (a
German biochemist) expressed concerns over the safety
of the LHC, and attempted to halt the beginning of the
experiments through petitions to the US and European
Courts.[38][39][40][41][42] These opponents assert that the
LHC experiments have the potential to create low velocity micro black holes that could grow in mass or release
dangerous radiation leading to doomsday scenarios, such
as the destruction of the Earth.[1][43] Other claimed potential risks include the creation of theoretical particles
called strangelets, magnetic monopoles and vacuum bub-

105

bles.[1][43]
Based on such safety concerns, US federal judge Richard
Posner,[44] Future of Humanity Institute research associate Toby Ord[45] and others[46][47][48][49] have argued
that the LHC experiments are too risky to undertake.
In the book Our Final Century: Will the Human Race
Survive the Twenty-rst Century?, English cosmologist
and astrophysicist Martin Rees calculated an upper limit
of 1 in 50 million for the probability that the Large
Hadron Collider will produce a global catastrophe or
black hole.[39] However, Rees has also reported not to be
losing sleep over the collider, and trusts the scientists
who have built it.[50] He has stated: My book has been
misquoted in one or two places. I would refer you to the
up-to-date safety study.[51]
The risk assessments of catastrophic scenarios at the LHC
sparked public fears,[38] and some scientists associated
with the project received protests - the Large Hadron Collider team revealed that they had received death threats
and threatening emails and phone calls demanding the experiment be halted.[51] On 9 September 2008, Romanias
Conservative Party held a protest before the European
Commission mission to Bucharest, demanding that the
experiment be halted because it feared that the LHC
could create dangerous black holes.[52][53]

Media coverage
The safety concerns regarding the LHC collisions have attracted widespread media attention.[38][54] Various widely
circulated newspapers have reported doomsday fears in
connection with the collider, including The Times,[55] The
Guardian,[56] The Independent,[57] The Sydney Morning
Herald,[58] and Time.[59] Among other media sources,
CNN mentioned that Some have expressed fears that the
project could lead to the Earths demise,[60] but it assured its readers with comments from scientists like John
Huth, who said that it was baloney.[60] MSNBC said
that, there are more serious things to worry about[61]
and allayed fears that the atom-smasher might set o
earthquakes or other dangerous rumblings.[61] The results of an online survey it conducted indicate that a lot
of [the public] know enough not to panic.[61] The BBC
stated, the scientic consensus appears to be on the side
of CERNs theorists[62] who say the LHC poses no conceivable danger.[62] Brian Greene in the New York Times
reassured readers by saying, If a black hole is produced
under Geneva, might it swallow Switzerland and continue
on a ravenous rampage until the Earth is devoured? Its a
reasonable question with a denite answer: no.[63]
The tabloids also covered the safety concerns. The Daily
Mail produced headlines such as Are we all going to die
next Wednesday?"[64] and End of the world postponed
as broken Hadron Collider out of commission until the
spring.[65] The Sun quoted Otto Rssler saying, The
weather will change completely, wiping out life. There

106
will be a Biblical Armageddon.[66] After the launch of
the collider, it had a story entitled, Success! The world
hasn't ended.[67]
On 10 September 2008, a 16-year-old girl from
Sarangpur, Madhya Pradesh, India committed suicide,
having become distressed about predictions of an impending "doomsday" made on an Indian news channel
(Aaj Tak) covering the LHC.[68]

CHAPTER 5. SAFETY
Earth in the Universe. Black holes produced
in cosmic-ray collisions with bodies such as
neutron stars and white dwarf stars would be
brought to rest. The continued existence of
such dense bodies, as well as the Earth, rules
out the possibility of the LHC producing any
dangerous black holes.[4]

After the dismissal of the federal lawsuit, The Daily Strangelets Main article: Strangelets
Shows correspondent John Oliver interviewed Walter L.
Wagner, who declared that he believed the chance of the
Strangelets are small fragments of strange mattera hyLHC destroying the Earth to be 50%, since it will either
pothetical form of quark matterthat contain roughly
[69][70]
happen or it won't.
equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks and that
are more stable than ordinary nuclei (strangelets would
range in size from a few femtometers to a few meters
Specic concerns
across).[3] If strangelets can actually exist, and if they
were produced at the LHC, they could conceivably iniMicro black holes Main article: Micro black hole
tiate a runaway fusion process in which all the nuclei in
the planet would be converted to strange matter, similar
Although the Standard Model of particle physics predicts to a strange star.[3]
that LHC energies are far too low to create black holes,
some extensions of the Standard Model posit the exis- The probability of the creation of strangelets decreases
[3]
tence of extra spatial dimensions, in which it would be at higher energies. As the LHC operates at higher enpossible to create micro black holes at the LHC at a rate ergies than the RHIC or the heavy ion programs of the
of the order of one per second.[71][72][73][74][75] Accord- 1980s and 1990s, the LHC is less likely to produce
[3]
ing to the standard calculations these are harmless be- strangelets than its predecessors. Furthermore, mod[73]
els indicate that strangelets are only stable or long-lived
cause they would quickly decay by Hawking radiation.
Hawking radiation is a thermal radiation predicted to be at low temperatures. Strangelets are bound at low enemitted by black holes due to quantum eects. Because ergies (in the range of 110 MeV), while the collisions
Hawking radiation allows black holes to lose mass, black in the LHC release energies in the range of 714 TeV.
holes that lose more matter than they gain through other Thermodynamics very strongly disfavors the formation of
means are expected to dissipate, shrink, and ultimately a cold condensate that is an order of magnitude cooler
vanish. Smaller micro black holes (MBHs), which could than the surrounding medium. As an example, it is far
be produced at the LHC, are currently predicted by the- more probable that ice will form spontaneously in boiling
[3]
ory to be larger net emitters of radiation than larger black water.
[76]
holes, and to shrink and dissipate instantly. The LHC
Safety Assessment Group (LSAG) indicates that there is
broad consensus among physicists on the reality of Hawk- Concerns not meeting peer review Otto Rssler,
ing radiation, but so far no experiment has had the sensi- a German chemistry professor at the University of
Tbingen, argues that micro black holes created in the
tivity required to nd direct evidence for it.[3]
LHC could grow exponentially.[78][79][80][81][82] On 4 July
According to the LSAG, even if micro black holes were 2008, Rssler met with a CERN physicist, Rolf Lanproduced by the LHC and were stable, they would be dua, with whom he discussed his safety concerns.[83]
unable to accrete matter in a manner dangerous for the Following the meeting, Landua asked another expert,
Earth. They would also have been produced by cosmic Hermann Nicolai, Director of the Albert Einstein Instirays and have stopped in neutron stars and white dwarfs, tute, in Germany, to examine Rsslers arguments.[83]
and the stability of these astronomical bodies means that Nicolai reviewed Otto Rsslers research paper on the
they cannot be dangerous:[3][77]
safety of the LHC[79] and issued a statement highlighting logical inconsistencies and physical misunderstandStable black holes could be either electriings in Rsslers arguments.[84] Nicolai concluded that
cally charged or neutral. [...] If stable mithis text would not pass the referee process in a sericroscopic black holes had no electric charge,
ous journal.[82][84] Domenico Giulini also commented
with Hermann Nicolai on Otto Rsslers thesis, concludtheir interactions with the Earth would be very
ing that his argument concerns only the General Theweak. Those produced by cosmic rays would
ory of Relativity (GRT), and makes no logical connecpass harmlessly through the Earth into space,
tion to LHC physics; the argument is not valid; the arwhereas those produced by the LHC could
gument is not self-consistent.[85] On 1 August 2008, a
remain on Earth. However, there are much
group of German physicists, the Committee for Elemenlarger and denser astronomical bodies than the

5.1. SAFETY OF PARTICLE COLLISIONS AT THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER


tary Particle Physics (KET),[86] published an open letter
further dismissing Rsslers concerns and carrying assurances that the LHC is safe.[87][88] Otto Rssler was due to
meet Swiss president Pascal Couchepin in August 2008
to discuss this concern,[89] but it was later reported that
the meeting had been canceled as it was believed Rssler
and his fellow opponents would have used the meeting for
their own publicity.[90]
On 10 August 2008, Rainer Plaga, a German astrophysicist, posted a research paper on the arXiv Web archive
concluding that LHC safety studies have not denitely
ruled out the potential catastrophic threat from microscopic black holes, including the possible danger from
Hawking radiation emitted by black holes.[1][91][92][93] In
a follow-up paper posted on the arXiv on 29 August 2008,
Steven Giddings and Michelangelo Mangano, the authors
of the research paper Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes,[94] responded to
Plagas concerns.[95] They pointed out what they see as a
basic inconsistency in Plagas calculation, and argued that
their own conclusions on the safety of the collider, as referred to in the LHC safety assessment (LSAG) report,[3]
remain robust.[95] Giddings and Mangano also referred to
the research paper Exclusion of black hole disaster scenarios at the LHC, which relies on a number of new arguments to conclude that there is no risk due to mini black
holes at the LHC.[1][96] On 19 January 2009 Roberto
Casadio, Sergio Fabi and Benjamin Harms posted on the
arXiv a paper, later published on Physical Review D, ruling out the catastrophic growth of black holes in the scenario considered by Plaga.[97] In reaction to the criticisms,
Plaga updated his paper on the arXiv on 26 September
2008 and again on 9 August 2009.[91] So far, Plagas paper has not been published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Safety reviews
CERN-commissioned reports Drawing from research performed to assess the safety of the RHIC
collisions, the LHC Safety Study Group, a group of
independent scientists, performed a safety analysis of
the LHC, and released their ndings in the 2003 report
Study of Potentially Dangerous Events During Heavy-Ion
Collisions at the LHC. The report concluded that there
is no basis for any conceivable threat.[2] Several of its
arguments were based on the predicted evaporation of
hypothetical micro black holes by Hawking radiation
and on the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model
with regard to the outcome of events to be studied in the
LHC. One argument raised against doomsday fears was
that collisions at energies equivalent to and higher than
those of the LHC have been happening in nature for
billions of years apparently without hazardous eects, as
ultra-high-energy cosmic rays impact Earths atmosphere
and other bodies in the universe.[2]

107

Safety Assessment Group (LSAG), consisting of John


Ellis, Gian Giudice, Michelangelo Mangano and Urs
Wiedemann, of CERN, and Igor Tkachev, of the Institute
for Nuclear Research in Moscowto monitor the latest
concerns about the LHC collisions.[4] On 20 June 2008,
in light of new experimental data and theoretical understanding, the LSAG issued a report updating the 2003
safety review, in which they rearmed and extended its
conclusions that LHC collisions present no danger and
that there are no reasons for concern.[3][4] The LSAG
report was then reviewed by CERNs Scientic Policy
Committee (SPC), a group of external scientists that advises CERNs governing body, its Council.[5][41][98] The
report was reviewed and endorsed by a panel of ve
independent scientists, Peter Braun-Munzinger, Matteo
Cavalli-Sforza, Gerard 't Hooft, Bryan Webber and Fabio
Zwirner, and their conclusions were unanimously approved by the full 20 members of the SPC.[98] On 5
September 2008, the LSAGs Review of the safety of
LHC collisions was published in the Journal of Physics
G: Nuclear and Particle Physics by the UK Institute of
Physics, which endorsed its conclusions in a press release
that announced the publication.[3][7]
Following the July 2008 release of the LSAG safety
report,[3] the Executive Committee of the Division of
Particles and Fields (DPF) of the American Physical Society, the worlds second largest organization of physicists, issued a statement approving the LSAGs conclusions and noting that this report explains why there is
nothing to fear from particles created at the LHC.[6]
On 1 August 2008, a group of German quantum physicists, the Committee for Elementary Particle Physics
(KET),[86] published an open letter further dismissing
concerns about the LHC experiments and carrying assurances that they are safe based on the LSAG safety
review.[87][88]

Other publications On 20 June 2008, Steven Giddings


and Michelangelo Mangano issued a research paper titled the Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes, where they develop arguments to exclude any risk of dangerous black hole production at the LHC.[94] On 18 August 2008, this safety
review was published in the Physical Review D,[99] and
a commentary article which appeared the same day in
the journal Physics endorsed Giddings and Manganos
conclusions.[100] The LSAG report draws heavily on this
research.[41]

On 9 February 2009, a paper titled Exclusion of black


hole disaster scenarios at the LHC was published in the
journal Physics Letters B.[96] The article, which summarizes proofs aimed at ruling out any possible black hole
disaster at the LHC, relies on a number of new safety arguments as well as certain arguments already present in
In 2007, CERN mandated a group of ve particle physi- Giddings and Manganos paper Astrophysical implicacists not involved in the LHC experimentsthe LHC tions of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes.[94]

108
Legal challenges

CHAPTER 5. SAFETY

5.1.4 See also


5.1.5 References
[1] Boyle, Alan (19 August 2008). "Twists in the Doomsday
debate". Cosmic Log. msnbc.com.

On 21 March 2008, a complaint requesting an injunction to halt the LHCs startup was led by Walter L.
Wagner and Luis Sancho against CERN and its American collaborators, the US Department of Energy, the
National Science Foundation and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, before the United States District
Court for the District of Hawaii.[43][101][102] The plaintis demanded an injunction against the LHCs activation for 4 months after issuance of the LHC Safety Assessment Groups (LSAG) most recent safety documentation, and a permanent injunction until the LHC can
be demonstrated to be reasonably safe within industry
standards.[103] The US Federal Court scheduled trial to
begin 16 June 2009.[104]

[2] Blaizot JP, Iliopoulos J, Madsen J, Ross GG, Sonderegger P, Specht HJ (2003). Study of Potentially Dangerous
Events During Heavy-Ion Collisions at the LHC (PDF, 176
KiB). CERN. Geneva. CERN-2003-001.
[3] Ellis J, Giudice G, Mangano ML, Tkachev I, Wiedemann U (LHC Safety Assessment Group) (5 September 2008). "Review of the Safety of LHC Collisions"
(PDF, 586 KiB). ''Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. 35, 115004 (18pp). doi:10.1088/09543899/35/11/115004. arXiv:0806.3414. CERN record.
[4] "The safety of the LHC". CERN 2008 (CERN website).
[5] CERN Scientic Policy Committee (2008). SPC Report
on LSAG Documents. CERN record.

The LSAG review, issued on 20 June 2008 after outside


review, found no basis for any concerns about the con- [6] "Statement by the Executive Committee of the DPF on the
sequences of new particles or forms of matter that could
Safety of Collisions at the Large Hadron Collider" (PDF,
possibly be produced by the LHC.[3] The US Govern40 KiB) issued by the Division of Particles & Fields (DPF)
ment, in response, called for summary dismissal of the
of the American Physical Society (APS)
suit against the government defendants as untimely due
to the expiration of a six-year statute of limitations (since [7] "LHC switch-on fears are completely unfounded". The
Institute of Physics. PR 48 (08). 5 September 2008.
funding began by 1999 and has essentially been completed already), and also called the hazards claimed by the
[8] CERN Communication Group (January 2008). "CERN
plaintis overly speculative and not credible.[105] The
FAQ LHC: the guide" (PDF). CERN. Geneva (44p).
Hawaii District Court heard the governments motion to
dismiss on 2 September 2008,[38] and on 26 September [9] Achenbach, Joel (1 March 2008). "The God Particle".
National Geographic Magazine.
the Court issued an order granting the motion to dismiss
on the grounds that it had no jurisdiction over the LHC
project.[106] A subsequent appeal by the plaintis was dis- [10] CERN press release (2009)" LHC ends 2009 run on a high
note."
missed by the Court on 24 August 2010.[107][108]
On 26 August 2008, a group of European citizens, led [11] CERN LHC sees high-energy success (Press release).
BBC News. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
by German biochemist Otto Rssler, led a suit against
CERN in the European Court of Human Rights in
[12] CERN Press Oce (31 January 2011). CERN anStrasbourg.[80] The suit, which was summarily rejected
nounces LHC to run in 2012. CERN.
on the same day, alleged that the Large Hadron Collider
posed grave risks for the safety of the 27 member states [13] BBC End Days (Documentary)
of the European Union and their citizens.[55][59][80]
[14] Matthews, Robert (28 August 1999). "A Black Hole Ate

Late in 2009 a review of the legal situation by Eric JohnMy Planet". New Scientist.
son, a lawyer, was published in the Tennessee Law Review.[109][110][111] In February 2010 a summary of John- [15] Horizon: End Day. BBC. 2005.
sons article appeared as an opinion piece in New Scien[16] Wagner, Walter (1999). Black holes at Brookhaven?".
tist.[112]
(Letters to the Editors)". Scientic American 281: 8.

In February 2010, the German Constitutional Court


(Bundesverfassungsgericht) rejected an injunction peti- [17] Wilczek, Frank (1999). Reply to Black holes at
Brookhaven by W.L. Wagner"". Scientic American 281
tion to halt the LHCs operation as unfounded, without
(1):
5.
hearing the case, stating that the opponents had failed to
[113]
A sub- [18] Dar, Arnon; De Rjula, Alvaro; & Heinz, Ulrich (16
produce plausible evidence for their theories.
sequent petition was rejected by the Administrative Court
December 1999). "Will relativistic heavy ion colliders
of Cologne in January 2011.[114] An appeal against the
destroy our planet?" (PDF). Physics Letters B. 470(1):
latter ruling was rejected by the Higher Administrative
142-48. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01307-6. arXiv:
hep-ph/9910471. CERN-TH/99-324.
Court of North Rhine-Westphalia in October 2012.[115]

5.1. SAFETY OF PARTICLE COLLISIONS AT THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

[19] Jae, Robert L.; Busza, Wit; Sandweiss, Jack; & Wilczek,
Frank. (14 July 2000). "Review of Speculative Disaster
Scenarios at RHIC" (PDF). Reviews of Modern Physics.
72(4): 1125-140. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.72.1125.
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[20] T. D. Gutierrez, Doomsday Fears at RHIC, Skeptical
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109

[37] E. S. Reich, New Scientist 185:2491, 16 (2005).


[38] Boyle, Alan (2 September 2008). "Courts weigh doomsday claims". Cosmic Log. msnbc.com.
[39] "Some fear debut of powerful atom-smasher" CNN.com.
30 June 2008.

[21] R. Jae et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 11251140 (2000).

[40] Muir, Hazel. (28 March 2008). "Particle smasher 'not a


threat to the Earth'". NewScientist.com.

[22] Matthews, Robert (28 August 1999). A Black Hole Ate


My Planet. New Scientist.

[41] Overbye, Dennis (21 June 2008). "Earth Will Survive After All, Physicists Say". The New York Times.

[23] <Please add rst missing authors to populate metadata.>


(2005). "Horizon: End Day". BBC.

[42] Sancho, Luis (June 2008). "Fear review". Harpers Magazine.

[24] W. Wagner, Black holes at Brookhaven?" and reply by F.


Wilzcek, Letters to the Editor, Scientic American July
1999

[43] Boyle, Alan (27 March 2008). "Doomsday Fears Spark


Lawsuit". Cosmic Log. msnbc.com.

[25] Cf. Brookhaven Report mentioned by Rees, Martin


(Lord), Our Final Century: Will the Human Race Survive the Twenty-rst Century?, U.K., 2003, ISBN 0-46506862-6; note that the mentioned 1 in 50 million chance
is disputed as being a misleading and played down probability of the serious risks (Aspden, U.K., 2006)

[44] Catastrophe: Risk and Response http://www.bsos.umd.


edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/posner505.htm
[45] Toby Ord, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Anders Sandberg
Probing the Improbable: Methodological Challenges for
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[26] A. Dar, A. De Rujula, U. Heinz, Will relativistic heavy


ion colliders destroy our planet?", Phys. Lett. B470:
142148 (1999) arXiv:hep-ph/9910471

[46] Bailey, Ronald (2 September 2008). "A 1-in-1,000


Chance of Gtterdmmerung: Will European physicists
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[27] W. Busza, R. Jae, J. Sandweiss, F. Wilczek, Review


of speculative 'disaster scenarios at RHIC, Rev. Mod.
Phys.72:11251140 (2000) arXiv:hep-ph/9910333

[47] Crease, Robert P. (May 2005). "Are accelerators dangerous?" Physics World.

[28] Wagner is a lawyer and former physics lab technician. In


1975, he worked on a project that claimed to discover
a magnetic monopole in cosmic ray data (Evidence for
the Detection of a Moving Magnetic Monopole, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 35, (1975)). That claim was
later withdrawn in 1978 (Further Measurements and Reassessment of the Magnetic Monopole Candidate, Physical Review D18: 13821421 (1978))
[29] Wilczek is noted for his work on quarks, for which he subsequently was awarded the Nobel Prize
[30] M. Mukerjee, Scientic American 280:March, 60
(1999). The Wagner and Wilczek letters follow in the July
issue (vol. 281 no. 1), p. 8.
[31] Sunday Times, 18 July 1999.
[32] e.g. ABCNEWS.com, from the Internet Archive.
[33] e.g. MSNBC, June 14, 2000.
[34] United States District Court, Eastern District of New
York, Case No. 00CV1672, Walter L. Wagner vs.
Brookhaven Science Associates, L.L.C. (2000); United
States District Court, Northern District of California,
Case No. C99-2226, Walter L. Wagner vs. U.S. Department of Energy, et al. (1999)
[35] BBC, 17 March 2005.
[36] H. Nastase, hep-th/0501068 (2005).

[48] Warner, Gerald (10 September 2008). "We must be wary


of scientic research". telegraph.co.uk.
[49] Deatrick, Sherry R. (2008). Large Hadron Collider:
Cause for ConCERN or Tempest in a Teapot?". Journal
of System Safety 44: 3.
[50] Overbye, Dennis (15 April 2008). "Gauging a Colliders
Odds of Creating a Black Hole". The New York Times.
[51] Higheld, Roger (5 September 2008).
"Scientists
get death threats over Large Hadron Collider".
Telegraph.co.uk.
[52] "UPDATE: Small Romanian party sparks mockery saying LHC experiment may create tiny black holes and that
CERN experiment should be halted". Hotnews.ro. 9
septembrie 2008.
[53] "Threats Won't Stop Collider".
September 2008.

Photonics.Com.

[54] Henderson, Mark (5 September 2008). "The Large


Hadron Collider: how the press demeans science". The
Times.
[55] Sugden, Joanna (6 September 2008). "Large Hadron Collider will not turn world to goo, promise scientists". Times
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[56] Carus, Felicity (7 September 2008). "Should we be concerned when the worlds largest subatomic particle experiment is switched on in Geneva?" guardian.co.uk.

110

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[57] Connor, Steve (5 September 2008). "The Big Question:


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[77] Schewe, Phil (9 September 2008). "Mini Black Holes No


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[58] "Massive physics experiment on Wednesday". The Sydney


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[78] Rssler, Otto (2008). "A Rational and Moral and Spiritual
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[59] Harrell, Eben (4 September 2008). "Collider Triggers


End-of-World Fears". Time.com.

[79] Rssler, Otto (2008).


"Abraham-Solution to
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[60] Landau, Elizabeth (8 September 2008). "Multibilliondollar collider to probe natures mysteries". CNN.
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reaction". Cosmic Log. msnbc.
[62] Rincon, Paul (23 June 2008). "Earth 'not at risk' from
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[63] Greene, Brian (11 September 2008). "The Origins of the
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5.1.6 External links
physletb.2009.01.003. arXiv:0807.3349. CERN record
[97] R. Casadio, S. Fabi and B. Harms Possibility of Catastrophic Black Hole Growth in the Warped Brane-World
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[104]
[105]

[106]
[107]

The safety of the LHC, CERN webpage.


The LHC is safe (video), talk by John Ellis at
CERN, on 14 August 2008.

5.2 Micro black hole


Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical
black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny
black holes, for which quantum mechanical eects play
an important role.[1]
It is possible that such quantum primordial black holes
were created in the high-density environment of the early
Universe (or big bang), or possibly through subsequent
phase transitions. They might be observed by astrophysicists in the near future, through the particles they are expected to emit by Hawking radiation.

LHCDe-

Some hypotheses involving additional space dimensions


predict that micro black holes could be formed at an enBoyle, Alan (16 June 2008). "Doomsday under debate". ergy as low as the TeV range, which are available in particle accelerators such as the LHC (Large Hadron ColCosmic Log. msnbc.com.
lider). Popular concerns have then been raised over endOverbye, Dennis (27 June 2008). "Government Seeks of-the-world scenarios (see Safety of particle collisions
Dismissal of End-of-World Suit Against Collider". The
at the Large Hadron Collider). However, such quantum
New York Times.
black holes would instantly evaporate, either totally or
Boyle, Alan (26 September 2008). "Doomsday Lawsuit leaving only a very weakly interacting residue. Beside the
Dismissed". Cosmic Log. msnbc.com.
theoretical arguments, we can notice that the cosmic rays
bombarding the Earth do not produce any damage, alHarris, David (26 August 2010). "LHC lawsuit dismissed
though they reach center of mass energies in the range of
by US court". symmetrybreaking. SLAC/Fermilab.
hundreds of TeV.

[108] US Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit, "Memorandum


on W. Wagners Appeal", led on 24 August 2010
[109] Johnson, Eric E. The Black Hole Case. Tennessee Law
Review 76: 819908.

5.2.1 Minimum mass of a black hole

In principle, a black hole can have any mass equal to or


above the Planck mass (about 22 micrograms). To make
a black hole, one must concentrate mass or energy suciently that the escape velocity from the region in which it
is concentrated exceeds the speed of light. This condition
2
[111] Cartlidge, Edwin (Feb 2, 2010). Law and the end of gives the Schwarzschild radius, R = 2GM /c , where G
the world. physicsworld.com (Institute of Physics). Re- is the gravitational constant and c is the speed of light,
and M the mass of the black hole. On the other hand, the
trieved 2010-04-01.
Compton wavelength, = h/M c , where h is Plancks
[112] Johnson, Eric E. (23 February 2010). CERN on trial:
constant, represents a limit on the minimum size of the
could a lawsuit shut the LHC down?". New Scientist. Reregion in which a mass M at rest can be localized. For
trieved 2010-04-01.
suciently small M, the reduced Compton wavelength (
[113] BVerfG, 2 BvR 2502/08 vom 18.2.2010
= /M c , where is Reduced planck constant) exceeds
[110] Johnson (2009). The Black Hole Case: The Injunction Against the End of the World.
Tenn.
arXiv:0912.5480.
L. Rev.
76 (819): 5480.
Bibcode:2009arXiv0912.5480J.

112

CHAPTER 5. SAFETY

half the Schwarzschild radius, and no black hole descrip- While Hawking radiation is sometimes questioned,[7]
tion exists. This smallest mass for a black hole is thus Leonard Susskind summarizes an expert perspective in
approximately the Planck mass.
his recent book:[8] Every so often, a physics paper will
Some extensions of present physics posit the existence of appear claiming that black holes don't evaporate. Such
extra dimensions of space. In higher-dimensional space- papers quickly disappear into the innite junk heap of
time, the strength of gravity increases more rapidly with fringe ideas.
decreasing distance than in three dimensions. With certain special congurations of the extra dimensions, this
eect can lower the Planck scale to the TeV range. Examples of such extensions include large extra dimensions,
special cases of the RandallSundrum model, and string
theory congurations like the GKP solutions. In such scenarios, black hole production could possibly be an important and observable eect at the LHC.[1][2][3][4][5] It
would also be a common natural phenomenon induced
by the cosmic rays.

Conjectures for the nal state

Conjectures for the nal fate of the black hole include


total evaporation and production of a Planck-mass-sized
black hole remnant. It is possible that such Planck-mass
black holes, no longer able either to absorb energy gravitationally like a classical black hole because of the quantised gaps between their allowed energy levels, nor to
emit Hawking particles for the same reason, may in eect
All this assumes that the theory of general relativity re- be stable objects. In such case, they would be WIMPs
mains valid at these small distances. If it does not, then (weakly interacting massive particles); this could explain
[9]
other, presently unknown, eects will limit the minimum dark matter.
size of a black hole.

5.2.3 Primordial black holes


5.2.2

Stability of a micro black hole

Main article: Primordial black hole

Hawking radiation
Main article: Hawking radiation
In 1974 Stephen Hawking argued that due to quantum effects, black holes evaporate by a process now referred
to as Hawking radiation in which elementary particles
(photons, electrons, quarks, gluons, etc.) are emitted.[6]
His calculations show that the smaller the size of the black
hole, the faster the evaporation rate, resulting in a sudden
burst of particles as the micro black hole suddenly explodes.
Any primordial black hole of suciently low mass will
evaporate to near the Planck mass within the lifetime of
the Universe. In this process, these small black holes radiate away matter. A rough picture of this is that pairs of
virtual particles emerge from the vacuum near the event
horizon, with one member of a pair being captured, and
the other escaping the vicinity of the black hole. The net
result is the black hole loses mass (due to conservation of
energy). According to the formulae of black hole thermodynamics, the more the black hole loses mass the hotter it
becomes, and the faster it evaporates, until it approaches
the Planck mass. At this stage a black hole would have
a Hawking temperature of TP / 8 (5.61032 K), which
means an emitted Hawking particle would have an energy
comparable to the mass of the black hole. Thus a thermodynamic description breaks down. Such a mini-black
hole would also have an entropy of only 4 nats, approximately the minimum possible value. At this point then,
the object can no longer be described as a classical black
hole, and Hawkings calculations also break down.

Formation in the early Universe


Production of a black hole requires concentration of mass
or energy within the corresponding Schwarzschild radius.
It is hypothesized that shortly after the big bang the Universe was dense enough for any given region of space to t
within its own Schwarzschild radius. Even so, at that time
the Universe was not able to collapse into a singularity due
to its uniform mass distribution and rapid growth. This,
however, does not fully exclude the possibility that black
holes of various sizes may have emerged locally. A black
hole formed in this way is called a primordial black hole
and is the most widely accepted hypothesis for the possible creation of micro black holes. Computer simulations
suggest that the probability of formation of a primordial
black hole is inversely proportional to its mass. Thus the
most likely outcome would be micro black holes.
Expected observable eects
Primordial black holes of initial masses around 1012
Kilograms would be completing their evaporation today; lighter primordial black holes would have already
evaporated.[1] In optimistic circumstances, the Fermi
Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite, launched in June
2008, might detect experimental evidence for evaporation of nearby black holes by observing gamma ray
bursts.[10][11][12] It is unlikely that a collision between a
microscopic black hole and an object such as a star or a
planet would be noticeable. The small radius and high
density of the black hole would allow it to pass straight

5.2. MICRO BLACK HOLE

113

through any object consisting of normal atoms, interact- cal objects such as the Earth, Sun, neutron stars, or white
ing with only few of its atoms while doing so. It has, dwarfs.
however, been suggested that a small black hole (of sufcient mass) passing through the Earth would produce a
detectable acoustic or seismic signal.[13][14][15][lower-alpha 1] 5.2.5 Black holes in quantum theories of

gravity
5.2.4

Manmade micro black holes

Feasibility of production
In familiar three-dimensional gravity, the minimum energy of a microscopic black hole is 1019 GeV, which
would have to be condensed into a region on the order
of the Planck length. This is far beyond the limits of
any current technology. It is estimated that to collide two
particles to within a distance of a Planck length with currently achievable magnetic eld strengths would require
a ring accelerator about 1000 light years in diameter to
keep the particles on track. Stephen Hawking also said in
chapter 6 of his Brief History of Time that physicist John
Archibald Wheeler once calculated that a very powerful
hydrogen bomb using all the deuterium in all the water on
Earth could also generate such a black hole, but Hawking
does not provide this calculation or any reference to it to
support this assertion.

It is possible, in some theories of quantum gravity, to


calculate the quantum corrections to ordinary, classical
black holes. Contrarily to conventional black holes which
are solutions of gravitational eld equations of the general
theory of relativity, quantum gravity black holes incorporate quantum gravity eects in the vicinity of the origin, where classically a curvature singularity occurs. According to the theory employed to model quantum gravity eects, there are dierent kinds of quantum gravity black holes, namely loop quantum black holes, noncommutative black holes, asymptotically safe black holes.
In these approaches, black holes are singularity free.
Virtual-micro black holes (VMBH) have been proposed
by Stephen Hawking in 1995,[21] and by Fabio Scardigli in
1999 as part of a GUT which could be a quantum gravity
candidate.[22][23]

5.2.6 Micro black holes in ction

However, in some scenarios involving extra dimensions


of space, the Planck mass can be as low as the TeV Main article: Black holes in ction
range. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has a design
energy of 14 TeV for protonproton collisions and 1150
TeV for PbPb collisions. It was argued in 2001 that in
these circumstances black hole production could be an 5.2.7 See also
important and observable eect at the LHC[2][3][4][5][16]
Planck particle
or future higher-energy colliders. Such quantum black
holes should decay emitting sprays of particles that could
Holeum
be seen by detectors at these facilities.[2][3] A paper by
Choptuik and Pretorius, published on March 17, 2010 in
Physical Review Letters, presented a computer-generated 5.2.8 Notes
proof that micro black holes must form from two colliding particles with sucient energy, which might be allow- [1] The Schwarzschild radius of a 1015 gram black hole is
able at the energies of the LHC if additional dimensions
~148 fm (148 x 1015 m), which is much smaller than an
atom but larger than an atomic nucleus.
are present other than the customary four (three spatial,
[17][18]
one temporal).

5.2.9 References
Safety arguments
Main article: Safety of high-energy particle collision
experiments
Hawkings calculation[6] and more general quantum mechanical arguments predict that micro black holes evaporate almost instantaneously. Additional safety arguments
beyond those based on Hawking radiation were given in
the paper,[19][20] which showed that in hypothetical scenarios with stable black holes that could damage Earth,
such black holes would have been produced by cosmic
rays and would have already destroyed known astronomi-

[1] B.J. Carr and S.B. Giddings, Quantum black


holes,Scientic American 292N5 (2005) 30.
[2] Giddings, S. B. & Thomas, S. D. (2002). High-energy
colliders as black hole factories: The End of short distance
physics. Phys. Rev. D 65 (5): 056010. arXiv:hepph/0106219.
Bibcode:2002PhRvD..65e6010G.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.65.056010.
[3] Dimopoulos, S.; Landsberg, G. L. (2001). Black
Holes at the Large Hadron Collider.
Phys.
Rev.
Lett.
87 (16):
161602.
arXiv:hepBibcode:2001PhRvL..87p1602D.
ph/0106295.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.161602. PMID 11690198.

114

CHAPTER 5. SAFETY

[4] Johnson, George (September 11, 2001). Physicists Strive


to Build A Black Hole. The New York Times. Retrieved
2010-05-12.

[19] S.B. Giddings and M.L. Mangano, Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes,
arXiv:0806.3381, Phys. Rev. D78: 035009, 2008

[5] The case for mini black holes. CERN courier. November 2004.

[20] M.E. Peskin, The end of the world at the Large Hadron
Collider?" Physics 1, 14 (2008)

[6] Hawking, S. W. (1975).


Particle Creation by
Black Holes.
Commun.
Math.
Phys.
43
(3):
199220.
Bibcode:1975CMaPh..43..199H.
doi:10.1007/BF02345020.

[21] Hawking, Stephen (1995).


arXiv:hep-th/9510029v1.

[7] Helfer, A. D. (2003). Do black holes radiate?". Reports


on Progress in Physics 66 (6): 943. arXiv:gr-qc/0304042.
Bibcode:2003RPPh...66..943H.
doi:10.1088/00344885/66/6/202.
[8] Susskind, L. (2008). The Black Hole War: My battle with
Stephen Hawking to make the world safe for quantum mechanics. New York: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-31601640-7.
[9] J. H. MacGibbon, Nature 329, 308 (1987)
[10] Barrau, A. (2000). Primordial black holes as a source
of extremely high energy cosmic rays. Astroparticle
Physics 12 (4): 269275. arXiv:astro-ph/9907347.
Bibcode:2000APh....12..269B.
doi:10.1016/S09276505(99)00103-6.
[11] McKee, M. (30 May 2006). Satellite could open door on
extra dimension. New Scientist.
[12] Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope: Mini black hole
detection.
[13] Khriplovich, I. B.; Pomeransky, A. A.; Produit,
N. & Ruban, G. Yu.
(2008).
Can one detect passage of small black hole through the
Earth?".
Physical Review D 77 (6): 064017.
arXiv:0710.3438.
Bibcode:2008PhRvD..77f4017K.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.77.064017.
[14] Khriplovich, I. B.; Pomeransky, A. A.; Produit, N. &
Ruban, G. Yu. (2008). Passage of small black hole
through the Earth. Is it detectable?" 0801. p. 4623.
arXiv:0801.4623. Bibcode:2008arXiv0801.4623K.

Virtual Black Holes.

[22] Scardigli, Fabio (1999).


Generalized Uncertainty
Principle in Quantum Gravity from Micro-Black Hole
Gedanken Experiment. arXiv:hep-th/9904025.
[23] https://plus.google.com/+JonathanLangdale/posts/
RUroe4Lv2iu

5.2.10 Bibliography
D. Page, Phys. Rev. D13 (1976) 198 : rst detailed
studies of the evaporation mechanism
B.J. Carr & S.W. Hawking, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc 168 (1974) 399 : links between primordial black holes and the early universe
A. Barrau et al., Astron.
Astrophys.
388
(2002) 676, Astron. Astrophys. 398 (2003) 403,
Astrophys. J. 630 (2005) 1015 : experimental
searches for primordial black holes thanks to the
emitted antimatter
A. Barrau & G. Boudoul, Review talk given at
the International Conference on Theoretical Physics
TH2002 : cosmology with primordial black holes
A. Barrau & J. Grain, Phys. Lett. B 584 (2004) 114
: searches for new physics (quantum gravity) with
primordial black holes
P. Kanti, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A19 (2004) 4899 :
evaporating black holes and extra dimensions
D. Ida, K.-y. Oda & S.C.Park, : determination of
black holes life and extra dimensions

[15] Cain, Fraser (20 June 2007). Are Microscopic Black


Holes Buzzing Inside the Earth?". Universe Today.

Sabine Hossenfelder: What Black Holes Can Teach


Us, hep-ph/0412265

[16] Schewe, Phillip F.; Stein, Ben & Riordon, James (September 26, 2001). "??". Bulletin of Physics News (American
Institute of Physics) 558.

L. Modesto, PhysRevD.70.124009: Disappearance


of Black Hole Singularity in Quantum Gravity

[17] Choptuik,
Matthew W. & Pretorius,
Frans
(2010).
Ultrarelativistic
Particle
Collisions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (11): 111101.
arXiv:0908.1780.
Bibcode:2010PhRvL.104k1101C.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.111101.
PMID
20366461.
[18] Peng, G. X.; Wen, X. J.; Chen, Y. D. (2006). New
solutions for the color-avor locked strangelets.
Physics Letters B 633 (23): 314318. arXiv:hepBibcode:2006PhLB..633..314P.
ph/0512112.
doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2005.11.081.

P. Nicolini, A. Smailacic, E. Spallucci,


j.physletb.2005.11.004:
Noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole
A. Bonanno, M. Reuter, PhysRevD.73.083005:
Spacetime Structure of an Evaporating Black Hole
in Quantum Gravity
S. Fujioka et al., Nature Physics 5, 821 825
(2009): X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a
miniature compact object produced by laser-driven
implosion

5.3. STRANGELET

5.2.11

External links

Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable


TeV-scale black holes
A. Barrau & J. Grain, The Case for mini black holes
: a review of the searches for new physics with micro
black holes possibly formed at colliders
Mini Black Holes Might Reveal 5th Dimension
Space.com
Doomsday Machine Large Hadron Collider? A
scientic essay about energies, dimensions, black
holes, and the associated public attention to CERN,
by Norbert Frischauf (also available as Podcast)

115
cording to the strange matter hypothesis, strangelets are
more stable than nuclei, so nuclei are expected to decay
into strangelets. But this process may be extremely slow
because there is a large energy barrier to overcome: as the
weak interaction starts making a nucleus into a strangelet,
the rst few strange quarks form strange baryons, such as
the Lambda, which are heavy. Only if many conversions
occur almost simultaneously will the number of strange
quarks reach the critical proportion required to achieve
a lower energy state. This is very unlikely to happen, so
even if the strange matter hypothesis were correct, nuclei
would never be seen to decay to strangelets because their
lifetime would be longer than the age of the universe.
Size

5.3 Strangelet

The stability of strangelets depends on their size. This


is because of (a) surface tension at the interface between
quark matter and vacuum (which aects small strangelets
more than big ones), and (b) screening of charges, which
allows small strangelets to be charged, with a neutralizing cloud of electrons/positrons around them, but requires
large strangelets, like any large piece of matter, to be electrically neutral in their interior. The charge screening distance tends to be of the order of a few femtometers, so
only the outer few femtometers of a strangelet can carry
charge.[4]

A strangelet is a hypothetical particle consisting of a


bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and
strange quarks. Its size would be a minimum of a few
femtometers across (with the mass of a light nucleus).
Once the size becomes macroscopic (on the order of metres across), such an object is usually called a quark star or
strange star rather than a strangelet. An equivalent description is that a strangelet is a small fragment of strange
matter. The term strangelet originates with E. Farhi
and R. Jae.[1] Strangelets have been suggested as a dark The surface tension of strange matter is unknown. If it
is smaller than a critical value (a few MeV per square
matter candidate.[2]
femtometer[5] ) then large strangelets are unstable and will
tend to ssion into smaller strangelets (strange stars would
5.3.1 Theoretical possibility
still be stabilized by gravity). If it is larger than the critical value, then strangelets become more stable as they get
Strange matter hypothesis
bigger.
The known particles with strange quarks are unstable because the strange quark is heavier than the up and down
quarks, so strange particles, such as the Lambda particle,
which contains an up, down, and strange quark, always
lose their strangeness, by decaying via the weak interaction to lighter particles containing only up and down
quarks. But states with a larger number of quarks might
not suer from this instability. This is the strange matter hypothesis of Bodmer [3] and Witten.[2] According to this hypothesis, when a large enough number of
quarks are collected together, the lowest energy state is
one which has roughly equal numbers of up, down, and
strange quarks, namely a strangelet. This stability would
occur because of the Pauli exclusion principle; having
three types of quarks, rather than two as in normal nuclear matter, allows more quarks to be placed in lower
energy levels.

5.3.2 Natural or articial occurrence


Although nuclei do not decay to strangelets, there are
other ways to create strangelets, so if the strange matter hypothesis is correct there should be strangelets in the
universe. There are at least three ways they might be created in nature:
Cosmogonically, i.e., in the early universe when the
QCD connement phase transition occurred. It is
possible that strangelets were created along with the
neutrons and protons which form ordinary matter.

Relationship with nuclei

High energy processes. The universe is full of very


high-energy particles (cosmic rays). It is possible
that when these collide with each other or with neutron stars they may provide enough energy to overcome the energy barrier and create strangelets from
nuclear matter.

A nucleus is a collection of a large number of up and down


quarks, conned into triplets (neutrons and protons). Ac-

Cosmic ray impacts. In addition to head-on collisions of cosmic rays, ultra high energy cosmic

116

CHAPTER 5. SAFETY

rays impacting on Earths atmosphere may create 5.3.3 Dangers


strangelets.
If the strange matter hypothesis is correct and its surThese scenarios oer possibilities for observing face tension is larger than the aforementioned critical
strangelets. If there are strangelets ying around the value, then a larger strangelet would be more stable than
universe, then occasionally a strangelet should hit Earth, a smaller one. One speculation that has resulted from the
where it would appear as an exotic type of cosmic ray. idea is that a strangelet coming into contact with a lump
If strangelets can be produced in high energy collisions, of ordinary matter could convert the ordinary matter to
then we might make them at heavy-ion colliders.
strange matter.[13][14] This "ice-nine"-like disaster scenario is as follows: one strangelet hits a nucleus, catalyzing its immediate conversion to strange matter. This libAccelerator production
erates energy, producing a larger, more stable strangelet,
which in turn hits another nucleus, catalyzing its converAt heavy ion accelerators like the Relativistic Heavy Ion
sion to strange matter. In the end, all the nuclei of all the
Collider (RHIC), nuclei are collided at relativistic speeds,
atoms of Earth are converted, and Earth is reduced to a
creating strange and antistrange quarks which could conhot, large lump of strange matter.
ceivably lead to strangelet production. The experimental signature of a strangelet would be its very high ratio This is not a concern for strangelets in cosmic rays beof mass to charge, which would cause its trajectory in cause they are produced far from Earth and have had
a magnetic eld to be very nearly, but not quite, straight. time to decay to their ground state, which is predicted
The STAR collaboration has searched for strangelets pro- by most models to be positively charged, so they are elecduced at the RHIC,[6] but none were found. The Large trostatically repelled by nuclei, and would rarely merge
Hadron Collider (LHC) is even less likely to produce with them.[15][16] But high-energy collisions could prostrangelets,[7] but searches are planned[8] for the LHC duce negatively charged strangelet states which live long
enough to interact with the nuclei of ordinary matter.[17]
ALICE detector.
Space-based detection
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), an instrument which is mounted on the International Space Station, could detect strangelets.[9]
Possible seismic detection

The danger of catalyzed conversion by strangelets produced in heavy-ion colliders has received some media attention,[18][19] and concerns of this type were
raised[13][20] at the commencement of the Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiment at Brookhaven,
which could potentially have created strangelets. A detailed analysis[14] concluded that the RHIC collisions
were comparable to ones which naturally occur as cosmic
rays traverse the solar system, so we would already have
seen such a disaster if it were possible. RHIC has been
operating since 2000 without incident. Similar concerns
have been raised about the operation of the Large Hadron
Collider (LHC) at CERN[21] but such fears are dismissed
as far-fetched by scientists.[21][22][23]

In May 2002, a group of researchers at Southern


Methodist University reported the possibility that
strangelets may have been responsible for seismic events
recorded on October 22 and November 24 in 1993.[10]
The authors later retracted their claim, after nding that
the clock of one of the seismic stations had a large error In the case of a neutron star, the conversion scenario
seems much more plausible. A neutron star is in a sense
during the relevant period.[11]
a giant nucleus (20 km across), held together by gravity,
It has been suggested that the International Monitoring but it is electrically neutral and so does not electrostatiSystem being set up to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear cally repel strangelets. If a strangelet hit a neutron star, it
Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) after entry into force may be could convert a small region of it, and that region would
useful as a sort of strangelet observatory using the en- grow to consume the entire star, creating a quark star.[24]
tire Earth as its detector. The IMS will be designed to
detect anomalous seismic disturbances down to 1 kiloton
of TNTs equivalent energy release or less, and could be 5.3.4 Debate about the strange matter hyable to track strangelets passing through Earth in real time
pothesis
if properly exploited.
The strange matter hypothesis remains unproven. No direct search for strangelets in cosmic rays or particle accelerators has seen a strangelet (see references in earlier
It has been suggested that strangelets of subplanetary sections). If any of the objects we call neutron stars could
i.e. heavy metorite mass, would puncture planets and be shown to have a surface made of strange matter, this
other solar system objects, leading to impact (exit) craters would indicate that strange matter is stable at zero preswhich show characteristic features.[12]
sure, which would vindicate the strange matter hypothImpacts on Solar System bodies

5.3. STRANGELET
esis. But there is no strong evidence for strange matter
surfaces on neutron stars (see below).
Another argument against the hypothesis is that if it
were true, all neutron stars should be made of strange
matter, and otherwise none should be.[25] Even if there
were only a few strange stars initially, violent events such
as collisions would soon create many strangelets ying
around the universe. Because one strangelet will convert a neutron star to strange matter, by now all neutron
stars would have been converted. This argument is still
debated,[26][27][28][29] but if it is correct then showing that
one neutron star has a conventional nuclear matter crust
would disprove the strange matter hypothesis.

117
In comic book The Hypernaturals, the manipulation
of strangelets is described as the hypernatural power
of Shoal to reinforce mass and nd ways out from
tight spots.
In the 2010 lm Quantum Apocalypse, a strangelet
approaches the Earth from space.
In the novel "The Quantum Thief" by Hannu Rajaniemi and the rest of the trilogy, strangelets are
mostly used as weapons, but during an early project
to terraform Mars one was used to convert Phobos
into an additional sun.

Because of its importance for the strange matter hypothesis, there is an ongoing eort to determine whether the 5.3.6 References
surfaces of neutron stars are made of strange matter or
[1] E. Farhi and R. Jae, Strange Matter, Phys. Rev. D30,
nuclear matter. The evidence currently favors nuclear
2379 (1984)
matter. This comes from the phenomenology of X-ray
bursts, which is well-explained in terms of a nuclear mat- [2] E. Witten, Cosmic Separation Of Phases Phys. Rev.
D30, 272 (1984)
ter crust,[30] and from measurement of seismic vibrations
in magnetars.[31]
[3] A. Bodmer Collapsed Nuclei Phys. Rev. D4, 1601
(1971)

5.3.5

In ction

An episode of Odyssey 5 featured an attempt to destroy the planet by intentionally creating negatively
charged strangelets in a particle accelerator.[32]
The BBC docudrama End Day features a scenario
where a particle accelerator in New York City explodes, creating a strangelet and starting a catastrophic chain reaction which destroys Earth.
The story A Matter most Strange in the collection
Indistinguishable from Magic by Robert L. Forward
deals with the making of a strangelet in a particle
accelerator.
Impact, published in 2010 and written by Douglas
Preston, deals with an alien machine that creates
strangelets. The machines strangelets impact the
Earth and Moon and pass through.

[4] H. Heiselberg, Screening in quark droplets, Phys. Rev.


D48, 1418 (1993)
[5] M. Alford, K. Rajagopal, S. Reddy, A. Steiner, The Stability of Strange Star Crusts and Strangelets, Phys. Rev.
D73 114016 (2006) arXiv:hep-ph/0604134
[6] STAR Collaboration, Strangelet search at RHIC, arXiv:
nucl-ex/0511047
[7] Ellis J, Giudice G, Mangano ML, Tkachev I, Wiedemann U (LHC Safety Assessment Group) (5 September 2008). "Review of the Safety of LHC Collisions"
(PDF, 586 KiB). ''Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. 35, 115004 (18pp). doi:10.1088/09543899/35/11/115004. arXiv:0806.3414. CERN record.
[8] A. Angelis et al., Model of Centauro and strangelet production in heavy ion collisions, Phys. Atom. Nucl.
67:396-405 (2004) arXiv:nucl-th/0301003
[9] J. Sandweiss, Overview of strangelet searches and Alpha
Magnetic Spectrometer: When will we stop searching?"
J. Phys. G30:S51-S59 (2004)

The novel Phobos, published in 2011 and written by


Steve Alten as the third and nal part of his Domain [10] D. Anderson et al., Two seismic events with the propertrilogy, presents a ctional story where strangelets
ties for the passage of strange quark matter through the
are unintentionally created at the Large Hadron Colearth arXiv:astro-ph/0205089
lider and escape from it to destroy the Earth.
In The Arwen, strangelets are used as a method to
create a traversable wormhole.
In the 1992 black-comedy novel Humans by Donald
E. Westlake, an irritated God sends an angel to Earth
to bring about Armageddon by means of using a
strangelet created in a particle accelerator to convert
the Earth into a quark star.

[11] E.T. Herrin et al., Seismic Search for Strange Quark


Nuggets
[12] Lance Labun, Jeremey Birrell, Johann Rafelski, Solar
System Signatures of Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense
Objects,arXiv:1104.4572
[13] A. Dar, A. De Rujula, U. Heinz, Will relativistic heavy
ion colliders destroy our planet?", Phys. Lett. B470:
142-148 (1999) arXiv:hep-ph/9910471

118

CHAPTER 5. SAFETY

[14] W. Busza, R. Jae, J. Sandweiss, F. Wilczek, Review


of speculative 'disaster scenarios at RHIC, Rev. Mod.
Phys.72:1125-1140 (2000) arXiv:hep-ph/9910333

[32] Odyssey 5: Trouble with Harry, an episode of the Canadian science ction television series Odyssey 5 by Manny
Coto (2002)

[15] J. Madsen, Intermediate mass strangelets are positively


charged, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 4687-4690 (2000)
arXiv:hep-ph/0008217

5.3.7 Further reading

[16] J. Madsen Strangelets in Cosmic Rays, for Proceedings


of 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, Germany, Jul 2006,
arXiv:astro-ph/0612784
[17] J. Schaner-Bielich, C. Greiner, A. Diener, H. Stoecker,
Detectability of strange matter in heavy ion experiments, Phys. Rev. C55:3038-3046 (1997), arXiv:
nucl-th/9611052
[18] New Scientist, 28 August 1999: A Black Hole Ate My
Planet
[19] Horizon: End Days, an episode of the BBC television series Horizon
[20] W. Wagner, Black holes at Brookhaven?" and reply by F.
Wilzcek, Letters to the Editor, Scientic American July
1999
[21] Dennis Overbye, Asking a Judge to Save the World, and
Maybe a Whole Lot More, NY Times, 29 March 2008
[22] Safety at the LHC.
[23] J. Blaizot et al., Study of Potentially Dangerous Events
During Heavy-Ion Collisions at the LHC, CERN library
record CERN Yellow Reports Server (PDF)
[24] Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela
(1986).
[Strange stars Strange stars"].
Astrophys. Journal 310: 261. Bibcode:1986ApJ...310..261A.
doi:10.1086/164679.
[25] J. Friedman and R. Caldwell, Evidence against a strange
ground state for baryons, Phys. Lett. B264, 143-148
(1991)
[26] J. Madsen, Strangelets as cosmic rays beyond the GZKcuto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90:121102 (2003) arXiv:
stro-ph/0211597
[27] S. Balberg, Comment on 'strangelets as cosmic rays beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cuto'", Phys. Rev.
Lett. 92:119001 (2004), arXiv:astro-ph/0403503
[28] J. Madsen, Reply to Comment on Strangelets as Cosmic
Rays beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin Cuto, Phys.
Rev.Lett. 92:119002 (2004), arXiv:astro-ph/0403515
[29] J. Madsen, Strangelet propagation and cosmic ray
ux,Phys. Rev. D71, 014026 (2005) arXiv:astro-ph/
0411538
[30] A. Heger, A. Cumming, D. Galloway, S. Woosley, Models of Type I X-ray Bursts from GS 1826-24: A Probe of
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[31] A. Watts and S. Reddy, Magnetar oscillations pose challenges for strange stars, MNRAS, 379, L63 (2007)
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978-3-540-65209-0. |chapter= ignored (help)

Chapter 6

Future
6.1 Super Large Hadron Collider

creased beam intensity from PS2.

Not to be confused with Very Large Hadron Collider.

6.1.2 References

The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL- [1] IR optics collection
LHC; formerly SLHC, Super Large Hadron Collider)
is a proposed upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider to be [2] LUMI 06 workshop
made after around ten years of operation. The upgrade
aims at increasing the luminosity of the machine by a fac- [3] ATLAS upgrade web page
tor of 10, up to 1035 cm2 s1 , providing a better chance
to see rare processes and improving statistically marginal
6.1.3 External links
measurements.
Many dierent paths exist for upgrading the collider. A
collection of dierent designs of the high luminosity interaction regions is being maintained by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).[1] A workshop
was held in 2006 to establish which are the most promising options.[2] Increasing LHC luminosity involves reduction of beam size at the collision point and either reduction of bunch length and spacing, or signicant increase
in bunch length and population. The maximum integrated luminosity increase of the existing options is about
a factor of 4 higher than the LHC ultimate performance,
unfortunately far below the LHC upgrade projects initial ambition of a factor of 10. However, at the latest
LUMI'06 workshop,[2] several suggestions were proposed
that would boost the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of
10 beyond nominal towards 1035 cm2 s1 .

A comprehensive press article on the 2006 workshop


can be found at the CERN Courier.
A summary of the possible machine parameters can
be found at Machine parameters collection.

6.2 Very Large Hadron Collider


Not to be confused with Large Hadron Collider or Super
Large Hadron Collider.
The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) is a hypothetical future hadron collider with performance signicantly beyond the Large Hadron Collider.[1][2]

The resultant higher event rate poses important challenges


for the particle detectors located in the collision areas.[3] There is no planned location or schedule for the VLHC;
the name is used only to discuss the technological feasibility of such a collider and ways that it might be designed.

6.1.1

Injector upgrade

Given that such a performance increase necessitates a correspondingly large increase in size, cost, and power reAs part of the Phase 2 Super LHC, signicant changes quirements, a signicant amount of international collabowould be made to the proton injector.
ration over a period of decades would be required to con[1]
Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL): Accelerating struct such a collider.
protons with superconducting radio frequency cavities to
an energy of 5 GeV.
Proton Synchrotron 2 (PS2): Accelerating the beam from
5 GeV at injection to 50 GeV at extraction.

6.2.1 See also

Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) Upgraded: The present


SPS would be substantially upgraded to handle an in119

Particle physics
High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

120

6.2.2

CHAPTER 6. FUTURE

References

[1] Glanz, James (10 July 2001). Physicists Unite, Sort of,
on Next Collider. The New York Times. Retrieved 27
June 2009.
[2] Reich, Eugenie Samuel (2013-11-12), Physicists plan to
build a bigger LHC, Nature News, retrieved 2013-12-03,
The giant machine would dwarf all of its predecessors.
It would collide protons at energies around 100 teraelectronvolts (TeV), compared with the planned 14 TeV of the
LHC at CERN, Europes particle-physics lab near Geneva
in Switzerland. And it would require a tunnel 80100 kilometres around, compared with the LHCs 27-km circumference. For the past decade or so, there has been little research money available worldwide to develop the concept.
But this summer, at the Snowmass meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota where hundreds of particle physicists assembled to dream up machines for their elds long-term
future the VLHC concept stood out as a favourite.

6.2.3

External links

vlhc.org, a Fermilab webpage on VLHC research


and development
VLHC Design Materials

Chapter 7

Text and image sources, contributors, and


licenses
7.1 Text
CERN Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CERN?oldid=637854913 Contributors: Calypso, Vicki Rosenzweig, Bryan Derksen, Rmhermen, Christian List, Ben-Zin, Heron, Youandme, Frecklefoot, Edward, Lousyd, Liftarn, Karada, Looxix, ArnoLagrange, Ahoerstemeier,
Mac, Notheruser, Jll, Whkoh, Dod1, Jordi Burguet Castell, Ehn, HolIgor, Wikiborg, Pladask, The Anomebot, WhisperToMe, Wik, Tpbradbury, Itai, Bevo, Joy, Prisonblues, Qertis, David.Monniaux, Freerk, Robbot, Schutz, Ghettobodhi, Gnomon Kelemen, Caknuck, Billranton,
Xanzzibar, Ancheta Wis, Giftlite, Harp, Netoholic, Zigger, Everyking, Ptk, Finn-Zoltan, Softssa, Pne, Beland, Kusunose, OwenBlacker,
Elwell, Ukexpat, Hugh Mason, Robin klein, Klemen Kocjancic, Humblefool, A-giau, Felix Wiemann, Discospinster, Alby, Rama, David
Schaich, Alistair1978, Michael Zimmermann, Justwes, Andrejj, Engmark, Kwamikagami, Vinsci, Laurascudder, RoyBoy, Simsh, Coolcaesar, Spoon!, Ora, Jpgordon, Che090572, Apyule, Jakew, Jumbuck, Danski14, Ksnow, Ronark, BRW, Irdepesca572, Knowledge Seeker,
Suruena, HenkvD, Dirac1933, Egg, DV8 2XL, Velho, Linas, Lupinelawyer, JFG, Ruud Koot, MONGO, Rickjpelleg, GregorB, Tkessler,
Zzyzx11, Dtaw2001, Gimboid13, Shanedidona, Rnt20, Graham87, FreplySpang, RxS, Rjwilmsi, Koavf, Quale, SpNeo, Joriz, Boccobrock,
Erkcan, Drbrain, UsagiM, FayssalF, Goudzovski, Srleer, Gurubrahma, Chobot, Elpaw, DVdm, Korg, YurikBot, Wavelength, Snappy,
RussBot, Koeyahoo, DJCJ, JabberWok, Stephenb, Gaius Cornelius, Alifazal, NawlinWiki, Aeusoes1, Gillis, SCZenz, Brandon, Daniel
Mietchen, Jpbowen, Zagalejo, Ospalh, BOT-Superzerocool, Empty2005, Caroline Sanford, Ms2ger, Illuminatiscott, 21655, The Fish,
Closedmouth, Ted Easton, Fsiler, Easter Monkey, Allens, Robert L, GrinBot, Gephart, Tom Morris, Andreask, SmackBot, David Kernow,
SteveTraylen, C.Fred, Wogsland, Jagged 85, Zonder, Eskimbot, Alsandro, TypoDotOrg, Gilliam, Dark jedi requiem, Alias777, Chris the
speller, Shoofy, Miquonranger03, Hibernian, Jerome Charles Potts, Letdorf, Ctbolt, Modest Genius, Xchbla423, Rogermw, Famspear,
Sergio.ballestrero, Matchups, Addshore, Greenshed, Xltel, Jmnbatista, DinosaursLoveExistence, Khukri, JonasRH, TedE, Funky Monkey,
Alexandra lb, Aaker, Qasinka, Vina-iwbot, Saippuakauppias, Kukini, Ohconfucius, Krashlandon, Minaker, Kuru, Cruist22, Berchemboy, Dumelow, CredoFromStart, Ex nihil, 2T, Waggers, Mets501, Gpanda, DomStapleton, Andrwsc, Beefyt, Kencf0618, Joseph Solis in
Australia, Amakuru, Benplowman, Lucy-marie, Gilabrand, George100, LessHeard vanU, Bsegal, CmdrObot, Porterjoh, Raysonho, Yinchongding, Vyznev Xnebara, Aop27, Shandris, WeggeBot, Jersildj00, Sod aries, Myasuda, D.stewart, Hemlock Martinis, Elfrah, Equendil,
Cydebot, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Forthommel, HitroMilanese, Ameliorate!, Kozuch, Thealaskinwonder, Jon C., Thijs!bot, Epbr123,
Mbell, Mojo Hand, Headbomb, Simeon H, DmitTrix, James086, Uiteoi, MichaelMaggs, JRRobinson, AntiVandalBot, Michael Fitzgerald, Credema, CrazyPhunk, Arx Fortis, MrHat1065, Golgofrinchian, DagosNavy, Deective, MER-C, LeedsKing, Andonic, Pkoppenb,
IIIIIIIII, TimRI, Magioladitis, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Wikidudeman, Jancikotuc, Freefry, The Anomebot2, Tanvirzaman, Huseyx2,
Allstarecho, DIEXEL, Snorgle, Gwern, Pvosta, MartinBot, Kirankumarpec, PostScript, StephP, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Lifebonzza,
Nono64, Ssolbergj, J.delanoy, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Hans Dunkelberg, Tikiwont, Maurice Carbonaro, Xris0, Athaenara, Pazmanpro, NerdyNSK, Tokyogirl79, Raxxel, Malurgin, Doomsday28, Dessources, Kidlittle, Wolvve85, Mike V, Cs302b, Idioma-bot, Sheliak,
Jhutchin, FloydRTurbo, VolkovBot, Johnfos, The Wild Falcon, Jennavecia, Kumarg83, Seattle Skier, TurboNOMAD, Philip Trueman,
Af648, Andrius.v, Aymatth2, JhsBot, LeaveSleaves, Jorophose, Hughly741, SheeldSteel, Andy Dingley, Usergreatpower, Staka, Chronitis, Enviroboy, Sai2020, Life, Liberty, Property, Angelastic, Dmajumder, SieBot, Nbumbic, Ori, Jauerback, Chstens, Caltas, Kingokings,
JT Swe, Flyer22, Brescia567, Oda Mari, Lord British, Aspects, KPH2293, Lightmouse, Azileron, Afernand74, NastalgicCam, StaticGull,
Blacklemon67, Jan Jansson, TubularWorld, Nergaal, Randy Kryn, Srbounds, Scaler1112, StewartMH, Llywelyn2000, Martarius, ClueBot,
Fribbler, Venske, UNSCRAMBLER, Bob1960evens, Grindl, Wellington1000, Mild Bill Hiccup, U5K0, Estevoaei, Ajoykt, Djr32, Resoru,
Estirabot, NuclearWarfare, Cenarium, JamieS93, Vanished user uih38riiw4hjlsd, He6kd, RexxS, Clappyyay, Pichpich, Rror, WikHead,
Raso mk, MystBot, Airplaneman, Wert909gram, Addbot, Greg2415r, Speer320, Napy1kenobi, Tothwolf, Bosons in a bucket, Douglas
the Comeback Kid, AcademyAD, Download, Proxima Centauri, LaaknorBot, Debresser, AlexGR1987, Numbo3-bot, Tide rolls, Lightbot, Kyuko, OlEnglish, Nicoosuna, Zorrobot, HerculeBot, Legobot, J Slaughts, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Nghtwlkr, Naudefjbot, Victoriaearle,
Wake me up in anarchy, MarcoAurelio, Nallimbot, Georgexu316, WackerSK, LOLx9000, AnomieBOT, 1exec1, Jim1138, IRP, Galoubet,
Ulric1313, RandomAct, Yungjoepugs, Materialscientist, Citation bot, Zykure, Xqbot, TheAMmollusc, Night w, Ymousa, Capricorn42,
Stsang, Karljoos, GrouchoBot, O2riorob, ProtectionTaggingBot, Hoggy79, MadGeographer, Zumalabe, Mathonius, ThibautLienart, A. di
M., Hdc-en, Thejadefalcon, FrescoBot, Nepomuk 3, Adipop34, Poptropica, Alexandre Gilbert, Luminite2, Abcdefg007, OreL.D, Pshent,
I dream of horses, LittleWink, AmphBot, Mutinus, Vazelos13, Xfact, RedBot, FDJoshua22, Kurroth, Sidonie2000, Kgrad, Danerobe,
Mercy11, Beta Orionis, Yunshui, Lotje, LilyKitty, Brianann MacAmhlaidh, Jla464, AquaTeen13, Danemaricich, DARTH SIDIOUS 2,
RjwilmsiBot, TjBot, DexDor, Anuandraj, Jan.veverka, Phlegat, Beyond My Ken, NerdyScienceDude, Abdel.a.saleh, EmausBot, John
of Reading, Coolbond007, Immunize, Filipdr, Sarandongah, Niluop, Mikstra, Ferocious osmosis, Geeky Freak, Solarra, Wikipelli, Hhhippo, AvicBot, JSquish, Ida Shaw, Jakeckrug, Stringer1993, Anir1uph, TheAmericanizator, Artemis Dread, ChuispastonBot, Adavidtm,

121

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Aramil Meliamne, Ebehn, Alchemy Heels I, ClueBot NG, Vise, PianoMan9, Ramkrishna0071, ANGELUS, Kmchanw, Enopet, Frietjes, Concord113, Rezabot, Fasi100, CostaDax, Ogiejunior1, Diyar se, Eleventh1, Calabe1992, Bibcode Bot, DBigXray, SharkinthePool, Pine, Mouloud47, Sergento, KyaShae22, ISTB351, Frze, Compfreak7, Figmental goose, Guy.shrimpton, Drift chambers, Nekumata,
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Oak, Ehn, Timwi, Doradus, Tpbradbury, Furrykef, Buridan, Thomasedavis, Samsara, Bevo, Rls, David.Monniaux, BenRG, Frazzydee,
Freerk, Phil Boswell, Gromlakh, Branddobbe, Robbot, Sdedeo, Fredrik, Jredmond, Sanders muc, Nurg, Noplasma, Romanm, Naddy, Postdlf, Sverdrup, Rursus, Texture, Davodd, Trevor Johns, Alan Liefting, David Gerard, Connelly, Centrx, Giftlite, DocWatson42, Brouhaha,
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H2g2bob, Bsadowski1, Gortu, Gene Nygaard, Afowler, LukeSurl, Blaxthos, Ceyockey, AndyBuckley, Mahanga, Quirkie, Keaton, Linas,
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Rachel Pearce, HalfShadow, Gilliam, Slaniel, Jushi, Skizzik, Dauto, Andy M. Wang, Viraz, Palad1n, Basejumper123, Persian Poet Gal,
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Ifrit, Ged UK, Ohconfucius, Lambiam, ArglebargleIV, Arnoutf, Swatjester, RBPierce, Ninjagecko, Dark Formal, Freewol, SilkTork,
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TarzanASG, Piledhigheranddeeper, Kyurkewicz, Phenylalanine, Ooogly, Final Philosopher, Mspraveen, Polaroids4x5, Maccy69, Somno,
Ktr101, Excirial, AssegaiAli, Alexbot, Hj FUN, Ottre, Eeekster, Haseth, Vanisheduser12345, GreenGourd, Vivio Testarossa, Sun Creator, Thomasmackat41, NuclearWarfare, Ice Cold Beer, Cenarium, Jotterbot, PhySusie, 842U, Wond3rbread1991, Snacks, Shivarudra, Shaunofthefuzz7, Lenary, Cellodont, Ottawa4ever, GlobetrottingAussie, Netanel h, Buckethed, Thingg, Colmsherry, Brickwall04,
MAGZine, Spino, Geckon, Versus22, Apparition11, Wnt, Manu-ve Pro Ski, DumZiBoT, SlaterDeterminant, Wikidokman, Wonderash1111, Homocion, Cvet, Ohmyyes, InternetMeme, 03md, XLinkBot, Spitre, PSimeon, DragonFury, Oldnoah, Stickee, RickWagnerPhD, Duncan, 02millers, Little Mountain 5, Mitch Ames, NellieBly, Pokesausage, Jlcoving, PL290, Alexius08, Dacool7, TravisAF,
Nukes4Tots, Gouryella, JCDenton2052, ISGTW, HexaChord, Stephen Poppitt, Tayste, Stenho360, Prowikipedians, Pyfan, JBsupreme,
Master michael 90, Willking1979, Some jerk on the Internet, DOI bot, Guoguo12, TheNeutroniumAlchemist, Phlegm Rooster, Pedant75,
AkhtaBot, GuyanaMan, Totakeke423, Ronhjones, Polishhill, Lets Enjoy Life, Gashwnox, PlumCrumbleAndCustard, Frikandel, CanadianLinuxUser, AcademyAD, Gmeyerowitz, Ajeetkumar81, MrOllie, Mentisock, Download, MrVanBot, Lihaas, AndersBot, Chzz, Debresser, Deamon138, Rodeo90, Barak Sh, Andefs, Chem-MTFC, Anonyfuss, Kisbesbot, Mkhan-95, AgadaUrbanit, 84user, Ehrenkater,
Wikbot, F Notebook, Tide rolls, Verbal, Lightbot, ScAvenger, AvalonTreman, QuadrivialMind, SPat, Zorrobot, MuZemike, Trotter, Alamgir, Beatsbox, Num43, Jim, Ch1n4m4n, Narutolovehinata5, Everyme, Kyro, Clay Juicer, Luckas-bot, TheSuave, AzureFury, Kartano,
Flukas, Ptbotgourou, Fraggle81, Legobot II, Donfbreed, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Evans1982, Antimatter Dilbert, Buddy431, Bugnot,
Jimbob16314, Terryblack, THMRK1, Lukealanjohnson, Paaulinho, Csmallw, Princeb11, Magog the Ogre, Libriantichi, Orion11M87,
AnomieBOT, Xasdas, HisNameIsChris, DoctorJoeE, Autumn Fall, Rubinbot, Bsimmons666, PianoDan, Message From Xenu, Jim1138,
Pyrrhus16, AloysiusLiliusBot, Teamnumberawesome, Piano non troppo, Contribut, Bmoc2012tms, Fahadsadah, Apau98, NORD74,
Nacre 10, Adejam, Hedgehawk, Jacob2718, Citation bot, OllieFury, Eumolpo, Iloveham, ArthurBot, LovesMacs, Mavrisa, The Firewall, Dracoblaze4, Advertiseo, Zykure, Redwodka, Xqbot, Biologicithician, Capricorn42, AbhishekSinghRana, Newzebras, Jerey Mall,
Mononomic, Stsang, Anna Frodesiak, Srich32977, Pikematerson, PimRijkee, GrouchoBot, Omnipaedista, Chickenweed, Hechser, Mark
Schierbecker, MadGeographer, EmilyUndead, Seeleschneider, Ace111, Mgambentok, EuroWikiWorld, Der Falke, Locobot, JediMaster362, Natural Cut, Shadowjams, Spellage, WaysToEscape, Douchedoom, A. di M., Chriss789, SD5, Dailycare, FrescoBot, God=nocioni,
Paine Ellsworth, W Nowicki, Jerey Solimine, StaticVision, Recognizance, Thorenn, Bergdohle, Jamesooders, Cannolis, HamburgerRadio, Citation bot 1, PointOfPresence, Ntse, Camronwest, Biker Biker, Shiftyalex1, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, Schmitzhugen,
HRoestBot, Edderso, Safetynut, Martinvl, RedBot, CamB42424, SpaceFlight89, Zestofalemon, Spaluch1, Tcnuk, Realtruth.co.nr, Shanmugamp7, Aknochel, December21st2012Freak, 343GuiltySpark343, IVAN3MAN, Lesdo234, Calle Cool, Fl4ian, TobeBot, Puzl bustr,
Wotnow, Beta Orionis, Fama Clamosa, Onanysunday, Hickorybark, Lotje, Dinamik-bot, TBloemink, Sammy00193, Muhammedpbuh,
Jerd10, Excellt127, Tbhotch, Minimac, Swedernish, Remnar, Cathardic, Itain'tsobad, Mean as custard, Ztbbq, Sfsupro, RjwilmsiBot,
TjBot, MMS2013, Alph Bot, Markos Strofyllas, Deagle AP, EmausBot, Black Shadow, Orphan Wiki, Mickeyhill, Ever388, Docjudith,
Trickett rocks, Belismakr, Mrgalaxy01, Sumsum2010, RA0808, Jmv2009, Gimmetoo, Themorrissey, Slightsmile, Sandeepsuri, Wikipelli,
Piggyspider123, Hhhippo, ZroBot, John Cline, Shuipzv3, QWERTYMASTR, Ticklemefugly, 99chromehead, Emily Jensen, ElationAviation, Louprado, Hazard-SJ, Arbnos, Hashiq, Ltlighter, FreddoT, Christina Silverman, Bob drobbs, HelloDenyo, 123smellmyfeet, Brandmeister, Coasterlover1994, Nanouniverse, Tomsdearg92, Donner60, Aldnonymous, Resonant.Interval, Citedegg, Philippe BINANT,
GrayFullbuster, Alderepas, Kingexaldraw, ClueBot NG, Zucchinidreams, Ex Everest, Michaelmas1957, Tbonemalone123, Btcc11, Loliamnot13, Chrisfex, Theimmaculatechemist, Kmchanw, Delusion23, O.Koslowski, ScottSteiner, Anonymous5555, Widr, Wisconsinbadger, PooRadley, Bigbullhoodboy, Jbackroyd, Gustavoanaya, Hotswapster, Mophedd, Jemmalouisemay, Strike Eagle, Titodutta, Bibcode Bot, Trunks ishida, SidKemp, BG19bot, Mimzy2011, Eothred, Lhshammo, Wikiviks, Uk554, Guy.shrimpton, Mmovchin, Knowsnothing613, Mannasoumya, Willknowsalmosteverything, Seniorlimpio, NeoTheChosenOne, NotinREALITY, Eio, SkittleJuice, Tictac66,
Achowat, Anbu121, Ant314159265, Mdann52, KyleRyanToth, Ytic nam, Rcw258, ChrisGualtieri, Abcadi, CrunchySkies, Mineville, GetTheShift, Rues, EuroCarGT, KrazyKelle, 786b6364, Rhlozier, Blueprinteditor, Dexbot, Kulpreet33, Deranged anna, Garuda0001, Athul
av, Michael Anon, Febinmathew, EauOo, Hamid26747, Frosty, Nilaykumar07, Jo-Jo Eumerus, Flatfatmat, OnlyShadab, Reatlas, DaPanda44, Lyxkg007, ETHJILA, , Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz12345678, Glasstop, FiredanceThroughTheNight, Noctave,
Evano1van, Giraosaurus, Revolution1221, RaphaelQS, CensoredScribe, User-name929, Boone jenner, Zenibus, Neilroy1998, Giu8888,
Mandruss, LaGeneralitat, Mrdressup, Inessa Alaverdyan, TaiSakuma, Mfb, MyNameIsn'tElvis, Jedipowerz01, Potassium 40, Tighef,
WPratiwi, AsalKadal, AslanEntropy, Parabolooidal, Tlmpmt, Vorkel insignia, Swagit420, Vieque, Akro7, Rohan.benia, Medical physicist, Calmyourfarm, Chryst Laxus, Wendy Sax, Kuber Kanade and Anonymous: 1365
List of Large Hadron Collider experiments Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List%20of%20Large%20Hadron%20Collider%
20experiments?oldid=616270400 Contributors: Rursus, Xezbeth, Danski14, Mario23, Khazar, Headbomb, Tetrare, Auntof6, Ironholds,
FrescoBot, Despina.hatzifotiadou, Mfb and Anonymous: 7
A Large Ion Collider Experiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ALICE%3A_A_Large_Ion_Collider_Experiment?oldid=
618143896 Contributors: Harp, Rich Farmbrough, Laurascudder, Giraedata, BD2412, Seneka, Amorsch, Bgwhite, YurikBot, Dialectric,
SCZenz, Caiyu, Merrybrit, Erik J, One, Erwinrossen, Edgar181, Colonies Chris, OrphanBot, Khukri, LeoNomis, Dsupriya, Meno25, Headbomb, Nick Number, .anacondabot, Xinebbsa, Econ oh my, Connor Behan, Andre.holzner, Sensenmann, Idioma-bot, VolkovBot, Kyle the
bot, TXiKiBoT, Andrius.v, Jackfork, Madhero88, Tainels, Nsk92, RafaAzevedo, Kyurkewicz, Franznavach, Ladsgroup, Gedankenpause,
Addbot, , LaaknorBot, Tide rolls, Zorrobot, John-vogel, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Fraggle81, Amirobot, Nzkennys, Citation bot,
Xqbot, CXCV, SassoBot, MagdaGa, Mnmngb, FrescoBot, RedBot, NameIsRon, AndyHe829, WikitanvirBot, Dewritech, Javachan, F,
Ebehn, ClueBot NG, CocuBot, Bibcode Bot, BG19bot, AvocatoBot, Theosphobia, GabeIglesia, Lbarnby, Pcharito and Anonymous: 50
ATLAS experiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATLAS%20experiment?oldid=621556392 Contributors: SimonP, Sfdan,
Bcrowell, Ehn, Charles Matthews, Rob.derosa, Francs2000, Sdedeo, Cyberia23, Harp, Lupin, Curps, Frencheigh, Gregb, Matt Crypto,
Bobblewik, Mako098765, DragonySixtyseven, Lumidek, Zondor, Thorwald, Freakofnurture, Rich Farmbrough, Rama, Tushar.bhatnagar,
Laurascudder, Susvolans, Jag123, Suruena, Gene Nygaard, Flying sh, Manfalk, Linas, Mandavi, AndrewWatt, Wayward, Bunchofgrapes,
Rjwilmsi, Maxkramer, Bubba73, Erkcan, The wub, Pediadeep, Gurch, GangofOne, Wavelength, Splash, Akamad, Mithridates, Bovineone, Wiki alf, Juhanson, SCZenz, Tony1, BOT-Superzerocool, Cynicism addict, Vald, Cowman109, PeterMcCready, Djinn65, Colonies
Chris, Mallorn, Z6, V9, Jmnbatista, Khukri, Martijn Hoekstra, LeoNomis, Ligulembot, Harryboyles, Loodog, Mjaekel, AB, Herr apa,
SandyGeorgia, Mets501, O. Harris, WISo, Kozuch, Col. Hauler, Thijs!bot, Headbomb, Electron9, Nick Number, Ssayler, Bridgeplayer,

124

CHAPTER 7. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

TAnthony, VoABot II, Spellmaster, Plasticup, Vanished user 47736712, SinWin, DorganBot, Fuenfundachtzig, Idioma-bot, Sheliak, Master z0b, VolkovBot, Kyle the bot, TXiKiBoT, Joopercoopers, GimmeBot, Andrius.v, Robert1947, Duncan.Hull, Neparis, LeadSongDog,
ImageRemovalBot, PipepBot, Mild Bill Hiccup, Kyurkewicz, Alexbot, Bzzybee13, Sun Creator, Addbot, Mortense, DOI bot, Woodrowr,
AcademyAD, ChenzwBot, 84user, Lightbot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Amirobot, Amapelli, Orion11M87, AnomieBOT, Ciphers,
Archon 2488, NearlyDrNash, Citation bot, MauritsBot, Xqbot, CXCV, Srich32977, Davdde, MagdaGa, January2009,
, FrescoBot,
D'ohBot, Citation bot 1, Francphy5, Roboop, Tm1729, RjwilmsiBot, Newty23125, AndyHe829, DASHBot, TGCP, EmausBot, Ida Shaw,
Bped1985, L3bl4nc, Bibcode Bot, SchroCat, Hyperfunnel, Anderson, Kourkoumeli, JenCawe, Leighperson, AHusain314, Mfb, Anrnusna,
Monkbot and Anonymous: 86
Compact Muon Solenoid Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact%20Muon%20Solenoid?oldid=634701605 Contributors:
Michael Hardy, Ojs, Jll, Slathering, Bkell, Giftlite, Harp, Herbee, Qking, Rich Farmbrough, Rama, Laurascudder, Suruena, Dirac1933,
Gene Nygaard, Falcorian, Isnow, Techieb0y, Rjwilmsi, Erkcan, JabberWok, GeeJo, Topperfalkon, Zwobot, Besselfunctions, Netrapt,
Mario23, Chandrasonic, SmackBot, Slashme, Khukri, Tiki2099, LeoNomis, TriTertButoxy, Kuru, Zarniwoot, Beno1000, SchmittM,
WISo, Thijs!bot, Jimbrooke, Headbomb, Tkolberg, Jz 007, LorenzoB, Nevit, CommonsDelinker, Freeboson, Smite-Meister, Idiomabot, Sheliak, LokiClock, TXiKiBoT, Dirc, Chronitis, Murielvd, Angelastic, SieBot, Erier2003, ImageRemovalBot, Kyurkewicz, MartinGrunewald, DumZiBoT, XLinkBot, Addbot, LaaknorBot, Lightbot, Zorrobot, Everyme, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Amirobot, Nonnormalizable,
AnomieBOT, Archon 2488, Icalanise, Citation bot, Cowgoesmoo2, Xqbot, , Srich32977, False vacuum, Omnipaedista, RibotBOT,
MagdaGa, Mnmngb, Spellage, Reality3chick, Citation bot 1, Cougarsoul, RedBot, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, ShardsOfUs, SirNewtonNinegames, Bornerdogge, Hhhippo, Epsilonphantom, Bibcode Bot, Kiki 233, Dobie80, Bombersun, TaiSakuma, Mfb, Akro7, Kunzejo,
ConejitaDo and Anonymous: 75
LHCb Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LHCb?oldid=634700519 Contributors: Harp, Rich Farmbrough, Laurascudder, Remuel,
Keenan Pepper, RJFJR, AndyBuckley, Linas, Mark Williamson, Turnstep, Goudzovski, Pip2andahalf, RussBot, Conscious, Spike Wilbury,
SCZenz, Nick, Johantheghost, Mtze, Larosch, GraemeL, David Biddulph, SmackBot, Jmnbatista, Khukri, Ryan Roos, LeoNomis, Barry
m, DJIndica, A1056207, P199, WISo, Headbomb, Oswald le fort, Pkoppenb, Sheliak, CaptinJohn, SieBot, MenoBot, Kyurkewicz, Alexbot,
Addbot, AndersBot, Heliotropia, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Themisb, Archon 2488, Citation bot, GrouchoBot, Davdde, LucienBOT, Steve
Quinn, Citation bot 1, Minimac, AndyHe829, Timetraveler3.14, Ebehn, Bibcode Bot, Mdneedham, Metricopolus, NotWith, Ttquer, GabeIglesia, Mfb and Anonymous: 26
LHCf Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LHCf?oldid=615369628 Contributors: Rich Farmbrough, Alby, Laurascudder, Bobo192, Erkcan, Alynna Kasmira, Welsh, SmackBot, Khukri, LeoNomis, Alaibot, Headbomb, The Anomebot2, Fuenfundachtzig, GrahamHardy, Sheliak, TXiKiBoT, Alessia2703, CaptinJohn, Kyurkewicz, Addbot, AndersBot, Luckas-bot, Orion11M87, Citation bot, Davdde, Puzl bustr,
Javachan, Bibcode Bot, GabeIglesia, WPratiwi and Anonymous: 10
FP420 experiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FP420%20experiment?oldid=630470914 Contributors: Thomas Blomberg,
Headbomb, Rettetast, Slyatslys, Vanished user lkdoqw39ru239jwionwcihu8wt4ihjsf, SkywalkerPL, BG19bot and Anonymous: 2
TOTEM Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOTEM?oldid=540871942 Contributors: Philopp, Harp, Jcw69, Rich Farmbrough, Laurascudder, Water Bottle, Gortu, Falcorian, Conscious, 7segment, Khukri, LeoNomis, Headbomb, Magioladitis, The Anomebot2, Idioma-bot,
Sheliak, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, Kyurkewicz, Kaspar.jan, XLinkBot, Addbot, Zorrobot, Luckas-bot, Adrian 1111, Xqbot, GrouchoBot,
RibotBOT, SassoBot, Francoroldan, Citation bot 1, Rapsar, Javachan, Bibcode Bot, GabeIglesia and Anonymous: 9
Beetle (ASIC) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beetle%20(ASIC)?oldid=532577308 Contributors: Gary, Cburnett, RJFJR, Tole,
Larosch, SmackBot, OrphanBot, JonHarder, Amakuru, Headbomb, Addbot, AvicAWB and Anonymous: 3
LHC Computing Grid Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worldwide_LHC_Computing_Grid?oldid=636486145 Contributors: Edward, Egil, Jll, Superm401, Cobaltbluetony, Beland, Thorwald, FT2, Bender235, Fieldt, GregorB, Kolbasz, Penguin, Twigboy,
Sim@simpol.net, Chrishmt0423, SmackBot, Eleveneleven, Rsquid, IG-64, Randysnow, Alaibot, Thijs!bot, Headbomb, Fabricebaro, Cgingold, Bobbias, Jbond00747, VolkovBot, Pleroma, JukoFF, Ethyr, Lightmouse, Pakaraki, Mattgirling, Heylarson, Walkingstick3, Craigallan.za, DumZiBoT, BillinSanDiego, Legosock, JMacalinao, LaaknorBot, OlEnglish, AnomieBOT, W Nowicki, Steve Quinn, Josve05a,
Concord113, YiFeiBot and Anonymous: 27
LHC@home Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LHC%40home?oldid=613568574 Contributors: Ilyanep, Echoray, Lzur, Giftlite,
Wwoods, Creidieki, Rich Farmbrough, Wikiacc, Bender235, ZeroOne, Mr. Billion, Laurascudder, RoyBoy, Giraedata, Minghong, Kocio,
Wdfarmer, Bruce89, Eyreland, Erkcan, FayssalF, Ysangkok, Jjhat1, Chobot, YurikBot, Bovineone, SCZenz, Nucleusboy, SmackBot, Eskimbot, Kinhull, Hex87, PrimeHunter, LeoNomis, Beyazid, Beno1000, Cydebot, Valodzka, Pstanton, Gamer007, Headbomb, 100110100,
Magioladitis, .snoopy., Hekerui, Cgingold, Maurice Carbonaro, Idioma-bot, SpaceKangaroo, WOSlinker, GeneralBelly, Hellcat ghter,
VanishedUserABC, Dirk P Broer, Simon Villeneuve, Professorolous, Addbot, Lightbot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, AnomieBOT, Justice Marshall,
Alberthuang2, Xqbot, PanacheCuPunga, Noderaser, FrescoBot, MindZiper, Vise, Moritz37, Wbm1058, NotinREALITY, PalNilsson70,
Artem.harutyunyan and Anonymous: 16
Proton Synchrotron Booster Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton%20Synchrotron%20Booster?oldid=593082473 Contributors:
Laurascudder, Nanite, Khukri, Headbomb, Rtomas, Sheliak, VolkovBot, Andrius.v, Addbot, Dawynn, Eshmo, Lightbot, Buddy431 and
Anonymous: 4
VELO Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LHCb?oldid=634700519 Contributors: Harp, Rich Farmbrough, Laurascudder, Remuel,
Keenan Pepper, RJFJR, AndyBuckley, Linas, Mark Williamson, Turnstep, Goudzovski, Pip2andahalf, RussBot, Conscious, Spike Wilbury,
SCZenz, Nick, Johantheghost, Mtze, Larosch, GraemeL, David Biddulph, SmackBot, Jmnbatista, Khukri, Ryan Roos, LeoNomis, Barry
m, DJIndica, A1056207, P199, WISo, Headbomb, Oswald le fort, Pkoppenb, Sheliak, CaptinJohn, SieBot, MenoBot, Kyurkewicz, Alexbot,
Addbot, AndersBot, Heliotropia, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Themisb, Archon 2488, Citation bot, GrouchoBot, Davdde, LucienBOT, Steve
Quinn, Citation bot 1, Minimac, AndyHe829, Timetraveler3.14, Ebehn, Bibcode Bot, Mdneedham, Metricopolus, NotWith, Ttquer, GabeIglesia, Mfb and Anonymous: 26
Standard Model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard%20Model?oldid=637275675 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Derek Ross,
CYD, Bryan Derksen, The Anome, Ed Poor, Andre Engels, Roadrunner, David spector, Isis, Youandme, Ram-Man, Stevertigo, Edward, Patrick, Boud, Michael Hardy, SebastianHelm, Looxix, Julesd, Glenn, AugPi, Mxn, Raven in Orbit, Reddi, Phr, Tpbradbury,
Populus, Haoherb428, Phys, Floydian, Bevo, Pierre Boreal, AnonMoos, BenRG, Jeq, Dmytro, Drxenocide, Robbot, Nurg, Securiger,
Texture, Roscoe x, Fuelbottle, Superm401, Tobias Bergemann, Alan Liefting, Ancheta Wis, Giftlite, Dbenbenn, Harp, Herbee, Monedula,
LeYaYa, Xerxes314, Dratman, Alison, JeBobFrank, Dmmaus, Pharotic, Brockert, Bodhitha, Andycjp, Sonjaaa, HorsePunchKid, APH,
Icairns, AmarChandra, Gscshoyru, Kate, Arivero, FT2, Rama, David Schaich, Xezbeth, D-Notice, Dfan, Bender235, Pt, El C, Laurascudder, Shanes, Drhex, Fogger, Brim, Rbj, Jeodesic, Jumbuck, Alansohn, Gary, ChristopherWillis, Guy Harris, Axl, Sligocki, Kocio,

7.1. TEXT

125

Stillnotelf, Alinor, Wtmitchell, Egg, TenOfAllTrades, H2g2bob, Killing Vector, Linas, Mindmatrix, Benbest, Dodiad, Mpatel, Faethon,
TPickup, Faethon34, Palica, Dysepsion, Faethon36, Qwertyca, Drbogdan, Rjwilmsi, Zbxgscqf, Macumba, Strangethingintheland, Dstudent, R.e.b., Bubba73, Drrngrvy, Agasicles, FlaBot, Naraht, Agasides, DannyWilde, Dave1g, Itinerant1, Gparker, Jrtayloriv, Goudzovski,
Chobot, Bgwhite, FrankTobia, YurikBot, Bambaiah, Ohwilleke, VoxMoose, Bhny, JabberWok, Bovineone, Krbabu, SCZenz, JulesH,
Davemck, Lomn, E2mb0t, Dna-webmaster, Jrf, Dv82matt, Tetracube, Hirak 99, Netrapt, JLaTondre, Caco de vidro, RG2, GrinBot, That
Guy, From That Show!, Hal peridol, SmackBot, YellowMonkey, Tom Lougheed, Melchoir, Bazza 7, KocjoBot, Jagged 85, Thunderboltz,
Setanta747 (locked), Skizzik, Dauto, Chris the speller, Bluebot, TimBentley, Sirex98, Silly rabbit, Complexica, Metacomet, DHN-bot,
MovGP0, QFT, Kittybrewster, Addshore, Jmnbatista, Cybercobra, Jgwacker, BullRangifer, Soarhead77, Daniel.Cardenas, Yevgeny Kats,
Byelf2007, TriTertButoxy, Craig Bolon, Ajnosek, Ekjon Lok, Bjankuloski06, Tarcieri, Waggers, JarahE, Michaelbusch, Lottamiata, Twas
Now, IanOfNorwich, Srain, Patrickwooldridge, J Milburn, Mosaa, Gatortpk, Vessels42, Geremia, Van helsing, Harrigan, Phatom87,
Cydebot, David edwards, Verdy p, Michael C Price, Xantharius, Crum375, JamesAM, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Headbomb, Phy1729, Stannered, Tariqhada, Seaphoto, Orionus, Gnixon, Jbaranao, Jrw@pobox.com, Len Raymond, Narssarssuaq, Bakken, CattleGirl, Davidoaf,
Vanished user ty12kl89jq10, Lvwarren, Taborgate, HEL, J.delanoy, Hans Dunkelberg, Stephanwehner, Wbellido, Aoosten, Jacksonwalters, The Transliterator, DadaNeem, Student7, Joshmt, WJBscribe, Jozwolf, Hexane2000, BernardZ, Awren, Sheliak, Physicist brazuca,
Schucker, Goop Goop, Fences and windows, Dextrose, Mcewan, Swamy g, TXiKiBoT, Sharikkamur, Thrawn562, Voorlandt, Escalona,
Setreset, PDFbot, Pleroma, UnitedStatesian, Piyush Sriva, Kacser, Billinghurst, Francis Flinch, Moose-32, Ptrslv72, David Barnard, SieBot,
ShiftFn, Robdunst, Jim E. Black, SheepNotGoats, Gerakibot, Nozzer42, Mr swordsh, Wing gundam, Bamkin, Likebox, Arthur Smart,
HungarianBarbarian, Commutator, KathrynLybarger, Iomesus, C0nanPayne, Crazz bug 5, ClueBot, Superwj5, Wwheaton, Garyzx, Elsweyn, Maldmac, DragonBot, Djr32, Diagramma Della Verita, Eeekster, Brews ohare, NuclearWarfare, PhySusie, Ordovico, Mastertek,
DumZiBoT, BodhisattvaBot, Guarracino, Mitch Ames, Truthnlove, Stephen Poppitt, Tayste, Addbot, Deepmath, Eric Drexler, DWHalliday, Mjamja, Leszek Jaczuk, NjardarBot, Mwoldin, Bassbonerocks, Barak Sh, AgadaUrbanit, Lightbot, Smeagol 17, Abjiklam, Luckasbot, Yobot, Orion11M87, AnomieBOT, JackieBot, Icalanise, Citation bot, ArthurBot, Northryde, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Professor J Lawrence,
Tomwsulcer, Edsegal, GrouchoBot, Trongphu, QMarion II, Ernsts, A. di M., Bytbox, FrescoBot, Paine Ellsworth, Aliotra, Steve Quinn,
Citation bot 1, Rameshngbot, MJ94, RedBot, MastiBot, Aknochel, Sijothankam, Puzl bustr, Beta Orionis, Physics therapist, Bj norge,
Innotata, Jesse V., RjwilmsiBot, Mathewsyriac, Afteread, EmausBot, Bookalign, WikitanvirBot, Wilhelm-physiker, Bdijkstra, DerNeedle,
Kenmint, Dbraize, Tanner Swett, HeptishHotik, , Suslindisambiguator, Quondum, Webbeh, UniversumExNihilo, Vanished
user jw983kjaslkekfhj45, RockMagnetist, Stormymountain, , Whoop whoop pull up, Isocli, ClueBot NG, Smtchahal, Snotbot,
Tonypak, O.Koslowski, CharleyQuinton, Dsperlich, Theopolisme, ZakMarksbury, Helpful Pixie Bot, Bibcode Bot, BG19bot, Tirebiter78,
AvocatoBot, Lukys, Stapletongrey, Ownedroad9, Chip123456, ChrisGualtieri, Khazar2, Billyfesh399, Rhlozier, JYBot, Dexbot, Doom636,
Rongended, Cerabot, Cjean42, Jayanta mallick, Joeinwiki, Kowtje, JPaestpreornJeolhlna, Eyesnore, Euan Richard, Nigstomper, Particle
physicist, Jernahthern, Ginsuloft, Dimension10, JNrgbKLM, Krabaey, Delbert7, BradNorton1979 and Anonymous: 343
Particle physics Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle%20physics?oldid=637136196 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Chenyu, Matthew
Woodcraft, Trelvis, The Epopt, Sodium, Lee Daniel Crocker, CYD, Eloquence, Mav, Gareth Owen, Larry Sanger, XJaM, Roadrunner,
SimonP, Ark, Hfastedge, Bdesham, Patrick, Boud, Michael Hardy, Ixfd64, Fruge, NuclearWinner, Looxix, Ellywa, Ahoerstemeier, Docu,
Glenn, Palfrey, Hectorthebat, Rl, Mxn, Laussy, Tpbradbury, Phys, Head, Bevo, Mignon, Raul654, UninvitedCompany, Donarreiskoffer, Korath, Sanders muc, Calmypal, Rorro, Rholton, DHN, Gnomon Kelemen, LX, Fuelbottle, Alan Liefting, SimonMayer, Matt Gies,
Dominick, Giftlite, Barbara Shack, Lupin, Orpheus, Dmmaus, Jason Quinn, Djegan, Matt Crypto, JRR Trollkien, Bodhitha, Andycjp,
Mako098765, Mamizou, Karol Langner, APH, Lumidek, Deglr6328, Physics, Urvabara, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, FT2, Ylai, Bennylin, El C, Edward Z. Yang, Haxwell, Bobo192, Jung dalglish, Maurreen, QTxVi4bEMRbrNqOorWBV, Rje, Fatphil, Gbrandt, Alansohn,
Gary, Arthena, Atlant, Lightdarkness, Kocio, Hdeasy, Bucephalus, Velella, Tycho, Henry W. Schmitt, DV8 2XL, Redvers, Pcd72, Novacatz, Kurzon, Mpatel, Isnow, Palica, Awmarcz, Graham87, Qwertyus, Sjakkalle, Mayumashu, Mattmartin, R.e.b., RE, Klortho, Lor772,
Who, Lmatt, Goudzovski, Srleer, OpenToppedBus, Md7t, Chobot, Agerom, Bgwhite, YurikBot, Wavelength, Bambaiah, Ohwilleke,
Techraj, Stephenb, Gaius Cornelius, CambridgeBayWeather, NawlinWiki, SCZenz, Ragesoss, Jpowell, Voidxor, Zwobot, Scottsher,
Bota47, Dna-webmaster, Emijrp, Le sacre, Ilmari Karonen, Archer7, Selkem, Physicsdavid, GrinBot, Eog1916, SmackBot, Incnis Mrsi,
Erwinrossen, Bggoldie, Melchoir, Mcneile, Unyoyega, CRKingston, Jagged 85, AndreasJS, Dauto, Master Jay, MK8, MalafayaBot, Silly
rabbit, Csgwon, DHN-bot, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, QFT, Voyajer, Cybercobra, Jgwacker, Savidan, JonasRH, Valenciano, Penarestel, Drphilharmonic, Ohconfucius, Kuru, Robosh, Goodnightmush, Physis, , Mets501, Ravi12346, MTSbot, Ch2pgj, Iridescent,
UncleDouggie, CapitalR, Battlemage, George100, CRGreathouse, Van helsing, Comrade42, GeorgeLouis, Mato, Tfnewman, Chrislk02,
Kozuch, Thijs!bot, Mojo Hand, Smarcus, Headbomb, Arcresu, MichaelMaggs, Jomoal99, Escarbot, Austin Maxwell, AntiVandalBot, Bm
gub, Gnixon, Olexandr Kravchuk, Qwerty Binary, Res2216restar, MER-C, Jameskeates, Magioladitis, Celithemis, Bongwarrior, VoABot
II, Swpb, El Snubbe, Ling.Nut, Allstarecho, DerHexer, JaGa, Mermaid from the Baltic Sea, CommonsDelinker, J.delanoy, Maurice Carbonaro, MoogleEXE, EmanCunha, Vanished user 342562, Shawn in Montreal, LordAnubisBOT, Ryan Postlethwaite, Joshmt, Kenneth M
Burke, Jamesontai, Inwind, Jxzj, Lseixas, VolkovBot, CWii, SarahLawrence Scott, TXiKiBoT, Docanton, Pandacomics, Someguy1221,
Dev 176, JhsBot, ^demonBot2, BurtPeck, CloudNineAC, Aroodman, Complex (de), SwordSmurf, Synthebot, Falcon8765, Trecool12,
Monty845, Raphtee, Munkay, News0969, Kbrose, Ghalhud, SaltyBoatr, SieBot, Sonicology, Caltas, Bamkin, Oxymoron83, Lightmouse,
Almostcrime, Stfg, Mike2vil, Poopfacer, Martarius, ClueBot, Snigbrook, Donzzz77, VsBot, TallMagic, Pet3r, Boing! said Zebedee, DragonBot, Howie Goodell, BobertWABC, Brews ohare, Jotterbot, PhySusie, JamieS93, Maine12329, Jimbill4321, Kakofonous, Joe N, Party,
Eik Corell, Oldnoah, Saeed.Veradi, WikHead, NellieBly, Pchapman47879, Truthnlove, Falconkhe, Addbot, Non-dropframe, Boomur,
Fieldday-sunday, Vishnava, Download, PranksterTurtle, Favonian, LinkFA-Bot, AgadaUrbanit, SPat, Zorrobot, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Fraggle81, Planlips, Orion11M87, AnomieBOT, Khcf6971, Mouse7525, Materialscientist, Citation bot, Howdychicken, Richard Jay Morris,
Xqbot, Plastadity, Witguiota, Brandonlovescrashincastles, JimVC3, Mark Schierbecker, RibotBOT, Metrictensor, A. di M., A.amitkumar,
FrescoBot, Paine Ellsworth, Ironboy11, Joe iNsecure, Steve Quinn, Citation bot 1, Aknochel, Micraboy, CodeTheorist, FoxBot, Lotje,
Jesse V., Tiki843, Zanzerjewel, Cjc38, EmausBot, Immunize, Racerx11, Bengt Nyman, Dcirovic, AsceticRose, Langsytank, JSquish,
Mullactalk, D.Lazard, AManWithNoPlan, VictorFlaushenstein, Vanished user jw983kjaslkekfhj45, Olhp, L Kensington, PhoenixFlentge,
MonoAV, Rangoon11, ChuispastonBot, Ebehn, BR84, ClueBot NG, Elodzinski, IOPhysics, Moritz37, Navasj, Helpful Pixie Bot, Electriccatsh2, Abid931, Bibcode Bot, BG19bot, MusikAnimal, AvocatoBot, Kirananils, Rclsa, CimanyD, Wizardjr9o, Will Gladstone, Sunshine Warrior04, Hepforever, Klilidiplomus, BattyBot, StarryGrandma, Blondietroll, Th4n3r, Thepwninglol, ChrisGualtieri, Macko74,
Sweet55033, Dexbot, Frognyanya, Wickedwondrous, AHusain314, Telfordbuck, Reatlas, Jeremymichaelmcvey, Euan Richard, Stephan
Linn, SakeUPenn, Tangy Lemonz, Cypherquest, , Triolysat, AddWittyNameHere, Susan.graye, Db9199 24, Kdmeaney,
Monstersmash10000, Philipphilip0001, Hexidominus, Englishcomptest, Comptest, Nathaniel 84, Englishtest, TheMagikCow, Plaguetest,
Englishtest3, Hachimods and Anonymous: 354
Superpartner Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superpartner?oldid=599598519 Contributors: Roadrunner, SimonP, Phys, Donarreiskoer, Giftlite, Kocio, Alai, Duncan.france, Mpatel, Rjwilmsi, R.e.b., Drrngrvy, FlaBot, KFP, Conscious, SCZenz, SmackBot, Reedy,

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CHAPTER 7. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Dauto, Jgwacker, Thijs!bot, Headbomb, Maliz, Hans Dunkelberg, LovroZitnik, Agharo, Antixt, AlleborgoBot, Madacs, Bobathon71,
Alexbot, SilvonenBot, SkyLined, Addbot, Barak Sh, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, Xqbot, Erik9bot, Carlog3, Paine Ellsworth, Haeinous,
Cracrunch, RedBot, EmausBot, Hydroxonium, Flloater, ClueBot NG, Bibcode Bot, Hrttu523, Rolf h nelson, Akro7 and Anonymous:
13
Supersymmetry Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersymmetry?oldid=637633251 Contributors: Bryan Derksen, Taw, Andre Engels, Roadrunner, Maury Markowitz, Ewen, Stevertigo, Edward, Michael Hardy, Arpingstone, Theresa knott, IMSoP, Jeandr du Toit,
Samw, Smack, Charles Matthews, Maximus Rex, Phys, Raul654, BenRG, Rursus, Mor, Ancheta Wis, Giftlite, Mporter, Ferkelparade, Monedula, Fropu, Xerxes314, Anville, Gus Polly, Moyogo, Unconcerned, DO'Neil, Maarten van Vliet, Pharotic, LiDaobing, Sam Hocevar,
Lumidek, Deglr6328, Arivero, Rich Farmbrough, Roybb95, Bender235, El C, Nornagon, Duk, Tweet Tweet, LostLeviathan, Pearle, Gary,
Francescog, Wtmitchell, RJFJR, Reaverdrop, Blaxthos, Killing Vector, Jordan14, Ted BJ, MONGO, Mpatel, MFH, SeventyThree, Bodera,
VermillionBird, Rjwilmsi, Josiah Rowe, R.e.b., Bubba73, Maxim Razin, Drrngrvy, FlaBot, Cless Alvein, Nowhither, Itinerant1, Gparker,
KFP, Lmatt, Chobot, Vyroglyph, YurikBot, Wavelength, RussBot, Ohwilleke, Bhny, Epolk, Maxim Leyenson, Chaos, Romanc19s, Bota47,
Mgnbar, Closedmouth, Arthur Rubin, RG2, That Guy, From That Show!, A bit iy, SmackBot, Mira, Kurochka, Wangjiaji, Gilliam, Bluebot, Cadmasteradam, Complexica, Bazonka, Colonies Chris, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, QFT, Ru ilb, Robma, Solarapex, Radagast83,
Jgwacker, TheMaster42, Ligulembot, Acjohnson55, Yevgeny Kats, Charleswestbrook, TriTertButoxy, Lambiam, Tktktk, Xiaphias, JarahE,
Mdanziger, Dan Gluck, Marysunshine, Tawkerbot2, Cydebot, Hydraton31, David edwards, Michael C Price, Crum375, Koeplinger, Headbomb, J.christianson, Escarbot, Salgueiro, Kborland, Jpod2, Cgingold, Maliz, TimidGuy, C9, Kostisl, R'n'B, Zentropa77, Natsirtguy,
Maurice Carbonaro, Kevin Hickerson, Shawn in Montreal, Idioma-bot, Sheliak, Cuzkatzimhut, Nxavar, Kawakameha, Cuboidal, Ptrslv72,
PhysPhD, SieBot, Nn123645, ClueBot, Jcpilman, Chessmaster7m, Rhododendrites, Mastertek, Mishas42, Scrabby, TimothyRias, WikHead, MystBot, Addbot, DOI bot, Zahd, Barak Sh, F Notebook, Lightbot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Ibayn, TaBOT-zerem, Amirobot, Nonnormalizable, AnomieBOT, Girl Scout cookie, Citation bot, ArthurBot, Plumpurple, Tomwsulcer, Omnipaedista, Gsard, CES1596, FrescoBot,
HaloStereo1, Paine Ellsworth, Citation bot 1, Gil987, Kikeku, Jonesey95, Eddie Nixon, MondalorBot, Aknochel, Gagoga ju, TobeBot, Puzl
bustr, EmausBot, Djloststylez, Ddimenses, Arbnos, Susy is it, ChuispastonBot, Isocli, ClueBot NG, KagakuKyouju, IJVin, Frietjes, Helpful Pixie Bot, Bibcode Bot, BG19bot, Teika kazura, JayBeeEye, Ninmacer20, ChrisGualtieri, Logosun, AHusain314, NA48, Katherine
Pendleton, Lioinnisfree, Liquidityinsta, TaiSakuma, Kdmeaney, Qxxxxxq, Almaionescu, Monkbot, Janhaithabu, Mammoth2011, Stacie
Croquet, Cuttlas1 and Anonymous: 160
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Bryan Derksen, Manning Bartlett, Roadrunner, David spector, Heron, Ewen, Stevertigo, Edward, Boud, TeunSpaans, Dante Alighieri,
Ixfd64, Gaurav, TakuyaMurata, CesarB, Anders Feder, Mgimpel, Mark Foskey, Kaihsu, Samw, Cherkash, Lee M, Mxn, Ehn, Timwi,
Dcoetzee, Wikiborg, Kbk, Tpbradbury, Phys, Bevo, Topbanana, JonathanDP81, AnonMoos, Bcorr, Jerzy, BenRG, Slawojarek, Phil
Boswell, Donarreiskoer, Robbot, Josh Cherry, ChrisO, Owain, Iwpg, Goethean, Altenmann, Nurg, Lowellian, Merovingian, Rursus,
Caknuck, Hadal, Alba, Superm401, David Gerard, M-Falcon, Giftlite, Graeme Bartlett, Harp, ShaneCavanaugh, Lethe, Herbee, Jrquinlisk, Xerxes314, Ds13, Fleminra, Dratman, Muzzle, Varlaam, Jason Quinn, Foobar, Dugosz, Golbez, Bodhitha, Mmm, Aughtandzero,
Quadell, Selva, Kaldari, Fred Stober, Johnux, RetiredUser2, Thincat, Elektron, Bbbl67, Icairns, J0m1eisler, Cructacean, Tdent, TJSwoboda, JohnArmagh, Safety Cap, ProjeX, Njh@bandsman.co.uk, Mike Rosoft, Chris Howard, Jkl, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, FT2,
Qutezuce, Pie4all88, Kooo, David Schaich, Xgenei, Mal, Dbachmann, Mani1, Bender235, ESkog, RJHall, Ylee, Pt, El C, Lycurgus, Lars,
Laurascudder, Art LaPella, Bookofjude, Brians, TheMile, Dragon76, Smalljim, C S, Reuben, La goutte de pluie, Rangelov, Sasquatch,
Bawol, Tritium6, Eritain, HasharBot, Jumbuck, Yoweigh, Alansohn, Andrew Gray, JohnAlbertRigali, Axl, Sligocki, Kocio, Mlm42,
Tom12519, Chuckupd, Atomicthumbs, KapilTagore, Endersdouble, Dirac1933, DrGaellon, Falcorian, Itinerant, DarTar, Joriki, Reinoutr,
Linas, Mindmatrix, Jamsta, Sburke, Benbest, Jonburchel, Thruston, TotoBaggins, GregorB, J M Rice, CharlesC, Waldir, Christopher
Thomas, Karam.Anthony.K, Tevatron, SqueakBox, Ashmoo, Fleisher, Kbdank71, GrundyCamellia, Drbogdan, Rjwilmsi, Nightscream,
Koavf, Strait, XP1, Martaf, BlueMoonlet, MZMcBride, Mike Peel, NeonMerlin, R.e.b., Jehochman, Bubba73, Afterwriting, A Man In
Black, Splarka, RobertG, Nihiltres, Norvy, Itinerant1, Gurch, Mark J, Nimur, Shawn@garbett.org, ElfQrin, DannyDaWriter, Goudzovski,
Diza, Consumed Crustacean, Srleer, Sbove, Chobot, DVdm, Bgwhite, Zentropa, Bambaiah, Wester, Hairy Dude, Huw Powell, Wikky
Horse, Pip2andahalf, RussBot, Jacques Antoine, Bhny, JabberWok, Hellbus, Archelon, Eleassar, Rsrikanth05, Salsb, Big Brother 1984,
NawlinWiki, Folletto, Buster79, Trovatore, Neutron, SCZenz, Daniel Mietchen, Bota47, Karl Andrews, Dna-webmaster, Jezzabr, Thor
Waldsen, Crisco 1492, Deeday-UK, Daniel C, WAS 4.250, Paul Magnussen, Closedmouth, D'Agosta, Bondegezou, Netrapt, Egumtow,
LeonardoRob0t, Ilmari Karonen, NeilN, Kgf0, Maryhit, Dragon of the Pants, SmackBot, Moeron, Ashley thomas80, Slashme, InverseHypercube, Melchoir, Cinkcool, Baad, Jagged 85, Nickst, Frymaster, AnOddName, ZeroEgo, Giandrea, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Skizzik,
Carl.bunderson, Aurimas, Dauto, JCSantos, TimBentley, RevenDS, Jprg1966, Rick7425, Cadmasteradam, Roscelese, Epastore, DHNbot, Sbharris, Eusebeus, Scwlong, Modest Genius, Famspear, V1adis1av, Rhodesh, Fiziker, Lantrix, Grover cleveland, Jmnbatista, Flyguy649, Jgwacker, Daqu, Mesons, Rezecib, Martijn Hoekstra, Pulu, BullRangifer, Andrew c, Gildir, Kendrick7, Marcus Brute, Vina-iwbot,
Yevgeny Kats, Frglee, TriTertButoxy, CIS, SashatoBot, Lambiam, Mukadderat, Hi2lok, Khazar, Shirifan, Eikern, JorisvS, DMurphy, Mgiganteus1, Bjankuloski06en, IronGargoyle, Aardvark23, Loadmaster, Smith609, Deceglie, Hvn0413, Norm mit, Keith-264, Kencf0618,
Britannica, Paul venter, Newone, Twas Now, GDallimore, Benplowman, Chetvorno, DKqwerty, Harold f, JForget, Laplacian, Er ouz,
Jtuggle, Ruslik0, Krioni, McVities, Keithh, Rotiro, Yaris678, Slazenger, Cydebot, Martinthoegersen, Gogo Dodo, Anonymi, Lewisxxxusa,
Mat456, Jlmorgan, Hippypink, Michael C Price, Quibik, AndersFeder, Raoul NK, Thijs!bot, Keraunos, Anupam, Headbomb, Kathovo,
James086, Hcobb, D.H, Logicat, Jomoal99, Northumbrian, Oreo Priest, JitendraS, -dennis-, Widefox, Seaphoto, Orionus, QuiteUnusual,
Readro, Hsstr8, Tlabshier, Tim Shuba, Yellowdesk, TuvicBot, JAnDbot, Asmeurer, Tigga, Jde123, Roman clef, Zekemurdock, Mcorazao, Mozart998, Kborland, Bongwarrior, NeverWorker, Ronstew, Marcel Kosko, Jpod2, J mcandrews, Walter Wpg, Trugster, JMBryant,
Vanished user ty12kl89jq10, CodeCat, Allstarecho, Brian Fenton, JaGa, GermanX, Alangarr, WLU, TimidGuy, Mr Shark, Pagw, Andre.holzner, Sigmundg, Ben MacDui, David Nicoson, Anaxial, JTiago, CommonsDelinker, Fconaway, Oddz, Tgeairn, J.delanoy, Fatka,
Pharaoh of the Wizards, Maurice Carbonaro, Stephanwehner, Foober, Aveh8, McSly, Memory palace, Policron, 83d40m, Usp, Austinian, Izno, SoCalSuperEagle, Robprain, Cuzkatzimhut, Deor, Schucker, VolkovBot, ABF, Eliga, JohnBlackburne, AlnoktaBOT, Tburket,
Davidwr, Philip Trueman, Spemble, TXiKiBoT, Quatschman, The Original Wildbear, Gwib, Fatram, Kipb9, Andrius.v, Matan568, Nxavar,
Nafhan, Photonh2o, Impunv, Peterbullockismyname, Cerebellum, Martin451, Praveen pillay, LoverOfArt, Abdullais4u, Justinrossetti,
Cgwaldman, Bcody80, BotKung, Tennisnutt92, Dirkbb, Antixt, Francis Flinch, Moose-32, Ptrslv72, TheBendster, Masterofpsi, Jonbutterworth, Adrideba, SieBot, StAnselm, Manyugarg, PlanetStar, Jor63, Meldor, OllieObscurity, Jdcaneld, Yintan, Abhishikt, Graycrow,
Infestor, Hrishirise, Cablehorn, Arthur Smart, Aperseghin, Mattmeskill, Gobbledygeek, Cthomas3, Steven Zhang, Nskillen, Sunrise, Afernand74, Jimtpat, Iknowyourider, StaticGull, Jfromcanada, MvL1234, Sphilbrick, Nergaal, Denisarona, Escape Orbit, Quinling, Martarius,
PhysicsGrad2013, ClueBot, Victor Chmara, The Thing That Should Not Be, TomRed, Alyjack, Mx3, Master1228, Drmies, Frmorrison,
Loves martyr, Polyamorph, Nobaddude, Sjdunn9, Kitsunegami, Ktr101, Excirial, Joeyfjj, Wmlschlotterer, Pawan ctn, Lartoven, Artur80,
Sun Creator, BobertWABC, PeterTheWall, Nondisclosure, M.O.X, SchreiberBike, JasonAQuest, Another Believer, Scf1984, 1ForThe-

7.1. TEXT

127

Money, Anoopan, Wnt, Darkicebot, TimothyRias, XLinkBot, Rreagan007, Resonance cascade, JinJian, Hess88, Hybirdd, Tayste, Addbot,
Proofreader77, Mortense, Jacopo Werther, DBGustavson, DOI bot, Betterusername, Ocdnctx, OttRider, Cgd8d, Leszek Jaczuk, WikiUserPedia, NjardarBot, Download, LaaknorBot, AndersBot, Favonian, AgadaUrbanit, HandThatFeeds, Tide rolls, Lightbot, ScAvenger,
SPat, Zorrobot, Jarble, ScienceApe, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Chreod, EchetusXe, Nsbinsnj, Evans1982, Amble, Now dance, fu.cker, dance!,
Anypodetos, Nallimbot, Trinitrix, SkepticalPoet, Pulickkal, Fernandosmission, Apollo reactor, Csmallw, AnomieBOT, Novemberrain94,
1exec1, Jim1138, JackieBot, Gc9580, LlywelynII, Materialscientist, Citation bot, Brightgalrs, Onesius, ArthurBot, Northryde, LilHelpa,
Xqbot, Konor org, Noonehasthisnameithink, Engineering Guy, Yutenite, Newzebras, Universalsurage, DeadlyMETAL, Tomdo08, Professor J Lawrence, Br77rino, Srich32977, Arni.leibovits, StevenVerstoep, ProtectionTaggingBot, Vdkdaan, Omnipaedista, RibotBOT, Kyng,
Waleswatcher, WissensDrster, Ace111, Kristjan.Jonasson, MerlLinkBot, Ernsts, Chaheel Riens, A. di M., A.amitkumar, Markdavid2000,
, Dave3457, FrescoBot, Weyesr1, Paine Ellsworth, Kenneth Dawson, Cdw1952, CamB424, CamB4242, Steve Quinn, N4tur4le, Jc odcsmf, Cannolis, Dolyn, Citation bot 1, Openmouth, Gil987, OriumX, Biker Biker, Gautier lebon, Pinethicket, Edderso, Boson15, Jonesey95, Three887, CarsonsDad, Calmer Waters, Jusses2, RedBot, BiObserver, Aknochel, Meier99, Puzl bustr, Prosl, Higgshunter, Mary at
CERN, Periglas, Zanhe, Lotje, Callanecc, Comet Tuttle, Jdigitalbath, Vrenator, SeoMac, ErikvanB, Tbhotch, Minimac, Coolpranjal, Mean
as custard, RjwilmsiBot, TjBot, Olegrog, 123Mike456Winston789, Weaselpit, Newty23125, Techhead7890, Tesseract2, Skamecrazy123,
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GoingBatty, RA0808, Bengt Nyman, Bt8257, Gimmetoo, KHamsun, LHC Tommy, Slightsmile, NikiAnna, TeeTylerToe, Dekker451, Hhhippo, Evanh2008, JSquish, Kkm010, ZroBot, John Cline, Liquidmetalrob, F, rico Jnior Wouters, StringTheory11, Stevengoldfarb,
Opkdx, Quondum, AndrewN, Tbushman, Makecat, Timetraveler3.14, Foonle77, Tolly4bolly, Wiggles007, Irenan, Nobleacu, Brandmeister, Baseballrocks538, Inswoon, Donner60, Ontyx, Angelo souti, ChuispastonBot, ChiZeroOne, Ninjalectual, Herk1955, I hate whitespace,
Rocketrod1960, Whoop whoop pull up, Ajuvr, Petrb, Grapple X, ClueBot NG, Perfectlight, Aaron Booth, Gareth Grith-Jones, Siswick,
MelbourneStar, Gilderien, PhysicsAboveAll, Manu.ajm, Muon, Parcly Taxel, O.Koslowski, Widr, Mohd. Toukir Hamid, Diyar se, Helpful Pixie Bot, Aesir.le, Bibcode Bot, 2001:db8, Lowercase sigmabot, BG19bot, Scottaleger, Mcarmier, Jibu8, Loupatriz67, Dave4478,
Frze, Ervin Goldfain, Reader505, Mark Arsten, Lovetrivedi, BarbaraMervin, Silvrous, Drcooljoe, Cadiomals, Joydeep, Altar, Piet De
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BattyBot, 1narendran, LORDCOTTINGHAM2, NO SOPA, Tchaliburton, Wijnburger, Mdann52, Dilaton, Magikal Samson, Samuelled,
Dja1979, Georgegroom, BecurSansnow, EuroCarGT, MSUGRA, Rhlozier, Pscott558, Turullulla, Blueprinteditor, Misterharris, AstroDoc,
Bigbear213, Dexbot, Randomizer3, Daggerbot, DoctorLazarusLong, Caroline1981, Nitpicking polisher, SoledadKabocha, Gsmanu007,
Windows.dll, Mogism, Prabal123koirala, Abitoby, Clidog, Rongended, Darryl from Mars, Cerabot, MuonRay, TheTruth72, Capt. Mohan
Kuruvilla, Gatheringstorm2, Jason7898, Mumbai999999, SkepticalKid, Cjean42, Nmrzuk, Lugia2453, Mafuee, Frosty, SFK2, Thegodparticlebook, Rijensky, Mishra866868, Rockstar999999999, Toddbeck911, Nilaykumar07, Thepalerider2012, WikiPhysTech, The Anonymouse, Ahmar Saeed, Pincrete, Apidium23, Prahas.wiki, Exenola, Pdotpwns, Epicgenius, Fireballninja, Greengreengreenred, , Technogeek101, NicoPosner, Apurva Godghase, Durfyy, Soumya Mittal, American In Brazil, SaifAli13, Qwerkysteve, Spatiandas, Retroherb,
Tango303, Hoppeduppeanut, Redplain, Quadrum, AntiguanAcademic, Simpsonojsim, Agyeyaankur, DavidLeighEllis, Ethanthevelociraptor, Qfang12, Eletro1903, E8xE8, HeineBOB, Depthdiver, Mfb, Anrnusna, Man of Steel 85, Cteirmn, AiraCobra, MyNameIsn'tElvis,
Meganlock8, Sxxximf, Drsoumyadeepb, Ndidi Okonkwo Nwuneli, Monkbot, Akro7, Pewpewpewpapapa, BradNorton1979, 21bhargav,
Whistlemethis, Thinking Skeptically, Amk365, Gagnonlg, L21234, TheNextMessiah, Naterealm224, Adrian Lamplighter, Arnab santra,
Gemadi, BATMAN1021 and Anonymous: 924
Safety of particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety_of_high-energy_particle_
collision_experiments?oldid=635087442 Contributors: The Anome, Stevenj, Lfh, Radiojon, Furrykef, BenRG, Jeq, Moondyne, Rorro,
HaeB, Fred Stober, Apalsola, FT2, Vsmith, Sockatume, Jonathan Drain, Bobo192, QTxVi4bEMRbrNqOorWBV, Alansohn, Radical
Mallard, RainbowOfLight, Jtrainor, Woohookitty, FeanorStar7, GregorB, Darkoneko, Mandarax, Jwoodger, SqueakBox, Rjwilmsi, Koavf,
Strait, Jehochman, Bubba73, Boccobrock, Yar Kramer, DannyDaWriter, Stevenfruitsmaak, Physchim62, TheDoober, Bovineone, SCZenz,
Jalabi99, Silverhill, 2over0, Ageekgal, Closedmouth, Th1rt3en, Kevin, Ilmari Karonen, Eaefremov, Dkasak, Perardi, SaveTheWhales,
SmackBot, TheBilly, Elonka, Aetheling1125, Nickst, Jamie C, Sizif, Thumperward, Miquonranger03, Baronnet, Davidbeaumont, Cybercobra, Khukri, Atkinson 291, Mgiganteus1, Smith609, RKT, Dr.K., B7T, Colonel Warden, Newone, Blehfu, Chovain, MarkTB, Ilikefood,
Vyznev Xnebara, Frankly Man, HumanJHawkins, Frostlion, Islander, Milesgillham, Thijs!bot, Headbomb, Yellowdesk, Darrenhusted,
Mcorazao, Fetchcomms, Magioladitis, VoABot II, Cmpd1, Steven Walling, Cgingold, Johnson Lau, Canberra User, J.delanoy, NerdyNSK,
Emmalouise99, Plasticup, Jtankers, Million Moments, Mmerlo, VolkovBot, Hqb, THEemu, SheeldSteel, Staka, Steve Smith, Ptrslv72,
Strayan, Annoyed with fanboys, TrevorX, Tombomp, Profgregory, Maxime.Debosschere, ClueBot, Andrew Nutter, Artichoker, General
Epitaph, Wwheaton, Phenylalanine, Excirial, Alexbot, Eeekster, John Nevard, Conte0, MickMacNee, PhySusie, Bleubeatle, Sparrowgoose,
Apparition11, TimothyRias, Oldnoah, Orbnauticus, IngerAlHaosului, Alexius08, Gazimo, Fieldday-sunday, SoSaysChappy, Barak Sh,
XXOni-kunXx, Dayewalker, Verbal, BoogieRock, Allemandtando, Snippyquiz, MarcoAurelio, AmeliorationBot, Patfrank, Ayrton Prost,
Dustand, BCEagle21, Orion11M87, AnomieBOT, Ormers, Contribut, ConspiracyFAIL, Darkensei, Materialscientist, Citation bot, Xqbot,
Brutaldeluxe, Sophus Bie, Bytbox, CaZeRillo, Psychlohexane, Citation bot 2, Citation bot 1, MMS2013, Feedahungryhippo, EmausBot, Swagmuncher, QuantumSquirrel, Jbackroyd, KLBot2, Bibcode Bot, Ugncreative Usergname, NotinREALITY, ChrisGualtieri, Andyhowlett, Reatlas, Jmolive and Anonymous: 120
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Pengo, Giftlite, Smjg, Eequor, Mckaysalisbury, Zeimusu, Aisphording, DragonySixtyseven, RayBirks, Trilobite, , Discospinster,
Cacycle, Vsmith, Draugen, Antaeus Feldspar, Pavel Vozenilek, Olau, Bender235, Spiralx, Pjf, El C, Viriditas, Supersheep, Nsaa, Lysdexia, DonJStevens, Snowolf, Radical Mallard, Jheald, Velho, Linas, Siener, Scootey, GregorB, Christopher Thomas, Mandarax, Opie,
Rjwilmsi, Zbxgscqf, Martin-C, Palpatine, BradBeattie, Smithbrenon, Chobot, TexasAndroid, Hellbus, Oni Lukos, Wiki alf, Thiseye, Silverhill, FF2010, Light current, Donald Albury, GraemeL, Caco de vidro, Katieh5584, Sinus, WikiFew, SmackBot, Melchoir, Delldot,
Lainagier, Paxfeline, Chris the speller, DHN-bot, Colonies Chris, Otus, V1adis1av, Khukri, Teehee123, Dreadstar, Natecull, Diverman,
EdC, Clarityend, Leo Vuyk, Chovain, Scpark, JForget, Oerjan, Headbomb, Uiteoi, Yettie0711, Blue Tie, Scepia, CrankyScorpion, Harel,
Email4mobile, Wormcast, Fabricebaro, Quasarq, Crunchy Numbers, Lenticel, MartinBot, Jim.henderson, SuperMarioMan, Anaxial, Keith
D, Numbo3, Melamed katz, Aswarp, Tarotcards, Gurchzilla, Wesino, Trilobitealive, SJP, Norbi et Orbi, ArmAndLeg, Jamesontai, Eladganl,
Vinsfan368, Bobwhitten, VolkovBot, Je G., Jennavecia, Philip Trueman, Qxz, Mazarin07, DeathNomad, Antixt, Fleela, Spinningspark,
Berndf, Deconstructhis, BalanceRestored, YonaBot, Jack Merridew, Sakkura, Mlbphd, Danielgrad, Profgregory, Lethesl, AerosmithNirvana, ClueBot, WurmWoode, PipepBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Blanchardb, Phenylalanine, Excirial, Alexbot, PixelBot, Vanisheduser12345, Esorbalo, Coinmanj, BOTarate, Versus22, Mythdon, Skunkboy74, Oldnoah, JCDenton2052, NonvocalScream, Addbot,
Ronhjones, Ersik, Deamon138, SamatBot, Tide rolls, OlEnglish, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Againme, Utan Vax, Jim1138, RBM 72, Citation bot,

128

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Clark89, Gravitivistically, Capricorn42, Physprof, The Wiki ghost, JediMaster362, CES1596, FrescoBot, John85, JMilty, Citation bot 1,
Cam-Ann, IVAN3MAN, RjwilmsiBot, Bento00, Rayman60, EmausBot, Bdijkstra, FineCheeses, Carbosi, Bldrjn, Quondum, Ankit Maity,
Fkara, Marcelocantos, ClueBot NG, OperaJoeGreen, Rezabot, Helpful Pixie Bot, Bibcode Bot, BG19bot, Imgaril, MusikAnimal, Mark
Arsten, Zipzipnadanadazip, Aisteco, ChrisGualtieri, Reatlas, AmaryllisGardener, ElHef, PedroGodoyP and Anonymous: 185
Strangelet Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strangelet?oldid=636013660 Contributors: Oliver Pereira, Julesd, Joquarky, Wertperch,
Xanzzibar, Jackol, Pgan002, Darksun, Rich Farmbrough, FT2, Army1987, Gunark, Dark Shikari, Radical Mallard, Pauli133, Killing
Vector, Dmitry Brant, Christopher Thomas, Squideshi, Rjwilmsi, KungFuMonkey, Eyu100, Nihiltres, Physchim62, Retodon8, Brad
Rousse, NawlinWiki, Werdna, Light current, 2over0, Fourohfour, Kgf0, Treesmill, SmackBot, Lainagier, DomQ, Bluebot, Rickythesk8r,
V1adis1av, Cybercobra, Omgoleus, PsychoJosh, Twir, Takeshi Nakagawa, Dark Formal, JarahE, Johnthescavenger, Chovain, Nfwu,
OS2Warp, CharacterZero, Hydraton31, Headbomb, Davidhorman, JEH, Demophon, Chkno, Barry Haworth, It Is Me Here, LokiClock, Someguy1221, Njt3011, Edvvc, Petero9, Lamro, Danielgrad, Oxymoron83, Maxime.Debosschere, Lethesl, MoeDrippins, ClueBot,
Taquito1, Chouca, Phenylalanine, L.tak, Homocion, Oldnoah, Henry the 1st, Il Sc0rpi0ne, Addbot, Mjamja, Download, Barak Sh, Denicho,
NightmareZ, Lightbot, OlEnglish, , Specious, Justacec, Viapx, 3vil-Lyn, Robert Treat, AnomieBOT, Duvnuj, Materialscientist,
Citation bot, ProtectionTaggingBot, Citation bot 2, Citation bot 1, Akasanof, Johann137, Mered4, Gerasime, Suslindisambiguator, Ego
White Tray, Orange Suede Sofa, RockMagnetist, Insidepocket, ClueBot NG, Bibcode Bot, Jeraphine Gryphon, RhinoMind, Darbischer
and Anonymous: 114
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Ste1n, QuantumShadow, Nickst, Skizzik, Father McKenzie, Khukri, Courcelles, Epbr123, Headbomb, Ygrange, Rtomas, Astavats, VoABot
II, Seba5618, TechnoFaye, HEL, Hans Dunkelberg, Dbiel, Calwiki, Zorx12, ClueBot, Franamax, MaverickFurmeson, DaL33T, Fielddaysunday, Lightbot, OlEnglish, 1exec1, Materialscientist, HappyArtichoke, Shadowjams, Fumitol, RA0808, Jasonbuzz, Morray, Silvrous,
ShotmanMaslo, DoctorKubla, Cheerioswithmilk, La Plaza Cultural and Anonymous: 59
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SCZenz, Zzuuzz, ViperSnake151, SmackBot, Nickst, Skizzik, Yin Huang, XSG, Salamurai, LeoNomis, Iridescent, Headbomb, WilliamH,
RogueNinja, Astavats, Albany NY, Ponty Pirate, Seba5618, Science Guy, J.delanoy, Hans Dunkelberg, Anna Lincoln, Aly89, ClueBot,
PMDrive1061, CoRdigALZ, Qwfp, Addbot, Tcncv, Verbal, Worm That Turned, Azcolvin429, Fatal!ty, 1exec1, JackieBot, Guy Thoreau,
Joe446465446, Tuankiet65, Parabolooidal and Anonymous: 37

7.2 Images
File:1011252_11-A4-at-144-dpi.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/1011252_11-A4-at-144-dpi.jpg
License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Pcharito
File:2-photon_Higgs_decay.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/2-photon_Higgs_decay.svg License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Parcly Taxel
File:2012-Aug-02-ALICE_3D_v0_with_Text_(1)_2.jpg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/
2012-Aug-02-ALICE_3D_v0_with_Text_%281%29_2.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Pcharito
File:4-lepton_Higgs_decay.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/4-lepton_Higgs_decay.svg License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Parcly Taxel
File:AIP-Sakurai-best.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/AIP-Sakurai-best.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: self
File:ALICE_HMPID.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/ALICE_HMPID.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors:
This photograph was produced by CERN.
Their website states: So, encouraged and supported by our experiment outreach teams, we have made our rst collection available under a
Creative Commons licence. We chose the CC-BY-SA licence, to ensure credit is given to CERN for the photos (BY) and that modied
versions also get shared freely (Share Alike).
To the uploader: You must provide a link (URL) to the original le and the authorship information if available. Original artist: Antonio Saba
File:ALICE_ITS.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/ALICE_ITS.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:ALICE_TPC.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/ALICE_TPC.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
This photograph was produced by CERN.
Their website states: So, encouraged and supported by our experiment outreach teams, we have made our rst collection available under a
Creative Commons licence. We chose the CC-BY-SA licence, to ensure credit is given to CERN for the photos (BY) and that modied
versions also get shared freely (Share Alike).
To the uploader: You must provide a link (URL) to the original le and the authorship information if available. Original artist: Antonio Saba
File:ALICE_ZDC3.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/ALICE_ZDC3.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Pcharito
File:ALICE_all.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/ALICE_all.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: http://cds.cern.ch/record/1436153?ln=it Original artist: Antonio Saba
File:ALICE_pPb_event.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/ALICE_pPb_event.jpg License: CC-BYSA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Pcharito
File:ATLAS-logo.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5c/ATLAS-logo.jpg License: Fair use Contributors:
The logo may be obtained from ATLAS experiment.
Original artist: ?

7.2. IMAGES

129

File:ATLAS_Above.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/ATLAS_Above.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0


Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:ATLAS_Drawing.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/ATLAS_Drawing.jpg License: CC-BY-SA2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/argonne/4119736531/sizes/o/in/photostream/ Original artist: Argon National Laboratory
File:ATLAS_HCal.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/ATLAS_HCal.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:ATLAS_TRT.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/ATLAS_TRT.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:ATLAS_Tile_Calorimeter.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/ATLAS_Tile_Calorimeter.png License: CC-BY-SA-2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/argonne/4119736581/sizes/o/in/set-72157622466663527/ Original
artist: Argon National Laboratory
File:Accelerator_physics_icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ad/Accelerator_physics_icon.svg License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
Using Inkscape
Original artist:
BR84
File:Alicelead3.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Alicelead3.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Pcharito
File:Ambox_current_red.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Ambox_current_red.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: self-made, inspired by Image:Gnome globe current event.svg, using Image:Information icon3.svg and Image:Earth
clip art.svg Original artist: penubag, Tkgd2007 (clock)
File:Ambox_important.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Ambox_important.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based o of Image:Ambox scales.svg Original artist: Dsmurat (talk contribs)
File:Atlas_detector_CERN_feb2007.jpg Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Atlas_detector_CERN_
feb2007.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work. Canon EOS350D. Original artist: Sindre Skrede
File:BH_LMC.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/BH_LMC.png License: CC-BY-SA-2.5 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: User:Alain r
File:Beetle_ASIC.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a8/Beetle_ASIC.jpg License: PD Contributors:
Own work
Original artist:
Larosch (talk) (Uploads)
File:Bldng40cropped.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Bldng40cropped.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Gillis Danielsen
File:BosonFusion-Higgs.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/BosonFusion-Higgs.svg License: CC-BYSA-3.0 Contributors:
BosonFusion-Higgs.png Original artist: BosonFusion-Higgs.png: User:Harp 12:43, 28 March 2007
File:CERN-Rama-33.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/CERN-Rama-33.jpg License: CC-BY-SA2.0-fr Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rama
File:CERN-aerial_1.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/CERN-aerial_1.jpg License: CC0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Brcke-Osteuropa
File:CERN_ALICE_Experiment.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/CERN_ALICE_Experiment.jpg
License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: John-vogel
File:CERN_Atlas_Caverne.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/CERN_Atlas_Caverne.jpg License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Image taken by Nikolai Schwerg Original artist: Nikolai Schwerg
File:CERN_Globe_of_Science_and_Innovation.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/CERN_Globe_
of_Science_and_Innovation.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: Adam Nieman
File:CERN_LHC_Tunnel1.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/CERN_LHC_Tunnel1.jpg License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Julian Herzog [more photography on my website]
File:CERN_Tram,_line_number_18.jpg Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/CERN_Tram%2C_line_
number_18.jpg License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Darkzink
File:CERN_international_relations_map.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/CERN_international_
relations_map.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: U5K0
File:CERN_member_states_.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/CERN_member_states_.svg License:
CC-BY-3.0 Contributors: Own work, based upon: Image:Europe-countries-outline-iso-coded-plain.svg Original artist: Kohelet
File:CMS_Hcal_26_01_2007.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/CMS_Hcal_26_01_2007.JPG License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:CMS_Higgs-event.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/CMS_Higgs-event.jpg License: CC-BY-SA3.0 Contributors: http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/628469 Original artist: Lucas Taylor
File:CMS_Silicon_Tracker_Arty_HiRes.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/CMS_Silicon_Tracker_
Arty_HiRes.jpg License: ?
Contributors: http://cmsinfo.cern.ch/outreach/Timeline/Archive/Archive2006/PicturesOfTheWeek/
November/11_06.html Original artist:

130

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File:CMS_Slice.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/CMS_Slice.png License: ? Contributors: ? Original


artist: ?
File:CMS_Under_Construction_Apr_05.jpg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/CMS_Under_
Construction_Apr_05.jpg License:
?
Contributors:
http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/CMSvpt/bestphotos/CERN%20Pt5%20CMS%
20Construction%20June%2006/slides/CERN%20Pt5%20Jun%2006%20CMS%20Constn%20Hall%2005.htm Original artist:
Julian Williams
File:Cern-accelerator-complex.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Cern-accelerator-complex.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/research/AccelComplex-en.html Original artist:
Forthommel
File:Cernfounders.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Cernfounders.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:
BlankEurope1989.png Original artist:
derivative work: NSK Nikolaos S. Karastathis (NerdyNSK (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:NerdyNSK' title='User
talk:NerdyNSK'>talk</a>)) *BlankEurope1989.png: made by Hoshie.
File:Ciscosystemsrouteratcern.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Ciscosystemsrouteratcern.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: English Wikipedia Original artist: Coolcaesar
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Construction_of_LHC_at_CERN.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Construction_of_LHC_at_
CERN.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Dimuon1_small.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Dimuon1_small.gif License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Pcharito
File:Edit-clear.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit-clear.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The
Tango! Desktop Project. Original artist:
The people from the Tango! project. And according to the meta-data in the le, specically: Andreas Nilsson, and Jakub Steiner (although
minimally).
File:Elementary_particle_interactions.svg Source:
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interactions.svg License: Public domain Contributors: en:Image:Interactions.png Original artist: en:User:TriTertButoxy, User:Stannered
File:Elementary_particle_interactions_in_the_Standard_Model.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/
Elementary_particle_interactions_in_the_Standard_Model.png License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Eric Drexler
File:FMD_1.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/FMD_1.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own
work Original artist: Pcharito
File:Fabiola-gianotti.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Fabiola-gianotti.jpg License: CC-BY-2.5-it
Contributors: www.gravita-zero.org Original artist: Claudio Pasqua / Gravit-Zero.org
File:First_Web_Server.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/First_Web_Server.jpg License: CC-BY-SA3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Coolcaesar at en.wikipedia
File:Flag_of_Algeria.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Flag_of_Algeria.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: SVG implementation of the 63-145 Algerian law "on Characteristics of the Algerian national emblem" ("Caractristiques du
Drapeau Algrien", in English). Original artist: This graphic was originaly drawn by User:SKopp.
File:Flag_of_Argentina.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Argentina.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Based on: http://www.manuelbelgrano.gov.ar/bandera_colores.htm Original artist: (Vector graphics by Dbenbenn)
File:Flag_of_Armenia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Australia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Austria.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Flag_of_Austria.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work, http://www.bmlv.gv.at/abzeichen/dekorationen.shtml Original artist: User:SKopp
File:Flag_of_Azerbaijan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Flag_of_Azerbaijan.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: http://www.elibrary.az/docs/remz/pdf/remz_bayraq.pdf and http://www.meclis.gov.az/?/az/topcontent/21 Original
artist: SKopp and others
File:Flag_of_Belarus.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Flag_of_Belarus.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.tnpa.by/ViewFileText.php?UrlRid=52178&UrlOnd=%D1%D2%C1%20911-2008 Original artist: Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg
License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Bolivia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Flag_of_Bolivia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:SKopp
File:Flag_of_Brazil.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: The ag of Bulgaria. The colors are specied at http://www.government.bg/cgi-bin/e-cms/vis/vis.pl?s=001&p=0034&n=
000005&g= as: Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Canada.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/cf/Flag_of_Canada.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

7.2. IMAGES

131

File:Flag_of_Chile.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Colombia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Croatia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Flag_of_Croatia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.sabor.hr/Default.aspx?sec=4317 Original artist: Nightstallion, Elephantus, Neoneo13, Denelson83, Rainman,
R-41, Minestrone, Lupo, Zscout370,
<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:MaGa' title='User:MaGa'>Ma</a><a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:
Croatian_squares_Ljubicic.png'
class='image'><img
alt='Croatian
squares
Ljubicic.png'
src='//upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Croatian_squares_Ljubicic.png/15px-Croatian_squares_Ljubicic.png'
width='15'
height='15'
srcset='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Croatian_squares_Ljubicic.png/23px-Croatian_squares_Ljubicic.png
1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Croatian_squares_Ljubicic.png/30px-Croatian_squares_Ljubicic.png
2x' data-le-width='202' data-le-height='202' /></a><a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:MaGa' title='User
talk:MaGa'>Ga</a> (based on Decision of the Parliament)
File:Flag_of_Cuba.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Flag_of_Cuba.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Drawn by User:Madden Original artist: see below
File:Flag_of_Cyprus.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Flag_of_Cyprus.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Vzb83
File:Flag_of_Denmark.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Flag_of_Denmark.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Madden
File:Flag_of_Ecuador.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Flag_of_Ecuador.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.presidencia.gob.ec/pdf/Simbolos-Patrios.pdf Original artist: President of the Republic of Ecuador, Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Egypt.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg License: CC0 Contributors:
From the Open Clip Art website. Original artist: Open Clip Art
File:Flag_of_Estonia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Flag_of_Estonia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.riigikantselei.ee/?id=73847 Original artist: Originally drawn by User:SKopp. Blue colour changed by User:PeepP
to match the image at [1].
File:Flag_of_Europe.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Flag_of_Europe.svg License: Public domain
Contributors:
File based on the specication given at [1]. Original artist: User:Verdy p, User:-x-, User:Paddu, User:Nightstallion, User:Funakoshi,
User:Jeltz, User:Dbenbenn, User:Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Finland.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Flag_of_Finland.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1978/19780380 Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp
File:Flag_of_France.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Georgia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Flag_of_Georgia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work based on File:Brdzanebuleba 31.pdf Original artist: User:SKopp
File:Flag_of_Germany.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg License: ? Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Ghana.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Flag_of_Ghana.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Greece.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: own code Original artist: (of code) cs:User:-xfi- (talk)
File:Flag_of_Hungary.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Flag_of_Hungary.svg License: Public domain
Contributors:
Flags of the World Hungary Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Iceland.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Flag_of_Iceland.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Islandic National Flag Original artist: var Arnfjr Bjarmason, Zscout370 and others
File:Flag_of_India.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Iran.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg License: Public domain Contributors: URL http://www.isiri.org/portal/files/std/1.htm and an English translation / interpretation at URL http://flagspot.net/flags/ir'.html
Original artist: Various
File:Flag_of_Ireland.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Flag_of_Ireland.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp Original artist:
File:Flag_of_Israel.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Modern%20History/Israel%20at%2050/The%20Flag%20and%20the%20Emblem Original artist:
File:Flag_of_Italy.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Japan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Jordan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Flag_of_Jordan.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

132

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File:Flag_of_Latvia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Flag_of_Latvia.svg License: Public domain


Contributors: Drawn by SKopp Original artist: Latvija
File:Flag_of_Lebanon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg License: Public domain
Contributors:
Original artist: Traced based on the CIA World Factbook with some modication done to the colours based on information at Vexilla mundi.
File:Flag_of_Lithuania.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Flag_of_Lithuania.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: SuKopp
File:Flag_of_Macedonia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Flag_of_Macedonia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:SKopp, rewritten by User:Gabbe
File:Flag_of_Madagascar.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Flag_of_Madagascar.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Malaysia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg License:
domain Contributors: Create based on the Malaysian Government Website (archive version)
Original artist: SKopp, Zscout370 and Ranking Update

Public

File:Flag_of_Malta.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Flag_of_Malta.svg License: CC0 Contributors: ?


Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Mexico.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape Original artist: Alex Covarrubias, 9 April 2006
File:Flag_of_Montenegro.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Flag_of_Montenegro.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: B1mbo, Froztbyte
File:Flag_of_Morocco.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Flag_of_Morocco.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: adala.justice.gov.ma (Ar) Original artist: Denelson83, Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Mozambique.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Flag_of_Mozambique.svg License: CC0
Contributors: From the Open Clip Art website. Original artist: User:Nightstallion
File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg License:
Public domain Contributors: http://www.mch.govt.nz/files/NZ%20Flag%20-%20proportions.JPG Original artist: Zscout370, Hugh Jass
and many others
File:Flag_of_Norway.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Dbenbenn
File:Flag_of_Pakistan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Flag_of_Pakistan.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: The drawing and the colors were based from agspot.net. Original artist: User:Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Palestine.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Flag_of_Palestine.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work. Based on Law No. 5 for the year 2006 amending some provisions of Law No. 22 for the year 2005
on the Sanctity of the Palestinian Flag Original artist: Orionist, previous versions by Makaristos, Mysid, etc.
File:Flag_of_Peru.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Flag_of_Peru.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Peru Original artist: David Benbennick
File:Flag_of_Poland.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/12/Flag_of_Poland.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Portugal.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Flag_of_Portugal.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://jorgesampaio.arquivo.presidencia.pt/pt/republica/simbolos/bandeiras/index.html#imgs Original artist: Columbano
Bordalo Pinheiro (1910; generic design); Vtor Lus Rodrigues; Antnio Martins-Tuvlkin (2004; this specic vector set: see sources)
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artist: ?
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vector image was created with Inkscape by Zscout370, and then manually edited.
File:Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg License:
CC0 Contributors: the actual ag Original artist: Unknown
File:Flag_of_Serbia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Flag_of_Serbia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: From http://www.parlament.gov.rs/content/cir/o_skupstini/simboli/simboli.asp. Original artist: sodipodi.com
File:Flag_of_Singapore.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The drawing was based from http://app.www.sg/who/42/National-Flag.aspx. Colors from the book: (2001). The
National Symbols Kit. Singapore: Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. pp. 5. ISBN 8880968010 Pantone 032 shade from
http://www.pantone.com/pages/pantone/colorfinder.aspx?c_id=13050 Original artist: Various
File:Flag_of_Slovakia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Flag_of_Slovakia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work; here, colors Original artist: SKopp

7.2. IMAGES

133

File:Flag_of_Slovenia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Flag_of_Slovenia.svg License: Public domain


Contributors: Own work construction sheet from http://flagspot.net/flags/si%27.html#coa Original artist: User:Achim1999
File:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Flag_of_South_Africa.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Per specications in the Constitution of South Africa, Schedule 1 - National ag Original artist: Flag design by
Frederick Brownell, image by Wikimedia Commons users
File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Ordinance Act of the Law concerning the National Flag of the Republic of Korea, Construction and color guidelines
(Russian/English) This site is not exist now.(2012.06.05) Original artist: Various
File:Flag_of_Spain.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Sri_Lanka.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Flag_of_Sri_Lanka.svg License: Public domain Contributors: SLS 693 - National ag of Sri Lanka Original artist: Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Flag_of_Switzerland.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: PDF Colors Construction sheet Original artist: User:Marc Mongenet
Credits:
File:Flag_of_Thailand.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Tunisia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Flag_of_Tunisia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.w3.org/ Original artist: entraneur: BEN KHALIFA WISSAM
File:Flag_of_Turkey.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Turkish Flag Law (Trk Bayra Kanunu), Law nr. 2893 of 22 September 1983. Text (in Turkish) at the website of the
Turkish Historical Society (Trk Tarih Kurumu) Original artist: David Benbennick (original author)
File:Flag_of_UNESCO.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Flag_of_UNESCO.svg License: ? Contributors: Based on the previous version of Madden Original artist: Mouagip
File:Flag_of_Ukraine.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Flag_of_Ukraine.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: 4512:2006 - .
SVG: 2010
Original artist:
File:Flag_of_Uzbekistan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Flag_of_Uzbekistan.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Ozbekiston Respublikasining Davlat bayrogi. The ocially dened colours are Pantone
313C for blue and 361C for green (source: [1], [2]). Drawn by User:Zscout370.
File:Flag_of_Venezuela.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Flag_of_Venezuela.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ocial websites Original artist: Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Vietnam.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://vbqppl.moj.gov.vn/law/vi/1951_to_1960/1955/195511/195511300001 http://vbqppl.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/Lists/
Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=820 Original artist: Lu Ly v li theo ngun trn
File:Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.
svg License: Public domain Contributors:
-x-'s le
-x-'s code
Zirlands codes of colors
Original artist:
(of code): SVG version by cs:-x-.
File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370
File:Flag_of_the_People{}s_Republic_of_China.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_the_
People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/eng/n_flag/
design.html Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
File:Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg License:
Public domain Contributors: The design was taken from [1] and the colors were also taken from a Government website Original artist:
User:Achim1999
File:Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Flag_of_the_Republic_of_
China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: User:SKopp
File:Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Flag_of_the_United_
Arab_Emirates.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

134

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File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License: ?


Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Higgs,_Peter_(1929)_cropped.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Higgs%2C_Peter_%281929%
29_cropped.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-2.0-de Contributors: Mathematisches Institut Oberwolfach (MFO), http://owpdb.mfo.de/detail?
photo_id=12812 Original artist: Gert-Martin Greuel
File:Higgs-Mass-MetaStability.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/70/Higgs-Mass-MetaStability.svg License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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Own work Original artist: TimothyRias
File:Higgs_production_gg_qq.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Higgs_production_gg_qq.png License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kourkoumeli
File:Higgsdecaywidth.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Higgsdecaywidth.svg License: CC-BY-SA3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: TimothyRias
File:Hqmc-vector.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Hqmc-vector.svg License: CC-BY-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: VermillionBird
File:LHC.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/LHC.svg License: CC-BY-SA-2.5 Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:LHC_quadrupole_magnets.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/LHC_quadrupole_magnets.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0 Contributors: Flickr Original artist: gamsiz
File:LHCf.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/LHCf.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own
work (Original text: self-made) Original artist: Alby (talk)
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Original artist: ?
File:Light_dispersion_of_a_mercury-vapor_lamp_with_a_flint_glass_prism_IPNr0125.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Light_dispersion_of_a_mercury-vapor_lamp_with_a_flint_glass_prism_IPNr%C2%B00125.jpg License: CCBY-SA-3.0-at Contributors: Own work Original artist: D-Kuru
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Location_CERN_member_countries_on_map_of_Europe.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: U5K0
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mathematics_blue-p.svg License: GPL Contributors: Derivative work from Image:Nuvola apps edu mathematics.png and Image:Nuvola
apps edu mathematics-p.svg Original artist: David Vignoni (original icon); Flamurai (SVG convertion); bayo (color)
File:Nuvola_apps_kalzium.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Nuvola_apps_kalzium.svg License:
LGPL Contributors: Own work Original artist: David Vignoni, SVG version by Bobarino
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File:PHOScrystal.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/PHOScrystal.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Pcharito
File:PS_Booster_surface.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/PS_Booster_surface.JPG License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: MarsPF2
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Contributors:
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Tkgd2007
File:Shiva{}s_statue_at_CERN_engaging_in_the_Nataraja_dance.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/
25/Shiva%27s_statue_at_CERN_engaging_in_the_Nataraja_dance.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Nataraja at CERN Original artist: Kenneth Lu
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Spontaneous_symmetry_breaking_%28explanatory_diagram%29.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist:
FT2

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File:Standard_Model.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Standard_Model.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0


Contributors: Own work Original artist: Cjean42
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Model_Feynman_Diagram_Vertices.png License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: I made it in Adobe Illustrator Original artist: Garyzx
File:Standard_Model_of_Elementary_Particles.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Standard_Model_
of_Elementary_Particles.svg License: CC-BY-3.0 Contributors: Own work by uploader, PBS NOVA [1], Fermilab, Oce of Science,
United States Department of Energy, Particle Data Group Original artist: MissMJ
File:Stylised_Lithium_Atom.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Stylised_Lithium_Atom.svg License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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work Original artist: Pcharito
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work Original artist: Pcharito
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with_red_question_mark.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Created by bdesham with Inkscape; based upon Text-x-generic.svg
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File:The_2-in-1_structure_of_the_LHC_dipole_magnets.jpg Source:
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