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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY LAB REPORT WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY EME1226 TRIMESTER 2 (2014/2015) Experiment 1: Hand

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

LAB REPORT WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY

EME1226

TRIMESTER 2 (2014/2015)

Experiment 1:

Hand and Machine Tools Making a pin hammer

Prepare by:

NAME OF STUDENT

ID NUMBER

Chong Kah Leong, Joshua

1131122826

Group Number

:

34

Date of Experiment

:

10 th November 2014

Date of Submission

:

12 th December 2014

Name of Lecturer

:

Mr. Jee Kian Siong

 

Mr. Palanisamy Chockalingam

Lecturer‟s Room

:

Mechanical Workshop

1

TABLE OF CONTENT

1

Title Page

1

2

Table of Contents

2

3

Objectives

3

4

Introduction + (Theoretical background and Abstract)

3

5

Equipment

4-5

6

Experimental Method and Procedures

6-10

7

Results

11

8

Discussions

12-13

9

Conclusions

13

10

List of References

14

11

Appendices

14

     

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MAKING A PIN HAMMER

OBJECTIVE

To learn how to use different hand tools and machine tools in the workshop.

To learn how to make a Pin Hammer using tools.

INTRODUCTION ( along with Theoretical background and Abstract)

Hammers is one of the earliest tools dates back about 2,600,000 BCE which various shaped stones were used to strike wood, bone, or other stones to break them apart and shape them. Later on, these stones are attached to sticks with strips of leather or animal sinew were being used as hammers with handles at the middle of the Paleolithic Stone Age.

A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object especially for driving nails, fitting parts, forging metal and breaking up objects. Their wide choices in their shape and

structure are often designed for a specific purpose. Usually, a hammer‟s features are a handle and

a head, with most of the weight in the head. Currently, the basic design is hand-operated, but there are also many mechanically operated models for heavier uses, such as steam hammers.

A simpler and finer version of these hammers, a pin hammer is a very lightweight hammer which is ultilised for very fine work. They are commonly used for nailing very small nails, panel pins and tacks on the surface. Plus, pin hammers usually have lightweight wooden handles, but now they are also available with metal or fiberglass shafts.

Our task is to make a pin hammer with different hand tools and machine tools. Therefore, in this report, we will explain the steps and procedures of making a pin hammer with different operations of machine such as milling machine, drilling machine, lathe machine (turning machine) and so on. On top of that, appropriate precautions which should be taken will also be discussed.

Figure 1 A commercial pin head hammer 3
Figure 1
A commercial pin head hammer
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APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

Gradated steel ruler

Files

Hacksaw/cutter

set of taps

tap wrench

die Wrench

30° Parallel Bar

drilling machine

turning machine

milling machine

grinding machine.

parallel Bars

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS  Gradated steel ruler  Files  Hacksaw/cutter  set of taps 

Figure 2: hacksaw

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS  Gradated steel ruler  Files  Hacksaw/cutter  set of taps 

Figure 4: Drilling machine

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS  Gradated steel ruler  Files  Hacksaw/cutter  set of taps 

Figure 1:30° Parallel Bar

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS  Gradated steel ruler  Files  Hacksaw/cutter  set of taps 

Figure 3: Turning machine (LATHE machine)

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS  Gradated steel ruler  Files  Hacksaw/cutter  set of taps 

Figure 5: Milling machine

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Figure 6: Vernier Calipers Figure 8: Ball Peen Hammer and Mallet Figure 11: Tap Wrench 5

Figure 6: Vernier Calipers

Figure 6: Vernier Calipers Figure 8: Ball Peen Hammer and Mallet Figure 11: Tap Wrench 5
Figure 8: Ball Peen Hammer and Mallet
Figure 8: Ball Peen Hammer and Mallet

Figure 11: Tap Wrench

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Figure 6: Vernier Calipers Figure 8: Ball Peen Hammer and Mallet Figure 11: Tap Wrench 5

Figure 7:Double Cut File

Figure 6: Vernier Calipers Figure 8: Ball Peen Hammer and Mallet Figure 11: Tap Wrench 5
Figure 9: Parallel Bars
Figure 9: Parallel Bars

Figure 12 Die Wrench

PROCEDURE

  • 1. The steel rod was cut into 2 pieces by using hacksaw. One piece being longer, about 165mm and another remaining piece being shorter. The procedures of the longer side for the handle and then another side which is shorter are for head of the hammer are stated as below :-

(A) The Making of The Head of The Hammer

Milling Machine

  • 1. The steel rod is reduced to a square shape with the thickness of 15mm for each side by using the milling machine.

  • 2. The block is set under the steel rod to maintain it in stable and perfectly horizontal position all the time during the milling process.

  • 3. After that, the length of the steel rod is reduced to 60mm.

  • 4. Then, the steel rod is set with an angle of 30from the horizontal surface which made the steel rod will be in parallel 30angle slide and cut the one end top of steel rod part by 9.0 mm.

  • 5. After all milling processes, the steel rod is marked a hole with pin which its position is 30mm from the 60mm in total length and 7.5mm from the width of the steel. And then, a hole is drilled passing through the steel rod with drilling machine.

Drilling Machine

  • 6. An 8.0 mm diameter hole was drilled at the center point of the steel rod by drilling machine.

  • 7. Lastly, the drilled steel rod is locked on table with clamp and the tapping wrench is used to make the tread of the hole.

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(B) The Making of Handle of The Hammer

Lathe Machine(Turning Machine)

  • 1. A length of 180mm is marked on the steel rod surface as the length of the handle.

  • 2. The chips from the work piece were chipped off using a file to produce a smoother surface and remove impurities.

  • 3. The process was repeated in both ends of the work piece.

  • 4. After that, the work piece diameter was measured using a vernier caliper. A reading of 18.0mm was obtained.

  • 5. The work piece was checked for abnormalities and manufacturing defects.

  • 6. The lathe machine was checked before the machine is used.

  • 7. The procedure to check the lathe machine:

    • i. Before start to using lathe machine, it is recommended to have a machinist tool box with all wrenches, screwdrivers, and common hand tools. A dial indicator may be necessary for some procedures on the lathe. Keep all safety equipment, along with necessary cleaning marking, and lubricating equipment, in the immediate lathe area to use as needed. Before machining a work piece, the following measurements must be considered:

ii.

the diameter of the work that will swing over the bed and the length between lathe centers.

  • 8. The work piece was placed in the lathe machine in a secure position and the spindle was tightened. The steel rod was checked for any vibration while rotating using the „Jog‟ button.

  • 9. The cutting head was checked in order to avoid wear.

10. The coolant, speed and the angle was set up by the requirement needed for work piece turning. The cutting process is done slowly and gradually to create a smoother and brighter surfaces of work piece. 11. A few test runs were conducted in order to ensure the settings were suitable for the desired turning process. 12. When cutting, the oil tap should be open for the coolant to flow out to the work piece but the flow rate is controlled to avoid wastage.

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13.

The marked portion of the steel rod is cut using the turning machine while ensuring the continuous coolant flow on the cutting side of the work piece (steel rod).

  • 14. The work piece was left aside for a while to cool down and later back placed in between of the chucks.

  • 15. The work piece was cut by 0.5mm for 4 times gradually throughout the work piece while the coolant was pouring into the tip of cutter and the cutting side of the work piece.

  • 16. The work piece was taken out and measured every 0.5mm cut interval and stopped when its diameter reaches 16.0 mm. The measurement throughout work piece was recorded.

  • 17. The work piece was marked at the length of 15mm and 80mm respectively.

  • 18. The cutting tool was reset to match the new measurement of work piece.

  • 19. Then the work piece was cut 0.5mm for 4 times gradually up to 80mm.

  • 20. The cutting was reset to match the new measurement of work piece.

  • 21. The handle was cut into 9.5mm diameter for length of 15mm gradually using a 0.5mm of cutting diameter and the process was repeated until a diameter of 9.5mm was obtained.

  • 22. The handle was finally polished using a sand paper to smoothen the surface.

  • 23. Finally, the two parts were combined and the hammer was done. Oil is added to covered the surface of the hammer to prevent rusting.

13. The marked portion of the steel rod is cut using the turning machine while ensuring

Figure 13: (A) The Making of The Head of

The Hammer. Step 4 The steel rod is set 30⁰

from the horizontal surface and was cut.

13. The marked portion of the steel rod is cut using the turning machine while ensuring

Figure 14: (B) The Making of Handle of

with coolant flowing out to the work

  • 8 The Hammer. Step 12 Cutting process

Figure 15a: (A) The Making of Head of The Hammer. Step 7. Thread of the hole

Figure 15a: (A) The Making of Head of

The Hammer. Step 7. Thread of the

hole drilled is made with a tapping

wrench on the secured hammer head.

Figure 15a: (A) The Making of Head of The Hammer. Step 7. Thread of the hole

Figure 16: (B) The Making of Handle of

The Hammer Step 23. The hammer

head and handle are combined and is

covered with oil to prevent rusting.

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Figure 15a: (A) The Making of Head of The Hammer. Step 7. Thread of the hole

Figure 15b: (A) The Making of Head of

The Hammer. Step 7. Thread of the

hole drilled is made with a tapping

wrench on the secured hammer

head .

Figure 17: The Complete Blueprint of Pin Hammer 10

Figure 17: The Complete Blueprint of Pin Hammer

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Result

Result Figure 18: Completed Pin Hammer after Oiling 11

Figure 18: Completed Pin Hammer after Oiling

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DISCUSSIONS:

1.) Precaution taken during machining:-

  • 1. Any physical contact with the work piece and the cutter must be avoid at all times.

  • 2. Wear the safety spectacles or googles when operating the machine.

  • 3. Chips must be cleaned once in every cutting.

  • 4. All tooling must be clean and in good working order. Make sure that there are no

broken tooling should in the milling machine. If not, the broken tool will break into

pieces and be ejected from the machine which could spell hazards

  • 5. For better handling, test run on the motor and spindle speed of milling machine

should be done a couple of times to ensure the rotation and speed is correct.

  • 6. Before starting the operation of milling process, the work piece must be clamped

tightly on the work rest.

  • 7. Parallax error should be avoided by making sure that the position of the

observer‟s eye is in line with the reading of the scale to be measured or set before

machining operations.

  • 8. Be careful when making the taps because if the tap is broken in the work piece, it

can be almost impossible to remove.

  • 9. Also, the hammer parts should be allowed to cool down first before making any

contact with it. The temperature of the parts is high enough to cause scalding on the bare

skin after cutting.

  • 10. For extra points, the surface of the head and handle are being filed with a piece of

fine sand paper or file to ensure a good and smooth surface finish.

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2.

The diameter of our hammer is slightly smaller than the required diameter in the pin

hammer blue print. This is cause by overcutting due to vibration as we were reducing the diameter of the handle. The material we are using is a kind of soft iron steel which will rust easily. As a result of being clamped to tightly on the chucks of the turning machine, dents appeared on the surface of the handle are which is being gripped by the chucks. On the other hand, cutting also causes the steel handle temperature to increase; and when it cool, the shrinkage of the steel handle created dimensional charges. To correct this mistake, we even out the surface of the handle and increase the flow rate of coolant on the cutting point sufficiently. Hence, due to these errors, our steel handle diameter becomes smaller than what we hoped for.

CONCLUSION

In accomplishing this experiment, we were able to learn the techniques and methods of operating each different machine tools and hand tools such as a set of taps. Plus, we were also cementing our current knowledge on how to use hacksaw with the correct way in which the cutting is done on the forward stroke of hacksaw blade, but not the backward stroke. Furthermore, we were also able to learn and practices different general machining operations of forming a pin hammer such as milling, drilling and turning. Besides, we understand the function of a pin hammer as a force amplifier and also the effects of the head‟s mass and handle, such as its physics. On top of that, it can be shown that technical drawings are very important for engineers to detect flaws during operation and improve the designation in order to minimize or treat hazards.

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LIST OF REFERENCES

  • 1. S. Kalpakjian, “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”, Prentice Hall, 2001.

  • 2. Internet Encyclopedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

  • 3. MMU,"Workshop Lecture Notes", MMU, 2014

APPENDICES

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