Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

16 TENSES

Present Tense
Simple Present
Tense :
a. Nominal simple
present : tobe-1
(am-are-is)
Example: She is a
Teacher
She is not a
teacher
Is she a
teacher ?
b. Verbal simple
present : not tobe
but have verb
Example: I work
I do not
work

PastTense
Simple Past Tense :
Rumus
Positif (+)
- Subject + to be (was/were) +
complement
- Subject + verb 2 + object
Negatif (-)
- Subject + to be (was/were) +
not + complement
- Subject + did not + verb 1 +
object
Tanya (?)
- Did + subject + verb 1 +
object ?
Contoh Simple Past tense:
He was a businessman in 1999
(+)

Future Tense
Simple Future Tense : Use
for planing
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + will/shall + verb I +
object
Subject + am/is/are + going to
+ verb I + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + will/shall + verb I +
object
Subject + am/is/are + not +
going to + verb I + object
Tanya (?)
Will/shall + subject + verb I +
object
Am/is/are + subject + going to

Past Future Tense


Past Future Tense:
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + should/would + be
+ object
Subject + should/would +
verb I + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + should/would + not
+ be + object
Subject + should/would + not
+ verb + object
Tanya (?)
Should/would + subject + be
+ object ?
Should/would + subject +
verb I + object ?
Contoh simple past future
tense :

Do I work ?
She,He and It verb-1
+ s, so verb that have
hissing sound (x,ch,s
and sh) we use the
last es (mixes,
teaches, kisses and
washes).
The use simple
present tense :
1. Expressing facts
2. expressing habits
Adverbs of
Frequency
always selalu
usually biasanya
often seringkali
sometimes kadang2
seldom jarang

- dia adalah seorang pebisnis


pada tahun 1999
I sell these motorcycles in
Surabaya(+)
- saya menjual sepeda motor
ini di Surabaya
She did not visit me yesterday
(-)
- dia tidak mengunjungiku
kemarin
My parents were not home
yesterday(-)
- orang tua ku tidak ada di
rumah kemarin
Did you play football
yesterday ? (?)
- Apakah kamu bermain
sepakbola kemarin ?

+ verb I + object
Contoh Simple Future
tense :
We will go to school soon (+)
- kita akan pergi ke sekolah
segera
We will not go to school soon
(-)
- kita tidak akan pergi ke
sekolah segera
Will we go to school soon ?
(?)
- apakah kita akan pergi ke
sekolah segera
The students are going to have
a test next month (+)
- para siswa akan menghadapi
ujian bulan depan
The students are not going to
have a test next (-)

He should be in Banten next


month (+)
- dia akan telah berada di
Banten bulan depan
He should not be in Banten
next month (-)
- dia tidak akan telah berada
di Banten bulan depan
Should he be in Banten next
month ? (?)
- apakah dia akan telah berada
di Banten bulan depan ?
I should be pick up when you
arrive at the station tomorrow
(+)
- saya akan sedang sudah
menjemput ketika kamu tiba
di stasiun besok
I should not be pick up when
you arrive at the station
tomorrow (-)
- saya tidak akan sedang
sudah menjemput ketika kamu

never tidak pernah


ever pernah

Present
continuous Tense :
used for activity
now
Rumus Present
Continuous Tense :
Positif (+):
subject + to be (am,
is, are) + Verb ing
+ object
Negatif (-) :

Past continuous Tense :


Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + to be (was/were) +
verb-ing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + was/were + not +
verb-ing + object
Tanya (?)
- was/were + subject + verbing + object ?
Contoh - Past Continuous

- para siswa tidak akan


menghadapi ujian bulan depan
Are the students going to have
a test next month ? (?)
- Apakah para siswa akan
menghadapi ujian bulan depan
?

tiba di stasiun besok


should you be pick up when I
arrive at the station
tomorrow ? (?)
- apakah kamu akan sedang
sudah menjemput ketika saya
tiba di stasiun besok ?

Future continuous Tense :


Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + will/shall + be +
verb-ing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + will/shall + not +
verb-ing + object
Tanya (?)
Will/shall + subject + be +
verb-ing + object

Past Future Continuous


Tense :
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + should/would +
be + verb-ing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + should/would +
not + be + verb-ing +
object
Tanya (?)
Should/would + subject +

subject + to be +
not + verb ing +
object
interogative?) :
to be + subject +
verb ing + object
Example :
I am watching TV
now (+)
Mr. Khanafi is not
going to Jakarta (-)
Is Mrs. Annisa
cooking in the
kitchen ? (?)

tense :
He was sleeping when I came
(+)
- Dia sedang tidur ketika saya
datang
He was not sleeping when I
came (-)
- Dia tidak sedang tidur ketika
saya datang
Was he sleeping when I
came ?
- apakah dia sedang tidur
ketika saya datang ?
I was working all night
yesterday(+)
- saya sedang bekerja
sepanjang malam kemarin
I was not working all night
yesterday (-)
- Saya tidak sedang bekerja

Contoh Future
Continuous tense :
I will be watching a movie
tonight (+)
- saya akan sedang
menonton film nanti malam
I will not be watching a
movie tonight (-)
- saya tidak akan sedang
menonton film nanti malam
Will you be watching a
movie tonight ? (?)
- Apakah kamu akan
sedang menonton film
nanti malam ?

be + verb-ing + object ?
Contoh Past Future
Continuous tense :
My brother would be
finishing Thesis last week
(+)
- Kakakku akan telah
sedang menyelesaikan
tesis minggu lalu
My brother would not be
finishing Thesis last week
(-)
- Kakakku tidak akan telah
sedang menyelesaikan
tesis minggu lalu
Would your brother be
finishing Thesis last week?
(?)
- apakah kakakmu akan
telah sedang

sepanjang malam kemarin


were you working all night
yesterday ?
- Apakah kamu sedang bekerja
sepanjang malam kemarin ?
Present Perfect
Tense : used for past
activity until now.
(pointed to output)
Rumus :
Positif (+)
Subject + has / have +
been + object
Subject + has / have +
verb III + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + has / have +
not + been + object
Subject +has / have +

Past Perfect Tense:


Rumus Past Perfect Tense :
Positif (+)
Subject + had + verb III +
(past participle) + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + had + not + verb III
+ object
Tanya (?)
Had + subject + verb III +
object ?
Contoh - Past Perfect tense :
They had been here before
1945 (+)

menyelesaikan tesis
minggu lalu ?

Future Perfect Tense :


Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + shall/will + have +
been + complement
Subject + shall/will + have +
verb III + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + shall/will + not +
been + complement
Subject + shall/will + not +
have + verb III + object
Tanya (?)
Shall/will + subject + been +

Past Future Perfect


Tense :
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + should/would +
have + been + complement
Subject + should/would +
have + verb III + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + should/would +
not + have + been +
complement
Subject + should/would +
not + have + verb III +

not + verb III + object


Tanya (?)
Have / has + Subject
+ verb III + object
Have / has + subject
+ been + object
Contoh :
I have been at home
for a month (+)
Mr. Handoko has not
eaten the sate already
(-)
Has Mr. Imam been
here since 06.00 ? (?)

- mereka telah berada disini


sebelum tahun 1945
They had not been here before
1945 (-)
- mereka belum berada disini
sebelum tahun 1945
Had they been here before
1945 ? (?)
- apakah mereka telah berada
disini sebelum 1945 ?
She had gone to Amsterdam
when I called her (+)
- dia telah pergi ke Amsterdam
ketika aku meneleponnya
She had not gone to
Amsterdam when I called her
(-)
- dia belum pergi ke
Amsterdam ketika aku
meneleponnya

complement
Shall/will + subject + have +
verb III + object ?
Contoh Future perfect
tense :
I will have been in this
hospital until tomorrow
morning (+)
- saya akan telah berada di
rumah sakit ini sampai besok
pagi
I will not have been in this
hospital until tomorrow
morning (-)
- saya tidak akan telah berada
di rumah sakit ini sampai
besok pagi
Will you have been in this
hospital until tomorrow
morning ? (?)

object
Tanya (?)
Should/would + subject +
have + been + complement
?
Should/would + subject +
have + verb III + object ?
Contoh Past Future
Perfect tense :
My mother should have
been here at nine oclock
tomorrow (+)
- Ibu saya akan sudah
berada disini jam 9 besok
My mother should not
have been here at nine
oclock tomorrow (-)
- Ibu saya tidak akan sudah
berada disini jam 9 besok
Should your mother have

Had she gone to Amsterdam


when you called her ?
- apakah dia telah pergi ke
Amsterdam ketika kamu
meneleponnya ?
Keterangan waktu (Adverb of
time) yang umum digunakan
dalam past Perfect tense ini :
after, before, already, as soon as,
just, yet, until, till, by the time
that.

- apakah kamu akan telah


berada disini sampai besok
pagi ?
Majid will have rented my
house next month (+)
- Majid akan telah menyewa
rumahku bulan depan
Majid will not have rented my
house next month (-)
- Majid tidak akan telah
menyewa rumahku bulan
depan
Will Majid have rented my
house next month ? (?)
- apakah Majid akan telah
menyewa rumahku bulan
depan ?

been here at nine oclock


tomorrow ? (?)
- Apakah ibu kamu akan
sudah berada disini jam 9
besok ?
Mari would have worked
in leading companies next
month (+)
- MarI akan sudah bekerja
di perusahaan ternama
bulan depan
Mari will not have
worked in leading
companies next month (-)
- MarI tidak akan sudah
bekerja di perusahaan
ternama bulan depan
Will Mari have worked in
leading companies next
month ? (?)

- Apakah MarI akan


sudah bekerja di
perusahaan ternama bulan
depan ?
Present Perfect
continuous Tense :
used for past activity
until now. Adverb of
time that used for
and since.
Rumus :
Positif (+)
Subject + has / have +
been + verb-ing
Negatif (-)
Subject + has / have +
not + been + verb-ing
Interogative (?)
Has/have + subject +

Past Perfect continuous


Tense :
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + had + been + verbing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + had + not + been +
verb-ing + object
Tanya (?)
Had + subject + been +
object ?
Contoh Past Perfect
Continuous tense :
He had been living in Jakarta

Future Perfect continuous


Tense:
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + shall/will + have +
been + verb-ing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + shall/will + not +
have + been + verb-ing +
object
Tanya (?)
Shall/will + subject + have +
been + verb-ing + object ?
Contoh Future Perfect
Continuous tense :

Past Future Perfect


Continuous Tense :
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + should/would +
have + been + verb-ing +
object
Negatif (-)
Subject + should/would +
not + have + been + verbing + object
Tanya (?)
Should/would + subject +
have + been + verb-ing +
object ?

been + verb-ing ?
Contoh :
I have been watching
TV for two hours (+)
He has been playing
football since
elementary school(+)
Marina has not been
learning english for
two years (-)
Have you been
reading a book for an
hour ? (?)

about ten years (+)


- Dia telah tinggal di Jakarta
sekitar 10 tahun
He had not been living in
Jakarta about ten years (-)
- dia belum tinggal di Jakarta
sekitar 10 tahun
Had He been living in Jakarta
about ten years ? (?)
- apakah dia telah tinggal di
Jakarta selamat 10 tahun ?
Perbedaan antara Present
Perfect Continuous and Past
Perfect Continuous adalah :
Present Perfect Continuous
mengungkapkan tindakan
yang terus berlanjut sampai
sekarang sedangkan Past
Perfect Continuous tidak.

My grandmother will have


been visiting us tomorrow
morning (+)
- nenek saya akan telah sedang
mengunjungi kami besok pagi
My grandmother will not have
been visiting us tomorrow
morning (-)
- nenek saya tidak akan telah
sedang mengunjungi kami
besok pagi
Will your grandmother have
been visiting you tomorrow
morning? (?)
- apakah nenek kamu akan
telah sedang mengunjungi
kamu besok pagi ?

Contoh Past Future


Perfect Continuous tense :
I would have working in
leading companies for 10
years (+)
- Aku akan sudah sedang
bekerja di perusahaan
ternama selama 10 tahun
I would not have working
in leading companies for
10 years (-)
- Aku tidak akan sudah
sedang bekerja di
perusahaan ternama
selama 10 tahun
Would you have working
in leading companies for
10 years ? (?)
- apakah kamu akan sudah
sedang bekerja di

perusahaan ternama
selama 10 tahun ?