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DESIGN GUIDE FOR SLABS ON GRADE

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DESIGN GUIDE
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DESIGN GUIDE FOR SLABS ON GRADE

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REVISION STATUS SHEET


Rev. No.
R1

Date

Description

2000-03-30

Definition of grade slab added. Document revised as per


Latest ACI 360R-92 code. Detail guide lines for
selection of sub base and safety factor in design has been
included. Table 1 expanded by giving the values of
allowable load for K= 100 pci and k= 200 pci along with
necessary notes. PCA design charts for Post loads have
been added for k= 100 and 200 pci also. Table III & Cl
6.3 deleted as source of information not available. Cl 6.4
renumbered as Cl 6.3. Guide lines for minimum and
maximum reinforcement added.
All charts have been incorporated into the Computerised
document by scanning. Scanned files are kept in JPEG
format separately to reduce file size. Revised matter is
kept under bold format. Document Revised and
Revalidated.

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR SLABS ON GRADE

CONTENTS

SL.NO.

TITLE

SHEET NO.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

SCOPE

3.0

APPLICABLE STANDARDS AND


CODES OF PRACTICE

4.0

DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL NOTATIONS

5.0

GUIDELINES FOR THICKNESS OF SUB-BASE

6.0

DESIGN OF SLAB

7.0

JOINTING PRACTICES

10

TABLE-I

13

TABLE-II

16

APPENDIX-1

FIGURES

17

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INTRODUCTION
With the rapid industrialisation, the amount of expenditure incurred on
industrial buildings has been considerably increased. One of the important
elements of such industrial buildings is the flooring to meet the requirements of
the various types of movements within the building. Flooring essentially
consists of the top finish, grade slab, sub base and sub grade (See Fig.No.1).
Many times, the floor cost contributes as large as 10% of the building cost.
Hence, it is very essential to give sufficient attention to design the grade slab in
such a way to reduce its costs and at the same time satisfy the basic
requirements of the industry.

2.0

SCOPE
This design guide covers different design methods being practised to arrive at
the optimum grade slab thickness for the required design loads. It also covers
guidelines for sub base thickness and joint practices.
In general this guide can be used to arrive at the thickness of the grade slab in
the buildings used for industrial purposes.

3.0

APPLICABLE STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE


ACI:360R-92 Design of Slabs on Grade
ACI: 302.1

Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction

IRC:58

Guidelines for the design of rigid pavements for highways.

IS:1834

Specification for hot applied sealing compounds for joints in


concrete

IS:1838

Pre formed fillers for expansion joints in concrete non extruding


and resilient type (Bitumen impregnated fibre)

4.0

DEFINITIONS OF GENERAL TERMS AND NOTATIONS

4.1

DEFINITIONS

Grade slab: It is a slab, continuously supported by ground whose total


loading when uniformly distributed would impart a pressure to the grade
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or soil that is less than 50 percent of the allowable bearing capacity


thereof. The slab may be uniform or variable thickness and it may include
stiffening elements such as ribs or beams. The slab may be plain,
reinforced or pre-stressed concrete. The reinforcement or pre-stressing
steel may be provided for the effects of shrinkage and temperature or for
structural loading.
Sub-grade: This is the naturally occurring ground excavated down to
formation level or imported fill material on made up ground.
This is selected material imported to form a level, smooth
Sub-base:
working platform on which slab is to be laid. Usually, granular materials with
low plasticity index are selected as sub-base materials.
Wearing Surface: This may be the upper surface of the slab suitably finished,
or an applied topping or covering material.
4.2

NOTATIONS

Kips : 1000 lbs


Psi : Pounds per square inch.
Pci : Pounds per cubic inch.

5.0

in

: inches

: Distance in meters between free transverse or free longitudinal joints

: Coeff. of friction between pavement (slab) and sub grade.

: Weight of slab in kg/m2

: Allowable working stress in steel in kg/cm2

GUIDELINES FOR SELECTION OF SUB-BASE


The soil support system for a grade slab usually consists of a Base, a
sub base and a Sub grade. If the existing soil has the required
strength and properties to support the slab, the slab may be placed
directly on the existing sub grade. However normally the existing grade

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will not be normally at correct elevation or slope. Therefore some cut or


fill is required with the best of site selections.
The nature of the soil must be identified in order to determine its
suitability either as a base, as a sub base or as a sub grade material.
Design methods use the modulus of sub grade reaction to account for the
soil properties. It is a spring constant that depends on the kind of soil, the
degree of compaction and the moisture content.
The Standard Modulus of Sub grade reaction is the one which uses a 30inch diameter plate for the test. It is suggested to refer to this value
wherever a reference is made as modulus of sub grade reaction. Recently
a modified modulus of sub grade reaction based on 12-inch diameter plate
test is also being adopted. This test is less expensive and the value for a
given soil is twice that of the Standard Modulus. Hence if this modified
value if furnished then half of it is to be taken as Standard Modulus
before using in the design. Fig 9.0 shows the general relation ship
between soil classification and the range of values for the modulus of sub
grade reaction. It also shows the general relationship between California
Bearing Ration (CBR) and modified modulus of sub grade reaction and
standard modulus of sub grade reaction, which is the basis for slab on
grade design.
Normally there is a wide range of soils across the site. The soil support
system is rarely uniform. Therefore, some soil work is generally required
to provide a more uniform surface to support the slab. The extent of this
work such as the degree of compaction or the addition of a sand-gravel
base is generally a problem of economics. Selection of soils in the well
graded gravel (GW) and poorly graded gravel (GP) groups, as a base
material may appear costly. However the selection of these materials has
distinct advantages. Not only do they provide a superior modulus of sub
grade reaction but they also tend to speed construction during inclement
weather.
Certainly not all projects will require the detail soil classification. On
projects where the slab performance is not so critical, engineering
judgement should be exercised to reduce costs. A prime pre requisite for
the proper design of grade slab is soil identification to arrive at the
modulus of sub grade reaction. In the absence of detail soil classification
which is expensive a lower value of modulus may be considered and add a
selected thickness of crushed stone to improve factor of safety.

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For weak sub grades of soil types, such as clay, silt and sandy silty clay with
water table within 600 mm of formation level, a sub-base of 150 mm thickness
is recommended. In case of normal sub grades of soil types comprising of
well-graded and drained sand or sandy gravel, 80-mm thick sub-base is
recommended.
These recommendations apply to sub-bases under roof cover, and hold good in
situations where the construction traffic consists only of small dampers and
possibly trunk mixers. Where the sub-base is exposed to the weather and to
heavy construction traffic, it is recommended that the above sub base thickness
is increased by 75 mm.
In case of expansive soils such as Black cotton soils proper care shall be
exercised in consultation with the Geo technical specialists. These are
prone to significant volume changes.
In the absence of detail
recommendations at least the top 600mm of such soil shall be replaced
totally with a suitable base material. Provision of a vapour barrier such
as thick polyethylene sheet shall be considered on the base. Vapour
barriers in direct contact with the slab are discouraged. The barriers
shall be covered with about 100 to 150 mm of fine granular material to
provide a permeable and absorptive base directly under the slab.
Where the ground is very unstable or where considerable depths of fill have
been used and high settlements are expected, the floor may be designed as a
suspended slab on pile foundations.

5.1

RECOMMENDED GRADE OF CONCRETE AND TOPPING THICKNESS

Normally, for good abrasive resistance under the action of moving wheels,
dragging of heavy castings and such other metal equipment, fork lifts with irontyped wheels, etc. Concrete with a cube-crushing strength of 40 N/mm2 at 28
days, (grade M40) is recommended. Under normal loading conditions grade
M20 is generally adequate.
Specify workable concrete with the largest practical maximum size of
coarse aggregate. It is also worth while to consider using 60 or 90-day
strengths in slab thickness design to permit use of concrete with lower
shrinkage than could be achieved with the same strength at 28 days if
permitted otherwise.
Thus the topping may be about 50 mm for integral construction and about 75
mm for bonded construction.
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BAY LAYOUT

From practical considerations, preferably the bay width should not exceed
about 4.5 m. If the slab is not reinforced, joints should be formed at intervals
not exceeding 6 m. Floors are usually constructed as follows.
Long-strip Construction: The floor pattern is usually in long stretches
lengthwise, 25 m to 30 m long between expansion joints in between control
joints are so planned that the resulting bays are approximately square. The
strips are divided into smaller bays by means of induced transverse control
joints either formed in the green concrete or by sawing shallow grooves in the
surface two or three days after the concrete has hardened.
Chequer Board Construction: In fill bays are usually laid after 7 days or more
in an attempt to eliminate shrinkage contraction movement.
It is recommended that preference be given to long-strip construction.

6.0

DESIGN OF SLAB
Various design methods have been evolved for calculating the thickness of
slabs on grade, such as PCA (Portland Cement Association) method, WRI
(Wire Reinforcement Institute) method, PTI (Post-Tensioning Institute)
methods etc. There is no single or unique design technique that can be
recommended for all applications. However, PCA method can be used for
most of the general applications.

6.1

FACTOR OF SAFETY

The Factor of safety for a slab on grade is selected based on experience


and also considering the number of allowable load repetitions. This Value
generally varies between 1.4 and 2.0. A factor of safety of 2.0 pertains to
unlimited number of stress repetitions i.e. more than 4,00,000 cycles of
allowable load repetitions. Factor of safety of 1.4 is the lower limit and
corresponds to approximately 1500 allowable load repetitions. Generally
a Factor of safety of 1.7 is recommended for use. This corresponds to
allowable load repetitions of approximately 42000 cycles.
Compounding safety factors is a common error. Inclusion of safety
factors in the modulus of sub grade reaction, applied loads, the
compressive strength, flexural strength of concrete and also in the number
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of load repetitions will produce an expensive design. The Safety Factor is


applied to the flexural strength of concrete only and is a function of
number of allowable load repetitions.
6.2

DESIGN PROCEDURE BY PCA METHOD

Portland Cement Association has studied the pavement theory and developed
thickness design charts for floors on grade. Portland Cement Association also
publishes the design methods. The method is also applicable to slabs on
ground for outdoor storage and material handling areas. The factors involved
in determining the required floor slab thickness is:
i. Strength of sub-grade and sub-base
ii. Strength of concrete
iii. Location and frequency of imposed loads
Grade slabs are generally subjected to Vehicle wheel loads, Concentrated loads
such as Rack storage Leg loads and Uniform loads including strip loads. For
grade slabs intended for industrial loading a minimum thickness of 125mm (5
inches) is suggested.
6.2.1 For Vehicle Loads( Refer Fig 2.0)
Following factors are required to arrive at the thickness of the grade slab.
i. Maximum axle loads
ii. Number of load repetitions
iii. Wheel contact area (tyre data)
iv. Spacing between wheels on the heaviest axle
v. Sub grade strength ( Standard modulus of sub grade reaction)
vi. Flexural strength of concrete
If the tyre data is not available, the contact area can be estimated for pneumatic
tyres by dividing wheel load by inflation pressure. Tyre inflation pressure for
pneumatic tyres range from 80 to 100 psi. Steel cord tire pressure ranges
up to 120 psi.
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Thickness Design Example:


For single wheel axle loads (one wheel on each side of axle)
Data for lift truck
Axle loads = 25 kips (single wheel axle) = 25000 lbs
Wheel spacing S = 37"
No. of wheels = 2
Tyre inflation pressure = 110 psi
25000 / 2
= 114 sq.inches.
Tyre contact area =
110
Sub-grade modulus, K = 100 pci
Concrete flexural strength, r = 640 psi
Select safety factor permitting unlimited stress repetitions = 2.0
Procedure
640
= 320 psi
2
320
= 12.8 psi
Slab stress per 1000 lb of axle load =
25
Concrete working stress =

Refer Fig.2.0, locate the point left hand side vertical axis corresponds to stress
12.8 psi, move right to contact area of 114 sq.inches, down to wheel spacing
of 37 inches taken right to read a slab thickness of 7.9 inches on the line for
sub grade modulus k of 100 psi.
Hence, use 8 inches thick slab.
In case of axles having Dual tires/ wheels on either side of axle it is
suggested to consider as a single equivalent wheel on either side and
contact area can be considered accordingly as a conservative estimate.
After that the same Fig 2.0 can be applied.
6.2.2 For High Rack Storage Leg Loads
When loads on rack legs exceed the wheel loads of vehicles operating in
the wear house, leg loads will control the thickness of slab. When a correct
size of the base plate is used, concrete bearing and punching shear stresses
will remain within acceptable limits. The design factors are same as used for
vehicle loads except that a higher safety factor is selected. Safety factors in
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the range of 3.9 to 4.8 will satisfy building code requirements when the
rack leg is regarded as a supporting column and the slab is regarded as
a non-reinforced spread footing.

Thickness Design Example


Data
Spacing of wheels in width direction, X = 50 in
Spacing of wheels in length direction, Y = 60 in
Max. expected load on leg = 8 kips
Effective contact area = 50 sq.in
Sub-grade modulus K = 50 pci
Concrete flexural strength, r = 640 psi
Select safety factor = 4.0
Procedure
Concrete working stress = 640/4 = 160 psi
Slab stress per 1000 lb of post load = 160/8 = 20 psi
Refer Fig.3.0 (A), locate the point on left hand side corresponds to
effective contact area of 50 sq. inches and a stress of 20 psi, move right to Yspacing of 60 inches, up to X-spacing of 50 inches taken right to read a slab
thickness of 11.4 inches.
Hence, use 11.5 inches thick slab.
Similarly Fig 3.0 (B) corresponds to a modulus of sub grade reaction of
100 pci and Fig 3.0 (C) corresponds to a modulus of sub grade reaction of
200 pci.
6.2.3 Uniform Loads
Uniform loads are defined as loads distributed over a large area. For most
wear houses and industrial floors, concentrated loads are the controlling
design factor since distributed loads do not usually produce stresses of the
same magnitude.
Design for distributed loads has two objects:

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i. to prevent cracks in the aisle ways or unloaded areas due to excessive


negative moment and
ii. to avoid objectionable settlement due to consideration of the foundation
soils.
The allowable distributed loads for different thickness for uniform and
non-uniform loading is shown in Table-I & II respectively.

6.3

DESIGN OF REINFORCEMENT

Reinforcing steel will enhance the performance of the slab on grade. Steel
reinforcement will help in preventing the formation of cracks.
There are two aspects to give attention in the use of reinforcement for
industrial floors. One is the quantity of the reinforcement. The second is
the placement of the steel within slab.
Reinforcement in concrete grade slabs is designed to counteract the tensile
stresses caused by shrinkage and contraction due to temperature or moisture
changes.
The amount of longitudinal and transverse steel required per metre width
or length of slab is computed by the following formula:
Lfw 2
cm /m width or length
2S
Dist. in 'm' between free transverse or free longitudinal joints

Area of steel A =
Where L =
f

= Coeff. of friction between pavement and sub grade (usually 1.5)

W = Weight of slab in kg/m2


S = Allowable working stress in steel in kg/cm2 (usually taken as 50
to 60% of the yield stress of steel)
Where cracking due to temperature and shrinkage stresses has to be
controlled and there is likelihood of appreciable bulking of the sub grade
due to fluctuations in water table, reinforcement should be provided to
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help transfer the load evenly over the sub grade. The minimum
reinforcement required is 0.15% in each direction in case of High yield
strength deformed bars. In case of plain mild steel bars the minimum
reinforcement shall be 0.20% in each direction. The maximum
reinforcement shall be restricted to 0.6% in both the cases.
Spacing shall not exceed 3 times the effective thickness of the slab or 450mm whichever is less. It is suggested to go for spacing in the range of 150
to 200mm and also equally in both the directions.

7.0

Since reinforcement in grade slab is not intended to contribute towards its


flexural strength, it shall be placed slightly above the mid depth. The general
preference is for the placing of reinforcement about 50 mm below the top
surface.
JOINTING PRACTICES
Good jointing practice is one way of ensuring crack-free floors. Most cracks
in concrete floors are the result of three actions i.e. volumetric change due to
drying shrinkage, direct stress due to applied loads and flexural stress due to
bending. Cracks can be the net result of the three. Drying shrinkage is an
unavoidable, inherent property of concrete, so the possibility of cracking
exists. Control measures are taken to allow concrete to crack in predictable
and straight-line pattern by proper jointing. Three kinds of joints are used :i. Isolation joints/Expansion joints : To allow movement between the
floor and other fixed parts of the building such as columns, walls and
machinery bases.
ii. Control joints/contraction joints : To induce cracking at pre selected
locations.
iii. construction joints - to provide stopping places during construction.
Typical joint layout is shown in Fig.4.0.

7.1

ISOLATION JOINTS

Isolation joints are placed as shown in Fig.5.0 & Fig.6.0 wherever complete
separation between the floor and adjoining concrete is needed to allow them to
move independently without damage. Isolation joint permits horizontal and
vertical movement between the abutting faces of the floor slab and other parts
of the building because there is no keyway, bond or mechanical connection
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across the joint. It is important that the entire surface of each isolation joint be
covered with joint material as shown in Fig.5.0 conforming to IS:1838 to
be sure that there is no concrete-to-concrete contact because such contact
is likely to cause spalling at the joint.
7.2

EXPANSION JOINTS

These joints are meant to accommodate expansion and are provided with a
clear gap for the full depth between adjacent slabs. They are spaced at 25 m
to 30 m along the slab length and are filled with expansion joint filler , which
is compressible enough to accommodate the expansion of the adjacent slabs.
For this purpose, it is required to use filler confirming to IS:1838. Dowel bars
may be omitted for slabs less than 150 mm thick. Expansion joints may be
provided with load transfer devices which are generally dowel bars
cantilevering out 450 mm on either side of the joint or tongue-and-groove
joints.
Load transfer devices transfer the load from one panel to the other at the
expansion joint.
It is not possible to have a load transfer device at the entrance; the base slab
thickness may therefore be locally increased by 50 percent.
7.3

CONTRACTION JOINTS (OR) CONTROL JOINTS:

Control joints act to relieve stress and with proper spacing they eliminate
the cause of uncontrolled random cracking. They allow horizontal movement
of the slab. Control joints in industrial and commercial floors are usually cut
with a saw. They should be cut to a depth of generally 1/4 the slab
thickness.
The objective is to form a plane of weakness in the slab so that the crack
will occur along that line to avoid random cracking and curling. In case of
thick slabs a crack induced is anchored to the sub grade immediately
below the joint. Load transfer across a control joint is provided by the
interlocking of the jagged face formed at the crack. For long joint
spacing or heavily loaded slabs, dowel bars are used as load transfer
devices. The above-discussed varieties of control joints are shown in Fig.7.0.
The steel must be discontinued at all control joints.
In general spacing of joints shall be 2 to 3 times slab thickness in inches
expressed in feet.
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7.3.1 Longitudinal Control Joints :


These are the main construction joints to be provided at not more than 4.5 m
apart. Tie bars, 12 mm dia, 900 mm long at 600 mm centre to centre at
every fourth longitudinal joint should be de-bonded to permit contraction
movement.
7.3.2 Transverse Control Joint :
These joints limit the concrete tensile stresses to control cracking. Control
joints are spaced at 5 m to 6 m intervals and are formed by providing a
continuous, crack inducing dummy groove or saw cut in the upper portion of
the base slab. In case sawed joints are adopted, the depth of the saw cut
should not be less than the diameter of the largest-size coarse aggregate. The
width of the dummy groove should be 5 to 10mm and its depth one fifth of
the slab thickness with a minimum of 25 mm and a maximum of 50 mm.
In slabs thicker than 200 mm, the lower crack induced reduces the depth of
the surface groove. The closer joint spacing in non reinforced slabs can limit
the crack width and eliminate the tying. A free contraction joint is normally
used only for slabs thicker than 225 mm, subject to heavy wheel loads over 5t.
The grooves should be filled with hot applied sealing compounds confirming
to IS:1834.
7.4

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

Construction joints usually form the edges at the end of each day's work.
They are located to confirm to the floor-jointing pattern. Where there is
no control or isolation joint, a butt-type construction joint is satisfactory for
thin floors. For thick and more heavily loaded floors, a tongue and groove
joint is used or dowels are added to the butt joint. A bonded construction
joint in a plain slab is a butt type construction joint with tie bars when
concrete placement is interrupted for 30 minutes. Different varieties of
construction joints are shown in Fig.8.0.

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TABLE - I
ALLOWABLE DISTRIBUTED LOADS, UNJOINTED AISLE
(UNIFORM LOAD, VARIABLE LAYOUT)

Notes:
1) K of Sub Grade : Disregard increase in k due to sub base.
2) Critical aisle width equals 2.209 times the radius of relative stiffness
Eh3
where h is thickness, k is modulus of
12 1 2 k
sub grade and is poisons ratio.
4) Assumed load width = 300 in; Allowable load varies only slightly for other
load widths.
5) Allowable stress = 0.5 * Flexural strength
3) Relative stiffness= l =

Slab
Thickness

Working
Stress
Psi

Inches

Critical
Aisle
At criWidth Tical
Ft
aisle
width

Allowable load , psf


At other aisle widths
6-ft
8 - ft 10 -ft 12 -ft
aisle
aisle
aisle aisle

14-ft
aisle

Sub grade k = 50 pci


5

300
350
400

5.6
5.6
5.6

610
710
815

615
715
820

670
785
895

815
950
1,085

1,050
1,225
1,400

1,215
1,420
1,620

300
350
400

6.4
6.4
6.4

670
785
895

675
785
895

695
810
925

780
910
1,040

945
1,100
1,260

1,175
1,370
1,570

300
350
400

8.0
8.0
8.0

770
900
1,025

800
935
1,070

770
900
1,025

800
935
1,065

880
1,025
1,175

1,010
1,180
1,350

10

300
350
400

9.4
9.4
9.4

845
985
1,130

930
1,085
1,240

855
1,000
1,145

850
990
1,135

885
1,035
1,185

960
1,120
1,285

12

300
350
400

10.8
10.8
10.8

915
1,065
1,220

1,065
1,240
1,420

955
1,115
1,270

915
1,070
1,220

925
1,080
1,230

965
1,125
1,290

14

300
350
400

12.1
12.1
12.1

980
1,145
1,310

1,225
1,430
1,630

1,070
1,245
1,425

1,000
1,170
1,335

980
1,145
1,310

995
1,160
1,330

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TABLE I (Contd)
SlabThickness
Inches

Working
Stress

Critical
At
Aisle
Width
Ft

Psi

Allowable load , psf


At other aisle widths

Critical
Aisle
width

6-ft
aisle

8 - ft
aisle

10 -ft 12 ft
aisle aisle

14-ft
aisle

Sub grade k = 100 pci


5

300
350
400

4.7
4.7
4.7

865
1,010
1,155

900
1,050
1,200

1,090
1,270
1,455

1,470
1,715
1,955

1,745
2,035
2,325

1,810
2,115
2,415

300
350
400

5.4
5.4
5.4

950
1,105
1,265

955
1,115
1,275

1,065
1,245
1,420

1,320
1,540
1,760

1,700
1,985
2,270

1,925
2,245
2,565

300
350
400

6.7
6.7
6.7

1,095
1,280
1,460

1,105
1,285
1,470

1,120
1,305
1,495

1,240
1,445
1,650

1,465
1,705
1,950

1,815
2,120
2,420

10

300
350
400

7.9
7.9
7.9

1,215
1,420
1,625

1,265
1,475
1,645

1,215
1,420
1,625

1,270
1,480
1,690

1,395
1,630
1,860

1,610
1,880
2,150

12

300
350
400

9.1
9.1
9.1

1,320
1,540
1,755

1,425
1,665
1,900

1,325
1,545
1,770

1,330
1,550
1,770

1,400
1,635
1,865

1,535
1,795
2,050

14

300
350
400

10.2
10.2
10.2

1,405
1,640
1,875

1,590
1,855
2,120

1,445
1,685
1,925

1,405
1,640
1,875

1,435
1,675
1,915

1,525
1,775
2,030

ISSUE
R1
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-CV-064

SECTION: WRITEUP

SHEET

DESIGN GUIDE FOR SLABS ON GRADE

15 OF 17

TABLE I (Contd)
Slab
Thickness
inches

Working

Stress

Critical
At
Critical

Aisle

Psi

Width
Ft
Sub grade k = 200 pci

Aisle
width

Allowable load , psf


At other aisle widths
6-ft
aisle

8 - ft
aisle

10 -ft 12 ft
aisle aisle

14-ft
aisle

300
350
400

4.0
4.0
4.0

1,225
1,425
1,630

1,400
1,630
1,865

1,930
2,255
2,575

2,450
2,860
3,270

2,565
2,990
3,420

2,520
2,940
3,360

300
350
400

4.5
4.5
4.5

1,340
1,565
1,785

1,415
1,650
1,890

1,755
2,050
2,345

2,395
2,800
3,190

2,740
3,200
3,655

2,810
3,275
3,745

300
350
400

5.6
5.6
5.6

1,550
1,810
2,065

1,550
1,810
2,070

1,695
1,980
2,615

2,045
2,385
2,730

2,635
3,075
3,515

3,070
3,580
4,095

10

300
350
400

6.6
6.6
6.6

1,730
2,020
2,310

1,745
2,035
2,325

1,775
2,070
2,365

1,965
2,290
2,620

2,330
2,715
3,105

2,895
3,300
3,860

12

300
350
400

7.6
7.6
7.6

1,890
2,205
2,520

1,945
2,270
2,595

1,895
2,210
2,525

1,995
2,330
2,660

2,230
2,600
2,972

2,610
3,045
3,480

14

300
350
400

8.6
8.6
8.6

2,025
2,360
2,700

2,150
2,510
2,870

2,030
2,365
2,705

2,065
2,405
2,750

2,210
2,580
2,950

2,480
2,890
3,305

ISSUE
R1
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-CV-064

DESIGN GUIDE FOR SLABS ON GRADE

SECTION: WRITEUP

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16 OF 17

TABLE-II

ALLOWABLE DISTRIBUTED LOADS, UNJOINTED AISLE


(NONUNIFORM LOADING, VARIABLE LAYOUT)

Slab

Sub
grade
k
pci

550

50
100
200

535
760
1,075

585
830
1,175

635
900
1,270

685
965
1,370

50
100
200

585
830
1,175

640
905
1,280

695
980
1,390

750
1,055
1,495

50
100
200

680
960
1,355

740
1,045
1,480

800
1,135
1,603

865
1,220
1,725

10

50
100
200

760
1,070
1,515

830
1,170
1,655

895
1,265
1,790

965
1,365
1,930

12

50
100
200

830
1,175
1,660

905
1,280
1,810

980
1,390
1,965

1,055
1,495
2,115

14

50
100
200

895
1,270
1,795

980
1,385
1,960

1,060
1,500
2,120

1,140
1,615
2,285

Thickness
in
5

Allowable load, psf


Concrete flexural strength, psi
600
650

700

Notes:
1) K of Sub Grade : Disregard increase in k due to sub base.
2) Allowable stress = 0.5 * Flexural strength
3) Based on aisle and load widths giving maximum stress

ISSUE
R1
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-CV-064

DESIGN GUIDE FOR SLABS ON GRADE

SECTION: WRITEUP

SHEET

17 OF 17

FIGURES

The following figures (Graphs & Charts) are enclosed in the Appendix 1.
In soft copy format these figures are kept in separate JPEG files.
SLAB1.JPEG:
FIG 1 :

The elements of a concrete floor

FIG 2 :

PCA design chart for axles with single wheels

SLAB2.JPEG:
FIG 3 A :

PCA Design chart for Post loads where sub grade modulus is 50 pci

SLAB3.JPEG:
FIG 3 B :

PCA Design chart for Post loads where sub grade modulus is 100pci

FIG 3 C :

PCA Design chart for Post loads where sub grade modulus is 200 pci

SLAB4.JPEG:
FIG 4 TO 7 : ISOLATION JOINTS
SLAB5.JPEG:
FIG 8 :

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

SLAB6.JPEG:
FIG 9 :

Inter relationship of soil classifications and strengths

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1