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Written by Benny Hermawan.

Palangka Raya University

Introduction
Vitamins (English: vital amine, vitamins) are a group of small-molecular-weight organic compound
which has a vital function in the metabolism of every organism, whic h can not be produced by the
body. The name is derived from the c ombination of t he Latin word vita which means "life" and amine
(amine) that refers to an organic group that has a nitrogen atom (N), because at the beginning of
vitamin considered so. Later in mind that many of the same vitamins devoid of atoms N. in light of the
enzimologi (the science of enzymes), vitamin is a cofactor in a chemical reaction catalyzed by the
enzyme. Basically, this vitamin compound used by the body to be able to grow and develop normally.
There are 13 types of vitamins needed by the body to be able to grow and develop properly. Vitamins
include vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and B (t hiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6,
vitamin B12, and folate). Despite having a very important role, the body can only produc e vitamin D
and vit amin K in the form of provitamin inactive. Source of various vit amins can come from foods,
such as fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements.
Vitamins have a specific role in the body and c an also provide health benefits. If levels of t hese
compounds is insufficient, the body can suffer a disease. The body only requires small amounts of
vitamins, but if it ignored the needs of metabolism in our body will be impaired becaus e of its function
can not be replaced by other compounds. Disorders health is known as avitaminosis. An example is
when we are deficient in vit amin A, then we will experience myopia. In addition, vitamin intak e also
should not be exaggerat ed because it can cause a disruption in the body's metabolism.

History
Vitamin is a compound that has long been recognized by human civilization. Already since thous ands
of years ago, humans have known vitamins as one of the c ompounds that may provide health effects
to the body. Along with the development of the times and science, various things and more in-depth
search of the vitamin were also refurbished. An outline of the history of vit amins can be divided into
five important era. In every era, there is a great progress towards this vitamin compounds that result
from advances in technology and science.
The first era began in the years around 1500-1570 BC. At that time, many medical experts from
various nations, such as Egypt, China, Japan, Greece, Rome, Persia, and A rabia, has been using the
extract compound (allegedly vitamins) of the liver which is then used to cure myopia at night. The
disease is then known to be caused by a deficiency of vitamin A. Although in the past the liver extract
is widely used, the medical doctors are still unable to identify compounds that can cure the disease
myopia. Therefore, this era is known as the era of empirical healing (based on experience).
The next major development of new vitamin re-emerged in the 1890s. The present invention is
initiated by Lunin and Christiaan Eijkman who c onduct research on deficiency diseases in animals.
This invention then start the sec ond era of five outline the history of the vit amin in the world. Their
research focused on the observation of disease caused by a deficiency of a particular compound.
Several years later, Sir Frederick G. Hopkins scientists who are conducting analysis beriberi disease
in animals found that this is caused by a deficiency of a compound growth factor (growth factors). In
1911, an American-born scientist named Dr. Casimir Funk managed to isolate a compound that has
been shown to prevent inflammation of nerves (neuritis) for the first time.
Dr. Casimir also managed to isolate the active compounds from ric e husk which is believed to have
antiberi activity-give the following year. At that moment (and for the first time), Dr. Funk publish the

Introduction of Vitamins
Was completed on December 17, 2014

Written by Benny Hermawan.


Palangka Raya University

findings of the active compound with the term vitamine (vital and amines ). Naming amines in this
vitamin compound for allegedly all types of active compounds have the amine group (amine). It is
then immediately refuted and changed into vit amin (with removal of the suffix letter "e") in 1920.
The third era of the history of vitamin happens next few decades. During this period, there was a lot of
great discoveries about vitamin itself, including the discovery of new types of vitamins, screening
methods are updated, the depiction of the complete structure of vitamins, and the synthesis of vit amin
B12. Therefore, it is exactly, the third era of the outline of the history of this vitamin is known as the
golden era (golden age). Many research institute, who get the Nobel Prize for his discovery in the field
of this vitamin. Sir Walter N. Hawort get the Nobel in chemistry for the discovery of vitamin C in 1937.
The other Nobel Prize obtained by Carl Peter Henrik Dam in P hysiology - Medicine in 1943 for the
discovery of vitamin K. Fritz A Litmann also won the Nobel for his dedication in the field of researc h on
the discovery of coenzyme A and its role in the body's metabolism.
The fourth era marked by the discovery of the biochemical functions of vitamins in the body, its role in
the food we eat everyday, and commercial production of vitamins for the first time in history. In the
1930s, researchers found that vitamin B2 is part of the "yellow enzyme". Vitamin B2 is itself derived
from yeast extract. Through this study, vitamin B group known t o play a role as a coenzyme that is
essential in the human body. Mass production of vitamins for the first time also occurred in this era.
First commercialized by Tadeus Reichstein in 1933, vitamin C has been sold to the general public at a
relatively cheap price so affordable for the general public. Vitamin C is also k nown as ascorbic acid is
then widely used as a dietary supplement, res earch, and additional nut rition for livestock. The results
of this discovery, Tadeus Reichstein get a Nobel Prize in Physiology - Medicine in 1950.
In just one decade following the fourth vitamin era, the development of science has brought vit amin
keera next, namely the fifth era where many found the health value of each type of vitamin and new
discoveries about the biochemical functions of vitamins for the body. This period begins in 1955 when
Rudolf Altschul found that niacin (vitamin B3) can lower cholesterol levels in the blood. the role of
health in spite of the effect of vitamin B3 deficiency itself and its role as a coenzyme in the met abolism
of the body.

Types Vitamins
Broadly speaking, the vitamin can be grouped into t wo major groups, namely vitamins are water
soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. There are only two water-soluble vit amins, namely B and C, while the
other vitamins, namely vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble. The fat-soluble vit amins are stored in
adipose tissue (fat ) and in the liver. This vitamin will then be issued and circulated throughout the
body when needed. Some types of vitamins can only be stored for a few days in the body, while other
types of vitamins can last up to 6 months in the body.
Unlike the fat -soluble vitamins, water soluble vitamins can be stored only in small amounts and
usually will soon disappear wit h the flow of food. When a food is digested by the body, vitamin which
will be separated into the bloodstream and circulat e throughout the body. If not needed, it will be
discarded vitamins the body with urine. Therefore, it is this, the body needs water soluble vit amin
intake continuously.
Vitamin A, which is also known as retinol, is a vitamin that plays a role in the formation of a good
sense of sight, especially at night, and as a constituent of eye pigment in the retina. In addition, this
vitamin also plays an important role in maintaining healthy skin and immunity. These vitamins are
easily damaged by expos ure to heat, sunlight, and air. Vitamin A is found in milk, fish, veget ables
(especially green and yellow), and also fruits (es pecially red and yellow, such as red peppers, carrots,
bananas, and papayas).

Introduction of Vitamins
Was completed on December 17, 2014

Written by Benny Hermawan.


Palangka Raya University

Deficiency of vit amin A can cause night blindness, cataracts, respiratory tract infections, and
decreased endurance. Excess vitamin A in the body can c ause poisoning. The disease can be
caused by, among others, dizziness, hair loss, dry scaly skin, and fainting. Moreover, when it is in an
acute condition, it can cause myopia , inhibition of the growth of the body, swelling of the liver, and
skin irritation.
In general, group B vitamins play an important role in the metabolism in the body, especially in terms
of energy release during the move. This is related to its role in the body, which is a coenzyme
compounds t hat can inc rease the rate of met abolism of the body 's reaction to the various types of
energy sources . Some types of vitamins belonging to the vitamin B group was also instrumental in
the formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). The main source of vitamin B derived from milk, wheat,
fish, and green vegetables.
Vitamin B1, which is also known as thiamine, is one type of vitamin that plays an important role in
maintaining healthy skin and help convert carbohydrates into energy needed for the body's daily
routine. In addition, vitamin B 1 also helps metabolize proteins and fats. If there is a deficiency of
vitamin B1, the skin will experience a variety of disorders, such as dry, scaly skin. The body can also
experience beriberi, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and nervous system. To prevent that, we need a
lot of eating a lot of wheat, rice, meat, milk, eggs, and legumes. This food ingredient that has been
shown to contain a lot of vitamin B1.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) plays an important role in the metabolism of many in the human body. In the
body, vit amin B2 serves as one of the coenzyme flavin mononucleotide kompenen (flavin
mononucleotide, FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (adenine dinucleotide, FA D). Both of t hese
enzymes play an important role in the regeneration of energy for the body through the process of
respiration. This vitamin also plays a role in the formation of steroid molecules, red blood cells, and
glycogen, as well as supporting the growt h of various organs, such as skin, hair, and nails. The
source of vitamin B2 is found in fresh vegetables, soybeans, egg yolks , and milk. Deficiency can
cause immune deficiencies, dry scaly skin, dry mouth, cracked lips, and mouth sores.
Vitamin B3 is also known as niacin. This vitamin plays an important role in the metabolism of
carbohydrates to produce energy, metabolism of fats, and proteins. In the body, vitamin B3 has a
major role in maintaining blood sugar levels, high blood pressure, cure migraine and vertigo. Various
types of toxic compounds can be neutralized with the help of this vitamin. Vitamin B3 is one kind of
vitamin that is found in animal foods, such as yeast, liver, kidney, meat, poultry, and fish. However,
there are several sourc es other foods that also contain high levels of this vitamin, such as wheat and
sweet potatoes. Deficiency of t his vitamin can cause the body to experience spasms, muscle cramps,
digestive system disorders, vomiting, and nausea.
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is involved in many enzymatic reactions in the body. This leads to
vitamin B5 plays a major role in various types of metabolism, such as the cracking reactions of dietary
nutrients, especially fat. Another role of this vitamin is to maintain good communication between the
brain and the cent ral nervous system and produces compounds of fatty acids, sterols,
neurotransmitters, and hormones of the body. Vitamin B5 can be found in various types of variations
in animal foods, ranging from meat, milk, kidney, and liver to plant foods, such as green veget ables
and green beans. As well as vitamins B 1 and B 2, vitamin B 5 deficiency can cause skin chapped and
flaky. In addition, other disorders that will suffer are muscle cramps and difficulty sleeping.
Vitamin B6, or also known as pyridoxine, is a vitamin that is essential for the growth of t he body. This
vitamin plays a role as one of the compound coenzyme A, which the body uses to produce energy
through fatty acid synthesis pathway, such as spingolipid and phospholipids. In addition, this vitamin
also plays a role in the metabolism of nutrients and produce antibodies as a defense mec hanism
Introduction of Vitamins
Was completed on December 17, 2014

Written by Benny Hermawan.


Palangka Raya University

against antigen or foreign substance that is harmful to the body. this vitamin is one type of vit amin that
is easily obtained because the vitamin is widely present in rice, corn, beans, meat, and fish. Lack of
vitamin in large quantities can cause chapped skin, muscle cramps, and insomnia.
Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin is a special type of vitamin that is only produced by the animal and is
not found in plants. Therefore, vegetarians often have health problems as a result of the body's
vitamin deficiency. This vitamin plays a role in the met abolism of a lot of energy in t he body. Vitamin
B12 is also included in one type of vitamin that plays a role in maintaining the health of nerve cells,
the formation of DNA and RNA molecules, the formation of blood platelets. The eggs, liver, and meat
is a good source of food to meet the needs of vit amin B12. This vit amin deficiency will lead to anemia
(lack of blood), fatigue lethargy, and skin irritation.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) provides many benefits for our health. In the body, vit amin C als o acts as a
collagen-forming compound which is an important protein c onstituent of skin tissue, joints, bones, and
tissues other backers. Vitamin C is a natural antioxidant compounds that can counteract free radicals
from environmental pollution around us. Associated with nature that can counteract free radicals,
vitamin C can help reduce the rate of mut ation in t he body so that the risk of degenerative diseases,
such as cancer, can be derived. In addition, vitamin C plays a role in maintaining the s hape and
structure of various tissues in the body, such as muscles.
This vitamin also plays a role in wound closure when there is bleeding and provide more protection
from infection wit h pathogenic microorganisms. Through this mechanism of vitamin C plays a role in
maintaining physical fitness and help prevent various types of diseases. Vitamin C deficiency can also
cause bleeding gums and pain in the joints. Excessive accumulation of vitamin C in the body can
cause kidney stones, gastrointestinal disorders, and the destruction of red blood cells.
Vitamin D is also one type of vitamin that is commonly found in animal foods, such as fis h, eggs, milk,
and other dairy products, such as cheese. Parts of the body most affected by this vitamin is bone.
Vitamin D can help the metabolism of calcium and bone mineralization. Skin cells will soon produce
vitamin D when exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet rays). When low levels of vitamin D, the body will
experience a growth of abnormal foot, where calf will form the letter O and X. In addition, the tooth will
easily damaged and will experienc e muscle spasms. Other diseas es are osteomalacia, namely the
loss of calcium and phosphorus in excess in the bone. The disease is usually found in adolescents,
whereas in the elderly, is a disease that can cause osteoporosis, ie bone fragility consequently
reduced bone density. Excess vitamin D can cause the body to experienc e diarrhea, weight loss,
vomiting, and excessive dehydration.
Vitamin E plays a role in maintaining the health of various tissues in the body, ranging from skin
tissue, eyes, red blood cells to the liver. In addition, this vit amin can also protect human lungs from air
pollution. The health value associated wit h the work of vitamin E in the body as a natural antioxidant
compounds. Vitamin E is found in fis h, chicken, egg yolks, yeast, and oilseeds. Although only needed
in small amounts, vitamin E deficiency can lead to fatal health problems for the body, such as infertility
in both men and women. In addition, nerves and muscles will experience prolonged disruption.
Vitamin K plays a role in the formation of a lot of good blood circulation system and wound closure.
Deficiency of this vitamin will result in bleeding in the body and blood clotting difficulties when there is
injury or bleeding. Additionally, vitamin C also acts as a cofactor for the enzyme catalyzes the
carboxylation reaction of the amino acid glutamic acid. Therefore, we need to consume a lot of milk,
egg yolks, and fresh vegetables are a good source of vitamin K to meet the needs in the body.
In addition to vitamins, the body also produce other compounds that also plays a role in the smooth
metabolism in the body. These compounds have similar characteristics and activities of the vit amin
that is often referred to as a similar compound vitamin (vitamin like substances). The main difference

Introduction of Vitamins
Was completed on December 17, 2014

Written by Benny Hermawan.


Palangka Raya University

with this vitamin is a compound produced by the body in sufficient quantities to meet the daily needs Today. Some of these compounds been classified into groups of vitamin B complex because of the
similarity function and source of food. However, in general the role of similar compounds of this
vitamin is not as important vitamins.
Choline is one of the compounds belonging to the same compound vitamin. Thes e compounds can
be found in every cell of living organisms and play a role in t he regulation of the nervous system are
good and some cell metabolism. Mioinositol (my oinositol) is also included in the class of similar
compounds in water-soluble vitamins. The specific role in the body yet known. Other ex amples of
similar compounds of this vitamin is para-aminobenzoic acid (4-aminobenzoic acid, PABA), which
acts as an antioxidant compound and constituent of red blood cells. Carnitine is another compound
that plays a role in fatty acid transport system and the formation of the body muscles.
All types of life on earth need energy to survive. To produce this energy, living beings need the help of
a variety of substances, one of which is oxygen. Oxygen directly involved in energy metabolism in the
body. As a by-product, oxygen is released in the form unstable. These molecules known as free
radicals (free radicals ). Oxygen unstable have unpaired electrons that are free to be reactive.
Reactivity of oxygen is very harmful for the body because it can oxidize and damage DNA, proteins,
carbohydrates, fatty acids, and cell membranes in the body. Other sources of free radicals is cigarette
smoke, environment al pollution, and ultraviolet light
The body has several defense mechanisms against free radical compounds to neutralize the negative
effects. Most of them are natural antioxidant compounds, such as enzymes superoxide dismutase,
catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Antioxidants itself means a compound t hat can prevent the
occurrence of oxidation or other chemical reactions involving molec ular oxygen (O2). Other
compounds which can also act as an antioxidant is glutathione, CoQ10, and thiol groups on proteins,
and vitamins. Several types of vitamins has been shown to have high antioxidant activity. Examples of
vitamins that many compounds act as antioxidants in the body are vitamin C and vitamin E.
Vitamin E may help protect the body from free radical oxidation of compounds. This vitamin is also
able to work in conditions of compound concent ration of free radic als that are able to efficiently and
effectively suppress the reaction of tissue destruction in the body through t he process of oxidation. In
addition to vitamin E, there is one type of vitamin else who also has a high antioxidant activity, which
is vitamin C. This vitamin compounds interact with free radicals in the cell fluid. In addition, vitamin C
can also restore the condition of the body due to the oxidation reaction of various harmful compounds.
If levels of free radicals in the body becomes very excessive and can no longer be anticipated by
antioxidant compounds will give rise to a variety of chronic diseases, such as canc er, atherosclerosis,
heart disease, cataracts, alzhemeir, and arthritis. For those who have a history of chronic diseas e is in
the lineage, it is recommended to consume a lot of foods that contain vitamin C and E as a source of
antioxidant compounds. In addition, diet ary supplements can also be helped t o overcome the
problem.
Aging body is the result of the accumulation of various cell and tissue damage that can not be
repaired. In normal circumstances, the damage to the cells and tissues of t he body can be improved
through the process of c ell replication of the body which is also known as mitosis. However, in many
cases of damaged cells can no longer be updated, but continued to accumulate. This has the
potential to cause aging of the body. The compound of free radicals is one of the major contributing
agent in this event.
Mitochondria are organelles that one of the most susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species
(free radicals). This is related to the amount of free oxygen release reaction in this organelle that is
the center of the body's energy metabolism. Many studies have shown that the rate of mitochondrial
damage is directly related to the aging process of the body or t he longevity of a living being. In
addition, DNA damage due to oxidation by free radicals also play a major role in these events.
Therefore, the body requires a compound to suppress the damaging effects of free radicals.

Introduction of Vitamins
Was completed on December 17, 2014

Written by Benny Hermawan.


Palangka Raya University

Vitamins are one of the various types of compounds that can inhibit the body's reaction t o the
destruction of best bodybuilding supplements by free radical compounds associated with antioxidant
activity. Sufficient intake of antioxidant vitamins will help the body reduce the effects of aging by free
radicals, especially by reactive oxygen free. In addition, the vitamin also contribute to supporting a
good immune system so that the risk of degenerative diseases and ot her diseases can be
suppressed, especially in the elderly. So, indirectly, sufficient intake of vitamins and balanced can
create the conditions for a healt hy body and longevity.

Introduction of Vitamins
Was completed on December 17, 2014