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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1

Background
Some students get difficulties in English lesson, especially for writing
subject. The students getting hard in linking some information after study. In
the end of study some teachers give the task for student to make a conclusion of
lesson that they have been learned by making summarizing and paraphrasing to
help student collecting information in writing process. Summarising and
paraphrasing are essential skills for academic writing and in particular, the
critical review. To summarise means to reduce a text to its main points and its
most important ideas. The length of your summary for a critical review should
only be about one quarter to one third of the whole critical review. The best
way to summarise is to scan the text, Locate the topic sentence, highlight the
main points as you read, and Reread the text and make separate notes of the
main point.
Based on the description above, the writing aims to find out some
advantages of summarizing and paraphrasing for the students, especially in
writing skills effect at reflection activity in the end process of study. Some
students who make some note of summarizing in their lesson get high memory
of their learning and they can develop their idea in writing activity.

Summary writing is an important skill for students to learn in English


Second Language. This allows them to paraphrase and summarize what they
have read at the same time interpreting what they have understood from the
passage. This is an important exercise to enhancing their comprehension skills.
Summary writing is perceived as a challenging task for most students with
limited vocabulary. Hood (2008) noted that the process of changing wording
seems to be complex when students have to present the same meaning in some
other way. Therefore, identifying key concepts of the materials and applying
skills of paraphrasing sentence structures to make the end product a precisely
condensed summary reflecting the same emphasis is difficult for them.
Perin et al (2003) in their study on summary writing in college, found that
students had difficulty finding the main points in the text. Many of these
students tended to look for certain repeated words or phrases as indicator of
importance which is often misleading. A majority of the students in this study
reproduced sentences that were from the source text. There was no significant
paraphrasing of the sentences. Further to this, it was found that students with
prior knowledge about the topic they were reading were able to summarize the
passage better than those without. Added to this, being ESL learners these
students may have been taught how to speak the language orally at the expense
of being able to effectively write English (Norris, 1970). This manner of
teaching ESL has been a prevalent trend in schools. Keeping in view the
various difficulties faced by students paraphrasing using English and learning

ESL, the present study will attempt to study the effectiveness of teaching
summary writing skills to these students.
Furthermore, the writer assumes that summarizing and paraphrasing
activities can increase the students writing skill.
1.2

Reasons for Choosing the Topic


The reasons why the writer chooses the topic are as follows:
1.

The students get some difficulties in study English, especially in


writing, using paraphrasing and summarizing technique, hope the
students can improve their writing skill, and it becomes fascinating
object to observe what language interference will be in the research
paper.

1.3

Assumption
The assumption relating to the topic is as follows:
1. Paraphrasing and summarizing significant roles in recall the students
memory after study.
2. Paraphrasing and summarizing influences the learners capability in
writing skill.

1.4

Problem Statement
The research will be conducted to reveal the answer for the following
question:
1. What is the students problem to get the interest the writing subject?
2. How does students writing skill increase by using summarizing and
paraphrasing?

1.5

The Objectives of the study


Based on the problems mentioned, the researcher defines for aims of the
study as follows:

1. To identify barriers and concerns related to writing activities for


students.
2. To assess the awareness and perception of the study of summarizing
and paraphrasing activities toward students writing skill.
1.6

Scope and Limitation


To simplify the study, the writer will limit the research as following:
1. The study only analyzes the effect of paraphrasing and summarizing
toward writing skill.
2. The population of this research will be the 2nd

grade of English

Department- STKIP Garut.

1.7

Research Method
The study will use the qualitative approach. Creswell (2009:4) states that
qualitative research is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning
individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem.
The population of this study will be the 2nd year students of English
Department- STKIP Garut and be narrowed to some students as the sample.
The main instruments in collecting data are unstructured interview to the
objects of this research and set out the oral test to find out how good the
objects conception using summarizing and paraphrasing activities in their
writing study.

1.8

Significance of Research
This research is intended:

1. In theoretically to deal with previous researcher that summarizing and


paraphrasing can improve students interest in writing subject.
2. In practically to apply the summarizing and paraphrasing activities in
writing study to improve their memory after study.
1.9

Definition of Terminology
The operational definition of terms used follows:
1. Hood (2008) noted that the process of changing wording seems to be
complex when students have to present the same meaning in some other
way.
2. Ismail &Maasum (2009) noted that paraphrase passages has effectively
hindered their writing skills and ability to express themselves.
3. Hare and Borchardt (1984) noted that teachers when teaching summary
writing tasks must ensure that students are able to take charge of their own
writing tasks. As such, teachers must take the time to make explanations
clear and model task-specific behaviours, as well as, coping behaviours.

1.10 Time Table

Month
No.

Activities

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

Aug

1 2 3 41 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1.

Reporting
Title.

2.

Approved
Title

3.

Make

Proposal
4.

Seminar of
Proposal

5.

Reporting
Chapter I

6.

Revision

7.

Reporting
Chapter II

8.

Revision

9.

Reporting
Chapter III

10.

Revision

11.

Going
Research

12.

Processing
Data

13.

Research
Finding

14.

Conclusion
&

Suggestion
15.

Reporting
Chapter
IV, V

16.

Revision

17.

Reporting
Final Draft

CHAPTER II
REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter explores the literary review added with some references:
2.1

Introduction
In schools that beat the odds, teachers make overt connections among grades,
lessons, courses, academic goals, and life . Ask students to recall what they have
learned about quoting, paraphrasing, citing sources and plagiarism in previous
grades. Help students see that the in-text citation they will learn today is an
extension of the list of Works Cited (or bibliography) they have already learned to
use at the end of a research report. Point out that their future educational and career
goals will involve incorporating others ideas into their own writing, and avoiding
plagiarism will be vital to their reputations. As they progress in school and career,
they will be held to an increasingly higher standard. Explain that paraphrasing,
summarizing and incorporating quotations are skills to be learned and developed
and that they will have an opportunity to improve their skills today.
In psychology writing, paraphrasing and summarizing are key skill. Sentences
in articles often have several references; this is because your assertion can be
supported by several writers (in other words, you have paraphrased or summarized
what they said, because you need to cite the authorities to help make your argument
more convincing). See, for example:
A core assumption of trait theory is the existence of relatively stable trait attributes
of individuals that predict their behavior across time and situations (Johnson, 1997;
Kenrick & Funder, 1988). For example, in their Five-Factor Theory, McCrae and
Costa (1996) proposed that the Big Five dimensions of Extraversion,
Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience are
universal and heritable dimensions that should predict relevant behavior in all

cultures. (Church, Katigbak, Reyes, Salanga, Miramontes, & Adams, 2008, p.


1200).

A key part of paraphrasing well is that the students should only describe
(paraphrase) the elements of a article that are important for your own essays main
point. This is also stated by the Wisconsin handout on p. 3, in the second point, Be
selective, of the General Advice on paraphrasing. When you are paraphrasing, you
will be least likely to plagiarize if you ONLY paraphrase the parts that are most
relevant for your own paper. Theres no need to tell your reader all the details of
everything in the article youre describing.
2.2

Theoretical Review
2.2.1 Summarizing an experimental report
Summarizing such texts requires adequate understanding of the
experimental methods and discussions. In such articles usually the report
follows the order:

Purpose

Method

Results

Conclusion
Suppose you were assigned the text Black tea soothes away stress.

In this part of the handout we will try the outlining method to illustrate how it
is used. You can use the Cornell method if you like too.
Read the text very carefully to understand

Purpose of the experiment,

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What method was used,

What results were found,

What the author concludes by looking at the results of the study.

The following table illustrates the notes made by a student. Notice phrases are
used instead of full sentences.
Black tea soothes away stress
Method:

Subjects: 75 young male regular tea drinkers

Experimental design: Ss divided into 2 groups monitored for 2


weeks

Experimental group: given caffeinated tea mixture

Control group: placebo drink

Task: both groups given challenging tasks:


Subjected to one of 3 stressful situations and asked to prepare a
verbal response
Results:

Increased blood pressure, heart rate and subjective stress


ratings in both groups

50 mins after the task, cortisol levels dropped by an ave of


47% in tea-drinking group
27% in the fake tea group

Blood platelet activation was lower in tea drinkers

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Tea drinkers: greater degree of relaxation in recovery period

Conclusion and discussion:


Tea drinkers recover from stress more quickly than those who
drink a fake tea substitute
Unclear if ingredients in tea responsible
Tea drinking not decrease stress levels but brings stress
hormone levels back to normal more quickly Important bec.
slow recovery after acute stress lead to chronic illnesses e.g.
heart disease.

2.2.2 Summarizing argumentative or theoretical texts


Summarizing conceptually more complex texts may be different from
summarizing factual texts. In such texts, you have to follow the authors
main line of reasoning, spot his arguments, identify the counterarguments he
puts forward to refute another argument, differentiate between main ideas,
and evidence provided to support or refute arguments. While doing these, you
will also have to decide what is essential information and what is detail. All
these require very careful critical reading. Do not forget, in your studies your
summary will often lead to a critical essay, i.e. response or reaction writing.
2.2.3 Suggestions for writing a summary
a). Read the material over as many times as necessary in order to understand
it. Look up unfamiliar words

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b). Identify the main points and underline them in the text or list them on a
piece of paper.
2.3

Critique of the exitisting literature relevant to the study


Paraphrasing is generally used when you wish to refer to sentences or phrases
in the source text. It is particularly useful when you are dealing with facts and
definitions. Paraphrasing involves rewriting a short section from the source text in
different words whilst keeping the same meaning.
Summarizing is generally used when you wish to refer to ideas contained in a
long text. Summarizing enables you to reduce the author's ideas to key points in an
outline of the discussion or argument by omitting unnecessary details and
examples.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research methodology that the writer use to identify the
implementing method of telling summarizing and paraphrasing activities toward tudents
skill. This chapter divided into five explanation about research design, population and
sample, research variables, data collection technique and analysis technique.
3.1

Research Design
In conducting this research, the writer will use qualitative method. Creswell
(2009:4) qualitative research is a means for exploring and understanding the
meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. Therefore, in
this research, the writer will observe the effect of summarizing and paraphrasing
activities toward students writing skill.

3.2

Population and Sample


The population of this study will be the 2nd year students English department of
STKIP Garut and be narrowed to some students as the sample 2013/2014 academic
year. For the sample of this research, the writer will take some students, each from
different classes in order to get the data, which will be needed, for this research. For
the sample of the research, the writer took one group from all population. In this
case, the writer will take samples from random students, which are from different
classes of 2nd grade of Students English department of STKIP Garut.

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3.3

Research Variables
According to Creswell (2009) a variable refers to a characteristics or attribute
of an individual or an organization that can be measured or observed and that varies
among the people or organization being studied. In this case, the variables will
focus on the second grade students of English education program of STKIP- Garut.
This research will use the variables in which characteristic refers to an
individual that can be observed among the people being studied. In this case, the
people will be some students of English Education Program. Therefore, the writer
summarizing and paraphrasing as the X variable or independent variable and
writing skill as the Y variable or dependent variable. In this case, summarizing and
paraphrasing as an independent variable which can influence writing skill as
dependent variable which will be caused or influenced by the independent variable.

3.4

Technique of Data Collection


To make data more complete the writer used an interview. This technique was
used to get the data that had been not yet observed by the above technique. The
writer asked the students to speaking according to the content that given to the
students.

3.5

Techniques of Data Analysis


The data analysis will be based on paper of the objects of the research. The
students will doing some exercises of writing, for sample of summarizing and
paraphrasing activities items. After the objects of this research will have done the
procedure, the writer will ask them some questions regarding their opinion of
writing activities that they have been done.

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