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Homework 3

Prateek Jaiswal
Department de Genie.


Question 1. Solution
There is always a demand for a highly trained personal in society to address the needs of future.
Scientists and engineers have always been vital to our economy and society. It is at the end they (the
engineers) that the society depends on for innovation. The skills thus aquired in any doctral program is
key that drive and inspire growth and research across a range of sector from manufacturing to health
In todays world factors such as, demographics, globalization, and rapidly evolving technologies are
driving profound changes in the role of engineering in society. The changing workforce and technology
needs of a global knowledge economy are dramatically changing the nature of engineering practice,
demanding far broader skills than simply the mastery of scientific and technological disciplines. This
justifies the cost and effort made by society for inverting heavily in higher education such as PhD.
The growing awareness of the importance of technological innovation to economic competitiveness ,
national security and envoirmental issues are demanding a new priority for application-driven basic
engineering research. The PhD program in which I am enrolled is not only fundamental in nature but also
intensively application driven. This where me as a future trained researcher fits in, since clearly
innovation through research is something that society.
The aim of my reasearch is to reduce the trailing edge noise (or sometimes refered to as self noise) for a
given profile. The research project is in close context with what range of industry are trying to do now.
The air traffic has become one of the central elements of our economy and follows an exponential
growth posing many problems in terms of noise pollution. In this context, the Committee ACARE
( Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) has set the goal in the European part of halve the
perceived noise by 2020 . Similar goals have been set in the other side of atlantic. To this end ,aircraft
manufacturers and in particular aircraft engine have focused much of their efforts on finding innovative
ways to control and reduce the noise for next generation of aircraft engines. In this context sevral
innovative ideas have been proposed already on how to reduce the noise. But not many of them have
been succesfully integrated. Thus there is a real need in todays industry to come up with not only a better
solution but also for one's that easy to integrate in the final design. I will be studying , comparing and if
possible to propose newer innovative design that can actually not only be used inside the laboratory but
can be integrated with a real aircraft. This with the aim that the society at large can be benfited from my
finding during my PhD in both fundamental and practical ways.

Question 2. Solution




Profesional Skills


Flow measurement

PIV,Hotwire,Microphon Experiemental sciences

e array


Analytical Modelling of Greens function



Flow analysis

Interpration of results in Critical thinking


To devolop

Signal Processing

Matlab signal Processing Matlab

tool box

To devolop

Turbulence Modelling

Mathematical modelling Mathmatics

and approximations

To devolop

Project management

Project planning

and Mathmatics

and Management

Question 3. Solution

Question 4. Solution
The main objective of my thesis is to study experiementaly noise genrated by trailing edge, its assesment
or modelling and how it can be reduced by passive or active means. The work will be carried out to
address present problem of aircraft noise genrated by high lift device. Where many industry nationally
and internationally are working on. This sets the stage for future and present collaboration that exists,
aimed for a more global atempt noise reduction.There is a genral need in aircraft and Industry
manufacturing wind Turbine to reduce trailing edge noise source. This comes with numerous
envoirmental hazards caused by perceived noise level. The industry today needs a mathmatical model to
asses noise genrated by blades quickly espically in pre design stage. This is important since numerous
high order simulation such as DNS or even LES take lot of time yield result. Similarly experiements
required can be expernsive to perform. Also at same time there is growing demand for sustainable
devolopment. Todays product not only have to look aesthetically good but also highly optimised in terms
of performance and lowered unwarranted output(such as noise). Hence a low noise design is needed to
address this issue. Also at more fundamental level my PhD aims to improve general understanding of
noise generation and reduction mechanism. So that we can imrprove the prediction of the sound level
made by the model. Also to lessen the constraints and simifications made in ad hoc sense without
complete understanding presenting results in tailored format (one that applies to specific case but not in
genral). Hence Phd aims not only improving our understanding but to give solid ground to models that
currently use ad hoc technique.
Also at same time the results genrated by performing experiements will be used for validation of
numerical result devoloped in parallel. Finally the results and findings will be published in national and
international journals. Also it is envisaged to broaden and stengthen our collaboration so that the work is
not done indvidually but togther as group. This promotes the exchange of ideas and boasts the learning
curve compared working alone in absence of collaboration.
The deliverable for experimental work would be to have complete set of data around the airfoil in order
to study full spatail and temporal resolution sense. This will help to resolve all the turbulence scales as
small as possible with current tools that will be used. Hence it is envisaged to study more closely for
example effects of outer scales on inner scales. In particular what is the effect of inner scale on pressure
flactuations that leads to radiation as sound. These effects has been ignored in almost all the present
genration models. This although does not lead too many error and results can still be obtained in a
asymtotic way. Also there exists a large dicrepency in fluid mechanics community today while dealing
with several key phenomenons. For example the thesis also aims to study the feedback mechanism that
genrates tonal noise in laminar boundary layer. The phenomen has been studied in the past by several
researchers starting from late 1970's when it was reported. There is a general lack of accord in the fluid
mechanics community today. Hence part of thesis will increase our understanding in few domains listed
above. Also I will study various novel noise reduction mechanism, and also do a comparative test. If
possible new design will be proposed based on results obtained and thanks to improved understanding of
flow phenomenon at the end of thesis.
Lastly publications are envisaged in leading journals like Journal of Fluid mechanics , AIAA and Journal
of Sound and Vibrations. Publications will be focused in areas such as effects of turbulent boundary layer
on pressure factuations with a inclusion of effects of small scale structures. Also works on low noise
design and acousitic back reactions will disseminated in form of journal. It is hoped that an improved
model can be proposed at the end of thesis making it last important publication during the thesis.

Question 5. Solution


Of Flow


If the experiments
Have high repeatability
And low noise

Results and Analysis

Process the data

Try to extract

Thesis accepted

Publication and
Wrtiting of Thesis

The first and foremost need for todays researcher is to have access to highspeed internet. This although is
avialable almost everywhere is one of the key resource needed for a PhD student. Also it is important to
have acess to various international journal. Also help from Supervisior is sought to update onself from
ongoing research in area of interest. Discussion with collegues working on the same topic can help by
updating oneself with current state of the art. Also an up to date library is often a pre requisite for a PhD
student to have.
The main Uncertainty related to biblographical report would be lack of comprehensive review in certain
fields. Or even theories that are based on ad-hoc models. There is a risk of taking this models or theories
as globally true when they are very limited in their capabilities. This risk then can be mitigated by noting
all the exceptions and limitations of the theory. Also taking in account all the assumptions that model
accounts for during its simplification. Only when these points are kept in mind can these models be
applied without enduring risk.

The fundamental resource required to conduct a good experiment is to have state of the art
facility. It is often the single most important parameter in experimentation. Also it is important for the
experiments phase to have tools (PIV, hot wire, wall pressure sensor in my case) with frequency of
The main uncertainty involved in this phase is damage or degradation of probes used during
experiemental campaign. This can lead to lower repatibility and errors if not accounted for. Obviously to
mitigate risk one possible way is to take care of equipement on and after the experiemental campaign is
over. But degradation of equipment over a span of time cannot be avioded, no matter how much care is
taken. Hence uncertainty and error analysis is important and should be performed to account for factors
mentioned above. This thus leviates the uncertainty involved.

To obtain results and perform analysis a powerful computing source such as a workstation with many
cores and workstation with high GPU (with many CUDA core) capabilities is required. Also many
software used for post processing (such as matlab, open source like python and open GL) are needed. A
storage space are needed for all the data acquired and processed.
It is always risky to store the results and data just at one location and not to make backup. The risk of data
getting corrupted or the result lost is high. Hence making backup of all the data plus the result is a good
practise. This then substantially lowers the danger mentioned above.

The main resource required for writing thesis and publications are software (such as word or Latex), valid
results and research findings based on results obtained. Several drafts have to be prepared in order to
make corrections based on new inputs and other plausible error.
The main uncertainty here is the accuracy of results that were obtained and furhtermore there might be
some points which one might have overlooked but can lead to error later. Thus to mitigate risk mentioned
above it is recommended to prepare a first draft and then make a revision based on input received from
the team or the thesis director. The draft should be presented to director of thesis or even friends so that
they read and make corrections. This thus reduces the risk of article or thesis getting rejected and bieng
asked for revision.

Gantt Project with Hard Deadline

Exported on November 20, 2014 1:23:12 PM PST

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