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Dengan nama Allah yang

maha pemurah lagi maha


penyayang..
Ya Tuhanku, lapangkanlah
dadaku dalam menjalankan
tugasku, bukalah simpulan
lidahku supaya muridku
memahami setiap
perkataanku.

Chapter 5
Air
Conditioning
System

Air conditioning is the treatment of the


air to:
Control temperature

Provide ventilation or air movement

Control Humidity

Clean the air

An air
conditioner is an
appliance, system,
or mechanism designed to extract heat from an area using
a refrigeration cycle. In construction, a complete system of
heating, ventilation and air conditioning is referred to as
HVAC".

Other definition
Air conditioning is the process to control and
maintenance the air in space or enclosed areas.
Mechanical treatments performed on the
temperature, humidity, air renewal, cleanliness
and distribution of air to achieve the requirements
and functions of an item.
Air Conditioning is the process of treating air in an
internal environment to establish and maintain
requirement standards of temperature, humidity,
cleanliness, and motion.

Basic principles are based on mass characteristic


with
temperature, heat and pressure

ASHRAE STANDARD definition:

Is the treatment of air in


enclosed space to control and
to maintain temperature, heat
and pressure together
Air conditioning is the process whereby the condition of air,
as defines by its temperature an moisture content, is changed.
Other factors must also be taken into account especially
cleanliness; odor; velocity & distribution pattern.

Evaporator (The cooling coil)A heat exchanger where


the heat from the area or item being cooled is transferred
to the refrigerant. Change the form of refrigerant liquid to
gas.
Compressor creates the pressure differences or increase
the gas pressure in the
system that needed to make
refrigerant flow and the refrigeration cycle work.
Condenser A heat exchanger where the heat absorbed
by the refrigerant is transferred to the outdoor air
or
another cooler substance. Change the form of refrigerant
gas to liquid
Expansion device (The expansion valve) provides a
pressure drop that lowers the boiling point of the
refrigerant just before it enters the evaporator. This is also
known as the metering device.

The major pieces of equipment required to complete the airconditioning cycle are listed as follows:

fan
supply ducts
supply outlets
space to be conditioned
return outlets
return ducts
filter
heating coil (combustion chamber) or cooling coil

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The Fan
The fan moves air to and from an enclosed space. In an airconditioning system, fan moves air that consists of:

all outdoor air


all indoor or room air
a combination of outdoor and indoor air

The fan pulls air from the outdoor and from the room at the same time.
Since drafts in the room cause discomfort, and poor air movement
slows the body heat rejection process, it is necessary to regulate the
amount of air supplied by the fan. To accomplish this regulation a fan is
selected that can deliver the correct amount of air. By controlling the
speed of the fan, the air stream in the room can be regulated to
provide good circulation without drafts.

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The supply duct


The supply duct directs the air from the fan to the room. A
typical duct arrangement is shown below. The supply duct
should be as short as possible and have a minimum number of
turn to ensure that the air can flow freely.

Supply Duct

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Supply Outlets
Supply outlets help to distribute the air evenly in a room. Some outlets
fan the air and other outlets direct the air in a jet stream. Still other
outlets combine these actions.
As a result of these actions, the outlets are able to exert some control
on the direction of the air delivered by the fan. This directional
control plus the location and the number of outlets in the room
contribute greatly to the comfort or discomfort resulting from the air
pattern.

Room Space

The room or the space to be conditioned is one of the most important


parts of the air cycle. If an enclosed space does not exist, then it is
impossible to complete the air cycle.

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Return Outlets
As stated previously, return outlets allow room air to enter the
return duct. The main function of the return outlet is to allow air
to pass from the room. These outlets are usually located on the
opposite wall from the supply outlet. For example, if the supply
duct is on the ceiling, or on the wall near the ceiling, then the
return duct may be located on the floor or on the wall near
the floor.
This situation is not true in all installations, however. Some systems
are provided with both the supply and the return near the
floor or near the ceiling.

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Filters
Filters clean the air by removing dust, suspended particles, contaminants and
odours. Filters are located within the return air duct. These devices are made
of many materials including spun glass and composition plastic.
Other filter materials maintain an electrostatic charge, and attract and capture
dust and dirt particles from the air flowing through them.
There are 4 classification for filters:
i.
Dry
ii.
Viscous
iii.
Electrostatic
Electrostatic Filteriv.
Activated Carbon
very expensive,

Viscous Filter comprise rows of


corrugated metal sheets with
surface coated in a nonflammable, non toxic odourless
oil.
Dry Filter- produced
from paper, fine
woven fabric,
foamed plastic or
glass fibers.

Activated Carbon Filterlocation in cooker hood. Very


absorbent and special design
for use in greasy and odours
atmosphere.

extremely efficient
of removing fine
particles, pollens,
smoke.

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1.

2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

Performance requirements
On comfort, noise, control options, flexibility and meeting
requirements of local regulations/codes
Capacity requirements
Range of capacity, multiple units, zoning, etc.
Spatial requirement
Plant room space, space for ducting and piping (vertical
shafts),
space for terminal equipment
Costs
Initial cost, operating cost and maintenance cost
Energy consumption
For both economic and environment reasons
System qualities
Aesthetics, life, reliability and maintainability

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AC system

Water and air cooling


Unit System

Window Unit

Air cooling

Package Unit
Water cooling

Split unit

Centralized system
Plant system
Air Handling unit

Split unit without


outdoor air

Split unit with outdoor


air

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A. Unit systems
i)

Split system
In split system, the condenser and compressor are
located
in an outdoor unit but the evaporator
is located inside the
building.
Typically, the evaporator is mounted in the air
handler unit.

ii)

Packaged System
In a packaged system, as the name suggests, all
components the condenser, the compressor
and the
evaporator are located in a single
outdoor unit.
The entire unit is generally located on the ground
or on the roof.
Packaged systems are generally used when there
is limited space.

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A split air conditioner splits the hot side from the cold
side system, like this:

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- With the packaged system, all the components which may


also include heating coils or a furnace , are located in a single
cabinet
- The cabinet is located on the roof of the structure or on the
concrete slab next to the structures foundation.

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iii. Window unit

Window units (also known as room units), are designed


to air condition a portion of the residence.
The capacity of such a unit is designed so that a given
unit size is adequate to condition one room.
Thus, a unit in a larger size is satisfactory for more than
one room.
If the unit is to be used for more than one room;
however, the arrangement of the rooms must insure
good airflow.
Although a unit may be designed to air condition only
one room, several window units can be used to air
condition an entire residence.
In fact, it is possible to air condition an entire multi-room
commercial building using window units.

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1. Comfort conditions are maintained in every room in the house.


2. A central automatic control points is provided.
3. Since the cooling and heating equipment is installed in one
location
rather than several locations, the maintenance of the system is
easier.
4. Better air distribution.
5. One of the major differences between central systems and
window units is the higher equipment and installation cost of the
central system.
6. Efficient air circulation
7. Improve your indoor air quality.
8. Level of indoor noise is almost negligible (system the condenser,
including the fan and the compressor, is located in an outdoor
unit)

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1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

A separate temperature control is provided in each


room or area in which a unit is installed.
Ducts are not required. This advantage is especially
noticeable in residences in mild climates where
central heating systems are not required. The
advantage may not apply in cooler regions where
duct systems are necessary for winter heating,
regardless of the summer requirements.
Plumbing is not required.
The installation of the unit is simple; therefore,
changes in the construction of the residence usually
are not required.
Some types of window units are fitted with heating
coils and can be used a; supplementary sources of
heat.

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1.
2.
3.
4.

The unit requires space in a window/wall.


In general, the unit has a fixed air quantity.
The installation must be made on an outside wall.
Appearance may be a factor.

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