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Geometric Dimensioning

Training Kit

World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

Day – 1 Agenda
Introduction to GD&T
Concept of Function and Relationship
ASME Y14.5 Rules
GD&T Symbols
Form Control
Flatness, Straightness, Roundness, Cylindricity
Orientation Control
Perpendicularity, Angularity, Parallelism

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Day – 2 Agenda

Composite Controls
Circular Runout and Total runout
Position Controls
Position, Symmetry and Concentricity
Profile Controls
Profile of Line and Profile of Surface

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

Chapter Description Page

Agenda 2-3
Introduction to GD&T 5-15
GD&T Fundamentals 16 - 42
Form Controls – Flatness, Straightness, Roundness and Cylindricity 43- 68
Orientation Controls – Perpendicularity, Angularity and Parallelism 69 - 89
Location Controls – Position, Symmetry and Concentricity 90 - 132
Composite Controls – Circular Runout and Total Runout 133 - 143
Profile Controls – Profile of Line and Profile of Surface 144 - 151

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
1. Introduction to GD&T

World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

The following are the guidelines followed in
developing this material

a) Principles of United states standard

ASME Y14.5M- 1994 is followed
b) All the drawings are in third angle
projection
c) Most of the units are in “inches”
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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Introduction to GD&T

• A method to specify the “Shape” of a piece of

hardware on an engineering drawing
• Helps in standardizing
• Helps as a common technical drawing language
for the designer, Tool manufacturer, Gage
manufacturer, Process engineer
• Based on engineering and manufacturing
principles

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Introduction to GD&T

• Let us better understand what GD&T does to a

part by studying the drawing given in the next
slide
• The drawing given in the next slide in the “co-
ordinate system”

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Introduction to GD&T

• The following questions are left unanswered in the

drawing given
– What does the “size tolerance” mean. Does it mean
that the individual feature can depart in the shape
also by the same extent as the size
– In the feature, 0.820, can a “bow” or bend is
allowed. If not, how is this represented in the
drawing
– In such a case, a micrometer used for measurement
would accept the part

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Introduction to GD&T

– With regard to the diameters .980, .315, 1.375, and 2.75

diameters, are they expected to be in the same axis. If there is
deviation allowed, by how much
– Do the overall length of the part adequately depict the
requirement
– Does the 1.750 face need to be flat
– What is the basis for the 45 deg angle tolerance and the 2.125
dia tolerancing. Is it based on scientific calculation or based
on “atmospheric analysis”
• These questions are not answered in the Co-ordinate
system of the drawing

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Introduction to GD&T

• GD&T are based on “FUNCTION” and “RELATIONSHIP”

as the fundamental principles
• FUNCTION and RELATIONSHIP are the key words in
GD&T
• Its use saves money by
– Ensuring less rejections
– Ensuring integrity of design requirements
– Ensuring interchangeability
– Providing uniformity of interpretation

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Introduction to GD&T

• Let us now, analyze these two principles using the

Flange mount drawing given on the next slide
• Next slide gives the assembly drawing of the
flange mounting
• Relationship of key features between the
assembled parts and also individual parts are
clearly shown in the assembly drawing
• GD&T ensures that these functions and
relationships are not lost and are translated in the
drawing and in manufacturing

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World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
2. GD&T Fundamentals

World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

GD&T fundamentals

For effective implementation of geometrics following are the major

fundamentals to be understood
1) Geometric characteristics & their symbols
2) Other related symbols
3) Feature control frame & datum feature symbol
4) General rules
5) Maximum & least material condition, Regardless of feature
size
6) Distinction between form, orientation, profile, run-out &
location type tolerances
7) Tolerance zones
8) Virtual condition
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1. Characteristics and their Symbols

• Geometric tolerances are divided into five

categories
– Form control
– Orientation control
– Location control
– Composite Control
– Profile controls

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1. Characteristics and Symbols
Form Controls
Flatness Straightness Roundness Cylindricity

Orientation Controls
Perpendicularity
( Squareness) Angularity Parallelism

Location Controls

Position Symmetry Concentricity

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1. Characteristics and Symbols
Composite Controls

Profile Controls

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2. Other related symbols and terms

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3. Feature Control frame and Datum feature
frame
It comprises of a pictorial note which includes
a) Kind of control
b) Geometric tolerance
c) Any modifiers ( i.e. M or L )
d) Datum references & any datum reference modifiers ( i.e. M or L )

Ex.

0.006 M A B
0.002

Geometric char.
Geometric tol.
Tolerance zone shape
Datum reference
Modifier
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--In feature frame control, there can be more than one Datum reference letters.
Reading from left to right , these reference letters indicate an order of precedence
of the datum feature so identified.
Ex.

M A B C
0.006

Primary datum
Secondary datum
Tertiary datum

--When two datum letters are separated by a dash it indicates a

common data
& is established by two datum features. There fore, there is no
precedence
between the two but together they create a common datum.
Ex. 0.002 A-B

Here A-B indicate common datum 23

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3. Feature control frame and Datum feature
frame

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3. Feature control frame and Datum feature
frame

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4. Standard Rules

Rule#1 - Limits of size rule

Where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits of size of
the individual feature describe the extent to which variation in
the geometric forms as well as size are allowed

The actual local size of an individual feature at any cross section

shall be within the specified tolerance of size

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4. Standard Rules

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4. Standard Rules

the following:

The forms of these shall be as per the industry standard norms

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4. Standard Rules

Rule#2 a) - Material condition Rule

For all applicable geometric tolerances, RFS applies with
respect to the individual tolerance, datum reference or both,
where no modifying symbol is specified.

Modifiers for “Maximum material condition” and “Least

material condition” must be specified on the drawing where it is
required
M A B C
0.006
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4. Standard Rules – Rule #2

• Characteristics and Controls which can be applicable to “Size” features and thus to which RFS applies under Rule # 2
unless modified to MMC or LMC are:
• Straightness
•Perpendicularity
•Angularity
•Parallelism
•Position
•Characteristics and controls which are always applicable at RFS under Rule # 2 and due to the nature of the requirement cannot be
applied at MMC or LMC are:
•Circular Runout
•Total Runout
•Concentricity
•Symmetry
•Flatness
•Roundness
•Cylindricity
•Profile of line
•Profile of Surface
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4. Standard Rules

Rule #2 b) – Pitch Diameter Rule

Each tolerance of orientation or position and datum reference
specified for a screw thread applies to the axis of the thread
derived from the pitch cylinder
Where an exception to this is necessary, it has to be mentioned
below as MAJOR or MINOR

Each tolerance of orientation or location and datum reference

specified for gears, splines must designate the specific feature of
the gear to which it applies (PITCH, MAJOR DIA, MINOR
DIA)

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4. Standard Rules

A virtual condition exists for a datum feature of size where its

axis or center plane is controlled by a geometric tolerance. In
such cases, the datum feature applies at its virtual condition even
though it is referenced in a feature control frame as MMC or
LMC

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5. MMC, LMC and RFS

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5. MMC, LMC and RFS

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5. MMC, LMC and RFS

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6. Form, Orientation, Location

Type Control Symbol Types of Datum

controls
Form Flatness a) Surface (Plane) No

Form Straightness a) Straightness of surface No

b) Straightness of axis
(RFS)
c) Straightness of axis
(MMC)
Form Roundness a) Surface No
(Circularity)
Form Cylindricity a) Surface No

Orientation Perpendicularity a) Surface w.r.t Surface Yes

b) Axis w.r.t Surface
(RFS)
c) Axis w.r.t Surface
(MMC)
d) Axis w.r.t Axis

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6. Form, Orientation, Location

Type Control Symbol Types of Datum

controls
Orientation Parallelism a) Surface w.r.t Surface Yes
b) Axis w.r.t Surface(RFS)
c) Axis w.r.t Surface (MMC)
d) Axis w.r.t Axis (MMC)
Orientation Angularity a) Surface w.r.t Surface Yes
b) Axis w.r.t Surface (RFS)
c) Axis w.r.t Surface (MMC)
Composite Circular Runout a) Surface w.r.t axis Yes
b) Surface w.r.t between
centers
c) Surface w.r.t Two
functional diameters
d) Surface w.r.t one Face
and one Diameter
Composite Total Runout a) Same as above Yes

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6. Form, Orientation, Location

Type Control Symbol Types of Datum

controls
Location Position a) Floating Fastener Yes
(Between holes)
b) Fixed Fastener
(Between holes)
c) Position w.r.t to edges
(as pattern) and
Position within Pattern
(Holes)
d) Position w.r.t another
feature – Hole (as
pattern) and Position
within pattern (Holes)
e) Position between
Coaxial features
f) Position between non-
cylindrical features
Location Symmetry a) Feature to Surface Yes

Location Concentricity a) Axis to Axis Yes

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6. Form, Orientation, Location

Type Control Symbol Types of Datum

controls
Profile Profile of Line a) Line to Surface Yes

To Summarize, there are 35 different types of Geometric controls that can be

designed using the 14 geometric characteristics

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7. Tolerance Zones

• Tolerance zone describes numerically as well as pictorially,

represent the extent of the permissible deviation from the
desired form, orientation, location, profile or runout
• If the diameter symbol is used before the numerical value, it
means it is a diametrical tolerance zone (always used in axis
control), otherwise it is the distance between parallel lines.

M A B C
0.006

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8. Virtual Condition

• Refer to Rule # 2c for the definition of Virtual Condition

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Paired comparison

• Complete the exercise for

Chapter - 2

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Geometric Controls detailed explanation

3. Form Controls

World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

Form Controls - Application

• Purpose of these form controls are

– To control features critical to fit, function or
interchangeability
– Tolerances of size do not provide adequate control
– Other geometrical tolerance controls are to be refined

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Flatness

• Definition:
• Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in one
plane.
• Flatness tolerance – specifies a tolerance zone defined by two
parallel planes within which the surface must lie.

• Flatness tolerance must be less than the associated size tolerance (

and often more logically, less than one-half of the size tolerance)

• The flatness tolerance is applied in a view of the drawing where the

surface elements to be controlled are shown as a straight line ( the
side view of the plane)
• The feature control frame is shown on an extension line of the
surface, or attached to a leader directed to the surface.
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Flatness

– Flatness tolerance does not associate with a datum reference ; the

actual surface relates to a perfect counterpart of itself, a plane; thus, no
datum is needed nor proper.
– Flatness tolerance relates to a surface with area but no size; therefore ,
MMC or RFS principles can not be applied to flatness.
– Flatness tolerance is normally applied to uninterrupted surfaces; for
coplanar surfaces see profile tolerancing.
– The concerned surface must also be within the specified limits of size
and the boundary of perfect form at MMC.

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Flatness

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Straightness

• The following are the different controls that can be

defined for Straightness
– Straightness of surface
– Straightness of Axis (RFS)
– Straightness of Axis (MMC)

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Straightness of Surface

• The straightness tolerance is applied in a view of the drawing where

the feature to be controlled are shown as a straight line
• All elements of the surface are to be within the specified size
tolerance and the boundary of perfect form at MMC
• Each longitudinal element of the surface must lie between parallel
lines the stated tolerance apart and in a plane common with the
nominal axis (cylindrical part) or a longitudinal plane normal to the
surface (flat part)
• The straightness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance
(generally less than ½ of the size tolerance)
• Straightness of surface elements related to a line which has no size,
therefore MMC or RFS principles cannot be applied
• Since boundary of perfect form at MMC must not be violated,
waisting or barreling may prevent the use of the full straightness
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Straightness of surface

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Straightness of an axis(RFS)

• The diameter symbol precedes the tolerance value in the feature

control frame
• The boundary of perfect form may be exceeded to the extent of the
stated tolerance (rule #1 does not apply)
• An outer or inner boundary results i.e. collective effect of the MMC
size plus (for shafts) and minus (for holes) the straightness tolerance
• In this case, the straightness tolerance can be greater than the size
tolerance where necessary
• Each circular element (actual local size) must be within the specified
limits of size
• The derived median must be within the straightness tolerance zone,
RFS

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Straightness of an axis(RFS)

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Straightness of an axis (MMC)

• The straightness tolerance is applied in a view of the drawing where

the axis to be controlled is shown .
• The feature controlled frame is placed with the size dimension in the
same view.

frame .

• The boundary of perfect form may be exceeded to the extent of the

stated tolerance .

• A virtual condition results i.e the collective effect of the MMC size
,plus (for shafts), minus (for holes) , the straightness tolerance

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Straightness of an axis (MMC)

• The straightness tolerance applies at MMC , as the actual size of the feature
frame controlled departs from MMC , the tolerance increases to the amount
of that departure.

• The straightness tolerance may be greater than the size tolerance where
necessary .

• Straightness tolerance of this variety deals with a feature of size , therefore ,

the principles of MMC(RFS) is usable.

• Straightness of an axis applied on an MMC is effective when dealing with

mating parts (pin in hole etc) and captures part function and interface 55
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Straightness of an axis (MMC)

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Straightness of a center plane (RFS or MMC)

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Roundness (Circularity)

• Definition: Circularity is a condition of a surface of revolution

• Where w.r.t to a cylinder or cone , all points of the surface intersected by
any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant from that axis .

• Where w.r.t a sphere , all points of the surface intersected by any plane
passing through a common center are equidistant from that centre

• The circularity tolerance is applied in either view of the drawing , whichever

is most convenient .

• All elements of the surface are to be within the specified

size tolerance and the boundary of a perfect form at MMC.

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Roundness (Circularity)

• Each circular element of the cylindrical surface must lie in a tolerance zone
between 2 concentric circles the stated tolerance apart and in a plane
perpendicular to the part nominal axis.

• The circularity tol. must be less than the size tolerance .

• Circularity tolerance does not associate with the datum reference , each
circular element relates to a perfect counterpart of itself , a circle thus no
datum is needed nor proper .

• Circularity of each circular element compares the form of each element to a

circle . Since the control of the surface itself is of concern , its size variation
is irrelevant to the form . Therefore , MMC or RFS principles cannot be
applied .

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Roundness (Circularity)

• Part size may vary within its size tolerance , yet the circularity tolerance
remains the same . Where size of the produced part approaches LMC , the
roundness tolerance proportionately diminishes .

section .

• Verification with a conventional v block methods must recognize the

variable involved i.e the lobing effect on the part , angle of the V-BLOCK ,
out of straightness of the longitudinal axis etc.

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Roundness (Circularity)

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Circularity of Cone
• The circularity tolerance is applied in the side view on the drawing . The
feature control frame is attached to the conical surface by a leader .

• All elements of the conical surface must lie within the specified size
tolerances.

• Each circular element of the conical surface must lie in a tolerance zone
between 2 concentric circles the stated tolerance apart and in a plane
perpendicular to the nominal axis of the conical surface .

• The circularity tolerance must be less than the controlling size tolerances,
logically , les than one half the controlling size tolerances .

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Circularity of Cone

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Cylindricity
• Definition :
• Is a condition of surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are
equidistant from a common axis .

• Cylindricity tolerance (C.T) specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two

concentric cylinders within which the surface must lie .

• The Cylindricity tolerance must be less than the feature size tolerance .

• Cylindricity tolerance is a composite control of form which includes circularity

, straightness & taper .

• Cylindricity tolerance differs from circularity tolerance in that it applies to the

total surface (entire length) simultaneously .

• All the elements of the surface controlled are to be within the specified size
tolerance and the boundary of perfect form at MMC .

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Cylindricity
• C.T relates to the control of the surface form which is irrelevant to size ,
therefore RFS or MMC principle cannot be applied.

• C.T is applicable only to cylindrical features , either inside or outside

cylinders.

• C.T does not associate with a datum reference , the cylindrical elements
relate to a perfect counterpart of itself, a cylinder , thus no datum is needed ,
nor proper.

• Part size may vary within its size tolerance , yet the cylindricity tolerance
remains the same . Where the size of the product approaches LMC, C.T
proportionately diminishes .

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Cylindricity

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Quick reference for Form tolerances
Control Symbol Types of tolerancing Calculation of Inspection MMC Datum
tolerances method applicable

Flatness a) Surface (Plane) < ½ of the size Dial No No

tolerance
Straightness Straightness of the < ½ of the size Dial No No
surface tolerance
Straightness Straightness of the axis Based on the Dial Yes No
(RFS) function and fitment
Straightness Straightness of the axis Based on the fitment Functional gage Yes No
(MMC) (Clearance 0 and
interchangeability
Roundness Roundness of the surface < ½ of the size Roundness No No
tolerance tester
Cylindricity Cylindricity of the surface < ½ of the size Composite No No
tolerance checking

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Paired comparison

• Complete the exercise for

Chapter - 3

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4. Orientation Controls

Perpendicularity
( Squareness) Angularity Parallelism

World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

Orientation Controls - Application

• Orientation controls are applied when

– Relationship of features (surfaces or size features) are
required but which do not include location controls
– A refinement tolerance control of orientation within a
location control for the feature or features is required
– Where otherwise anticipated controls like workmanship,
standards etc. are insufficient

Orientation controls always require a datum

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Datum Features - Application
• Definition ;
• Is theoretically exact point , axis , or plane derived from true geometric
counterpart of a specified datum feature . A datum is the origin from which
the location or geometric characteristics of features of part is established .
• A datum is established from an actual part feature .

• A datum feature refers to actual part feature and thus includes all the
inaccuracies and irregularities of produced feature.

• A datum feature is indicated on drawing by appropriately attaching or

relating the datum feature symbol to the desired feature .

• In manufacturing or verification , reference cannot be made from

theoretical plane or axis.
• Therefore such a reference is referred to as simulated datum feature and
is assumed to exist in the precise manufacturing or inspection equipment
such as fixtures , gage pins , surface plates , collets , chucks , mandrels
etc. , the datum feature simulators .

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Datum Features - Application

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Perpendicularity
• Perpendicularity is the condition of a surface , median plane , or a
axis at a right angle (90°) to a datum plane or axis
• A perpendicularity tolerance specifies one of the below:
– A tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes perpendicular to a
datum plane or axis within which a surface or median plane of the
considered feature must lie
– A tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines perpendicular to a datum
axis within which the axis of the considered feature must lie
– A cylindrical tolerance zone perpendicular to a datum plane within
which the axis of the considered feature must lie
– A tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines perpendicular to a datum
plane or axis within which an element of the surface must lie
• Perpendicularity controls can be of the following types:
– Surface to Surface
– Axis to Surface (RFS)
– Axis to Surface (MMC)
– Axis to Axis
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Perpendicularity (Surface to Surface)

• A Perpendicularity tolerance always requires a datum reference , a

relationship of a feature in its orientation to datum feature .

• A Perpendicularity tolerance applied to a surface also controls the flatness

of the controlled surface to the extent of the stated tolerance .

• Perpendicularity tolerance to a surface should be applied in a view of the

drawing where the relationship appears .

• The collective effect of the size dimension and the perpendicularity

tolerances should be considered in the part assembly and other
relationships

• The datum feature error is not accumulative to the related feature being
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Perpendicularity (Surface to Surface)

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Perpendicularity (Axis to Surface RFS)

• The Perpendicularity tolerance zone for a cylindrical feature of size , such as pin
which projects from a surface , is a tolerance zone of the stated tolerance and
perpendicular to the datum plane .Where the Perpendicularity tolerance is specified
on RFS basis , the tolerance indicated is maximum regardless of the actual mating
size of the produced feature . The derived axis of the produced feature must lie within
that tolerance zone .

• The controlled feature must be within the specified limits of size and within the
specified tolerance of location . Therefore Perpendicularity control of a size feature is
normally a refinement of another control ( I.e position) in terms of its orientation
relative to the specified datum

• The diameter symbol is normally included preceding the perpendicularity tolerance

value in the feature control frame where a feature of size, such as a pin, is related to a
datum surface only. However without the diameter symbol, the derived meaning could
be assumed the same i.e the tolerance zone would be between two parallel planes
of infinite rotation , thus developing a cylindrical zone tolerance .

• The collective effect of the MMC size of the controlled feature such as a pin , and its
perpendicularity tolerance develop an outer boundary . This collective effect of the
possible feature error is considered as necessary in the relationship with other parts in
the design requirements . This consideration usually is a factor in determining that a
perpendicularity tolerance is necessary and in establishing the permissible amount of
such a tolerance
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Perpendicularity (Surface to Axis RFS)

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Perpendicularity (Axis to Surface - MMC)

• The Perpendicularity tolerance zone for a cylindrical feature of size , such as

pin which projects from a surface , is a tolerance zone of the stated
tolerance and perpendicular to the datum plane .Where the Perpendicularity
tolerance is applied on MMC basis , the permissible perpendicularity
tolerance increases an amount equal to the produced feature actual mating
size departure from MMC size . The axis of the produced feature must lie
within that tolerance zone .

• Where functional interface of mating parts is involved , the MMC principle

should be considered . In terms of perpendicularity, such a tolerance is
usually determined by the clearance between pin and mating part hole .

• Functional gaging is possible and practical when MMC principles are

invoked . Such gaging is usually a simulation of the mating part interface .
The virtual condition and gage member size are synonymous

• The controlled feature must be within the specified limits of size and within
the specified tolerance of location . Therefore Perpendicularity control of a
size feature is normally a refinement of another control ( i.e position) in
terms of its orientation relative to the specified datum .
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Perpendicularity (Surface to Axis MMC)

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Perpendicularity (Non-cylindrical feature)

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Angularity

• Angularity is the condition of the surface , axis or the median plane which is at a
specified angle ( other than 90°) from a datum plane or axis .

• Angularity tolerance always requires a datum reference , it is control of a feature in its

orientation to a datum feature .

• Angularity tolerance always requires that the desired angle be indicated as a basic
angle .

• The angular relationship of the controlled feature ( surface or axis ) is not affected by
the surface irregularities of the datum feature since the relationship is from the datum
plane or axis .

• Angularity tolerance applied to a surface includes a control of flatness to the extent of

the stated angularity tolerance

• Angularity tolerance is independent of the size tolerance and is verified separately .

The part must also meet all size requirements .Aspects of the controlled angular
surface ( I.e corner ) , which is also dimensioned and toleranced as a separate
requirement , must also meet such requirements .

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Angularity

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Parallelism of surface

• The considered feature surface must lie within a tolerance zone between
two parallel planes, the stated tolerance apart, which is Parallel to the datum
plane.

• Parallelism tolerance always requires a datum reference; it is the control of a

feature in its orientation to a datum feature.

• Parallelism tolerance is shown in the view of the drawing where the parallel
relationship is seen. An appropriate feature control frame is used.

• The parallelism tolerance must be must be less than the associated

• Size dimension ( and more appropriately less than one-half the size
tolerance).

• Parallelism tolerance applied to a surface includes a control of flatness to

the extent of the stated parallelism tolerance.

• The parallelism tolerance and the size tolerance is verified separately. The
surface must be within the specified size limits
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Parallelism of Surface

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Parallelism of Axis to Surface

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Parallelism of Axis to Axis

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Quick reference for Orientation tolerances

Control Symbol Types of tolerancing Calculation of Inspection MMC Datum

tolerances method applicable

Perpendicularity Surface to Surface Based on the Dial No Yes

function
Perpendicularity Axis to Surface (RFS) Based on the Dial Yes Yes
function and
relation with
other parts
Perpendicularity Axis to Surface (MMC) Based on fitment Functional gage Yes Yes
and clearances
required for fitment
Angularity Surface to Surface Based on the Dial No Yes
function
Angularity Axis to Surface (RFS) Based on the Dial Yes Yes
function and relation
with other parts
Angularity Axis to Surface (MMC) Based on fitment Functional gage Yes Yes
and clearances
required for fitment

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Quick reference for Orientation tolerances

Control Symbol Types of tolerancing Calculation of Inspection MMC Datum

tolerances method applicable

Parallelism Surface to Surface Based on the Dial No Yes

function
Perpendicularity Axis to Surface (RFS) Based on the Dial Yes Yes
function and
relation with
other parts
Perpendicularity Axis to Surface (MMC) Based on fitment Functional gage Yes Yes
and clearances
required for fitment
Perpendicularity Axis to Axis (MMC) Base don the fitment Functional gage Yes Yes
and clearances

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Paired comparison

• Complete the exercise for

Chapter - 4

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5. Location Controls

World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

Location Controls - Application

• Location tolerances are used to control the following

types of relationship
– Center distances between features such as pins, holes,
projections etc..
– Location of features as a group relative to a datum or
datums
– Co-axiality between a feature or features relative to a
datum axis
– Centrality between a non-cylindrical feature or features
relative to a datum center-plane

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Position tolerance

• Following controls are possible in position tolerance

– Center distance between holes – Fixed Fastener
– Center distance between holes - Floating Fastener
– Position with respect to edges (as pattern) and Position within pattern
(Holes) - Composite
– Position with respect to another feature – Hole (as pattern) and
Position within pattern (Holes)
– Position between Coaxial features – Mating parts
– Position between non Cylindrical features – Mating parts

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Datum reference frame (Three plan concept)

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Datum reference frame (Three plan concept)

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Datum Targets

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Positional Tolerance Theory

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Positional Tolerance Theory

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Center Distance between holes –
Floating Fastener
• Position tolerancing is effective when controlling location of mating part
features
• Where both mating parts have clearance holes to accommodate a
fastener as means of assembly, the “floating fastener” method of
calculation can be used to determine the position tolerance
• The size of the fastener is selected and the appropriate size of the
clearance holes are then determined and specified as based upon the
designer discretion or as per standard
• The MMC of both the mating features are used to calculate the positional
tolerance
• Formula is T = H- F (H – Hole F – Fastener) Both at are MMC

• Where datum references are required to ensure orientation control of the

holes relative to the respective mating surfaces, they are used

• Functional gage principles are utilized where MMC are specified. Gage
Pin size is determined as P = H – T

• Soft gaging (CMM) may also be used for inspection

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Center Distance between holes –
Floating Fastener

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Center Distance between holes –
Fixed Fastener

• Where one part has clearance hole to accommodate fixed pins (or
fasteners) on the mating part or assembly, the “fixed fastener”
method of calculation is used to determine the position tolerances
• The sizes of the mating features are determined as per the
standard or designer discretion
• The tolerance is calculated as follows; T = (H-F)/2 both at MMC
• Where desirable to select a more suitable distribution of tolerance
between the parts, the calculated total tolerance may be divided
between the parts
• Functional gage is used to verify the position of the holes. Gage
Pin size is given by the formula P = H – T

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Center Distance between holes –
Fixed Fastener

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Position Tolerance – Datum reference

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Center Distance and Relation to Edges

• Where a position tolerance is applied to the features in a pattern (i.e. holes) and the pattern
relationship to outside part edges (or other features) is less critical, the composite position
tolerance method may be used. In such applications the required precision in pattern ( feature
relating tolerance) can be stated, yet the pattern ( as a unit) may be separately stated with more
lenient control relative to the part edges ( datum features) with a pattern location tolerance. The
MMC principle is usually most appropriate in such applications.

• Where the composite positional tolerancing method is used, datum's are required. The datum
reference frame and datum precedence is also used. This will ensure proper functional interface
with the component or part which mounts to the located features ( i.e. holes) and on the
indicated surface (datum). Although rare , it is permissible to omit datum's in the feature relating
tolerance callout

• The features (holes) on the example shown may individually vary from their true position within
the specified “feature relating” position tolerance & the established t zones at each true position
and as oriented to datum A. The hole pattern relative to the specified datum's (i.e. A, B & C) may
shift/rotate from true position within the specified “Pattern locating” position tolerance. These two
requirements are both applicable to the feature pattern but are separate requirements.

• The feature control frame is constructed as a composite symbol with the “pattern locating”
position tolerance in the upper portion and the “feature relating” position tolerance in the lower
portion of the symbol. There is no significance as to whether each portion is in the upper or lower
segment; the datum indicators and the tolerance values are the key criteria. The method shown
is standard.

• It should be noted that in the composite positional tolerancing method , one control (i.e.
position) is used on both portions of the requirement. The discipline of the datum reference
World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003
Center Distance and Relation to Edges

• Orientation of the features (holes) in the pattern and their location with respect to true
position and one another must be within the “feature relating” position tolerance ( i.e.
Ø.008). To ensure that this requirement clearly indicates an orientation relationship ( if
required per the design), the primary datum is stated.

• Functional gaging techniques may be used when composite positional tolerance is

applied on an MMC basis. Two separate gages would normally be used. The gage for
the “pattern-locating”
• Positional tolerance (i.e. Ø.030) would include pick-up of the datum surfaces in an
appropriate manner & with the virtual condition & nominal gage member size
determined by MMC size of the feature (hole) minus the stated positional tolerance; the
formula is
• GP = H – T (Ø.198 = Ø.206 – Ø.030)
• The gage for the “in-the-pattern” positional tolerance (Ø.008) would include a pick up of
the primary datum (only) & with the virtual condition and the nominal gage member size
determined by MMC size of the feature (hole) minus the stated positional tolerance; the
formula is
• GP = H – T (Ø.198 = Ø.206 – Ø.008)

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Center Distance and Relation to Edges

Note that the nominal gage pin sizes are the virtual conditions sizes of the holes
developed from their respective position tolerances. Described above are “hard
gages." Soft gaging” principles, using computer or electronic means to accomplish
the same task via CMM data, software programs & mathematical manipulation, are
in common use as well.

Composite tolerance principles may be extended to numerous other applications.

For ex., if it is desired to maintain an orientation of the “feature relating” tolerance
datum reference frame to both datums A & B the Called out would be:

The added datum B gives orientation to the pattern true positions ( i.e. parallel to
secondary datum B) but not location. The functional gage principles for the
“feature relating” pattern would then require an added sliding rail similar to that
shown in Slide no.

Ø.030 A B C

Ø.008 A B
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Center Distance and Relation to Edges

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Center Distance and Relation to another
Feature (Hole)
• Where a position tolerance is applied to features in a pattern (i.e. holes) and the
pattern relationship is to another feature, such as a pilot hole, that feature can be
indicated as a locating datum. In such a case, the location of the surrounding
feature (holes) pattern relative to the pilot hole is the critical requirement. A mating
part situation with a pilot pin surrounded by its counterpart features (pins, tapped
holes) can be envisioned as the mating part interface.

• The pilot hole feature may first be specified with a more lenient positional tolerance
relative to the selected outside features. Where necessary , a refinement in
orientation (i.e. a perpendicularity tolerance) may be necessary to ensure the proper
pilot hole orientation ( squareness) & the pilot pin mating part interface. Since the
datum feature (the pilot hole) is a “size” feature the MMC principle can be applied if
appropriate to the design requirement; for ex., if there is to be a clearance fit
between the pilot hole & pilot pin at assembly.

• Where the surrounding holes are to interface with mating part features (i.e. pins,
tapped holes) their positional tolerance is calculated using the “fixed fastener”
formula and maximum material condition is specified. The location dimensions for
the surrounding holes are specified relative to the pilot hole.

• The datum references specified with the surrounding holes are, first, the orientation
(squareness ) datum ( top surface) as the primary datum, the location datum ( pilot
hole) as the secondary datum, and an outside surface as the tertiary datum.
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Center Distance and Relation to another
Feature (Hole)
• As indicated by the Datum/Virtual Condition Rule, the pilot hole ( the secondary &
locating datum), is implied at its virtual condition. That is, the pilot hole has been
permitted orientation tolerance in its control. This, therefore, must be recognized in
its “pick-up” in fixturing & inspection and as pertinent to the part function.

• Where MMC is specified to the surrounding holes and also to the pilot hole, the full
tolerance is available, and functional gaging techniques may be used. As each
surrounding hole actual mating size departs from its MMC in production, an increase
in the hole position tolerance is realized to the extent of that departure; as the pilot
hole actual mating size departs from its MMC in production , the shift of the
surrounding hole pattern as a group is permissible relative to the pilot hole.

• Functional gaging is permissible ( but not required ) when MMC is specified .

Functional gaging would simulate the mating part interface , expedite inspection
operations, and effectively capture the subtle interplay between feature size and
location . Feature sizes must be verified separately and independently . Open set
up measuring techniques can , of course be used in lieu of the functional gaging
with uniform results

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Center Distance and Relation to another
Feature (Hole)

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Position Tolerance – Co-axial features

• Position tolerancing is particularly practical and effective when controlling

location of coaxial mating part features on an MMC basis .

• Where one part has clearance holes ( bores , counterbores etc. ) and the
mating part has corresponding features ( pins shafts etc.) , the ‘fixed
fastener ‘ method of calculation can be used to determine the position
tolerances on both part mating features

• The sizes of the mating features are determined and specified as based
upon the designer discretion or as selected from standards
recommendations .

• The MMC sizes of the mating features i.e the shaft and related hole , are
used to calculate the position Tolerance for these features on both parts .

• The results of the ‘ fixed fastener’ calculation derives the positional

tolerance for both parts using the formula T =( H-S)/2
• i.e ( Ø 0.0025 = (Ø 0.711- Ø 0.706)/2)

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Position Tolerance – Co-axial features

• H = hole MMC
S = shaft MMC

• Where there is a relationship of only one feature to the datum feature on each part ,
an extension of the fixed fastener method maybe used to directly derive maximum
tolerance and yet assure function and assembly using the formula T= ( ( H-S) + (
D2-D1)) / 2
i.e Ø 0.005 = ((Ø 0.711- Ø 0.706) + (Ø 0.905- Ø 0.900) ) /2

• D1 =Datum shaft MMC

D2 = Datum hole MMC

• Where desirable to select a more suitable distribution of tolerance between the

mating part features , the calculated total tolerance may be divided between parts
i.e where Ø 0.01 is the total tolerance to be distributed , such combinations as 0.006
and 0.004 , 0.007 and 0.003 etc .
This is done at the design stage before release to production .

• Where MMC is specified , the stated positional tolerances on each part are
individually increased an amount equal to the actual mating size departure from
MMC size as the holes and shafts are produced
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Position Tolerance – Co-axial features

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Position Tolerance –
Design of Co-axial gages

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Position Tolerance –
Composite control of Co-axial features

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Position Tolerance – Non cylindrical features

• Position tolerancing is particularly practical and effective when controlling

location of non cylindrical mating part features on an MMC basis .

• Where one part has slots and the mating part has external width features ,
the ‘fixed fastener ‘ method of calculation can be used to determine the
position tolerances on both part mating features

• The sizes of the mating features are determined and specified as based
upon the designer discretion or as selected from standards
recommendations .

• The MMC sizes of the mating features i.e the slots and related external
width, are used to calculate the position Tolerance for these features on
both parts .

• The results of the ‘ fixed fastener’ calculation derives the positional

tolerance for both parts using the formula T =( SL - W)/2
i.e ( 0.003 = ( 0.466- 0.460)/2)

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Position Tolerance – Non cylindrical features

• SL = slot MMC
W = external width MMC
• Where there is a relationship of only one feature to the datum feature on each part ,
an extension of the fixed fastener method maybe used to directly derive maximum
tolerance and yet assure function and assembly.

• Where desirable to select a more suitable distribution of tolerance between the

mating part features , the calculated total tolerance may be divided between parts
i.e where 0.006 is the total tolerance to be distributed , such combinations as 0.002
and 0.004 , 0.0025 and 0.0035 etc . This is done at the design stage before release
to production .

• Where MMC is specified , the stated positional tolerances on each part are
individually increased an amount equal to the actual mating size departure from
MMC size as the slots & widths are produced .

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Position Tolerance – Non cylindrical features

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Converting from Position to Co-ordinate
and Vice-versa
• Conversion from stated positional tolerance on the drawing to equivalent ±
tolerances maybe necessary for tool building , prototype parts manufactures ,
inspection etc.

• Tool designers , tool makers , machinists , model makers , inspectors etc. can
convert positional tolerances to equivalent ± tolerances by the use of ‘ rule of thumb’

• Conversion from the stated coordinate (± ) tolerance to the equivalent positional

tolerance can be useful to production engineers , inspectors etc. who may wish to
isolate possible problem areas ; such as , where parts may assemble but have been
previously rejected on the basis of the permissible coordinate tolerance on the
drawing .This method may help’ trouble shoot ‘ problems in general .

• This is not the method used to determine positional tolerances in design .

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Converting from Position to Co-ordinate
and Vice-versa

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Converting from Position to Co-ordinate
and Vice-versa

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Inspection methods for Position
Tolerances

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Translating Position tolerance
to Tool tolerance

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Positional Tolerancing
Functional Gaging Design
• Functional gaging simulates individual part feature function and their
interface with mating part features . IT ensures proper assembly and
fulfillment of design requirements while also encouraging economic
advantages to production and inspection .

• The MMC principle and methodology must be specified before functional

gaging is permissible.

• Functional gaging verifies the geometric tolerances only ; feature size

tolerances must individually and separately proven .Such exception would
be when zero tolerancing method ( position , perpendicularity ) are used
which permits the functional gage to be utilized also as a ‘go’ size gage if
desired .
• The nominal gage member size for each control feature is synonymous
with is virtual is developed from the MMC size and the geometric
tolerances assigned. The
formula to derive virtual condition & gage pin size for hole feature is
• gage pin = Hole (MMC) – Position tolerance

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Positional Tolerancing
Functional Gaging Design

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Symmetry

• Symmetry is that condition where the median points of all opposed

or correspondingly located elements of two or more feature
surfaces are congruent within the axis or center plane of a datum
feature.
• Symmetry tolerance – is the distance between two parallel planes
equally disposed about the center plane of the datum feature.
• Symmetry tolerance is a variety of a locational tolerance & is
always applied RFS.
• Where necessary, two datum features ( a primary and secondary
datum) are specified to stabilize the part to two planes.
• Verification procedures require analysis of a necessary number of
measurements at opposed elements of the controlled feature
surfaces & differential or direct comparison of these measurements
to determine the resultant feature median points. These median
points must be within the tolerance zone about the datum center
plane.
• All size tolerances must be met independent of the symmetry
tolerance
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Symmetry

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Concentricity

• Concentricity is that condition where the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of a
figure of revolution ( or correspondingly located elements of 2 or more radially disposed features
) are congruent with the axis ( or centre point ) of a datum feature .
• Concentricity tolerance - A Concentricity tolerance is a cylindrical ( or spherical ) tolerance zone
whose axis ( or centre point ) coincides with the axis or centre point of the datum feature(s) . The
median of all correspondingly located elements of the feature(s) being controlled , RFS must lie
within the cylindrical or spherical tolerance zone . The specified tolerance and the datum
reference can only apply on RFS basis
• Concentricity tolerance is an axis to axis type of control which can effectively relate coaxial
features where part tolerance , uniform distribution of part feature mass in rotation , controlling
the geometry of a non rigid rotational part , etc is required .
• Concentricity tolerance – is more restrictive and potentially costly requirement due to the
possible need for detailed analysis of the part in verification .Before concentricity tolerance is
selected , the options of position tolerance at MMC or runout tolerance tolerance should be
considered .
• Concentricity tolerance considers in composite the effect of various surface errors such as out of
straightness, out of circularity out of cylindricity , etc as the median points are determined .
• Concentricity verification requires a form of differential measurement at opposed elements of the
surface , to determine the resultant feature median point .Where precision spindle machine
methods are used, polar graph printout and analysis with overlay gages will achieve the same
results . Computerization analysis is also used where such capability is available .
• Concentricity tolerance is always specified and implied on an RFS basis .If MMC principles are
desired ,consider position tolerance .
• All size tolerance must be met independent of the concentricity tolerance .

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Concentricity

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Restrained Features

• Where a non-rigid part must be verified in condition which simulates part

assembly or interface with mating parts , the part maybe restrained during such
verification .

• Restraining part means that during verification the appropriate features , as

indicated by the drawing symbols and notes , are mounted , held, or stabilized to
conditions or forces which simulate the part function or assembly requirements.
Suitable fixturing and measuring processes are introduced to achieve simulation .

• Appropriate geometric tolerance and datum symbols are placed on the drawing to
specify the relationship desired . A note describing the conditions under which these
requirements are to met including the word RESTRAINED , is added to the drawing

• When the amount of the restraint is not specifically indicated the restraint implied is
that required to simulate part function or assembly .

• Restrained features are typically found on weldments, pressure vessels, fabricated

sheet metal parts , bulkheads etc.

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Quick reference for Location tolerances
Control Symbol Types of tolerancing Calculation of Inspection MMC Datum
tolerances method applicable

Position Center distance (Floating T=H–F Functional Yes Yes

fastener) gage/CMM
Position Center distance (Fixed T = (H – F)/2 Functional Yes Yes
fastener) gage/CM
M
Position Center distance and T = H – F (For Two functional Yes Yes
distance from edge distance within gages/ CMM
features)
Position Center distance and T = H – F (for Two functional Yes Yes
distance from distance within gages/ CMM
another feature features)
Position Coaxial features T = (H-S)/2 Functional gage Yes Yes
T = (H-S) +
(D2-D1)/2
Position Non cylindrical features T = (SL-W)/2 Functional gage Yes Yes

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Quick reference for Location tolerances
Control Symbol Types of tolerancing Calculation of Inspection MMC Datum
tolerances method applicable

Symmetry Symmetry of Hole or slot Based on fitment Dial No Yes

with respect to surface and function
Concentricity Axis to Axis Based on function Dial No Yes

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Paired comparison

• Complete the exercise for

Chapter - 5

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5. Composite Controls

World Class Manufacturing Solutions (WCMS) GD&T, Version:1, Nov 2003

Composite Controls - Application

• Runout is the composite deviation from the desired form and orientation of a part
surface of revolution during full rotation (360 deg) of the part on a datum axis

• Circular Runout contains the following composite errors

– Circularity (Roundness)
– Concentricity
– Other surface errors

• Total Runout contains the following composite errors

– Circularity
– Concentricity
– Straightness
– Cylindricity
– Taper
– Other surface errors
• Runout tolerance indicates the permissible error of the controlled feature surface
when rotated about a datum axis.

• Typical applications are on rotating shafts, shafts to bearings where more precise
surface to axis relationship is required
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Runout – Surface to Axis

• Circular runout is a less stringent requirement than the total runout as it

controls only circular elements of a surface individually and independently
from one another

• Runout always requires a datum reference. When the datum is an outside

cylindrical feature, the simulated cylinder, and its derived axis, is
established by the minimum circumscribed cylinder which will contact
(closed upon) the extremities of the datum feature. A bearing mount to the
datum feature would be a typical design requirement

• Runout tolerance is applicable only on an RFS basis

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Runout – Surface to Axis

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Runout – Between Centers

• Run-out tolerance can be related to a datum axis established by two part

centers in such a case, the part function and final mounting is on the
centers. The two centering features are individually specified as datum's
thus establishing a common datum axis which the part rotates

• Where the datum axis is established from two internal centers, it is the
maximum inscribed true cone which will contact the extremities of the two
produced centers (cones); the two true cones can be represented by
machining or inspection centers.

• Where total runout is specified, the concerned surface must be within the
stated runout tolerance across the entire feature when rotated 360 deg

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Runout – Between Centers

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Runout – Between two functional
Diameters
• This is given for parts mounted to bearings. The bearing mount diameters
are selected as the datum's

• Runout error can possibly accumulate between features where they are
relative to the same datum. This error will be to the extent of the sum of the
concerned runout tolerances

• Where accumulation of runout error may need to be controlled between

specific features, one of the features should be selected and specified as
datum feature. The second feature is then related to it with an appropriate
feature control frame and referenced to that datum. In such cases,
maximum runout error permitted between the two features is that stated on
the drawing

• Runout can also be applied to surfaces at right angles to the datum axis.
Such application can control perpendicularity, wobble etc..

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Runout – Between two functional
Diameters

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Runout – Face and one Diameter

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Quick reference for Composite tolerances

Control Symbol Types of tolerancing Calculation of Inspection MMC Datum

tolerances method applicable

Circular and Surface to Axis Based on function in Dial No Yes

Total Runout rotation
Circular and Surface to Between Based on function in Dial No Yes
Total Runout centers rotation
Circular and Surface to Two functional Based on function in Dial No Yes
Total Runout diameters rotation
Circular and Surface to One functional Based on function in Dial No Yes
total Runout diameter and face rotation

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Paired comparison

• Complete the exercise for

Chapter - 6

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5. Profile Tolerances

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Profile Tolerances - Application

• Profile tolerance specifies a uniform boundary along the desired true profile within
which the feature elements (surface or line) must lie

• Profile tolerance is a method used to specify a permissible deviation from the

desired profile

• Profile tolerance is used to control form or combination of form, size, orientation and
location of a feature

• Where profile is used as refinement of size, the profile tolerance must be less than
the size tolerance

• The direction of arrow indicates whether it is Bilateral or Unilateral and if Unilateral,

in which direction

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Profile of a Surface

• This tolerance is a three dimensional zone and is the distance between two
boundaries disposed about the desired true profile or entirely disposed on one side
of the desired true profile( based on the position of the arrow)

• Where necessary for clarification, letter (i.e X and Y) are used to indicate the start
and the end of the profile

• Profile of a surface control is usually a combination of size, form, orientation and

sometimes location control

• Profile of surface control requires consideration of datum references to ensure

proper relationship of the profile to mounting surfaces

• MMC principles are not applicable to profile control

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Profile of a Surface

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Profile of a Surface ( All-round)

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Profile of a Surface (Coplanar surface)

• Profile of a surface can be used to control two or more surfaces where it is desired
to specify interrupted or non-continuous surfaces in their co planarity

• Co planarity is the condition of the two or more surfaces have all elements in one
plane

• In this case, profile tolerance provides a control similar to that as established by

flatness on a single plane surface

• Profile of a surface tolerance, applied to control co planarity, defines a tolerance

zone between two parallel planes within which the considered surfaces must lie

• Where two or more surfaces are involved, specified surfaces can be selected as
datum's if pertinent to the part function. In such cases, the profile tolerance zone
applies to all the coplanar surfaces including the designated surface features

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Profile of a Surface (Coplanar surface)

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Quick reference for Profile tolerances
Control Symbol Types of tolerancing Calculation of Inspection MMC Datum
tolerances method applicable

Profile of Line Line element of the Based on fitment Dial No Yes

surface with respect to and function
another surface
Profile of Surface (Plane) with Based on fitment Dial No Yes
Surface respect to another and function
surface
Profile of Co planarity check Based on fitment Dial/Gage No Yes
Surface and function

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