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Department of Aeronautical engineering

School of Mechanical engineering


Vel Tech Dr RR & SR Technical University
Course Material
U6AEA22

Aircraft Stability Control

U6AEA22 AIRCRAFT STABILITY AND CONTROL

LTPC

3003
OBJECTIVE
To study the performance of airplanes under various operating conditions and the static and dynamic
response of aircraft for both voluntary and involuntary changes in flight conditions
UNIT I Introduction To Stability
9
Degree of freedom of a system - Static and dynamic stability - Need for stability in an airplanes Purpose of controls - Inherently and marginally stable airplanes, Equations of motion of a rigid body,
Inertial forces and moments. Equations of motion of flight vehicles, aerodynamic forces and moments,
Decoupling of longitudinal and lateral-directional equations. Linearization of equations, Aerodynamic
stability and control derivatives, Relation to geometry, flight configuration, Effects of power,
compressibility and flexibility.
UNIT II Static Longitudinal Stability And Control - Fixed And Forced Control
9
Stick Fixed: Basic equilibrium equation - Stability criterion Contribution of wing and tail and elevator
to pitching moments - Effect of fuselage and nacelles - Effects of center of gravity location - Power
effects - Stabilizer setting and center of gravity location Elevator power Elevator to trim . Trim
gradients. Control fixed static stability Control fixed neutral point. Stability margins. Effects of
releasing the elevator. Hinge moment coefficients Control forces to trim. Control free neutral point
Trim tabs. Aerodynamic balancing of control surfaces. Means of augmentation of control.
UNIT III Maneuver Stability
9
Contribution of pitch damping to pitching moment of flight vehicle - Effect on trim and stability. Control
deflections and control forces for trim in symmetric maneuvers and coordinated turns. Control deflection
and force gradients. Control fixed and control free maneuver stability. Maneuver points. Maneuver
margins.
UNIT IV Static Lateral And Directional Stability And Control
9
Dihedral effect - Coupling between rolling and yawing moment - Adverse yaw - Aileron power - Aileron
reversal. Weather cocking effects Rudder power. Lateral and directional stability- definition. Control
surface deflections in steady sideslips, rolls and turns one engine inoperative conditions - Rudder lock.
UNIT V Dynamic Stability And Response To Control
9
Solutions to the stability quartic of the linearised equations of motion. The principal modes. Phugoid ,
Short Period Dutch Roll and Spiral modes - Further approximations. Restricted degrees of motion.
Solutions. Response to controls. Auto rotation and spin.
TOTAL: 45 periods
TEXT BOOKS
1. Houghton, E.L., and Carruthers, N.B., Aerodynamics for Engineering Students, Edward Arnold
Publishers Ltd., London, 1989
2. Mc.Cormic, B.W., Aerodynamics, Aeronautics & Flight Mechanics, John Wiley 1995
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Perkins C.D., & Hage, R.E., Airplane Performance, Stability and Control, Wiley Toppan 1974.
2. Nelson, R.C., Flight Stability and Automatic Control, McGraw Hill 1989

UNIT-I
2

Degree of freedom of a system


Static and dynamic stability
Need for stability in an airplanes
Purpose of controls
Inherently and marginally stable airplanes,
Equations of motion of a rigid body,
Inertial forces and moments.
Equations of motion of flight vehicles,
Aerodynamic forces and moments,
Decoupling of longitudinal and lateral-directional equations.
Linearization of equations
Aerodynamic stability and control derivatives,
Relation to geometry, flight configuration,
Effects of power, compressibility and flexibility

Degrees of freedom
3

Degrees of freedom (mechanics), independent displacements and/or rotations


that specify the orientation of the body or system
Degrees of freedom (statistics), the number of values in the final calculation of
a statistic that is free to vary
Six degrees of freedom
Refers to motion of a rigid body in three-dimensional space, namely the ability to
move forward/backward, up/down, left/right combined with rotation about three
perpendicular axes (pitch, yaw, roll). As the movement along each of the three axes
is independent of each other and independent of the rotation about any of these
axes, the motion indeed has six degrees of freedom. Notice that the initial
conditions for a rigid body include also the derivatives of these variables (velocity
and angular velocity), being therefore a 12-DOF system

Static stability
4

As any vehicle moves it will be subjected to minor changes in the forces that act on
it, and in its speed.

If such a change causes further changes that tend to restore the vehicle to its
original speed and orientation, without human or machine input, the vehicle is
said to be statically stable. The aircraft has positive stability.
If such a change causes further changes that tend to drive the vehicle away
from its original speed and orientation, the vehicle is said to be statically
unstable. The aircraft has negative stability.
If such a change causes no tendency for the vehicle to be restored to its
original speed and orientation, and no tendency for the vehicle to be driven
away from its original speed and orientation, the vehicle is said to be neutrally
stable. The aircraft has zero stability.

For a vehicle to possess positive static stability it is not necessary for its speed and
orientation to return to exactly the speed and orientation that existed before the
minor change that caused the upset. It is sufficient that the speed and orientation do
not continue to diverge but undergo at least a small change back towards the
original speed and orientation
Longitudinal static stability
The longitudinal stability of an aircraft refers to the aircraft's stability in the
pitching plane - the plane which describes the position of the aircraft's nose in
relation to its tail and the horizon. (Other stability modes are directional
stability and lateral stability.)
If an aircraft is longitudinally stable, a small increase in angle of attack will cause
the pitching moment on the aircraft to change so that the angle of attack decreases.
Similarly, a small decrease in angle of attack will cause the pitching moment to
change so that the angle of attack increases.

Dynamic Stability
5

The evaluation of static stability provides some measure of the airplane dynamics,
but only a rather crude one. Of greater relevance, especially for lateral motion, is
the dynamic response of the aircraft. As seen below, it is possible for an airplane to
be statically stable, yet dynamically unstable, resulting in unacceptable
characteristics.

Just what constitutes acceptable characteristics is often not obvious, and several
attempts have been made to quantify pilot opinion on acceptable handling
qualities. Subjective flying qualities evaluations such as Cooper-Harper ratings
(The Cooper-Harper rating scale is a set of criteria used by test pilots and flight test
engineers to evaluate the handling qualities of aircraft during flight test. The scale
ranges from 1 to 10, with 1 indicating the best handling characteristics and 10 the
worst) are used to distinguish between "good-flying" and difficult-to-fly aircraft.
New aircraft designs can be simulated to determine whether they are acceptable.
Such real-time, pilot-in-the-loop simulations are expensive and require a great deal
of information about the aircraft. Earlier in the design process, flying qualities
estimate may be made on the basis of various dynamic characteristics. One can
correlate pilot ratings to the frequencies and damping ratios of certain types of
motion
Flight dynamics
Flight dynamics is the study of dynamics of flight through the air, or beyond
planetary bodies' atmospheres. It is chiefly concerned with vehicle attitude, angles
and rates of change of angles of the vehicle as well as speed and changes of speed
with respect to time.
In another word it is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three
dimensions. The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of
rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass, known
as pitch, roll and yaw.
6

Aircraft engineers develop control systems for a vehicle's orientation (attitude)


about its center of mass. The control systems include actuators, which exert forces
in various directions, and generate rotational forces or moments about the center of
gravity of the aircraft, and thus rotate the aircraft in pitch, roll, or yaw. For
example, a pitching moment is a vertical force applied at a distance forward or aft
from the center of gravity of the aircraft, causing the aircraft to pitch up or down.
Roll, pitch and yaw refer, in this context, to rotations about the respective
axes starting from a defined equilibrium state. The equilibrium roll angle is known
as wings level or zero bank angle, equivalent to a level heeling angle on a ship.
Yaw is known as "heading". The equilibrium pitch angle in submarine and airship
parlance is known as "trim", but in aircraft, this usually refers to angle of attack,
rather than orientation.
A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it
pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA).
The roll angle is also known as bank angle on a fixed wing aircraft, which usually
"banks" to change the horizontal direction of flight. An aircraft is usually
streamlined from nose to tail to reduce drag making it typically advantageous to
keep the sideslip angle near zero, though there are instances when an aircraft may
be deliberately "sideslipped" for example a slip in a fixed wing aircraft
Flight dynamics (spacecraft)
Spacecraft flight dynamics is the science of space vehicle orientation and control in
three dimensions. Three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of
rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass, known
as pitch, roll and yaw. For spacecraft, an additional dynamic parameter
is translation in space that shifts a vehicle or satellite from one defined orbit to
another.
The attitude of a vehicle is its orientation with respect to a defined frame of
reference. Satellite Attitude control or flight dynamics refers to the techniques
employed to keep the attitude inside a predefined range of values.
Attitude dynamics is the modeling of the changing position and orientation of a
vehicle, due to external forces acting on the body. Attitude control is the purposeful
manipulation of controllable external forces (using vehicle actuators) to establish a
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desired attitude, whereas attitude determination is the utilization of vehicle sensors


to ascertain the current vehicle attitude.

Inherent stability vs inherent instability


One of the Wright Brothers' breakthroughs (important discovery) was the
realization that an inherently stable airplane is difficult to control in that it wants to
keep following its original path. Therefore they designed their planes to be
inherently (Existing as an essential constituent or characteristic) Unstable. The
resulting aircraft were easier to turn but when banked for a turn lift was lost, the
aircraft stalled, and at the altitudes they flew at there was no room to recover. This,
along with spins and the aircraft breaking up in mid air became a leading cause of
death for early flyers.
Rigid Body Dynamics
In physics, rigid body dynamics is the study of the motion of rigid bodies.
Unlike particles, which move only in three degrees of freedom (translation in three
directions), rigid bodies occupy space and have geometrical properties, such as
a center of mass, moments of inertia, etc., that characterize motion in six degrees
of freedom(translation in three directions plus rotation in three directions). Rigid
bodies are also characterized as being non-deformable, as opposed to deformable
bodies. As such, rigid body dynamics is used heavily in analyses and computer
simulations of physical systems and machinery where rotational motion is
important, but material deformation does not have a significant effect on the
motion of the system. A rigid body is an idealization of a solid body of finite size
in which deformation is neglected. In other words, the distance between any two
given points of a rigid body remains constant in time regardless of
external forces exerted on it. Even though such an object cannot physically exist
due to relativity, objects can normally be assumed to be perfectly rigid if they are
not moving near the speed of light.
In classical mechanics a rigid body is usually considered as a continuous mass
distribution, while in quantum mechanics a rigid body is usually thought of as a
collection
of
point
masses.
For
instance,
in
quantum
mechanics molecules (consisting of the point masses: electrons and nuclei) are
often seen as rigid bodies
8

Kinematics
Linear and angular position
The position of a rigid body is the position of all the particles of which it is
composed. To simplify the description of this position, we exploit the property that
the body is rigid, namely that all its particles maintain the same distance relative to
each other. If the body is rigid, it is sufficient to describe the position of at least
three non-collinear particles. This makes it possible to reconstruct the position of
all the other particles, provided that their time-invariant position relative to the
three selected particles is known. However, typically a different, mathematically
more convenient, but equivalent approach is used. The position of the whole body
is represented by:
1.

2.

The linear position or position of the body, namely the position of one of the
particles of the body, specifically chosen as a reference point (typically
coinciding with the center of mass or centroid of the body), together with
The angular position (also known as orientation, or attitude) of the body.

Thus, the position of a rigid body has two components: linear and angular,
respectively. The same is true for other kinematic and kinetic quantities describing
the
motion
of
a
rigid
body,
such
as
linear
and
angular velocity, acceleration, momentum, impulse, and kinetic energy.
For instance, a basis set with fixed orientation relative to an airplane can be defined
as a set of three orthogonal unit vectors b1, b2, b3, such that b1 is parallel to the
chord line of the wing and directed forward, b2 is normal to the plane of symmetry
and directed rightward, and b3 is given by the cross product
.
In general, when a rigid body moves, both its position and orientation vary with
time. In the kinematic sense, these changes are referred to
as translation and rotation, respectively. Indeed, the position of a rigid body can be
viewed as a hypothetic translation and rotation of the body starting from a
hypothetic reference position (not necessarily coinciding with a position actually
taken by the body during its motion).
Linear and angular velocity
9

Velocity (also called linear velocity) and angular velocity are measured with
respect to a frame of reference.
The linear velocity of a rigid body is a vector quantity, equal to the time rate of
change of its linear position. Thus, it is the velocity of a reference point fixed to the
body. During purely translational motion (motion with no rotation) all points on a
rigid body move with the same velocity. However, when motion involves rotation,
the instantaneous velocity of any two points on the body will generally not be the
same. Two points of a rotating body will have the same instantaneous velocity only
if they happen to lay on an axis parallel to the instantaneous axis of rotation.
Angular velocity is a vector quantity that describes the angular speed at which the
orientation of the rigid body is changing and the instantaneous axis about which it
is rotating (the existence of this instantaneous axis is guaranteed by the Euler's
rotation theorem). All points on a rigid body experience the same angular
velocity at all times. During purely rotational motion, all points on the body change
position except for those lying on the instantaneous axis of rotation. The
relationship between orientation and angular velocity is not directly analogous to
the relationship between position and velocity. Angular velocity is not the time rate
of change of orientation, because there is no such concept as an orientation vector
that can be differentiated to obtain the angular velocity.

Two-Dimensional Rigid Body Dynamics


For two-dimensional rigid body dynamics problems, the body experiences motion
in one plane, due to forces acting in that plane.
10

A general rigid body subjected to arbitrary forces in two dimensions is shown


below.

The full set of scalar equations describing the motion of the body are:

Where:
m is the mass of the body
Fx is the sum of the forces in the x-direction
11

Fy is the sum of the forces in the y-direction


aGx is the acceleration of the center of mass G in the x-direction, with respect to
an inertial reference frame xyz, which is the ground in this case
aGy is the acceleration of the center of mass G in the y-direction, with respect to
ground
is the angular acceleration of the rigid body with respect to ground
MG is the sum of the moments about an axis passing through the center of
mass G (in the z-direction, pointing out of the page). This is defined as the sum of
the torque due to the forces acting on the body (about an axis passing through
the center of mass G, and pointing in the z-direction). Using MG is simply a
different naming convention.
IG is the rotational inertia of the rigid body about an axis passing through the center
of mass G, and pointing in the z-direction (out of the page)
Note that, if the rigid body were rotating about a fixed point O, the final moment
equation would retain the same form if we were to choose point O instead of
point G. So, the equation would become:

The figure below illustrates this situation.

12

Where the point O is a fixed point attached to ground. A specific example of this
would be a pendulum swinging about a fixed point.

Three-Dimensional Rigid Body Dynamics


For three-dimensional rigid body dynamics problems, the body experiences motion
in all three dimensions, due to forces acting in all three dimensions. This is the
most general case for a rigid body.
A general rigid body subjected to arbitrary forces in three dimensions is shown
below.

13

The first three of the six scalar equations describing the motion of the body are
force equations. They are:

14

Where:
aGx is the acceleration of the center of mass G in the x-direction, with respect to
ground (an inertial reference frame)
aGy is the acceleration of the center of mass G in the y-direction, with respect to
ground
aGz is the acceleration of the center of mass G in the z-direction, with respect to
ground
Note that the subscripts x,y,z indicate that the quantities are resolved along
the xyz axes. For example, a force acting along the Z-axis is resolved into its
components along the xyz axes in the above three equations. This can generally be
done using trigonometry.
However, it is not necessary to resolve the quantities along the xyz axis. For the
above three force equations, one can resolve the quantities along the XYZ axes
instead.
To solve three-dimensional rigid body dynamics problems it is necessary to
calculate six inertia terms for the rigid body, corresponding to the extra complexity
of the three dimensional system. To do this, it is necessary to define a
local xyz axes which lies within the rigid body and is attached to it (as shown in
the figure above), so that it moves with the body. The six inertia terms are
calculated with respect to xyz and depend on the orientation of xyz relative to the
rigid body. So, a different orientation of xyz (relative to the rigid body) will result
in different inertia terms. The reason that xyz is said to "move with the body" is
because the inertia terms will not change with time as the body moves. So you only
need to calculate the inertia terms once, at the initial position of the rigid body, and
you are done. This has the advantage of keeping the mathematics as simple as
possible. An added benefit of having xyz move with the rigid body is when
simulating the motion of the body, over time. We can track the orientation of the
body by tracking the orientation of xyz (since they move together).

For two-dimensional rigid body dynamics problems there is only one inertia term
15

to consider and it is IG, as given above. For these problems IG can be calculated
with respect to any orientation of the rigid body, and it will always be the same,
since the problem is planar. Therefore, we don't need to define an axes xyz that is
attached to the rigid body, and has a certain orientation relative to it (like we do in
three-dimensional problems). This is because, for planar problems (where motion
is in one plane), IG would be independent of the orientation of xyz (relative to the
rigid body).
For the general case (where we have an arbitrary orientation of xyz within the rigid
body), the last three equations describing the motion of the rigid body are moment
(torque) equations. They are:

Where:
16

MGx is the sum of the moments about the x-axis, passing through the center of
mass G
MGy is the sum of the moments about the y-axis, passing through the center of
mass G
MGz is the sum of the moments about the z-axis, passing through the center of
mass G
wx, wy, wz are the components of the angular velocity of the rigid body with respect
to ground, and resolved along the local xyz axes. To calculate these components,
one must first determine the angular velocity vector of the rigid body with respect
to the global XYZ axes, and then resolve this vector along the x, y, z directions to
find the components wx,wy, wz. This is often done using trigonometry.
x, y, z are the components of the angular acceleration of the rigid body with
respect to ground, and resolved along the local xyz axes. To calculate these
components, one must first determine the angular acceleration vector of the rigid
body with respect to the global XYZ axes, and then resolve this vector along
the x, y, z directions to find the components x, y, z. This is often done using
trigonometry.
IGx is the rotational inertia of the rigid body about the x-axis, passing through the
center of mass G
IGy is the rotational inertia of the rigid body about the y-axis, passing through the
center of mass G
IGz is the rotational inertia of the rigid body about the z-axis, passing through the
center of mass G
IGxy is the product of inertia (xy) of the rigid body, relative to xyz
IGyz is the product of inertia (yz) of the rigid body, relative to xyz
IGzx is the product of inertia (zx) of the rigid body, relative to xyz
The six inertia terms are evaluated as follows, using integration:

17

The orientation of xyz relative to the rigid body can be chosen such that

This orientation is defined as the principal direction of xyz.


18

With this simplification, the moment equations become:

These are known as the Euler equations of motion. Clearly, it is a good idea to
choose the orientation of xyz so that it lies in the principal direction. For every
rigid body a principal direction exists. If a body has two or three planes of
symmetry, the principal directions will be aligned with these planes. For the case
where there are no symmetry planes in the body, the principal direction can still be
found, but it involves solving a rather complicated cubic equation.
Note that, for the three moment equations and six inertia terms, their
quantities must be with respect to the xyz axes (this is unlike the first three force
equations, where this is optional). For the inertia terms, the reason for this is
obvious since this is how they are defined. But for the moment equations, the
reason is rather complicated, but basically it comes down to how they are derived,
which is discussed here.
For example, moment acting about the Y-axis must be resolved into its components
along the xyz axes in order to use the above moment equations. This can generally
be done using trigonometry.
Note that, if the rigid body were rotating about a fixed point O, the above moment
equations and six inertia terms would retain the same form if we were to choose
point O instead of point G. You just replace the subscript G with the subscript O,
and everything else stays the same. Note that the xyz axes would have origin at
point O instead of point G.
The figure below illustrates this situation.
19

Where the point O is a fixed point attached to ground. A specific example of this
would be a spinning top precession around a fixed point.
For two-dimensional rigid body dynamics problems the angular acceleration vector
is always pointing in the same direction as the angular velocity vector. However,
for three-dimensional rigid body dynamics problems these vectors might be
pointing in different directions, as shown below.

These vectors can be expressed as:

20

In two-dimensions, to find the angular acceleration you simply differentiate the


magnitude of the angular velocity, with respect to time. In three-dimensions you
have to account for the change in magnitude and direction of the angular velocity
vector (since both might change with time), so this does complicate matters a bit.
This is done by calculating the difference in the angular velocity vector over a very
small time step t, where t0. To illustrate, see the figure below.

Using calculus, the angular acceleration is calculated as follows (taking the limit
as t0):

Inertia

Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or
rest, or the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. It is
proportional to an object's mass. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental
21

principles of classical physics which are used to describe the motion of matter and
how it is affected by applied forces. Inertia comes from the Latin word, iners,
meaning idle, or lazy. Isaac Newton defined inertia as his first law in
his Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which states
The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which
everybody, as much as in it lies, Endeavour to preserve its present state, whether it
be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.
In common usage the term "inertia" may refer to an object's "amount of resistance
to change in velocity" (which is quantified by its mass), or sometimes to its
momentum, depending on the context. The term "inertia" is more properly
understood as shorthand for "the principle of inertia" as described by Newton in
his First Law of Motion; that an object not subject to any net external force moves
at a constant velocity. Thus an object will continue moving at its
current velocity until some force causes its speed or direction to change.
On the surface of the Earth inertia is often masked by the effects of friction and
gravity, both of which tend to decrease the speed of moving objects (commonly to
the point of rest). This misled classical theorists such as Aristotle, who believed
that objects would move only as long as force was applied to them
INERTIA FORCES
Inertia
o Tendency for an object at rest to remain at rest, or
o

Force
o

Tendency of an object in motion to remain in motion.

The energy required to move or accelerate the object.

Inertia forces
o

Forces that move or accelerate an object

They are proportional to the object's weight.

Seismic forces on buildings are inertia forces and are weight driven.

Stability derivative vs. Control derivative


Stability derivatives and Control derivatives are related because they both are
measures of forces and moments on a vehicle as other parameters change. Often
22

the words are used together and abbreviated in the term "S&C derivatives". They
differ in that stability derivatives measure the effects of changes in flight
conditions while control derivatives measure effects of changes in the control
surface positions:

A stability derivative measures


how
much
change
occurs
in
a force or moment acting on the vehicle when there is a small change in a flight
condition parameter such as angle of attack, airspeed, altitude, etc. (Such
parameters are called "states".)

A control derivative measures how much change occurs in a force or


moment acting on the vehicle when there is a small change in the deflection of a
control surface such as the ailerons, elevator, and rudder.

Names for the axes of vehicles


Air vehicles use a coordinate system of axes to help name important parameters
used in the analysis of stability. All the axes run through the center of
gravity (called the "CG"):
"X" or "x" axis runs from back to front along the body, called the Roll Axis.
"Y" or "y" axis runs left to right along the wing, called the Pitch Axis.
"Z" or "z" runs from top to bottom, called the Yaw Axis.
Two slightly different alignments of these axes are used depending on the situation:
"Body-fixed Axes", and "Stability Axes".
Body-fixed Axes
Body-fixed axes, or "Body Axes", are defined and fixed relative to the body of the
vehicle.
X body axis is aligned along the vehicle body and is usually positive toward the
normal direction of motion.
Y body axis is at a right angle to the x body axis and is oriented along the wings
of the vehicle. If there are no wings (as with a missile), a "horizontal" direction
23

is defined in a way that is useful. The Y body axis is usually taken to be positive
to right side of the vehicle.
Z body axis is perpendicular to wing-body (XY) plane and usually points
downward.
Stability Axes
Aircraft (usually not missiles) operate at a nominally constant "trim" angle of
attack. The angle of the nose (the X Axis) does not align with the direction of the
oncoming air. The difference in these directions is the angle of attack. So, for many
purposes, parameters are defined in terms of a slightly modified axis system called
"stability axes". The stability axis system is used to get the X axis aligned with the
oncoming flow direction. Essentially, the body axis system is rotated about the Y
body axis by the trim angle of attack and then "re-fixed" to the body of the aircraft
X stability axis is aligned into the direction of the oncoming air in steady flight.
(It is projected into the plane made by the X and Z body axes if there
is sideslip).
Y stability axis is the same as the Y body-fixed axis.
Z stability axis is perpendicular to the plane made by the X stability axis and the
Y body axis.
Forces and velocities along each of the axes
Forces on the vehicle along the body axes are called "Body-axis Forces":

X, or FX, is used to indicate forces on the vehicle along the X axis


Y, or FY, is used to indicate forces on the vehicle along the Y axis

Z, or FZ, is used to indicate forces on the vehicle along the Z axis

u (lower case) is used for speed of the oncoming flow along the X body axis

v (lower case) is used for speed of the oncoming flow along the Y body axis

w (lower case) is used for speed of the oncoming flow along the Z body axis

24

It is helpful to think of these speeds as projections of the relative wind vector


on to the three body axes, rather than in terms of the translational motion of
the vehicle relative to the fluid. As the body rotates relative to direction of
the relative wind, these components change, even when there is no net
change in speed.
Moments and angular rates around each of the axes

L is used to indicate the "rolling moment", which is around the X axis.


Whether it is around the X body axis or the X stability axis depends on
context (such as a subscript).
M is used to indicate the name of the "pitching moment", which is around
the Y axis.

N is used to indicate the name of the "yawing moment", which is around the
Z axis. Whether it is around the Z body axis or the Z stability axis depends
on context (such as a subscript).

"P" or "p" is used for angular rate about the X axis ("Roll rate about the roll
axis"). Whether it is around the X body axis or the X stability axis depends
on context (such as a subscript).

"Q" or "q" is used for angular rate about the Y axis ("Pitch rate about the
pitch axis").

"R" or "r" is used for angular rate about the Z axis ("Yaw rate about the yaw
axis"). Whether it is around the Z body axis or the Z stability axis depends
on context (such as a subscript).
Equations of Motion

The use of stability derivatives is most conveniently demonstrated with missile or


rocket configurations, because these exhibit greater symmetry than aero planes,
and the equations of motion are correspondingly simpler. If it is assumed that the
vehicle is roll-controlled, the pitch and yaw motions may be treated in isolation. It
is common practice to consider the yaw plane, so that only 2D motion need be
considered. Furthermore, it is assumed that thrust equals drag, and the longitudinal
equation of motion may be ignored.
25

.
The body is oriented at angle (psi) with respect to inertial axes. The body is
oriented at an angle (beta) with respect to the velocity vector, so that the
components of velocity in body axes are:
u = Ucos
v = Usin
where U is the speed.
The aerodynamic forces are generated with respect to body axes, which is not
an inertial frame. In order to calculate the motion, the forces must be referred to
inertial axes. This requires the body components of velocity to be resolved
through the heading angle () into inertial axes.
Resolving into fixed (inertial) axes:
uf = Ucos()cos() Usin()sin() = Ucos( + )
vf = Usin()cos() + Ucos()sin() = Usin( + )
The acceleration with respect to inertial axes is found by differentiating
these components of velocity with respect to time:

26

From Newton's Second Law, this is equal to the force acting divided by the mass.
Now forces arise from the pressure distribution over the body, and hence are
generated in body axes, and not in inertial axes, so the body forces must be
resolved to inertial axes, as Newton's Second Law does not apply in its simplest
form to an accelerating frame of reference.
Resolving the body forces:
Xf = Xcos() Ysin()
Yf = Ycos() + Xsin()
Newton's Second Law, assuming constant mass:

Where m is the mass, Equating the inertial values of acceleration and force, and
resolving back into body axes, yields the equations of motion:

The sideslip, , is a small quantity, so the small perturbation equations of motion


become:

The first resembles the usual expression of Newton's Second Law, whilst the
second is essentially the centrifugal acceleration. The equation of motion
governing the rotation of the body is derived from the time derivative of angular
momentum:

Where C is the moment of inertia about the yaw axis, assuming constant speed,
there are only two state variables; and , which will be written more compactly
as the yaw rate r. There is one force and one moment, which for a given flight
condition will each be functions of , r and their time derivatives. For typical
27

missile configurations the forces and moments depend, in the short term, on and
r. The forces may be expressed in the form:

Where Y0 is the force corresponding to the equilibrium condition (usually called


the trim) whose stability is being investigated. It is common practice to employ
shorthand:

The partial derivative


and all similar terms characterizing the increments in
forces and moments due to increments in the state variables are called stability
derivatives. Typically,
is insignificant for missile configurations, so the
equations of motion reduce to:

Compressibility
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility is a measure of the
relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or
mean stress) change.

.
28

Where V is volume and p is pressure


Note: most textbooks use the notation for this quantity
The above statement is incomplete, because for any object or system the
magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process
is adiabatic or isothermal. Accordingly isothermal compressibility is defined:

Where the subscript T indicates that the partial differential is to be taken at


constant temperature
Adiabatic compressibility is defined:

Where S is entropy, for a solid, the distinction between the two is usually
negligible.
The inverse of the compressibility is called the bulk modulus, often
denoted K (sometimes B). That page also contains some examples for different
materials.
The compressibility equation relates the isothermal compressibility (and indirectly
the pressure) to the structure of the liquid.
In the present study, a computational investigation was carried out to understand
the influence of flexibility on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering wing. A
flexible, two-dimensional, two-link model moving within a viscous fluid was
considered. The NavierStokes equations governing the fluid dynamics were
solved together with the equations governing the structural dynamics by using a
strongly coupled fluidstructure interaction scheme. Harmonic kinematics was
used to prescribe the motions of one of the links, thus effectively reducing the wing
to a single degree-of-freedom oscillator. The wing's flexibility was characterized
by the ratio of the flapping frequency to the natural frequency of the structure.
Apart from the rigid case, different values of this frequency ratio (only in the range
of 1/2 to 1/6) were considered at the Reynolds numbers of 75, 250 and 1000. It was
found that flexibility can enhance aerodynamic performance and that the best
29

performance is realized when the wing is excited by a non-linear resonance at 1/3


of the natural frequency. Specifically, at Reynolds numbers of 75, 250 and 1000,
the aerodynamic performance that is characterized by the ratio of lift coefficient to
drag coefficient is respectively increased by 28%, 23% and 21% when compared
with the corresponding ratios of a rigid wing driven with the same kinematics. For
all Reynolds numbers, the lift generated per unit driving power is also enhanced in
a similar manner. The wake capture mechanism is enhanced, due to a stronger flow
around the wing at stroke reversal, resulting from a stronger end of stroke vortex at
the trailing edge. The present study provides some clues about how flexibility
affects the aerodynamic performance in low Reynolds number flapping flight. In
addition, it points to the importance of considering non-linear resonances for
enhancing aerodynamic performance.

UNIT-II
Stick Fixed: Basic equilibrium equation
30

Stability criterion
Contribution of wing and tail and elevator to pitching moments
Effect of fuselage and nacelles
Effects of center of gravity location
Power effects
Stabilizer setting and center of gravity location
Elevator power
Elevator to trim
Trim gradients.
Control fixed static stability
Control fixed neutral point.
Stability margins.
Effects of releasing the elevator.
Hinge moment coefficients
Control forces to trim.
Control free neutral point
Trim tabs.
Aerodynamic balancing of control surfaces. Means of augmentation of control

Static stability
As any vehicle moves it will be subjected to minor changes in the forces that act on
it, and in its speed.
31

If such a change causes further changes that tend to restore the vehicle to its
original speed and orientation, without human or machine input, the vehicle is
said to be statically stable. The aircraft has positive stability.
If such a change causes further changes that tend to drive the vehicle away
from its original speed and orientation, the vehicle is said to be statically
unstable. The aircraft has negative stability.
If such a change causes no tendency for the vehicle to be restored to its
original speed and orientation, and no tendency for the vehicle to be driven
away from its original speed and orientation, the vehicle is said to be neutrally
stable. The aircraft has zero stability.

For a vehicle to possess positive static stability it is not necessary for its speed and
orientation to return to exactly the speed and orientation that existed before the
minor change that caused the upset. It is sufficient that the speed and orientation do
not continue to diverge but undergo at least a small change back towards the
original speed and orientation
Longitudinal stability
The longitudinal stability of an aircraft refers to the aircraft's stability in the
pitching plane - the plane which describes the position of the aircraft's nose in
relation to its tail and the horizon. (Other stability modes are directional
stability and lateral stability.
If an aircraft is longitudinally stable, a small increase in angle of attack will cause
the pitching moment on the aircraft to change so that the angle of attack decreases.
Similarly, a small decrease in angle of attack will cause the pitching moment to
change so that the angle of attack increases.
The pilot's task
The pilot of an aircraft with positive longitudinal stability, whether it is a human
pilot or an autopilot, has an easy task to fly the aircraft and maintain the desired
pitch attitude which, in turn, makes it easy to control the speed, angle of attack
and fuselage angle relative to the horizon. The pilot of an aircraft with negative
longitudinal stability has a more difficult task to fly the aircraft. It will be
necessary for the pilot devote more effort, make more frequent inputs to the
elevator control, and make larger inputs, in an attempt to maintain the desired pitch
attitude.
Most successful aircraft have positive longitudinal stability, providing the
aircraft's center of gravity lies within the approved range. Some acrobatic and
32

combat aircraft have low-positive or neutral stability to provide high


maneuverability. Some advanced aircraft have a form of low-negative stability
called relaxed stability to provide extra-high maneuverability.
Center of gravity
The longitudinal static stability of an aircraft is significantly influenced by the
position of the center of gravity of the aircraft. As the center of gravity moves
forward the moment arm between the horizontal stabilizer increases and the
longitudinal static stability of the aircraft also increases. As the center of gravity
moves aft, the longitudinal static stability of the aircraft decreases.
The limitations specified for an aircraft type and model include limitations on the
most forward position, and the most aft position, permitted for the center of
gravity. No attempt should be made to fly an aircraft if its center of gravity is
outside the approved range, or will move outside the approved range during the
flight.
Analysis
Near the cruise condition most of the lift force is generated by the wings, with
ideally only a small amount generated by the fuselage and tail. We may analyze the
longitudinal static stability by considering the aircraft in equilibrium under wing
lift, tail force, and weight. The moment equilibrium condition is called trim, and
we are generally interested in the longitudinal stability of the aircraft about this
trim condition.

33

Equating forces in the vertical direction:


W = Lw + Lt
where W is the weight, Lw is the wing lift and Lt is the tail force.
For a symmetrical airfoil at low angle of attack, the wing lift is proportional to
the angle of attack:

where Sw is the wing area CL is the (wing) lift coefficient, is the angle of
attack. The term 0 is included to account for camber, which results in lift at
zero angle of attack. Finally q is the dynamic pressure:

Where is the air density and v is the speed.


Trim
The tail plane is usually a symmetrical airfoil, so its force is proportional
to angle of attack, but in general, there will also be an elevator deflection
to maintain moment equilibrium (trim). In addition, the tail is located in
the flow field of the main wing, and consequently experiences
a downwash, reducing the angle of attack at the tail plane.
For a statically stable aircraft of conventional (tail in rear) configuration,
the tail plane force typically acts downward. In canard aircraft, both fore
and aft planes are lifting surfaces. The fundamental requirement for
static stability is that the coefficient of lift of the fore surface be greater
than that of the aft surface; but even this general statement obviously
does not apply to tailless aircraft. Violations of this basic principle are
exploited in some high performance combat aircraft to enhance agility;
artificial stability is supplied by electronic means.
The tail force is, therefore:

Where is the tail area, is the tail force coefficient,


elevator deflection, and is the downwash angle.

is the

Note that for a rear-tail configuration, the aerodynamic loading of the


horizontal stabilizer (in
) is less than that of the main wing,
34

so the main wing should stall before the tail, ensuring that the stall is
followed immediately by a reduction in angle of attack on the main
wing, promoting recovery from the stall. (In contrast, in
a canard configuration, the loading of the horizontal stabilizer is
greater than that of the main wing, so that the horizontal stabilizer
stalls before the main wing, again promoting recovery from the stall.)
There are a few classical cases where this favorable response was not
achieved, notably some early T-tail jet aircraft. In the event of a very
high angle of attack, the horizontal stabilizer became immersed in the
downwash from the fuselage, causing excessive download on the
stabilizer, increasing the angle of attack still further. The only way an
aircraft could recover from this situation was by jettisoning tail
ballast or deploying a special tail parachute. The phenomenon
became known as 'deep stall'.
Taking moments about the center of gravity, the net nose-up moment
is:
where is the location of the center of gravity behind
the aerodynamic center of the main wing, is the tail moment
arm. For trim, this moment must be zero. For a given maximum
elevator deflection, there is a corresponding limit on center of
gravity position at which the aircraft can be kept in equilibrium.
When limited by control deflection this is known as a 'trim limit'.
In principle trim limits could determine the permissible forwards
and rearwards shift of the centre of gravity, but usually it is only
the forward cg limit which is determined by the available control,
the aft limit is usually dictated by stability.
In a missile context 'trim limit' more usually refers to the
maximum angle of attack, and hence lateral acceleration which
can be generated.
Static stability
The nature of stability may be examined by considering the
increment in pitching moment with change in angle of attack at
the trim condition. If this is nose up, the aircraft is longitudinally
unstable; if nose down it is stable. Differentiating the moment
equation with respect to :
35

Note:

is a stability derivative.

It is convenient to treat total lift as acting at a distance h ahead


of the centre of gravity, so that the moment equation may be
written:
Applying the increment in angle of attack:

Equating the two expressions for moment increment:

The total lift L is the sum of Lw and Lt so the sum in the denominator can be
simplified and written as the derivative of the total lift due to angle of attack,
yielding:

Where c is the mean aerodynamic chord of the main wing. The term:

is known as the tail volume ratio. Its rather complicated coefficient, the ratio of
the two lift derivatives, has values in the range of 0.50 to 0.65 for typical
configurations, according to Piercy. Hence the expression for h may be written
more compactly, though somewhat approximately, as:
h is known as the static margin. For stability it must be negative. (However, for
consistency of language, the static margin is sometimes taken as h, so that
positive stability is associated with positive static margin.)
Neutral point
36

A mathematical analysis of the longitudinal static stability of a complete aircraft


(including horizontal stabilizer) yields the position of center of gravity at which
stability is neutral. This position is called the neutral point. (The larger the area of
the horizontal stabilizer, and the greater the moment arm of the horizontal stabilizer
about the aerodynamic center, the further aft is the neutral point.)
The static center of gravity margin (c.g. margin) or static margin is the distance
between the center of gravity (or mass) and the neutral point. It is usually quoted as
a percentage of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord. The center of gravity must lie ahead
of the neutral point for positive stability (positive static margin). If the center of
gravity is behind the neutral point, the aircraft is longitudinally unstable (the static
margin is negative), and active inputs to the control surfaces are required to
maintain stable flight. Some combat aircraft that are controlled by fly-bywire systems are designed to be longitudinally unstable so they will be highly
maneuverable. Ultimately, the position of the center of gravity relative to the
neutral point determines the stability, control forces, and controllability of the
vehicle.
For a tailless aircraft Vt = 0, the neutral point coincides with the aerodynamic
center, and so for longitudinal static stability the center of gravity must lie ahead of
the aerodynamic center.

Dihedral (aircraft)
Dihedral angle is the upward angle from horizontal of the wings or tailplane of
a fixed-wing aircraft. Anhedral angle is the name given to negative dihedral angle,
that is, when there is a downward angle from horizontal of the wings or tailplane of
a fixed-wing aircraft.

37

Schematic of dihedral and anhedral angle of an aircraft wing


Dihedral angle (or anhedral angle) has a strong influence on dihedral effect, which
is named after it. Dihedral effect is the amount of roll moment produced per degree
(or radian) of sideslip. Dihedral effect is a critical factor in the stability of an
aircraft about the roll axis (the spiral mode). It is also pertinent to the nature of an
aircraft's Dutch roll oscillation and to maneuverability about the roll axis.

Measuring the dihedral angle


Longitudinal dihedral is a comparatively obscure term related to the pitch
(flight) axis of an airplane. It is the angle between the zero lift axis of the wing and
horizontal tail. Longitudinal dihedral can influence the nature of controllability
about the pitch axis and the nature of an aircraft's phugoid-mode oscillation.
38

When the term "dihedral" (of an aircraft) is used by itself it is usually intended to
mean "dihedral angle". However, context may otherwise indicate that
"dihedral effect" is the intended meaning.
Dihedral angle and dihedral effect
Dihedral angle is the upward angle from horizontal of the wings of a fixed-wing
aircraft, or of any paired nominally-horizontal surfaces on any aircraft. The term
can also apply to the wings of a bird. Dihedral angle is also used in some types of
kites such as box kites. Wings with more than one angle change along the full span
are said to be polyhedral.
Dihedral angle has important stabilizing effects on flying bodies because it has a
strong influence on the dihedral effect.
Dihedral effect of an aircraft is a rolling moment resulting from the vehicle having
a non-zero angle of sideslip. Increasing the dihedral angle of an aircraft increases
the dihedral effect on it. However, many other aircraft parameters also have a
strong influence on dihedral effect. Some of these important factors are: wing
sweep, vertical center of gravity, and the height and size of anything on an aircraft
that changes its side wards force as sideslip changes.

Longitudinal dihedral
Dihedral angle on an aircraft almost always implies the angle between
two paired surfaces, one on each side of the aircraft. Even then, it is almost always
between the left and right wings. However, dihedral in math means the angle
between any two planes. So, in aeronautics, in one case, the term "dihedral" is
applied to mean the difference in angles between two front-to-back surfaces:
Longitudinal dihedral is the difference between the angle of incidence of the wing
and angle of incidence of the horizontal tail.
Longitudinal dihedral can also mean the angle between the zero lift axes of the two
surfaces instead of between the root chords of the two surfaces. This is the more
meaningful usage because the directions of zero-lift are pertinent to longitudinal
trim and stability while the directions of the root chords are not.

39

Uses of dihedral angle and dihedral effect


Aircraft stability analysis
In analysis of aircraft stability, dihedral effect is also a stability
derivative called Cl, meaning the change in rolling moment coefficient (the "Cl")
per degree (or radian) of change in sideslip (the "").
Provision of stability
The purpose of dihedral effect is to contribute to stability in the roll axis. It is an
important factor in the stability of the spiral mode which is sometimes called "roll
stability". It is important to note that dihedral effect does not contribute directly to
the restoring of "wings level", but that its action is indirect. It indirectly helps
restore "wings level" through its effect on the spiral mode (as described below).
Wing clearance
Aircraft designers may increase dihedral angle to provide increased clearance
between wing tips and the runway. The increased dihedral effect caused by this
may need to be compensated for by one or more other means, such as decreasing
the dihedral angle on the horizontal tail.
Using dihedral angle to adjust dihedral effect
During the design of a fixed-wing aircraft (or any aircraft with horizontal surfaces),
changing dihedral angle is usually a relatively simple way to adjust the overall
dihedral effect. This is to compensate for other design elements' influence on the
dihedral effect. These other elements (such as wing sweep, vertical mount point of
the wing, etc.) may be more difficult to change than the dihedral angle. As a result,
differing amounts of dihedral angle can be found on different types of fixed-wing
aircraft. For example, the dihedral angle is usually greater on low-wing aircraft
than on otherwise-similar high-wing aircraft. This is because "highness" of a wing
(or "lowness" of vertical center of gravity compared to the wing) naturally
creates more dihedral effect itself. This makes it so less dihedral angle is needed to
get the amount of dihedral effect nee
How dihedral angle creates dihedral effect and stabilizes the spiral mode
40

The following discusses how dihedral angle creates dihedral effect and how
dihedral effect contributes to stability of the spiral mode. A stable spiral mode will
cause the aircraft to eventually return to a nominally "wings level" bank angle
when the angle of the wings is disturbed to become off-level.

Uncompensated lift component produces a side force Fy, which causes the aircraft
to sideslip.

If a disturbance causes an aircraft to roll away from its normal wings-level position
as in Figure 1, the aircraft will begin to move somewhat sideways toward the lower
wing. In Figure 2, the airplane's flight path has started to move toward its left while
the nose of the airplane is still pointing in the original direction. This means that
the oncoming air is arriving somewhat from the left of the nose. Because of this,
41

the airplane now has sideslip angle in addition to the bank angle. Figure 2 shows
the airplane as it presents itself to the oncoming air.
How dihedral angle creates rolling moment from sideslip (dihedral effect)
In Figure 2, the sideslip conditions (not the roll angle which is also shown) make
the dihedral angle geometrically produce greater angle of attack on the forwardyawed wing and smaller angle of attack on the rearward-yawed wing. This
alteration of angle of attack by sideslip is visible to the eye in Figure 2. Since
greater angle of attack makes greater lift, the forward wing will have more lift and
the rearward wing will have less lift. This difference in lift between the wings is a
rolling moment, and since it is caused by sideslip, it is dihedral effect (or more
correctly, it is a contribution to the total dihedral effect of the aircraft).

How dihedral effect stabilizes the spiral mode


The rolling moment created by the sideslip (labeled as "P") tends to roll the aircraft
back to wings level. More dihedral effect tries to roll the wings in the "leveling"
direction more strongly, and less dihedral effect tries to roll the wings in the
"leveling" direction less strongly. Dihedral effect helps stabilize the spiral mode
by tending to roll the wings toward level in proportion to the amount of sideslip
that builds up. It's not the whole picture however. At the same time that angle of
sideslip is building up, the vertical fin is trying to turn the nose back into the wind,
much like a weathervane, minimizing the amount of sideslip that can be present. If
there is no sideslip, there can be no restoring rolling moment. If there is less
sideslip, there is less restoring rolling moment. So, yaw stability created by the
vertical fin fights the tendency for dihedral effect to roll the wings back level
by not letting as much sideslip build up.
The spiral mode is the tendency to slowly diverge from, or the tendency to slowly
return to wings level. If the spiral mode is stable, the aircraft will slowly return to
wings-level, if it is unstable, the aircraft will slowly diverge from wings-level.
Dihedral effect and yaw stability are the two primary factors that affect the stability
of the spiral mode, although there are other factors that affect it less strongly.

Other dihedral-related terminology

42

Anhedral
Military fighter aircraft often have near zero or even negative dihedral angle. This
reduces dihedral effect, reducing the stability of the spiral mode. A too-stable spiral
mode decreases maneuverability and is undesirable for fighter-type aircraft.
Anhedral angles are also seen on aircraft with a high mounted wing, such as
the An-124 and Lockheed Galaxy. In such designs, the high mounted wing is
above the center of gravity which confers extra dihedral effect due to
the pendulum effect also called the keel effect, so additional dihedral angle is often
not required. In fact, such designs can have excessive dihedral effect and so be
excessively stable in the spiral mode, so the anhedral angle is added to cancel out
some of the dihedral effect to ensure that the aircraft can be easily maneuvered.
Polyhedral
Most aircraft have been designed with planar wings with simple dihedral (or
anhedral). Some older aircraft such as the Vought F4U Corsair and the Beriev Be12 were designed with gull wings bent near the root. Modern polyhedral wing
designs generally cant upwards near the wingtips, increasing dihedral effect
without increasing the angle the wings meet at the root, which may be difficult to
alter for some other reason.
Polyhedral is seen on gliders and some other aircraft. The McDonnell Douglas F-4
Phantom II is one such example, unique among jet fighters for having dihedral
wingtips. This was added after prototype flight testing (the original prototype of
the F-4 had a flat wing) showed the need to correct some unanticipated spiral mode
instability - angling the wingtips, which were already designed to fold up for
carrier operations, was a more practical solution than re-engineering the entire
wing.
Elevator (aircraft)
Elevators are flight control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control
the aircraft's orientation by changing the pitch of the aircraft, and so also the angle
of attack of the wing. In simplified terms, they make the aircraft nose-up or nosedown.[1] (Ascending and descending are more a function of the wingaircraft
typically land nose up.) An increased wing angle of attack will cause a
greater lift to be produced by the profile of the wing, and a slowing of the aircraft
speed. A decrease in angle of attack will produce an increase in speed. The
elevators may be the only pitch control surface present (and are then called a slab
elevator or stabilator), or may be hinged to a fixed or adjustable surface called
a tail plane or horizontal stabilizer.
43

The rear wing to which elevators are attached have the opposite effect to a wing.
They
usually
create
a downward pressure
which
counters
the
unbalanced moment due to the airplane's center of gravity not being located
exactly on the resulting centre of pressure, which in addition to the lift generated
by the main wing includes the effects of drag and engine thrust. An elevator
decreases or increases the downward force created by the rear wing. An increased
downward force, produced by up elevator, forces the tail down and the nose up so
the aircraft speed is reduced (i.e. the wing will operate at a higher angle of attack,
which produces a greater lift coefficient, so that the required lift is produced by a
lower speed). A decreased downward force at the tail, produced by down elevator,
allows the tail to rise and the nose to lower. The resulting lower wing angle of
attack provides a lower lift coefficient, so the craft must move faster (either by
adding power or going into a descent) to produce the required lift. The setting of
the elevator thus determines the airplane's trim speed - a given elevator position
has only one speed at which the aircraft will maintain a constant (unaccelerated)
condition.
In some aircraft pitch-control surfaces are in the front, ahead of the wing; this type
of configuration is called a canard, the French word for duck. The Wright Brothers'
early aircraft were of this type. The canard type is more efficient, since the forward
surface usually is required to produce upward lift (instead of downward force as
with the usual empennage) to balance the net pitching moment. The main wing is
also less likely tostall, as the forward control surface is configured to stall before
the wing, causing a pitch down and reducing the angle of attack of the wing.
Supersonic aircraft have stabilators, because early supersonic flight research
revealed that shock waves generated on the trailing edge of tailplanes rendered
hinged elevators ineffective. Delta winged aircraft combineailerons and elevators,
and their respective control inputs, into one control surface, called an elevon.

Aircraft rudders
On an aircraft, the rudder is a directional control surface along with the rudderlike elevator (usually attached to horizontal tail structure, if not a slab elevator )
and ailerons(attached to the wings) that control pitch and roll. The rudder is usually
attached to the fin (or vertical stabilizer) which allows the pilot to control yaw in
the vertical axis, i.e. change the horizontal direction in which the nose is pointing.
The rudder's direction in aircraft since the "Golden Age" of flight between the two
44

World Wars into the 21st century has been manipulated with the movement of a
pair of foot pedals by the pilot, while during the pre-1919 era rudder control was
most often operated with by a center-pivoted, solid "rudder bar" which usually had
pedal and/or stirrup-like hardware on its ends to allow the pilot's feet to stay close
to the ends of the bar's rear surface.
In practice, both aileron and rudder control input are used together to turn an
aircraft, the ailerons imparting roll, the rudder imparting yaw, and also
compensating for a phenomenon called adverse yaw. Adverse yaw is readily seen
if the most simple type of ailerons alone are used for a turn. The downward moving
aileron acts like a flap, generating more lift for one wing, and therefore more drag
(though since the 1930s, many aircraft have used Frise ailerons or differential
ailerons, which compensate for the adverse yaw and require little or no rudder
input in regular turns). Initially, this drag yaws the aircraft in the direction opposite
to the desired course. A rudder alone will turn a conventional fixed wing aircraft,
but much more slowly than if ailerons are also used in conjunction. Use of rudder
and ailerons together produces co-ordinate turns, in which the longitudinal axis of
the aircraft is in line with the arc of the turn, neither slipping (under-ruddered), nor
skidding (over-ruddered). Improperly ruddered turns at low speed can precipitate
a spin which can be dangerous at low altitudes.
Sometimes pilots may intentionally operate the rudder and ailerons in opposite
directions in a maneuver called a forward slip. This may be done to overcome
crosswinds and keep the fuselage in line with the runway, or to more rapidly lose
altitude by increasing drag, or both. The pilots of Any aircraft rudder is subject to
considerable forces that determine its position via a force or torque balance
equation. In extreme cases these forces can lead to loss of rudder control or even
destruction of the rudder. (The same principles also apply to water vessels, of
course, but it is more important for aircraft because they have lower engineering
margins.) The largest achievable angle of a rudder in flight is called its blow down
limit; it is achieved when the force from the air or blow down equals the maximum
available hydraulic pressure.
Trim tab
Trim tabs are small surfaces connected to the trailing edge of a larger control
surface, such as a rudder, on a boat or aircraft, used to control the trim of the
controls, i.e. to counteract hydro- or aero-dynamic forces and stabilize the boat or
aircraft in a particular desired attitude without the need for the operator to
constantly apply a control force. This is done by adjusting the angle of the tab
relative to the larger surface.
45

Changing the setting of a trim tab adjusts the neutral or resting position of a control
surface (such as an elevator or rudder). As the desired position of a control surface
changes (corresponding mainly to different speeds), an adjustable trim tab will
allow the operator to reduce the manual force required to maintain that position
to zero, if used correctly. Thus the trim tab acts as a servo tab. Because the center
of pressure of the trim tab is further away from the axis of rotation of the control
surface than the center of pressure of the control surface, the movement generated
by the tab can match the movement generated by the control surface. The position
of the control surface on its axis will change until the movements from the control
surface and the trim surface balance each other.
Pitching moment

A graph showing coefficient of pitching moment with respect to attack, the


negative slope for positive indicates stability in pitching

In aerodynamics, the pitching moment on an airfoil is the moment (or torque)


produced by the aerodynamic force on the airfoil if that aerodynamic force is
considered to be applied, not at the center of pressure, but at the aerodynamic
center of the airfoil. The pitching moment on the wing of an airplane is part of the
total moment that must be balanced using the lift on the horizontal stabilizer.
The lift on an airfoil is a distributed force that can be said to act at a point called
the center of pressure. However, as angle of attack changes on a cambered airfoil,
there is movement of the center of pressure forward and aft. This makes analysis
difficult when attempting to use the concept of the center of pressure. One of the
remarkable properties of a cambered airfoil is that, even though the center of
pressure moves forward and aft, if the lift is imagined to act at a point called
46

the aerodynamic center the moment of the lift force changes in proportion to the
square of the airspeed. If the moment is divided by the dynamic pressure, the area
and chord of the airfoil, to compute a pitching moment coefficient, this coefficient
changes only a little over the operating range of angle of attack of the airfoil. The
combination of the two concepts of aerodynamic center and pitching moment
coefficient make it relatively simple to analyze some of the flight characteristics of
an aircraft.
Measurement
The aerodynamic center of an airfoil is usually close to 25% of the chord behind
the leading edge of the airfoil. When making tests on a model airfoil, such as in a
wind-tunnel, if the force sensor is not aligned with the quarter-chord of the airfoil,
but offset by a distance x, the pitching moment about the quarter-chord point, Mc /
4 is given by
where the indicated values of D and L are the drag and lift on the model, as
measured by the force sensor..
Coefficient
The pitching moment coefficient is important in the study of the longitudinal
static stability of aircraft and missiles.
The pitching moment coefficient Cm is defined as follows

where M is the pitching moment, q is the dynamic pressure, S is the planform area,
and c is the length of the chord of the airfoil. Cm is a dimensionless coefficient so
consistent units must be used for M, q, S and c.
Pitching moment coefficient is fundamental to the definition of aerodynamic
center of an airfoil. The aerodynamic center is defined to be the point on the chord
line of the airfoil at which the pitching moment coefficient does not vary with
angle of attack, or at least does not vary significantly over the operating range of
angle of attack of the airfoil.
47

In the case of a symmetric airfoil, the lift force acts through one point for all angles
of attack, and the center of pressure does not move as it does in a cambered airfoil.
Consequently the pitching moment coefficient for a symmetric airfoil is zero.
Pitching moment is, by convention, considered to be positive when it acts to pitch
the airfoil in the nose-up direction. Conventional cambered airfoils supported at the
aerodynamic center pitch nose-down so the pitching moment coefficient of these
airfoils is negative.

An airplane in flight can be maneuvered by the pilot using the aerodynamic


control surfaces; the elevator, rudder, or ailerons. As the control surfaces change
the amount of force that each surface generates, the aircraft rotates about a point
called the center of gravity. The center of gravity is the average location of
the weight of the aircraft. The weight is actually distributed throughout the
airplane, and for some problems it is important to know the distribution. But for
48

total aircraft maneuvering, we need to be concerned with only the total weight and
the location of the center of gravity.
How do engineers determine the location of the center of gravity for an airplane
which they are designing?
An airplane is a combination of many parts; the wings, engines, fuselage, and tail,
plus the payload and the fuel. Each part has a weight associated with it which the
engineer can estimate, or calculate, using Newton's weight equation:
w=m*g
where w is the weight, m is the mass, and g is the gravitational constant which is
32.2 ft/square sec in English units and 9.8 meters/square sec in metric units. To
determine the center of gravity cg, we choose a reference location, or reference
line. The cg is determined relative to this reference location. The total weight of the
aircraft is simply the sum of all the individual weights of the components. Since
the center of gravity is an average location of the weight, we can say that the
weight of the entire aircraft W times the location cg of the center of gravity is
equal to the sum of the weight w of each component times the distance d of that
component from the reference location:
Center of gravity of an aircraft
The center-of-gravity (CG) is the point at which an aircraft would balance if it
were possible to suspend it at that point. It is the mass center of the aircraft, or the
theoretical point at which the entire weight of the aircraft is assumed to be
concentrated.[1] Its distance from the reference datum is determined by dividing the
total moment by the total weight of the aircraft. [2] The center-of-gravity point
affects the stability of the aircraft. To ensure the aircraft is safe to fly, the center-ofgravity must fall within specified limits established by the manufacturer.
Terminology
Ballast
Ballast is removable or permanently installed weight in an aircraft used to bring the
center of gravity into the allowable range.
Center-of-gravity limits
49

CG limits are specified longitudinal (forward and aft) and/or lateral (left and right)
limits within which the aircraft's center of gravity must be located during flight.
The CG limits are indicated in the airplane flight manual. The area between the
limits is called the CG range of the aircraft.
Weight and balance
When the weight of the aircraft is at or below the allowable limit(s) for its
configuration (parked, ground movement, take-off, landing, etc.) and its center of
gravity is within the allowable range, and both will remain so for the duration of
the flight, the aircraft is said to be within weight and balance. Different maximum
weights may be defined for different situations; for example, large aircraft may
have maximum landing weights that are lower than maximum take-off weights
(because some weight is expected to be lost as fuel is burned during the flight). The
center-of-gravity may change over the duration of the flight as the aircraft's weight
changes due to fuel burn.
Reference datum
The reference datum is a reference plane that allows accurate, and uniform,
measurements to any point on the aircraft. The location of the reference datum is
established by the manufacturer and is defined in the aircraft flight manual. The
horizontal reference datum is an imaginary vertical plane or point, arbitrarily fixed
somewhere along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, from which all horizontal
distances are measured for weight and balance purposes. There is no fixed rule for
its location, and it may be located forward of the nose of the aircraft. For
helicopters, it may be located at the rotor mast, the nose of the helicopter, or even
at a point in space ahead of the helicopter. While the horizontal reference datum
can be anywhere the manufacturer chooses, most small training helicopters have
the horizontal reference datum 100 inches forward of the main rotor shaft
centerline. This is to keep all the computed values positive. The lateral reference
datum, is usually located at the center of the helicopter.[3]
Arm
The arm is the chord wise (fore-and-aft) distance from the datum to any point
within the aircraft.
Moment
The moment is a measure of force that results from an objects weight acting
through an arc that is centered on the zero point of the reference datum distance.
Moment is also referred to as the tendency of an object to rotate or pivot about a
50

point (the zero point of the datum, in this case). The further an object is from this
point, the greater the force it exerts. Moment is calculated by multiplying the
weight of an object by its arm.
Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC)
A specific chord line of a tapered wing, At the mean aerodynamic chord, the center
of pressure has the same aerodynamic force, position, and area as it does on the
rest of the wing. The MAC represents the width of an equivalent rectangular wing
in given conditions. On some aircraft, the center of gravity is expressed as a
percentage of the length of the MAC. In order to make such a calculation, the
position of the leading edge of the MAC must be known ahead of time. This
position is defined as a distance from the reference datum and is found in the
aircraft's flight manual and also on the aircraft's type certificate data sheet. If a
general MAC is not given but a LeMAC (leading edge mean aerodynamic chord)
and a TeMAC (trailing edge mean aerodynamic chord)are given (both of which
would be referenced as an arm measured out from the datum line) then your MAC
can be found by finding the difference between your LeMAC and your TeMAC.
Calculation
Center of gravity is calculated as follows:

Determine the weights and arms of all mass within the aircraft.
Multiply weights by arms for all mass to calculate moments.

Add the moments of all mass together.

Divide the total moment by the total weight of the aircraft to give an overall
arm.

The arm that results from this calculation must be within the arm limits for
the center of gravity that are dictated by the manufacturer. If it is not, weight
in the aircraft must be removed, added (rarely), or redistributed until the
center of gravity falls within the prescribed limits.
For the sake of simplicity, center of gravity calculations are usually
performed along only a single line from the zero point of the reference
datum, usually the line that represents the roll axis of the aircraft (to
51

calculate fore-aft balance). In complex situations, more than one line may be
separately calculated, e.g., one calculation for fore-aft balance and one
calculation for left-right balance.
Weight is calculated simply by adding up all weight in the aircraft. This
weight must be within the allowable weight limits for the aircraft.
The weight and moment of fixed portions of the aircraft (engines, wings,
etc.) does not change and is provided by the manufacturer. The manufacturer
also provides information facilitating the calculation of moments for fuel
loads. Other removable weight must be properly accounted for in the
calculation by the operator.
In larger aircraft, weight and balance is often expressed as a percentage of
mean aerodynamic chord, or MAC. For example, assume that by using the
calculation method above, the center of gravity (CG) was found to be
76 inches aft of the aircraft's datum and the leading edge of the MAC is
62 inches aft of the datum. Therefore, the CG lies 14 inches aft of the
leading edge of the MAC. If the MAC is 80 inches in length, the percentage
of MAC is found by calculating what percentage 14 is of 80. In this case,
one could say that the CG is 17.5% of MAC. If the allowable limits were
15% to 35%, the aircraft would be properly loaded.
Example
Given:
Weight
(lb)

Arm
(in)

Moment
(lb-in)

Empty
weight

1,495.0

101.
4

151,593.
0

Pilot and
passenger
s

380.0

64.0

24,320.0

52

Fuel (30
gallons
@
6 lb/gal)

180.0

96.0

17,280.0

Totals

2,055.0

94.0
1

193,193.
0

To find the center of gravity, we divide the total moment of mass by the total
mass of the aircraft: 193,193 2,055 = 94.01 inches behind the datum
plane.
Incorrect weight and balance in fixed-wing aircraft
When the center of gravity or weight of an aircraft is outside the acceptable
range, the aircraft may not be able to sustain flight, or it may be impossible
to maintain the aircraft in level flight in some or all circumstances. Placing
the CG or weight of an aircraft outside the allowed range can lead to an
unavoidable crash of the aircraft.
Center of gravity out of range
When the fore-aft center of gravity is out of range, the aircraft may pitch
uncontrollably down or up, and this tendency may exceed the control
authority available to the pilot, causing a loss of control. The excessive pitch
may be apparent in all phases of flight, or only during certain phases, such as
take-off or descent. Because the burning of fuel gradually produces a loss of
weight and possibly a shift in the center of gravity, it is possible for an
aircraft to take off with the center of gravity in a position that allows full
control, and yet later develop an imbalance that exceeds control authority.
Calculations of center of gravity must take this into account (often part of
this is calculated in advance by the manufacturer and incorporated into CG
limits).
Weight out of range
Few aircraft impose a minimum weight for flight (although a minimum pilot
weight is often specified), but all impose a maximum weight. If the
maximum weight is exceeded, the aircraft may not be able to achieve or
53

sustain controlled, level flight. Excessive take-off weight may make it


impossible to take off within available runway lengths, or it may completely
prevent take-off. Excessive weight in flight may make climbing beyond a
certain altitude difficult or impossible, or it may make it impossible to
maintain an altitude.
Incorrect weight and balance in helicopters
The center of gravity is even more critical for helicopters than it is for fixedwing aircraft (weight issues remain the same). As with fixed-wing aircraft, a
helicopter may be properly loaded for takeoff, but near the end of a long
flight when the fuel tanks are almost empty, the CG may have shifted
enough for the helicopter to be out of balance laterally or longitudinally.
[2]
For helicopters with a single main rotor, the CG is usually close to the
main rotor mast. Improper balance of a helicopters load can result in serious
control problems. In addition to making a helicopter difficult to control, an
out-of-balance loading condition also decreases maneuverability since cyclic
control is less effective in the direction opposite to the CG location.
The pilot tries to perfectly balance a helicopter so that the fuselage remains
horizontal in hovering flight, with no cyclic pitch control needed except for
wind correction. Since the fuselage acts as a pendulum suspended from the
rotor, changing the center of gravity changes the angle at which the aircraft
hangs from the rotor. When the center of gravity is directly under the rotor
mast, the helicopter hangs horizontal; if the CG is too far forward of the
mast, the helicopter hangs with its nose tilted down; if the CG is too far aft
of the mast, the nose tilts up.
CG forward of forward limit
A forward CG may occur when a heavy pilot and passenger take off without
baggage or proper ballast located aft of the rotor mast. This situation
becomes worse if the fuel tanks are located aft of the rotor mast because as
fuel burns the weight located aft of the rotor mast becomes less.
This condition is recognizable when coming to a hover following a vertical
takeoff. The helicopter will have a nose-low attitude, and the pilot will need
excessive rearward displacement of the cyclic control to maintain a hover in
54

a no-wind condition. In this condition, the pilot could rapidly run out of
rearward cyclic control as the helicopter consumes fuel. The pilot may also
find it impossible to decelerate sufficiently to bring the helicopter to a stop.
In the event of engine failure and the resulting autorotation, the pilot may
not have enough cyclic control to flare properly for the landing.
A forward CG will not be as obvious when hovering into a strong wind,
since less rearward cyclic displacement is required than when hovering with
no wind. When determining whether a critical balance condition exists, it is
essential to consider the wind velocity and its relation to the rearward
displacement of the cyclic control.
CG aft of aft limit
Without proper ballast in the cockpit, exceeding the aft CG may occur when:

A lightweight pilot takes off solo with a full load of fuel located aft of the
rotor mast.
A lightweight pilot takes off with maximum baggage allowed in a baggage
compartment located aft of the rotor mast.
A lightweight pilot takes off with a combination of baggage and substantial
fuel where both are aft of the rotor mast.
An aft CG condition can be recognized by the pilot when coming to a hover
following a vertical takeoff. The helicopter will have a tail-low attitude, and
the pilot will need excessive forward displacement of cyclic control to
maintain a hover in a no-wind condition. If there is a wind, the pilot needs
even greater forward cyclic. If flight is continued in this condition, the pilot
may find it impossible to fly in the upper allowable airspeed range due to
inadequate forward cyclic authority to maintain a nose-low attitude. In
addition, with an extreme aft CG, gusty or rough air could accelerate the
helicopter to a speed faster than that produced with full forward cyclic
control. In this case, asymmetry of lift and blade flapping could cause the
rotor disc to tilt aft. With full forward cyclic control already applied, the
rotor disc might not be able to be lowered, resulting in possible loss of
control, or the rotor blades striking the tail boom.
Lateral balance
55

In fixed-wing aircraft, lateral balance is often much less critical than fore-aft
balance, simply because most mass in the aircraft is located very close to its
center. An exception is fuel, which may be loaded into the wings, but since
fuel loads are usually symmetrical about the axis of the aircraft, lateral
balance is not usually affected. The lateral center of gravity may become
important if the fuel is not loaded evenly into tanks on both sides of the
aircraft, or (in the case of small aircraft) when passengers are predominantly
on one side of the aircraft (such as a pilot flying alone in a small aircraft).
Small lateral deviations of CG that are within limits may cause an annoying
roll tendency that pilots must compensate for, but they are not dangerous as
long as the CG remains within limits for the duration of the flight.
For most helicopters, it is usually not necessary to determine the lateral CG
for normal flight instruction and passenger flights. This is because helicopter
cabins are relatively narrow and most optional equipment is located near the
center line. However, some helicopter manuals specify the seat from which
solo flight must be conducted. In addition, if there is an unusual situation,
such as a heavy pilot and a full load of fuel on one side of the helicopter,
which could affect the lateral CG, its position should be checked against the
CG envelope. If carrying external loads in a position that requires large
lateral cyclic control displacement to maintain level flight, fore and aft
cyclic effectiveness could be dramatically limited.
Fuel dumping and overweight operations
Many large transport-category aircraft are able to take-off at a greater weight
than they can land. This is possible because the weight of fuel that the wings
can support along their span in flight, or when parked or taxiing on the
ground, is greater than they can tolerate during the stress of landing and
touchdown, when the support is not distributed along the span of the wing.
Normally the portion of the aircraft's weight that exceeds the maximum
landing weight (but falls within the maximum take-off weight) is entirely
composed of fuel. As the aircraft flies, the fuel burns off, and by the time the
aircraft is ready to land, it is below its maximum landing weight. However,
if an aircraft must land early, sometimes the fuel that remains aboard still
keeps the aircraft over the maximum landing weight. When this happens, the
aircraft must either burn off the fuel (by flying in a holding pattern) or dump
56

it (if the aircraft is equipped to do this) before landing to avoid damage to


the aircraft. In an emergency, an aircraft may choose to land overweight, but
this may damage it, and at the very least an overweight landing will mandate
a thorough inspection to check for any damage.
In some cases, an aircraft may take off overweight deliberately. An example
might be an aircraft being ferried over a very long distance with extra fuel
aboard. An overweight take-off typically requires an exceptionally long
runway. Overweight operations are not permitted with passengers aboard.
Many smaller aircraft have a maximum landing weight that is the same as
the maximum take-off weight, in which case issues of overweight landing
cannot arise.

Static margin
Static margin is a concept used to characterize the static stability and controllability
of aircraft and missiles.

In aircraft analysis, static margin is defined as the distance between


the center of gravity and the neutral point of the aircraft.
In missile analysis, static margin is defined as the distance between the
center of gravity and the center of pressure.

The differences in the two fields arise largely from the use of cambered wings in
aircraft. Missiles are symmetric vehicles and if they have airfoils they too are
symmetric. With cambered wings the location of the center of pressure on the wing
is a strong function of angle of attack - see movement of the center of pressure.
The response of an aircraft or missile to an angular disturbance such as
a pitch disturbance is determined by its static margin.
With the center of gravity forward of the neutral point, an aircraft has
positive longitudinal static stability. (For an aircraft this may be described as
negative static margin.) With the center of gravity aft of the neutral point, an
aircraft is statically unstable, and requires some form of augmentation to be flown
with an acceptable workload. (For an aircraft this may be described as positive
static margin.)
For missiles, positive static margin implies that the complete vehicle makes a
restoring moment for any angle of attack from the trim position. If the center of
57

pressure is behind the center of gravity then the moment will be restoring. For
missiles with symmetric airfoils, the neutral point and the center of pressure are
coincident and the term neutral point is not used.
If an aircraft in flight suffers a disturbance in pitch that causes an increase (or
decrease) in angle of attack, it is desirable that the aerodynamic forces on the
aircraft cause a decrease (or increase) in angle of attack so that the disturbance
does not cause a continuous increase (or decrease) in angle of attack. This
is longitudinal static stability.
Relationship to aircraft and missile stability and control

If the center of gravity (CG) of an aircraft is forward of the neutral point, or


the CG of a missile is forward of the center of pressure, the vehicle will respond
to a disturbance by producing an aerodynamic moment that returns the angle of
attack of the vehicle towards the angle that existed prior to the disturbance.
If the CG of an aircraft is behind the neutral point, or the CG of a missile is
behind the center of pressure, the vehicle will respond to a disturbance by
producing an aerodynamic moment that continues to drive the angle of attack of
the vehicle further away from the starting position.

The first condition above is positive static stability. In missile analysis this is
described as positive static margin. (In aircraft analysis it may be described as
negative
static
margin.)
The second condition above is negative static stability. In missile analysis this is
defined as negative static margin. (In aircraft analysis it may be described as
positive static margin.)
Depending on the static margin, humans may not be able to use control inputs to
the elevators to control the pitch of the vehicle. Typically, computer
based autopilots are required to control the vehicle when it has negative static
stability - usually described as negative static margin.
The purpose of the reduced stability (low static margin) is to make an aircraft more
responsive to pilot inputs. An aircraft with a large static margin will be very stable
and slow to respond to the pilot inputs. The amount of static margin is an important
factor in determining the handling qualities of an aircraft. For an unguided rocket,
the vehicle must have a large positive static margin so the rocket shows minimum
tendency to diverge from the direction of flight given to it at launch. In contrast,
guided missiles usually have a negative static margin for increased
maneuverability.
58

UNIT-III
Contribution of pitch damping to pitching moment of flight vehicle
Effect on trim and stability
Control deflections and control forces for trim in symmetric maneuvers and
coordinated turns. Control deflection and force gradients
Control fixed and control free maneuver stability
Maneuver points
Maneuver margins

59

Yaw damper
A yaw damper is a device used on many aircraft (usually jets and turboprops) to
damp (reduce) the rolling and yawing oscillations due to Dutch roll mode. It
involves yaw rate sensors and a processor that provides a signal to an actuator
connected to the rudder. The use of the yaw damper helps to provide a better ride
for passengers and on some aircraft is a required piece of equipment to ensure that
the aircraft stability remains within certification values.
Trim tabs are small surfaces connected to the trailing edge of a larger control
surface on a boat or aircraft, used to control the trim of the controls, i.e. to
counteract hydro- or aero-dynamic forces and stabilise the boat or aircraft in a
particular desired attitude without the need for the operator to constantly apply a
control force. This is done by adjusting the angle of the tab relative to the larger
surface.
Changing the setting of a trim tab adjusts the neutral or resting position of a control
surface (such as an elevator or rudder). As the desired position of a control surface
changes (corresponding mainly to different speeds), an adjustable trim tab will
allow the operator to reduce the manual force required to maintain that position
to zero, if used correctly. Thus the trim tab acts as a servo tab. Because the center
of pressure of the trim tab is farther away from the axis of rotation of the control
surface than the center of pressure of the control surface, the moment generated by
the tab can match the moment generated by the control surface. The position of the
control surface on its axis will change until the movements from the control
surface and the trim surface balance each other.

Many airplanes (including gliders) have trim tabs on their elevators, as a simple
method of providing trim in the longitudinal axis.
60

All aircraft must have a system for ensuring trim in the longitudinal axis, though
methods other than trim tabs may be used. Alternatives include:

a spring attached to the control system that can be adjusted by the pilot
in the case of the elevator, an all-moving horizontal stabilizer whose position
can be adjusted in flight by the pilot.

Elevator trim frees the pilot from exerting constant pressure on the pitch controls.
Instead, the pilot adjusts a longitudinal trim control (often in the form of a wheel)
to cancel out control forces for a given airspeed / weight distribution. Typically,
when this trim control is rotated forward, the nose is held down; conversely, if the
trim wheel is moved back, the tail becomes "heavy." Many newer aircraft,
especially jet aircraft, have electric trim controls.
Many airplanes also have rudder and/or aileron trim systems. On some of these, the
rudder trim tab is rigid but adjustable on the ground by bending: it is angled
slightly to the left (when viewed from behind) to lessen the need for the pilot to
push the rudder pedal constantly to overcome the left-turning tendencies of some
prop-driven aircraft. Other aircraft have hinged rudder trim tabs that the pilot can
adjust in flight.
When a trim tab is employed, it is moved into the slipstream opposite to the control
surface's desired deflection. For example, in order to trim an elevator to hold the
nose down, the elevator's trim tab will actually rise up into the slipstream. The
increased pressure on top of the trim tab surface caused by raising it will then
deflect the entire elevator slab down slightly, causing the tail to rise and the
aircraft's nose to move down.[1] In the case of an aircraft where deployment of
high-lift devices (flaps) would significantly alter the longitudinal trim, a
supplementary trim tab is arranged to simultaneously deploy with the flaps so that
pitch attitude is not markedly changed.
The use of trim tabs significantly reduces pilots' workload during continuous
maneuvers (eg: sustained climb to altitude after takeoff or descent prior to
landing), allowing them to focus their attention on other tasks such as traffic
avoidance or communication with air traffic control.
Both elevator trim and pitch trim affect the small trimming part of the elevator on
jet airliners. The former is supposed to be set in a certain position for a longer time,
while the pitch trim (controlled with the landing pilot's thumb on the yoke or
joystick, and is thereby easy to maneuver) is used all the time after the flying pilot
has disabled the autopilot, especially after each time the flaps are lowered or at
61

every change in the airspeed, at the descent, approach and final. Elevator trim is
most used for controlling the attitude at cruising by the autopilot.
Beyond reducing pilot workload, proper trim also increases fuel efficiency by
reducing drag. For example, propeller aircraft have a tendency to yaw when
operating at high power, for instance when climbing: this increases parasite
drag because the craft is not flying straight into the apparent wind. In such
circumstances, the use of an adjustable rudder trim tab can reduce yaw.

Longitudinal Stability and Trim


The drag of the system is dependent on the distribution of loads between the
surfaces. In order to determine this, and to properly size the tail surface, we must
consider the aircraft's stability and trim. Stability is the tendency of a system to
return to its equilibrium condition after being disturbed from that point. Two types
of
stability
or
instability
are
important.
A static instability: A dynamic instability:

An airplane must be a stable system (well, with some exceptions ) with acceptable
time constants. To assure this, a careful analysis of the dynamic response and
controllability is required, but here we look only at the simplest case: static
longitudinal stability and trim. This will tell us something about the aerodynamic
design of the surfaces -- the load they must carry, the effect of airfoil properties,
and
the
drag
associated
with
the
surfaces.
If we displace the wing or airplane from its equilibrium flight condition to a higher
angle of attack and higher lift coefficient:

we would like it to return to the lower lift coefficient.


62

This requires that the pitching moment about the rotation point*, Cm, become
negative as we increase CL:

where x is the distance from the system's center of additional lift to the c.g.

If x were 0, the system would be neutrally stable. x/c represents the margin of
static stability and is thus called the static margin. Typical values for stable
airplanes range from 5% to 40%. The airplane may therefore be made as stable as
desired by moving the c.g. forward (by putting lead in the nose) or moving the
wing back. One needs no tail for stability then, only the right position of the c.g..

Although this configuration is stable, it will tend to nose down whenever any lift is
produced. In addition to stability we require that the airplane be trimmed (in
moment
equilibrium)
at
the
desired
C L.

63

With a single wing, generating a sufficient C m at zero lift to trim with a reasonable
static margin and CL is not so easy. (Most airfoils have negative values of C m0.)
Although tailless aircraft can generate sufficiently positive C m0 to trim, the more
conventional solution is to add an additional lifting surface such as an aft-tail or
canard. The following sections deal with some of the considerations in the design
of each of these configurations.
Flaperon
A flaperon is a type of aircraft control surface that combines aspects of
both flaps and ailerons. In addition to controlling the roll or bank of an aircraft as
do conventional ailerons, both flaperons can be lowered together to function
similarly to a dedicated set of flaps. Both ailerons could also be raised, which
would give spoilerons.
The pilot has separate controls for ailerons and flaps. A mixer is used to combine
the separate pilot input into this single set of control surfaces called flaperons. The
use of flaperons instead of separate ailerons and flaps can reduce the weight of an
aircraft. The complexity is transferred from having a double set of control surfaces
(flaps and ailerons) to the mixer.
Stabilator
A stabilator (stabilizer-elevator, also all moving tailplane or all flying tail) is
an aircraft control surface that combines the functions of an elevator and
a horizontal stabilizer. Most fixed-wing aircraft control pitch using a hinged
horizontal flap the elevator attached to the back of the fixed horizontal
stabilizer, but some aircraft make the entire stabilizer movable.
Wing warping
Wing warping was an early system for lateral (roll) control of a fixed-wing aircraft.
The technique, used and patented by the Wright brothers, consisted of a system of
pulleys and cables to twist the trailing edges of the wings in opposite directions. In
many respects, this approach is similar to that used to trim the performance of
a paper airplane by curling the paper at the back of its wings.
64

In practice, since most wing warping designs involved flexing of structural


members they were difficult to control and liable to cause structural
failure. Ailerons had begun to replace wing warping as the most common means of
achieving
lateral
control
as
early
as
1911,
especially
in biplane designs. Monoplane wings of the period were much more flexible, and
proved more amenable to wing warping - but even for monoplane designs, ailerons
became the norm after 1915.
Lateral (roll) control in early aircraft was problematic at best. An overly flexible,
involuntarily twisting wing can cause involuntary rolling, but even worse, it can
convert attempts at correction, either from wing warping or ailerons, into a
counteracting "tab" effect. Once this was fully understood wing structures were
made progressively more rigid, precluding wing warping altogether - and aircraft
became far more controllable in the lateral plane.

Coordinated flight
When an aircraft is flying with zero sideslip a turn and bank indicator installed on
the aircrafts instrument panel usually shows the ball in the center of the spirit
level. There is no lateral acceleration of the aircraft and occupants perceive their
weight to be acting straight downwards into their seats.
Particular care to maintain coordinated flight is required by the pilot when entering
and leaving turns.
Advantages
Coordinated flight is usually preferred over uncoordinated flight for the following
reasons:

it is more comfortable for the occupants


it minimizes the drag force on the aircraft

it causes fuel to be drawn equally from tanks in both wings

it minimizes the risk of entering a spin

65

Coordinating the turn


If the pilot were to use only the rudder to initiate a turn in the air, the airplane
would tend to "skid" to the outside of the turn.
If the pilot were to use only the ailerons to initiate a turn in the air, the airplane
would tend to "slip" towards the lower wing.
If the pilot were to fail to use the elevator to increase the angle of attack throughout
the turn, the airplane would also tend to "slip" towards the lower wing.
However, if the pilot makes appropriate use of the rudder, ailerons and elevator to
enter and leave the turn such that sideslip and lateral acceleration are zero the
airplane will be in coordinated flight.
DETERMINATION OF MANEUVER POINTS IN FLIGHT
Knowledge of the maneuver points of an aircraft important from the view
point of safe a maneuvering flight of aircraft. There are two maneuvering
points of interest, the stick-fixed maneuver point and the stick-free maneuver
point. The stick-fixed maneuver point is defined as the center of gravity
position for which no change in the elevator angle (stick travel) is required for
a normal acceleration of (ng) and is given by-

Where
the stick-fixed maneuver
point
CM = the elevator power
= the elevator effectiveness
lt
= the tail length
0 for pull up ;
= 1 for

=
turna
and , g, W, S are respectively the air density, acceleration due to gravity,
airplane weight an wing area. For any other position X cg of the center of
gravity, we have
NO

where
Hm = Nm - Xcg maneuver margin stick
66

fixed
we see that the stick travel e per g is proportional to the stick fixed maneuver
margin Hm. The stick movement is inversely proportional to the square of the
speed
neglecting
aeroelastic
and
compressibility
effects

By combing eqns.(5.B.1) and (5.B.2) from eq. (5.B.3) we see that

So that the slope of the elevator angle per g versus the c.g. position
varies inversely as the dynamic pressure q.
it is used to determine the stick fixed maneuver points in flight by putting the
aircraft in a level turn at some speed V with the elevator angle c for trim. If
be the bank angle, R the radius nd n the load factor of the turn, we have
; n = sec
The ratio (d e / dn) is measured at a given speed V for a range of c.g.
positions and load factors. The stick fixed maneuver point is the obtained as
the intersection of the (d e / dn) vs Xcg with the Xcg axis.
The stick free maneuver point is the center of gravity position for which
no change in the hinge moment or stick force is required to maintain a normal
acceleration (ng). The stick free maneuver point is given by .

where
C h =floating tendency
C h =restoring tendency
N'o =stick free neutral point
For any other position Xcg of the center of gravity we have

where
H'm

N'm - Xcg (stick - free maneuver


margin)
stick force / hinge moment = elevator
gearing with a push force assumed
positive
67

t
= tail efficiency
S
= elevator area
C
= elevator chord
The variation of stick force with an initially trimmed tab setting is
proportional to the maneuver margin stick free.

can be used to determine the stick free maneuver point in flight by putting
the aircraft in a steady level turn at some speed V with the elevator free.
Let Fs be the constant stick force applied to hold the steady turn at load
factor n. A measurement of the ratio (dFs/dn) at a given speed for a range
of c.g. positions give the maneuver point as the intersection of the graph of
(dFs/dn) vs Xcg with the Xcg axis.

UNIT-IV
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Dihedral effect
Coupling between rolling and yawing moment
Adverse yaw
Aileron power
Aileron reversal.
Weather cocking effects
Rudder power.
Lateral and directional stability- definition.
Control surface deflections in steady sideslips, rolls and turns one engine
inoperative conditions Rudder lock.

Adverse yaw
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Adverse yaw is a yaw moment on an aircraft which results from


an aileron deflection and a roll rate, such as when entering or exiting a turn. It is
called "adverse" because it acts opposite to the yaw moment needed to execute the
desired turn. Adverse yaw has three mechanisms, listed below in decreasing order
of importance. Assuming a roll rate to the right, as in the diagram below, these
three mechanisms are explained as follows:
1) By definition, lift is perpendicular to the oncoming flow. Hence, as the left wing
moves up, its lift vector tilts back; as the right wing descends, its lift vector tilts
forward. The result is an adverse yaw moment to the left, opposite to the intended
right turn.
2) The downward aileron deflection on the left increases the airfoil camber, which
will typically increase the profile drag. Conversely, the upward aileron deflection
on the right will decrease the camber and profile drag. The profile drag imbalance
adds to the adverse yaw. The exception is on a Frise aileron, described father
below.
3) Initiating the right roll rate requires a briefly greater lift on the left than the right.
This also causes a greater induced drag on the left than the right, which further
adds to the adverse yaw.

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Adverse yaw is countered by using the aircraft's rudder to perform a coordinated


turn, however an aircraft designer can reduce the amount of correction required by
careful design of the aircraft. Some methods are common:
General characteristics
As the tilting of the left/right lift vectors is the major cause to adverse yaw, an
important parameter is the magnitude of these lift vectors, or the aircraft's lift
coefficient to be more specific. Flight at low lift coefficient (or high speed
compared to minimum speed) produces less adverse yaw.
Yaw stability
A strong directional stability is the first way to reduce adverse yaw.[1] That means
important vertical tail moment (area and lever arm about gravity center).
Differential deflection ailerons
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Because downwards deflection of an aileron typically causes more profile


drag than an upwards deflection, a simple way of mitigating adverse yaw would be
to rely solely on the upward deflection of the opposite aileron to cause the aircraft
to roll. However, this would lead to a slow roll rate - and therefore a better solution
is to make a compromise between adverse yaw and roll rate. This is what occurs in
Differential ailerons.
As can be seen from the diagram, the down-going aileron moves through a smaller
angle than the up-going aileron, reducing the amount of aileron drag, and thus
reducing the effect of adverse yaw. The De Havilland Tiger Moth biplane uses this
method of roll control to avoid adverse yaw problems.
Frise ailerons

Frise ailerons are designed so that when up aileron is applied, some of the forward
edge of the aileron will protrude downward into the airflow, causing increased drag
on this (down-going) wing. This will counter the drag produced by the other
aileron, thus reducing adverse yaw.
Unfortunately, as well as reducing adverse yaw, Frise ailerons will increase the
overall drag of the aircraft much more than applying rudder correction. Therefore
they are less popular in aircraft where minimizing drag is important (e.g. in
a glider).

72

Frise ailerons are primarily designed to reduce roll control forces. Contrary to the
illustration, the aileron leading edge has to be rounded to prevent flow separation
and flutter at negative deflections. That prevents important differential drag forces.

Roll spoilers
On large aircraft where rudder use is inappropriate at high speeds or ailerons are
too small at low speeds, roll spoilers can be used to minimize adverse yaw or
increase roll moment. To function as a lateral control, the spoiler is raised on the
down-going wing (up aileron) and remains retracted on the other wing. The raised
spoiler increases the drag, and so the yaw is in the same direction as the roll.
Control reversal
Control reversal is an adverse effect on the controllability of aircraft. The flight
controls reverse themselves in a way that is not intuitive, so pilots may not be
aware of the situation and therefore provide the wrong inputs; in order to roll to the
left, for instance, they have to push the control stick to the right, the opposite of the
normal direction.
Causes
There are several causes for this problem: pilot error, effects of high-speed flight,
incorrectly connected controls, and various coupling forces on the aircraft.

73

Following the liftoff of a model rocket, it often turns into the wind. This maneuver
is called weather cocking and it is caused by aerodynamic forces on the rocket.
Wind striking the side of the rocket generates a side force which acts through the
center of pressure. For stability reasons, the center of pressure is located below
the center of gravity of the rocket. The effect of the side force is to rotate the rocket
about the center of gravity until the nose is inclined at the angle b to the horizontal.
Angle b is the effective flow direction. If the wind velocity is w and the flight
velocity is V, then:
tan b = V / w
where "tan" is the trigonometric tangent function.
The rotation of the rocket produces a new flight path into the wind, as shown at the
left of the figure. When the new flight path is aligned with the effective flow
74

direction, there is no longer any lift force and the rocket will continue to fly in the
new flight direction. The flight path is inclined to the horizontal at angle b. The
chief effect of weather cocking is that the maximum altitude of the flight is
reduced. We can estimate the amount of lost altitude H by using
some trigonometry. If the maximum, vertical altitude is denoted by A, the lost
altitude is given by:
H = A * (1 - sin b)
where "sin" is the trigonometric sine function. As a check, if the wind velocity is
zero, the angle b is 90 degrees, and the lost altitude is zero.
Directional stability
Directional stability is stability of a moving body or vehicle about an axis which is
perpendicular to its direction of motion. Stability of a vehicle concerns itself with
the tendency of a vehicle to return to its original direction in relation to the
oncoming medium (water, air, road surface, etc.) when disturbed (rotated) away
from that original direction. If a vehicle is directionally stable, a
restoring moment is produced which is in a direction opposite to the rotational
disturbance. This "pushes" the vehicle (in rotation) so as to return it to the original
orientation, thus tending to keep the vehicle oriented in the original direction.
Directional stability is frequently called "weather vaning" because a directionally
stable vehicle free to rotate about its center of mass is similar to a weather
vane rotating about its (vertical) pivot.
With the exception of spacecraft, vehicles generally have a recognizable front and
rear and are designed so that the front points more or less in the direction of
motion. Without this stability, they may tumble end over end, spin or orient
themselves at a high angle of attack, even broadside on to the direction of motion.
At high angles of attack, drag forces may become excessive, the vehicle may be
impossible to control, or may even experience structural failure. In general, land,
sea, air and underwater vehicles are designed to have a natural tendency to point in
the direction of motion.

Slip (aerodynamic)
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A slip is an aerodynamic state where an aircraft is moving somewhat sideways as


well as forward relative to the oncoming airflow. In other words, for a conventional
aircraft, the nose will not be pointing directly into the relative wind (in the side-toside sense).
A slip is also a piloting maneuver where the pilot deliberately puts the aircraft into
a slip.

Forward-slip vs. Sideslip


Two forms are employed, the forward-slip and the sideslip. Aerodynamically these
are identical once established, but they are entered in different manners and will
create different ground tracks and headings relative to those prior to entry. Slips are
particularly useful in performing a short field landing over an obstacle (such as
trees, or power lines), or to avoid an obstacle (such as a single tree on the extended
centerline of the runway), and may be practiced as part of emergency landing
procedures. These methods are also commonly employed in flying into farmstead
or rough country airstrips where approach hazards are present.
Forward-slip
The forward slip will change the heading of the aircraft away from the down wing,
while retaining the original track (flight path over the ground) of the aircraft.
A forward-slip is useful when a pilot has set up for a landing approach with
excessive height or must descend steeply beyond a tree line to touchdown near the
start of a short runway. Assuming that the runway is properly lined up, the forward
slip will allow the aircraft track to be maintained while steepening the descent
without adding excessive airspeed. Since the heading is not aligned with the
runway, the slip must be removed before touchdown to avoid excessive side
loading on the landing gear, and if a cross wind is present an appropriate side slip
may be necessary at touchdown as described below.

Sideslip
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The sideslip also uses opposite aileron and rudder. In this case it is entered by
lowering a wing and exactly enough opposite rudder so the airplane does not turn
(maintaining the same heading), while adding airspeed as required.
In the sideslip condition, the airplane's longitudinal axis remains parallel to the
original flight path, but the airplane no longer flies straight along its original track.
Now, the horizontal component of lift forces the airplane to move sideways toward
the low wing.
A sideslip is also one of the methods used by pilots to execute a crosswind landing.
In order to land crosswind using the sideslip method, the pilot puts the airplane into
a sideslip toward the wind to maintain runway centerline position while
maintaining heading on the centerline with the rudder, touching one main landing
gear, followed by the second main gear, and finally the nose gear (or tail gear if
employed). This allows the wheels to be constantly aligned with the track, thus
avoiding any side load at touchdown.
The sideslip method for cross-wind landings is not suitable for long winged and
low sitting aircraft such as sailplanes, where instead a crab angle (heading into the
wind) is maintained until a moment before touchdown.
Uses of the slip
Other uses
There are other, specialized circumstances where slips can be useful in aviation.
For example, during aerial photography, a slip can lower one side of the aircraft to
allow ground photos to be taken through a side window. Pilots will also use a slip
to land in icing conditions if the front windshield has been entirely iced over by
landing slightly sideways, the pilot is able to see the runway through the aircraft's
side window. Slips also play a role in aerobatics and aerial combat.
How a Slip affects flight
When an aircraft is put into a side slip with no other changes to the throttle or
elevator, the pilot will notice an increased rate of descent (or reduced rate
of ascent). This is usually mostly due to increased drag on the fuselage. The
airflow over the fuselage is at a sideways angle, increasing the relative frontal area,
which increases drag.
Sideslip angle
77

In figure (a) an airplane flies so that the sideslip angle is zero, in figure (b) it yaws
to have a positive sideslip angle. The circular arrow shows the moment needed for
directional stability.

Sideslip angle, also called angle of sideslip (AOS, AoS, , Greek letter Beta), is a
term used in fluid dynamics and aerodynamics and aviation. It relates to the
rotation of the aircraft centerline from the relative wind. In flight dynamics it is
given the shorthand notation and is usually assigned to be "positive" when the
relative wind is coming from the right of the nose of the airplane. The sideslip
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angle is essentially the directional angle of attack of the airplane. It is the primary
parameter in directional stability considerations.

UNIT-V
79

Solutions to the stability quartic of the linearised equations of motion.


The principal modes.
Phugoid , Short Period Dutch Roll and Spiral modes
Further approximations.
Restricted degrees of motion.
Solutions. Response to controls.
Auto rotation and spin.

Equations of motion
80

Equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a system in terms
of its motion as a function of time (e.g., the motion of a particle under the influence
of a force). Sometimes the term refers to the differential equations that the system
satisfies (e.g., Newton's second law or EulerLagrange equations),
Aircraft dynamic modes
The dynamic stability of an aircraft is how the motion of an aircraft behaves after it
has been disturbed from steady non-oscillating flight
Longitudinal modes
Oscillating motions can be described by two parameters, the period of time
required for one complete oscillation, and the time required to damp to halfamplitude, or the time to double the amplitude for a dynamically unstable motion.
The longitudinal motion consists of two distinct oscillations, a long-period
oscillation called a phugoid mode and a short-period oscillation referred to as the
short-period mode.
Phugoid (longer period) oscillations
The longer period mode, called the "phugoid mode" is the one in which there is a
large-amplitude variation of air-speed, pitch angle, and altitude, but almost no
angle-of-attack variation. The phugoid oscillation is really a slow interchange
of kinetic energy (velocity) and potential energy (height) about some equilibrium
energy level as the aircraft attempts to re-establish the equilibrium level-flight
condition from which it had been disturbed. The motion is so slow that the effects
of inertia forces and damping forces are very low. Although the damping is very
weak, the period is so long that the pilot usually corrects for this motion without
being aware that the oscillation even exists. Typically the period is 2060 seconds.
Short period oscillations
With no special name, the shorter period mode is called simply the "short-period
mode". The short-period mode is a usually heavily damped oscillation with a
period of only a few seconds. The motion is a rapid pitching of the aircraft about
the center of gravity. The period is so short that the speed does not have time to
change, so the oscillation is essentially an angle-of-attack variation. The time to
damp the amplitude to one-half of its value is usually on the order of 1 second.
81

Ability to quickly self damp when the stick is briefly displaced is one of the many
criteria for general aircraft certification.
Lateral-directional modes
"Lateral-directional" modes involve rolling motions and yawing motions. Motions
in one of these axes almost always couples into the other so the modes are
generally discussed as the "Lateral-Directional modes".[2]
There are three types of possible lateral-directional dynamic motion: roll
subsidence mode, Dutch roll mode, and spiral mode.
Roll subsidence mode
Roll subsidence mode is simply the damping of rolling motion. There is no direct
aerodynamic moment created tending to directly restore wings-level, i.e. there is
no returning "spring force/moment" proportional to roll angle. However, there is a
damping moment (proportional to roll rate) created by the slewing-about of long
wings. This prevents large roll rates from building up when roll-control inputs are
made or it damps the roll rate (not the angle) to zero when there are no roll-control
inputs.
Roll mode can be improved by adding dihedral effects to the aircraft design, such
as high wings, dihedral angles or sweep angles.
Spiral mode
If a spirally unstable aircraft, through the action of a gust or other disturbance, gets
a small initial roll angle to the right, for example, a gentle sideslip to the right is
produced. The sideslip causes a yawing moment to the right. If the dihedral
stability is low, and yaw damping is small, the directional stability keeps turning
the aircraft while the continuing bank angle maintains the sideslip and the yaw
angle. This spiral gets continuously steeper and tighter until finally, if the motion is
not checked, a steep, high-speed spiral dive results. The motion develops so
gradually, however that it is usually corrected unconsciously by the pilot, who may
not be aware that spiral instability exists. If the pilot cannot see the horizon, for
instance because of clouds, he might not notice that he is slowly going into the
spiral dive, which can lead into the graveyard spiral.
To be spirally stable, an aircraft must have some combination of a sufficiently
large dihedral, which increases roll stability, and a sufficiently long vertical tail
82

arm, which increases yaw damping. Increasing the vertical tail area then magnifies
the degree of stability or instability.
The spiral dive should not be confused with a spin.
Detection
While descending turns are commonly performed by pilots as a standard flight
maneuvers, the spiral dive is differentiated from a descending turn owing to its
feature of accelerating speed. It is therefore an unstable flight condition, and pilots
are trained to recognise its onset and to implement recovery procedures safely and
immediately. Without intervention by the pilot, acceleration of the aircraft will lead
to structural failure of the airframe, either as a result of excess aerodynamic
loading or flight into terrain. Spiral dive training therefore revolves around pilot
recognition and recovery.
Recovery
Spiral dive accidents are typically associated with visual flight (non-instrument
flight) in conditions of poor visibility, where the pilot's reference to the visual
natural horizon is effectively reduced, or prevented entirely, by such factors as
cloud or darkness. The inherent danger of the spiral dive is that the condition,
especially at onset, cannot be easily detected by the sensory mechanisms of the
human body. The physical forces exerted on an airplane during a spiral dive are
effectively balanced and the pilot cannot detect the banked attitude of the spiral
descent. If the pilot detects acceleration, but fails to detect the banked attitude
associated with the spiral descent, a mistaken attempt may be to recovery with
mere back pressure (pitch-up inputs) on the control wheel. However, with
the lift vector of the aircraft now directed to the centre of the spiral turn, this erred
nose-up input simply tightens the spiral condition and increases the rate of
acceleration and increases dangerous airframe loading. To successfully recover
from a spiral dive, the lift vector must first be redirected upward (relative to the
natural horizon) before backpressure is applied to the control column. Since the
acceleration can be very rapid, recovery is dependent on the pilot's ability to
quickly close the throttle (which is contributing to the acceleration), position the
lift vector upward, relative to the Earth's surface before the dive recovery is
implemented; any factor that would impede the pilot's external reference to the
Earth's surface could delay or prevent recovery. The quick and efficient completion
of these tasks is crucial as the aircraft can accelerate through maximum speed
83

limits within only a few seconds, where the structural integrity of the airframe will
be compromised.
For the purpose of flight training, instructors typically establish the aircraft in a
descending turn with initially slow but steadily accelerating airspeed the initial
slow speed facilitates the potentially slow and sometimes erred response of student
pilots. The cockpit controls are released by the instructor and the student is
instructed to recover. It is not uncommon for a spiral dive to result from an
unsuccessful attempt to enter a spin, but the extreme nose-down attitude of the
aircraft during the spin-spiral transition makes this method of entry ineffective for
training purposes as there is little room to permit student error or delay.
All spiral dive recoveries entail the same recovery sequence: first, the throttle must
be immediately closed; second, the aircraft is rolled level with co-ordinate use
of ailerons and rudder; and third, backpressure is exerted smoothly on the control
wheel to recover from the dive.
Dutch roll
The second lateral motion is an oscillatory combined roll and yaw motion called
Dutch roll, perhaps because of its similarity to an ice-skating motion of the same
name made by Dutch skaters; the origin of the name is unclear. The Dutch roll may
be described as a yaw and roll to the right, followed by a recovery towards the
equilibrium condition, then an overshooting of this condition and a yaw and roll to
the left, then back past the equilibrium attitude, and so on. The period is usually on
the order of 315 seconds, but it can vary from a few seconds for light aircraft to a
minute or more for airliners. Damping is increased by large directional stability
and small dihedral and decreased by small directional stability and large dihedral.
Although usually stable in a normal aircraft, the motion may be so slightly damped
that the effect is very unpleasant and undesirable. In swept-back wing aircraft, the
Dutch roll is solved by installing a yaw damper, in effect a special-purpose
automatic pilot that damps out any yawing oscillation by applying rudder
corrections. Some swept-wing aircraft have an unstable Dutch roll. If the Dutch
roll is very lightly damped or unstable, the yaw damper becomes a safety
requirement, rather than a pilot and passenger convenience. Dual yaw dampers are
required and a failed yaw damper is cause for limiting flight to low altitudes, and
possibly lower mach numbers, where the Dutch roll stability is improved.
Autorotation
84

In aviation, autorotation refers to processes in both fixed-wing and rotary-wing


aircraft. The term means significantly different things in each context.
For fixed-wing aircraft, autorotation refers to the tendency of an aircraft in or near
a stall to roll spontaneously to the right or left, leading to a spin (a state of
continuous autorotation).
In helicopters and auto gyros, autorotation refers to generation of lift by the main
rotor when it is not being driven by an engine. Should an engine fail, a helicopter is
able to use autorotation lift to slow its descent and land in a controlled manner.
Auto gyros' main rotors are unpowered, so they rely continuously on autorotation
for lift.

Autorotation in fixed-wing aircraft

85

A typical graph of lift coefficient and drag coefficient versus angle of attack, At
any angle of attack greater than the stalling angle an increase in angle of attack
causes a reduction in lift coefficient, and a decrease in angle of attack causes an
increase in lift coefficient.
When the angle of attack is less than the stalling angle any increase in angle of
attack causes an increase in lift coefficient that causes the wing to rise. As the wing
rises the angle of attack decreases, which tends to restore the wing to its original
angle of attack. Conversely any decrease in angle of attack causes a decrease in lift
coefficient which causes the wing to descend. As the wing descends, the angle of
attack increases, which tends to restore the wing to its original angle of attack. For
this reason the angle of attack is stable when it is less than the stalling angle. The
aircraft displays damping in roll.
When the wing is stalled and the angle of attack is greater than the stalling angle
any increase in angle of attack causes a decrease in lift coefficient that causes the
wing to descend. As the wing descends the angle of attack increases, which causes
the lift coefficient to decrease and the angle of attack to increase, Conversely any
decrease in angle of attack causes an increase in lift coefficient that causes the
wing to rise. As the wing rises the angle of attack decreases and causes the lift
coefficient to increase further towards the maximum lift coefficient. For this reason
the angle of attack is unstable when it is greater than the stalling angle. Any
disturbance of the angle of attack on one wing will cause the whole wing to roll
spontaneously and continuously.
When the angle of attack on the wing of an aircraft reaches the stalling angle the
aircraft is at risk of autorotation. This will eventually develop into a spin if the pilot
does not take corrective action.
86

Spin (flight)
In aviation, a spin is an aggravated stall resulting in autorotation about the spin axis
wherein the aircraft follows a corkscrew path. Spins can be entered unintentionally
or intentionally, from any flight attitude and from practically any airspeedall that
is required is sufficient yaw rate while an aircraft is stalled. In either case, however,
a specific and often counterintuitive set of actions may be needed for an effective
recovery to be made. If the aircraft exceeds published limitations regarding spins,
or is loaded improperly, or if the pilot uses incorrect technique to recover, the spin
can lead to a crash.
In a spin, one or both wings are in a stalled condition, if both are stalled one wing
will be in a deeper stall condition than the other.[1] This causes the aircraft to auto
rotate (yaw) towards the deeper-stalled wing due to its higher drag. Spins are also
characterized by high angle of attack, low airspeed, and high rate of descent.
Spins differ from spiral dives which are characterized by low angle of attack and
high airspeed. A spiral dive is not a type of spin because neither wing is stalled. In
a spiral dive the airplane will respond conventionally to the pilot's inputs to the
flight controls.

How a spin occurs

87

Certificated, light, single-engine airplanes must meet specific criteria regarding


stall and spin behavior. Many types of airplane will only spin if the pilot
simultaneously yaws and stalls the airplane (intentionally or unintentionally).
Under these circumstances, one wing tends to stall more deeply than the other. The
wing that stalls first will drop, increasing its angle of attack and deepening the
stall. Both wings must be stalled for a spin to occur. The other wing will rise,
decreasing its angle of attack, and the aircraft will yaw towards the more deeplystalled wing. The difference in lift between the two wings causes the aircraft to
roll, and the difference in drag causes the aircraft to yaw.
One common scenario that can lead to an unintentional spin is an uncoordinated
turn towards the runway during the landing sequence. A pilot who is overshooting
the turn to final approach may be tempted to apply rudder to increase the rate of
turn. The result is twofold: the nose of the airplane drops below the horizon and the
bank angle increases. Reacting to these unintended changes, the pilot may then
begin to pull the elevator control aft (thus increasing the angle of attack) while
applying opposite aileron to decrease bank angle. Taken to its extreme, this can
result in an uncoordinated turn with sufficient angle of attack to cause the aircraft
to stall. This is called across-control stall, and is very dangerous if it happens at
low altitude where the pilot has little time to recover.

88