Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 122

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COURSE PREFERENCES OF FOURTH YEAR STUDENTS OF

NORTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL: BASIS FOR THE


DEVELOPMENT OF A CAREER COUNSELING PROGRAM

NICANDRA MILAGROS B. BOBILES

NORTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE


The Institution for Better Life
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Laoag City

MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION


(Administration and Management)

October 2014
1

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The researcher would like to convey her hundredfold thanks and appreciation to the following
people who helped her accomplish this study:
Dr. Caesar I. Agnir, president of Northern Christian College, for extending the scholarship
program to her to pursue a graduate degree as faculty member of NCC Laboratory High School ;
Dr. Nenita P. Blanco, dean of the Graduate School, for inspiring her to make this study more
logical and intelligible.
Dr. Norma L. Fernando, dean of the College of Arts, Sciences, Education and Social Work, and
her adviser for her overall assistance and guidance;
Dr. Norberto S. Galiza, a panel member, for providing intelligent suggestions to improve the
paper;
Dr. Maria Nona A. Adaza, a panel member, for helping and giving valuable suggestions;
Prof. Nelson S. Lacadin, a panel member, for sharing his time and friendly counsel;
Dr. Anabelle C. Felipe, for her technical assistance and concern;
Dr. Virginia A. Duldulao, her former panel member, who inspired her and for giving initial
guidance in the conduct of this study;
Prof. Marnie Dela Cruz, for his moral support, expression of confidence in the researcher;
Dr. Gerardo S. Garcia and Prof. Geronima C. Matias for their friendly advice and
encouragement;
Prof. Joyce C. Castillo and Prof. Revelyn Pacol for their assistance and concern to make this
study more comprehensible;
Prof. Mary B. Gallardo and Ptr. Gregorio Agatep, for their incessant proddings and assistance in
this study;
2

Dr. Bernadette Ayunon and Mrs. Imeda Dosono for their delightful personal concern,
Rev. Fr. Edgardo B. Bugtong, S.V.D., for his endless support, encouragement, and inspiration to
move on step by step towards success;
Joselino G. Bobiles, the researchers late husband who had been her strength and inspiration; and
her children Laborem Joey and Marie Clare, for their love, sacrifices, understanding, inspiration and
patience that enabled the researcher to finish this study;
Her parents, brothers, sister in laws, nephews, nieces, relatives, friends, colleagues and all the
people who willingly shared their time, and cooperation to make this study a success; and,
Above all, to the Triumphant and Almighty God, and Great Provider, the source of her strength
and courage to finish this study.

N.M.B.B.

DEDICATION
In Loving Memory

Of my husband, Joselino G. Bobiles, who had been

instrumental in creating a truly meaningful life for me.

My children, Laborem Joey and Marie Clare, whose

unceasing inspiration and affection.

Sustained me throughout this educational

journey to achieve.

N.M.B.B.

ABSTRACT
TITLE: FACTORS AFFECTING THE COURSE PREFERENCES OF FOURTH YEAR
STUDENTS OF NORTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE LABORATORY HIGH
SCHOOL: BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CAREER COUNSELING
PROGRAM
Author:

Nicandra Milagros B. Bobiles

Adviser:

Norma L. Fernando, Ed. D.

Institution:

Northern Christian College


Laoag City

Degree:

Master of Arts in Education

Date:

October 2014

Subject:

Factors Affecting Course Preferences

This study determined the factors that affect the course preference of the fourth year students of
the Northern Christian College Laboratory High School which was a basis for the development of a
career counseling program.
Specifically, it described the characteristics of students as to: sex, religion, socio-economic status
of parents, academic grades, personality traits, study habits, and multiple intelligences; identified their
course preferences; and determined the relationship of socio-demographic characteristics to career
preferences. Results were the basis for the development of a career counseling development program.

vi

The study employed the descriptive method of research using a questionnaire to gather data.
The mean, weighted mean, frequency and percentage were used to describe the variables while
the Chi-square was used to establish relationship of variables.
Most of the students were adolescents, males, and Catholics, and residents of Laoag City. Their
parents have an average monthly income of Php 10,000 which is enough for their basic needs and the
schooling of their children in a private high school. The fathers of the respondents are mostly college
undergraduates while majority of the mothers finished college. This indicates that both parents are
highly literate.
Most of the students have average academic grades. They have positive personality traits of.
They are moderately friendly, cheerful and some are slightly independent, industrious and sociable.
However, they have poor study habits, although they look for additional readings on the Internet and
prepare well for examinations.
With regard to multiple intelligence, the students, as a group are more inclined to have spiritual
and visual-spatial intelligences. This may be due to the school being a Christian institution enforcing
spiritual discipline. The other intelligences are slightly evident in the students.
For the students course preferences, majority would like to pursue baccalaureate courses, some
prefer technical-vocational courses and a few plan on taking a highly professional course.
Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship of their religion , the mothers occupation
and parents monthly income with course preference.There was no significant relationship of the other
student characteristics (sex, educational attainment and fathers occupation, academic grades, personality
traits, study habits, and multiple intelligences) with course preferences.

The researcher developed a career guidance action plan and recommended its implementations to
guide and assist the students in the choice of a course to pursue before embarking into the next level of
education.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preliminary Pages

Page

Title Page

Thesis Committee Recommendation Sheet

ii

Approval Sheet

iii

Acknowledgment

iv

Dedication

vi

Abstract

vii

Table of Contents

ix

List of Tables

xiii

List of Figures

xiv

List of Appendices

xv

CHAPTER
I.THE PROBLEM
Introduction

Objectives

4
7

Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework

Hypothesis

10

Significance of the Study

10

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

11

Definition of Terms

11

II. .REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Course Preferences

16

Factors Affecting Course Preferences

17

Socio-Economic Status of Parents

17

Academic Grades

18

Personality Traits

19

Study Habits

21

Multiple Intelligences

22

The Impact of Parents Preferences on Courses Taken


by Their Children

25

Vocational Guidance

27

Occupational Information Services

27

Functions of Occupational Information

28

Need for Occupational Information

29

Testing Services

32

Personnel Services in the Career Counseling Program

33

Contributions of Guidance Program to Academic Achievement

34

Higher Confidence Level While in School and After Schooling


Factors Affecting Course Preferences

36

Career Counseling Development Program


III

41

METHODOLOGY
Research Design

42

Locale of the Study

42

Respondents
Instrumentation

45
46

Validation of the Instrument

47

Data Gathering Procedure

47

Statistical Treatment

48

Scoring and Interpretation


IV.

35

49

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Characteristics of the fourth year high school students

51

Sex

51

Age

51

Religion

52

Residence

52

Socio-Economic Status of Parents

52

Educational Attainment of Parents

53

Occupation of Parents

54

Monthly Income

54

Academic Grades

55

Personality Traits

56

Study Habits

58

Multiple Intelligence

60

Course Preferences of Fourth Year High School Students

64

Relationship between Characteristics and Course Preferences


of Respondents

65

Relationship of Individual Student Characteristics


and Course Preferences of Respondents

67

Sex

67

Religion

68

Socio Economic Status of Parents

68

Academic Grades

69

Personality Traits

70

Study Habits

70

Multiple Intelligence

71

Action Plan for a Career Guidance Counseling Program

72

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMNDATIONS


Summary

78

Findings

79

Characteristics of Respondents

79

Course Preferences

79
10

Relationship Between Characteristics And Course Preferences

80

Conclusions

80

Recommendations

80

Literature Cited

82

APPENDICES

86

CURRICULUM VITAE

114

LIST OF TABLES
Table No.

Page

1. Demographic Characteristics of the fourth year high school students

45

2. Other characteristics of the fourth year students of Northern Christian


College Laboratory High School

53

3. Academic grades of the students during the third grading period.

55

4. Personality traits that are indicative of the respondents

56

5. Statements reflecting study habits of the respondents

59

6. Summary of the study habits profile of respondents

60

7. Multiple intelligences of the respondents

61

8. Summary of the number of respondents falling under each


intelligence or inclination

64

9. The number of respondents categorized under their course preferences

65

10. Relationship of Student Characteristics and Course Preferences


of Respondents

68

11

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

Conceptual Paradigm

Northern Christian College Campus Map

45

12

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix

Page

A. Letter Request to the President of Northern Christian College of Laoag City to conduct

87

the study.
B. Letter Requesting Approval of the Principal of Northern Christian College
Laboratory High School of Laoag City to conduct the study.

88

C. Interview Guide Questions Administered to Chosen Fourth Year Students


to Improve the Reliability and Validity of the Instrument.

89

D. Questionnaire Factors Affecting Course Preferences of Fourth Year Students of NCC


Laboratory High School.

91

E. Research Dissemination Forum

103

Research Forum

104

Thank You

104

Program

105
13

Research Forum - Attendance Sheet

106

Pictorial

108

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM

Introduction
Course preference has become a complex science with the advent of information technology and
the emergence of post industrialization resolution and job competition. Industrialization and post
industrialization have made it possible for a common person to be richer than the intellectual, as long as
he or she has acquired the necessary knowledge, skills and competence in certain expertise (Wattles,
2009).
If society has to move forward toward economic progress, individuals have to be in places and
conditions where they can contribute their utmost to progress. They have to be square pegs in square
holes and round pegs in round holes in so far as putting to profitable use their talents, skills and
abilities, so that they can be assets in the society where they live. To be square pegs in round holes or
round pegs in square holes means that they are misfits and liabilities in the society where they live.
This should be avoided as human and material resources will go to waste, when individuals are placed in
work situations they are not prepared for.
Most students in secondary schools nowadays do not have the necessary and accurate
information about occupational opportunity to make the appropriate course preference. According to
Kerka (2000), course preference is influenced by multiple factors including personality traits, interests,
14

self-concept, cultural identity, globalization, socialization, role model, social support and available
resources, such as information and financial assistance. Bandura,et al. (2001) states that the process of
course preference is also influenced by several factors including the context in which one lives. These
are personal aptitudes, social contexts and educational attainment.
According to Hewitt (2010), factors influencing course preference can either be intrinsic or
extrinsic or both. He further stated that most people are influenced by courses that the parents favor.
Some however, choose to follow their passion regardless of how insufficient their income in it would,
while others choose the career that would give them high income.
Career preference may also be influenced by special intelligence. According to Dr. Howard
Gardner, an American psychologist from Harvard University, intelligence can be defined in several
ways. This definition led to the conceptualization of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI theory).
In his milestone work, Frames of Mind, Gardner defined intelligence as the ability to solve problems,
or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings. When this theory is applied to
learners, they are either word smart, number/reasoning smart, picture smart, body smart, musical smart,
people smart, self-smart, nature smart, wondering smart and spiritual smart. These intelligences can
help teachers and parents alike, to assist students select courses that are attuned to their innate talents
and intelligences.
Course preference, therefore, is a very important decision that an individual has to make in his
lifetime. It can spell success or failure, and happiness or unhappiness, as well. It should not be a spur of
the moment decision or as a result of peer and parental influence, but it should undergo a careful selfexamination and self-reflection of ones strengths and weaknesses, including all the factors that
influence the selection of a course.

The school guides students in their course preferences through its guidance program. A guidance
and counseling program is an integral part of a schools total educational program. It is developmental
by design, focusing on the needs, interests and issues related to various stages of student growth.
Planning for the future, combating career stereotyping, and analyzing skills and interests are some of the
goals of the guidance program. Students must be developed in the school according to their line of
specialization. Career information must be made available to students, and representatives from business
and industry must work closely with the school and the counselor in preparing students for the world of
work (Cooley, 2010 as cited by Cabasag, 2013).
It is a common observation during enrollment time that there are a number of college students
who shift from one course to another for the reason that they do not like their former course. They either
got low grades or drop out from the school for one reason or another. They finally realize that what they
enrolled in is not their passion or line of interest because they were only persuaded by their friends to
join them. Others enroll in a course that is their parents choice even if they did not like it making
college schooling a waste of time, money and effort for both the students and the parents. Hence, proper
counseling and career orientation must be provided to high school students so that they are properly
guided on the choice of a course which will enable them to obtain, within the limits of their capacity and
potentials, reasonable success, satisfaction and happiness in the course that they want.
It is in this context that the researcher, who is a secondary school teacher of Northern Christian
College, conceptualized this study on the factors affecting the course preferences of fourth year students
of NCC Laboratory High School, S.Y. 2012-2014.

Objectives
This study determined the factors affecting the course preferences of fourth year students of
Northern Christian College Laboratory High School which was the basis for the development of a career
counseling program. Specifically, it sought to attain the following objectives:
1. Describe the characteristics of the students in terms of:
a. sex
b. religion
c. socio-economic status of parents (educational attainment, occupation, income)
d. academic grades
e. personality traits
f. study habits
g. multiple intelligence
2. Identify the course preferences of the fourth year students.
3. Determine the relationship of socio-demographic characteristics to course
preferences.
4. Develop a career counseling program.
Theoretical Framework
This study was guided by three theories, namely: the Multiple Intelligences Theory, the
Capability Approach, and the Career Counseling Theory.

Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Howard Gardner (1999) formulated the Theory of Multiple
Intelligences which identifies ten separate kinds of intelligences. He believes that each individual is
4

equipped with a unique blend of intellectual potentials which he can mobilize, expand or connect
according to his inclinations and intentions. The different multiple intelligences are: a) verbal- linguistic,
b) logical-mathematical, c) musical-rhythmic, d) bodily-kinesthetic, e) visual-spatial, f) interpersonal, g)
intrapersonal, h) naturalist) existentialist, and j) spiritual.
An instrument for assessing the multiple intelligences of students could be an effective tool to find out
the innate talents and potentials and their lines of interest and it could be a useful reference to determine
course preference.

Capability Theory. Another theory that was utilized as framework in this research is the
Capability Approach (Clark, 2005) which claims that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary
moral importance and it must be understood in terms of peoples capabilities to do what they value. The
theory recognizes the freedom of individuals to achieve well-being and this is a matter of what they are
able to do and to be, and thus attain the kind of life they are effectively able to lead.
When applied to course preferences, students can succeed more if they pursue a course within
their capability and which is of value to them. When the innate talents and capabilities of students are
identified using a multiple intelligence test, they would be guided to pursue a course that is attuned to
their capabilities, thus increasing their chances of success in their chosen career.
The capability theory is related to the four pillars of education framed by the International
Commission on Education for the 21st Century. The four pillars are: learning to know, learning to do,
learning to live together, and learning to be (UNESCO,1996). The fourth pillar, learning to be, stresses
the role of education in developing all the dimensions of the complete person: physical, intellectual,
emotional and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man. It takes into account all the

powers, faculties and innate potentials within the human person, respecting the dignity and worth of
each individual.
The four pillars highlight the role of values and attitude towards a holistic and integrated
approach to education. Learning to be starts with knowing oneself as a person. Doing self-introspection
and self-examination and knowing ones strengths and weaknesses would enable one to select a career
that is suited to his personhood. Knowing that the course a student is suited to his capabilities would
give him more self-confidence and self- esteem and would lead to the fulfillment of his dreams and
aspirations in life. This is also in line with Maslows Hierarchy of Needs.

Learning Theory of Career Counseling. Krumboltzs (Osipow/Fitzgerald, 1996)Learning


Theory of Career Counseling which also applies to this study emphasizes the importance of learning
experiences and their effects on career and occupational selection. Career decision making is considered
to be a vital skill that can be used during ones life time. There are factors that influence individual
preferences in the social-learning model and these are composed of numerous cognitive processes,
interactions in the environment and the inherited personal characteristics and traits from parents.
However, the educational and occupational preferences are directly observable results of actions
and of learning experiences that involve career tasks. Career decision making is a learned skill, and the
more developed the skill, the better the career choice. But a learner who claims to have made a career
choice needs help too, because the choice may have been made from inaccurate information and faulty
alternatives. Hence, the success is measured by students demonstrated skill in making decision. The
individual has no need to feel guilty if he is not sure of which career to enter.

There are no courses and occupations that seem as best for anyone. Challenges that involve
educational opportunities and available work options should be approached with a positive attitude that
promotes positive outcomes for the future.

Conceptual Framework
The research paradigm in Figure 1 illustrates the theorized relationship of the characteristics of
the fourth year high school students and their career preferences. The characteristics are sex, religion,
socio-economic status of parents, academic grades, personality traits, study habits, and multiple
intelligences. One or more of these factors may influence the students choice of a career to pursue.
Sex, whether male or female, affects the choice of career. It is an observation that most male
students prefer technical-vocational courses or blue collar jobs while female students select white-collar
jobs. However, with gender equality nowadays, more females have been choosing fields which were
traditionally preferred by males.
Religion, whether Catholic, Iglesiani Cristo, Four Square Church, United
Church of Christ in the Philippines, Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Seventh Day Adventist, Born Again
Christian, and other denominations may also affect the course preference. The students faith in a
supernatural being who could help them in times of adversities and difficulties would give them the
patience and perseverance to face squarely the difficulties in a chosen career.
The socio-economic status of parents has been observed to greatly influence the courses their
children pursue because they are the ones who pay for their schooling. Socio-economic status includes
educational attainment, occupation, and family income. Although a certain course may be suited to the
childrens capabilities and interests, if parents cannot afford it, the children cannot pursue it, unless
financial assistance comes from other sources.
7

The academic ratings of students the different subject areas reflect their intellectual ability and
interest. Thus these may be good indicators of fields students could pursue careers in. In fact guidance
counselors usually use subject ratings as one of the bases in giving career guidance.
Personality traits, some of which are hereditary and others acquired through training or from
experience, may have significance in career choice. Personality traits like drive, emotional stability,
initiative, personal disposition, industry, conscientiousness have importance in the choice of a course.
Work ethics and attitudes are also very important factors in making a course preference.
Study habits are learners ways of dealing with their studies in terms of information-processing,
conceptualization and problem solving. It is also a system of learning and practicing the outcomes of
ones training and experiences. The students also learn from their observations of the way other
individuals handle their studies, and they develop habits as a result of their inclination and how they go
through their studies. There are courses that require diligence in study habits and there are those that an
average students could go through in an easy-going manner. Habits of study that a student has
developed early in life may also influence the course he will take. John Dryden (2008), a poet, once said,
We first make our habits, and then our habits make us. Developing good habits not only in his studies
but also in his work can make him accomplish his task effectively and productively.
Lastly, knowledge of the factors that may affect course preference would contribute much to the
development of a more effective career counseling program of the school.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

DEPENDENT VARIABLES

Characteristics of fourth year


high school students

Sex
Religion
Socio-economic status of parents
(income, educational attainment,

Course preferences of
fourth year high school
students

Technical-Vocational
Baccalaureate
Highly-Professional

occupation)
Academic grades
Personality traits
Study habits
Multiple intelligences

Career Counseling Development


Program

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm


Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the profile characteristics of fourth year high school
students and their course preferences.

Significance of the Study


The results and findings of the study can be useful to the different stakeholders
of the school, both internal and external, such as:
Students. This study can inform high school students about their course preferences and how
their profile characteristics influence them. This would lead them to a deeper analysis of their talents
and potentials, their personality traits and attitudes , as well as the financial status of their parents, so
that they can make the best decision in the choice of a career.
Parents. Knowing the factors that affect course preferences and understanding their childrens
choice will save them from unnecessary expenses due to failures and shifting of courses. The findings
could serve as advice to them that they should not be the one to decide on the course which their
children would pursue.
Teachers. The findings of this study provide teachers with a basis for providing students initial
career guidance. Using the factors that are related to course preferences, teachers could help students
realize the careers which are best suited to them.
Guidance counselors. One of the major functions of a guidance counselor is helping high school
students select courses that are suited to their capabilities and interests. This study, especially the career
guidance program developed, would be very helpful to guidance counselors in performing this function.
School administrators. The effectiveness of a career counseling program depends to a large
extent on the support a school administrator gives to it. This study can make the school administrator
aware of what are necessary to help students make wise and suitable career choices so he can provide
the necessary administrative support to the career guidance program. The findings could be a basis for
crafting necessary policies and guidelines to improve their guidance service and create specialization
tracks to develop the students skills and talents.
10

Researchers. This study could serve as a valuable reference for other researchers undertaking a
similar study.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study focused on the factors affecting the course preferences of fourth year high school students of
Northern Christian College Laboratory High School Laoag City, school years 2012-2014.
Factors affecting course preferences were limited to sex, religion, socio-economic status of parents,
academic grades, personality traits, study habits and multiple intelligences. Academic grades of students
were their general average expressed in percentile rating obtained during the third grading period as
indicated in their Form 138 or card.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as used in this study to give the readers better and clearer
understanding of the concepts and variables.
Ability is the general intellectual capacity of the fourth year student as shown in their third
grading academic grades in the different subjects.
Aptitude is in the inborn capacity of the students to excel in specific fields like
english, mathematics, music, arts, sports, etc. It is shown in the results of the multiple intelligences
questionnaire that was administered to the respondents.
Attitude is the learners perspective and disposition to a certain field or work or line

of

interest.
Baccalaureate course is a 4-year degree courses like teaching, nursing, commerce, social work
and others.

11

Career counseling refers to a guidance service provided to fourth year students to assist them
decide on what course is best for them with the help of a guidance counselor.
Career Development Counseling Program is a series of carefully planned activities to orient
students of the different careers in the world of work.
Characteristics include personal and psychological data on the students, like age, sex, religion,
place of residence, parents socio-economic status, academic grades, personality traits, study habits and
multiple intelligences.
Age refers to the students number of years of existence as of his

nearest birthday.

Educational attainment is the highest level of schooling that a person, specifically the
parents, has reached.
Sex refers to the maleness and femaleness of a person.
Religion. It is the religious group to which the students and their parents are members of.
Socio-economic status of parents is the social standing that parents have in society and
is indicated by their income, educational attainment and occupation.
Academic grade is the general average rating obtained by the students in the different
subjects during the third grading period expressed in percentile rank.
Personality traits are a persons usual ways of reacting which manifested by the
physical, intellectual, social and

moral behaviors of an individual. Some of these traits are

inherited, while others are acquired. It includes ones physical make up, thoughts, feelings,
motives, emotions, experiences and even ones dreams and aspirations for the future.
Study habit refers to the observable behavioral traits of a student in preparing for his
lessons and in doing his assignments.

12

Multiple intelligences refer to specialize aptitudes and abilities

that a person may

possess which, as conceptualized by Howard Gardner, are ten, namely:


Verbal-linguistic intelligence (word smart)which is the ability to learn languages and
use these to express ones mind and to understand people. People with this intelligence enjoy
reading various kinds of literature, playing word games, making up poetry and stories, and
discussing with other people.
Logical-mathematical intelligence (number smart)which is the ability to detect
patterns, reason deductively, think logically and good in the science of numbers.
Musical-rhythmic intelligence (music smart) is the capacity

to enjoy music and

appreciate sounds, rhythms, tones, beats and the music produced by other people present in the
environment.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (body smart)is the potential

of using ones whole

body or parts of the body to solve problems.


Visual-spatial intelligence (picture smart)involves the

potential to recognize and use the

ability to manipulate and mentally rotate objects.


Interpersonal intelligence (people smart) is the capacity to understand the intentions,
motivations, desires of other people and work well with others.
Intrapersonal intelligence (self-smart)is the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate ones
feelings, fears and motivations. Psychologists, philosophers, social workers, and counselors are all
examples of self-smart people.
Naturalist intelligence (nature smart). This is the ability to recognize and categorize plants,
animals and other objects in nature.

13

Existential intelligence (wonder smart) is the ability to be sensitive and be analytical about
ultimate reality. Reality is determined by individual experience.
Spiritual intelligence (spiritual smart) is the intelligence that

makes

person

whole,

integral and transformative.


Counseling is an activity designed to assist and guide students choice of a course.
Counselor is the person trained in guiding and assisting students make course choices.
Course preference is the college course that a student would like to pursue which would lead to
the profession he would like to be a member of.
Guidance is the process of assisting, showing, and directing a student to find and pursue a career
most suited to his interest and abilities.
Highly professional course refers to a profession which requires schooling of more than five
years, like engineering, medicine, and law.
Occupation refers to the work or employment which an individual will practice after completing
the required academic preparation. In this study, occupation is classified either as a blue collar or white
collar job.
Blue-collar job is a line of work which requires a lot of strength, manual exertion and stamina
and, whose workers wear heavy-duty work clothes because of the rough conditions in which they work.
Examples are carpenters, electricians, welder or plumbers.
White-collar job is a type of work that is performed in an office with clean and comfortable
surroundings and where the workers wear neat clothes.
government employees.

14

Examples are teachers, nurses, public

Technical-vocational course is a post-secondary or short term course that needs mostly skills,
instead of a four-year professional preparation, such as workers in a hotel or restaurant. ,computer
technicians, midwives, radio mechanics, and others.
Vocational guidance is the process by which a guidance counselor or a teacher assists a student
to choose a vocation or work which he wishes to engage in the future and for which he must acquire
the necessary knowledge and skills.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter presents a review of literature and studies on course preferences, and the theories
and factors that have been found to influence such preferences.

These related literature were very

helpful in the conceptualization of the research and in the interpretation of data gathered.
Course Preferences
Course preferences refers to the students expressed choice or selection of a life- time career or
employment. The high school years are the best years for them to decide on what course to pursue in
college.

It is important that students choices should be within their line of interest and capabilities, to

make their lives happy, productive and fulfilling and by which they could help in the countrys
economic growth and stability.

15

Course preference is an integral part of education so students have to aid to make intelligent
decisions and adjustments in life. According to Gary Kelly, as cited by Cinco (2008), making a course
preference as a phase of the educative process consists of the appraisal of the abilities, interests and
needs of individual pupils and students in order to formulate plans for realizing their capacities and the
adjustments which will promote their well-being in school, and in life.
Babad (2001) examined different considerations for selecting a first course and a last course. She
found that first courses were selected for their prospective intellectual level, expected quality of teaching
and students potential learning and occupational gains. She also found that last courses were selected on
the basis of comfort and ease and that quality of teaching was the only dimension separating satisfied
and dissatisfied students in both first and last courses.
In a follow-up study, Babad &Tayeb (2003) studied three dimensions of course selection
learning value, lecturers style, and course difficulty in the sequential decision-making process of course
preference in a hypothetical choice situation. They concluded that students chose to avoid hard work,
giving strong preference to easy and moderately difficult courses. They also found that students gave
high importance to the learning value and lecturer style dimensions. Feather (1988) found support for
the hypothesis that course preference decisions for students in mathematics and English courses are
related to their self-concepts of ability in the subjects.
Factors Affecting Course Preferences
Several studies have identified some factors related to the choices of students regarding the
college course to pursue.
Socio-Economic Status of Parents

16

The socio-economic status of parents plays an influential role in student academic achievement
and in course preferences. Several forces of social structure are considered major determinants of
vocational choice. The family and the social class in which the individual is nurtured and reared will
help him determine his future vocation. It includes the parents educational attainment, family income,
the occupational prestige and the cultural orientation of the family. Parents aspirations include the
fathers and mothers vocational choice for their children and other aspirations in life.

Parents also sustain their childs progress along courses with encouragement and praise, by
providing material assistance such as books, equipment and tutoring and by allocating time to practice or
participate in certain activities ( Flores, 2010).
Academic Grades
The learners academic grade is very important to both their personal and
professional life in many significant ways. The level of their academic performance is often related
to the right course preference that they choose (Castillo, 2012).
The learners are more motivated to go to school when their parents give them also moral support
by attending or participating in school activities and assisting them in their studies. The learners also
perform better in their classes when they are given more encouragement, inspiring advice and great
affection daily. These can enhance their school achievement and performance in the different subjects.
Flores (2010) proved this in her research finding that parents involvement in activities designed
to support the schools curriculum and standards resulted in the most substantial gains in academic
achievement of students.

Thus the many forms of parents and teachers engagement positively

influence student achievement at all ages. It has become imperative for schools to develop partnership

17

programs of parents support and teachers communication to educate students better from all
backgrounds (Stone and Dahir, 2000).
Teachers and parents engagement in education refers to the beliefs, attitudes, and activities they
do

support students learning. Although such involvement most often focuses on parents, it also

includes guardians or extended family members who have significant responsibility in a students
upbringing are equally valuable partners in students education (Henderson and Mapp, 2002).
Students with high academic grades have been observed to exhibit the drive and commitment to
learn. The skill to acquire information and ideas lead them to pursue courses which need high
intellectual ability like medicine, law, engineering and accounting. Students with lower intellectual
ability should take easier courses like technical-vocational courses, midwifery, skills in hotel and
restaurant management, secretarial courses, office management and entrepreneurship (Calderon, 2000).
Psychological tests can be used to measure intelligence in the different levels of professions as follows:
professional occupational level (superior intelligence); technical occupational level (high average
intelligence); skilled occupational level (average intelligence); semi-skilled and low-skilled level (lowaverage); unskilled occupational level (inferior intelligence) (Cinco, 2008).
Personality Traits
Personality is the sum total of an individuals characteristics and ways of behaving which affects
his unique adjustment to his environment. It is the product of many factors and conditions which have
been inherited and which exists in the environment. No two persons have the same heredity and no two
persons react in the same way to their environment (Annabel, 1998).
The goal in personality development is a well-rounded personality that can help or
meets situation in life successfully. To be successful in ones career today, a person
pleasing personality.
18

must have a

Here are ten major steps to achieve a winning personality (Annabel, 1998):
Character. A mans character is what he is inwardly, for character is the combination of
qualities, traits and virtues that distinguishes the individual from another. It is the result of ones own
endeavor and personal exertion to develop his reputation of honesty and integrity.
Enthusiasm. Nothing is so contagious as enthusiasm. It moves stones, it charms brutes. It is the
light that leads and the strength that lifts men on and up in the great struggles of scientific pursuits and
professional labor. It robs endurance of difficulty and makes a pleasure of duty. A man who is known for
his enthusiastic personality is always in demand.
Grooming. A mans appearance is extremely important in this modern world because people
generally judge more from appearance than from reality. A good first impression is most important.
Personal habits. Habits are formed not with one stroke, but gradually and insensibly, through
vigilant care employed to effect a great change until it becomes a part of character without the person
being conscious of it.
Attitude. A mans outlook toward life may be either sweet, sour, positive or negative, and it is
noticeable in his dealings with people. One of the most important of all attitudes is a positive outlook.
Attitude is largely a state of mind and if the mind is filled with pleasant, creative, constructive ideas, the
personality will reflect a like attitude.
Intelligence. Inherent intelligence is a persons natural capacity and inclination. It must be
expanded to the fullest degree in order to gain and hold the respect and admiration of ones associates.
Human relations. It involves getting along with people. The good human relations practitioner
is the man with a sociable personality. He is not only a real human being himself, but he realizes that the
average man appreciates being treated like a human being.

19

Aggressiveness. To be acceptable, aggressiveness must be pleasant rather than argumentative,


and constructive rather than militant.
Spiritual values. A man endowed with high spiritual understanding naturally practices good
ethics in his dealings with mankind. He has a good sense of the Golden Rule and has his mind filled
with religious, intellectual and cultural values. He is often referred to as spiritual, not because he is
entirely religious but because his spiritual qualities are prominently in evidence. In other words, he puts
his faith into action. Spirituality is seeing God in common things, and showing God in common tasks.

Study Habits
The students study habits can either help or hinder them to accomplish their tasks. The way they
do the assigned task / activity in school can prolong or shorten the time they spend in learning their
lessons. Even the time they choose to study can already produce poor, satisfactory or very satisfactory
results on their performances. If one has poor study habits, he needs to improve on it. An improved
study habit can help him to learn effectively and finish his work efficiently in school which leads him
to achieve a high academic performance (Punsalan, 2008).
With the advent of modern technology, the Internet has played a major role in students study
habits. Students are major users of the internet and its social networking sites, such that these have
become distractions to their studies. The use of internet has advantages and disadvantages to students.
It can benefit them because the Internet is very useful for research, and for communicating with friends
and classmates about their assignments and requirements in class. On the other hand, the Internet can be
a disadvantage, especially when students get addicted to it. Different social networking sites (SNS) like
Facebook, Twitter can cause addiction and can greatly reduce students study time. Instead of reviewing

20

for their examinations or doing their homework, they end up playing games or chatting with their friends
online.
The habitual use of social networking sites may lead to the loss of concentration or interest in
their studies which inevitably leads to low academic performance.

Multiple Intelligences
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI Theory) by is a breakthrough in education. This theory
posits that intelligence is more than a single need of the human mind. In 1983, Dr. Gardner in his book,
Frames of the Mind defined intelligence as the ability to solve problems or to create products that are
valued within one or more cultural settings. He originally identified eight multiple intelligences. After
two decades, he redefined it and conceptualized that intelligence is a bio- psychological potential to
process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or to create products that
are valuable in a culture. He explained in a later book in 1999 that the redefinition is important because
he believed that intelligences are not things that can be seen or counted; instead, they are potentials that
will not be activated depending upon the values of a particular culture, the opportunities available in that
culture, and the personal decisions made by individuals and/or their families, school teachers, and
others. The types of intelligences are:
Verbal-linguistic intelligence (Word Smart). This is the ability to learn languages and use
language to express ones mind and to understand people. Those who have high linguistic intelligence
are well-developed in verbal skills and have sensitivity to sounds, meanings and rhythms of words.
These kinds of people enjoy reading various kinds of literature, playing word games, making up poetry
and stories, and getting into involved discussions with other people. Occupations suited are being a
teacher, religious leader, politician, attorney, writer, poet, journalist, novelist, and editor.
21

Logical-mathematical intelligence (Number Smart). This is the ability to detect patterns,


reason deductively, and think logically. Those who are math smart have the capacity to analyze
problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate scientifically. Those with high
logical-mathematical intelligence are highly capable of thinking conceptually and abstractly.
Occupations suited are being an accountant, statistician, banker, economist, engineer, scientist, computer
programmer, and software developer.
Musical-rhythmic intelligence (Music Smart).It is the capacity to think in music, to be able to
hear patterns, recognize them, and manipulate them. Those who are musically intelligent learn through
sounds, rhythms, tones, beats, music produced by other people present in the environment. Musically
intelligent people also have the ability to perform, compose, and appreciate music and music patterns.
Occupations are songwriter, composer, musician, conductor and music critic.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (Body Smart). This entails the potential of using ones whole
body or parts of the body to solve problems. Those with high kinesthetic intelligence communicate well
through body language and like to be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, and
role playing. These kinds of people have a keen sense of body awareness and have the ability to use
mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements (Smith, 2008). Occupations suited to this are dancer,
athlete, actor, surgeon, carpenter, mechanic and sculpture.

Visual-spatial intelligence (Picture Smart). This involves the potential to recognize patterns of
wide space and more confined areas. It involves a high capacity for perceiving, creating and recreating
pictures and images. People who are spatially intelligent are keenly perceptive of even slight visual
details, can usually sketch out ideas with graphs, tables or images. Spatially intelligent or picture smart
22

people who

think in pictures and have a keen sense of location and direction. These are suited to

become either an artist, photographer, engineer, decorator, tour guide or scout ranger.
Interpersonal intelligence (People Smart).This is the capacity to understand the intentions,
motivations, and desires of other people (Smith, 2008). These kinds of people work well with others.
Interpersonally intelligent people learn best through personal interactions. They are friendly, outgoing
and excellent team players. Occupations suited to them are being an administrator, manager, consultant,
teacher, therapist, psychologist and social worker.
Intrapersonal intelligence (Self-Smart).This is the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate
ones feelings, fears and motivations. People who are self-smart choose to work on their own as they
use and trust their self- understanding to guide them. They are in touch with their inner feelings and are
able to form realistic goals and conceptions of themselves. Occupations suited to these are psychologist,
philosopher, social worker, counselor, novelist, poet, self-employed consultant and business owner.
Naturalist intelligence (Nature Smart). This is the ability to recognize and categorize plants,
animals and other objects in nature. People with naturalist intelligence love to be outdoors and tend to
notice patterns and structures in the ecological settings. They show an appreciation for and deep
understanding of the environment. Occupations are ecologist, ranger, zoologist, botanist, veterinarian,
hunter and scout ranger.
Existential intelligence (Wonder Smart).This is the ability to be sensitive or having the
capacity for conceptualizing or tackling deeper or larger questions about human existence such as: What
is the meaning of life? Why were we born? Why do we die? Existential intelligence is often called the
wondering smart or the metaphysical intelligence.

23

Spiritual intelligence (Spiritual Smart).This is the intelligence that makes us whole, integral
and transformative. It is not necessarily religious nor dependent upon religion as a foundation. It
includes the capacity to face and use suffering, and transcend pain, the capacity to be flexible, actively
and spontaneously adaptive, and high self-awareness.
The Impact of Parents Preferences on the Courses Taken
by Their Children
A new research found that parents have a lot more to do with the course preference of their
children. While previous researchers have determined that their course inclination may be inherited
genetically, and others say that the driving force is the upbringing and the nurturing they get from their
parents, a new child-development theory bridges those two models. The research indicates that the way a
child turns out can be determined in large part by the day-to-day decisions made by the parents who
guide their childs growth. This model helps to resolve the nature-nurture debate, said psychologist
George Holden at Southern Methodist University in Dallas who conducted the research (Allen, 2010).
Holden hypothesizes that parents guide their childrens development in four complex and dynamic ways
.
According to the model, parents initiate courses, sometimes trying to steer their child in a
preferred developmental path based on either the parents preferences or their observations of the childs
characteristics and abilities, such as enrolling their child in a class, exposing them to people and places,
or taking a child to practices or lessons.
They also sustain their childs progress along courses with encouragement and praise, by
providing material assistance, such as books, equipment or tutoring, and by allocating time to practice or
participate in certain activities. They discuss courses which influence how their child perceives and
understands a path, and help steer their child clear of negative courses by preparing them to deal with
potential problems. Finally, parents react to child-initiated course preference.
24

To Holden, courses are useful image for thinking about trails development because one can
easily visualize concepts detours, roadblocks and off-ramps, (Holden, 2010).

These are

transitional events that can redirect a pathway, such as parents divorce. Roadblocks are events or
behavior that shut down a potential line of interest, such as teen pregnancy, which can block an
educational path. Off-ramps exit from a positive path, such as abusing drugs, getting bullied or joining
a gang.
Holden identifies other ways that parents influence a childs progress toward a course, such as
modeling desired behaviors, or modifying the speed of development by controlling the type and number
of experiences. Some of the ways in which children react to courses include accepting, negotiating,
resisting or rejecting them. Some factors that can also influence courses include the familys culture,
their income and family resources, and the quality of the parent-child relationship. This model of
parenting helps to point out that effective parenting involves guiding children in such a way as to ensure
that they are developing along positive courses ( Mulvey, 2010).
Vocational Guidance
Vocational guidance is the process of assisting an individual to choose a course or occupation,
prepare for it, enter it, and progress in it (Cinco, 2008). Some purposes of vocational guidance are as
follows: a) to help adopt the schools to the needs of the students and community, b) assist the students in
choosing progress in their chosen career or occupation, c) disseminate knowledge of competition and
other problems in the business and occupational world, as well as their characteristics, d) facilitate
workers to understand their relationship with other workers, and with the society as a whole; e) secure
greater cooperation between the school and the various commercial, industrial, and professional
pursuits, and f) to encourage the establishment of courses of study in educational institutions that will
harmoniously combine both cultural and practical studies.
25

Occupational Information Service


This service assists the students in choosing, preparing and training for entering and making
progress in their chosen career or occupation. To be well-informed about an occupation, the following
outline can be used: importance of an occupation, nature of the work, working conditions, personal
qualities needed, preparation needed, opportunities for advancement and compensation.
There are several reasons for using occupational information. First, it can be an important part of
the learners education and will help them develop a general understanding about the world of work.
Second, education is concerned with the development of attitudes, and important part of ones set of
attitudes relating to occupations and the people who hold them. Third, the learners can be helped if they
come to understand that there are many reasons for working, and that money is only one of them.
Fourth, during these early years, the learners can be presented with ideas which suggest that there are
certain common factors that make a job well done or poorly done. Fifth, the learners can be made to
understand that among tens of thousands of occupations, there are scores that can be equated with
an individuals education,
intelligence, and interest. Individuals must be able to relate their occupation to their total
education, intelligence, and interests. Individuals must be able to relate their occupation to their total self
(Cinco, 2008).
Functions of Occupational Information
Occupational Information acquaints students with certain essential facts related
to an area of choice or adjustment. The instructional function of information is that of stimulating
learners to make use of the informational sources about which they have learned through orientation or
counseling. The distributional function of information is especially evident in the occupational world,
though it appears in other areas as well. One of the chief reasons for unrealistic occupational choices of
26

high school students is the lack of knowledge of the opportunities and requirements of the world of
work.
The value of information lies in its therapeutic function. The counselor often has
to deal with clients of low ability but high ambitions. In counseling these individuals, the counselor
must use occupational information therapeutically in order to assist them in scaling down these
ambitions without losing face. Such persons may be asked to secure information about the occupation
they prefer and then compare the educational requirements with their school marks and scores on
scholastic aptitude tests. The counselor should point alternative occupations, which lie within the same
field, as to occupations originally selected.

Need for Occupational Information


As the young persons move from childhood to adulthood, they become interestingly aware of
their responsibility for productive effort in society. For the mature individual, this is a stimulating
prospect, but for the anxious youth, it can be almost terrifying. The wealth of work opportunities is
bewildering and frustrating, as it is fascinating. Not only is the student confused by the prospect of
choosing one of the thousands of jobs, but parents and educators are no less anxious about their roles in
this difficult task.
The learners want to know how they can bring order out of the chaos of so many job
opportunities and at the same time satisfy family members who may expect them to do better than they
did. The following questions may arise: Where shall the study begin? How much money can I make?
How many productive years do I have? Who hires all the engineers, carpenters, teacher, etc. ? Will I
have a steady work and enough income to educate my children when I grow old?

27

In relation to this, Pascual (2013) found out that the Philippines has 7.1% unemployment rate,
the highest in the countries from Southeast Asian nations and 16.9% of these are college graduates.
Misfit graduates are the reasons why the country has high unemployment and under employment rate.
The reasons could be either that the courses of graduates misfit the demand of the present economy, or
the graduates do not possess the characteristics required by the industries in need. This could be due to
the wrong choice of course taken by most of the students brought about by unguided decision-making in
choosing courses. This is seen in reports that mentioned that high percentage of unemployment and
underemployment in the country is attributed to the inadequacy of skills of some of the graduates and
not meeting the competencies needed by companies.
One way to lessen the misfit of graduates qualifications to the needed workforce of companies
and institutions, according to Pascual, is for the government, particularly the Department of Education,
to find ways to elevate the quality of graduates before even reaching the collegiate level. This is the one
of the reasons why the government implemented the K to 12 program in the educational system - to
produce graduates who are equipped with knowledge and skills to be productive citizens and improve
the work force even among high school graduates and to promote economic development.
Aside from the school curriculum or the academics, there are many factors that can be
considered by school administrators to promote student educational success. The social engagement of
students require different resources like the counselors, teachers and etc.. Consequently, the role of
guidance and counseling is to make it possible for an individual to see and explore his or her unlimited
endowed

options.

(http://gssrr.org/index.php?

journal=JournalOfBasicAndApplied&page=article&op=download&path%5B%5D=2261&path%5B
%5D=1723).

28

Vocational guidance counseling services necessarily include a career development program


which enables guidance counselors to assist individuals to identify and learn the skills by which they can
be more effective in planning for and choosing jobs, in making effective transitions and adjustments to
work, and in managing their own careers and career transitions effectively (SREB, 2006).
Pascual quoted the National Career Development Association (NCDA) in the United States in
1993 thus, Helping individuals increase self-understanding of their abilities, interests, values and goals
are vital foundation of the career development process (Trusty, J., Niles, S., & Carney,J., 2005 as cited
by Pascual, 2013).
However, few studies have been made to investigate success of career path of students in the
Philippines, likewise on the factors that affect the career choices of Filipino students. This provides
teachers and guidance counselors with limited information on how to help students identify the proper
career options and course choices. Students are not properly oriented as to what course to choose based
on their interest and skills but because of insufficient information on courses that are needed in the
future. Most of the time, students decide on the basis of income possibilities. Some ask the question:
What college education can we afford that can finish quickly, get a

job, and start helping with family

finances? In other words, their concern is not finding guideposts in a career path, but looking for peso
signs that would lead them out of poverty.
Even if the Philippines cannot provide enough jobs to sustain an educated workforce, there are
several challenges for career counseling in the Philippines today. First, the matter of choosing a career in
the Philippines is a family affair. Filipino families firmly believe that education is the great equalizer.
Approaching education as the great equalizer presumes that the education system is based on a
meritocracy in which ability, hard work, and rugged individualism can lead to success; this without
underscoring the proper career path that will lead them to succeed. (http://gssrr.org/index.php?
29

journal=JournalOfBasicAndApplied&page=article&op=download&path%5B%5D=2261&path%5B
%5D=1723)
From the above literature and studies reviewed and the findings of the present study, the
researcher acquired enough basis for the construction of a career path program for NCC Laboratory high
school students.

Testing Services
There are services employed by some schools to determine the students strengths and
weaknesses in the areas of personality, aptitudes, interests, motivation and skills which are helpful in
matching them with a course. These course test results are intended for the individuals own selfawareness, growth and development.
Course tests use a series of questions about the students interests. Answering the questions in
a course test can help an individual figure out his/her preferences and strengths.

It can also match

these preferences and strengths with a large database of the perfect course, but it can be a wonderful tool
to use to narrow down course preferences or open up avenues that might have never been thought to be
explored. The following are the tests that can be used:
Aptitude ability is a test classified as speed tests or power tests. In a speed test, questions are
answered correctly in the allotted time. Speed tests tend to be used in selecting the baccalaureate courses
and vocational level. A power test, on the other hand, presents a smaller number of more multifarious
questions. Power tests tend to be used more for highly professional courses.
Verbal ability includes spelling, grammar, and ability to understand analogies and follow
detailed written instructions. These questions appear in most tests because students usually want to know
how well they can communicate.
30

Numeric ability includes basic arithmetic, number sequences and simple mathematics. In the
management level, tests are often presented with charts and graphs that need to be interpreted. These
questions appear in most general tests because students usually want some indication of their ability to
use numbers even if this is not a major part of the course.
Abstract reasoning measures the ability to identify the number logic of a pattern and to
determine a solution. Abstract reasoning ability is believed to be the best indicator of fluid intelligence
and the ability to learn new things quickly. These questions appear in most general tests.
Abstract reasoning tests date back to the research done by the psychologists Charles Spearman in
the 1920s. Spearman used a statistical technique called factor analysis to examine the relationship
between peoples score on different tests or sub-tests of intelligence. He concluded that people who do
well on some intelligence tests also do well on others.

Conversely, if people do poorly on an

intelligence test, they also tended to do poorly in intellectual tests. This led him to believe that there are
two or more factors common to all intellectual courses (Valenzuela et al. 2009).
The courses and abilities measured by verbal and numeric reasoning tests can easily be related
to real world tasks and courses. There are also courses that require some degree of skill with words and
numbers. Abstract reasoning tests, on the other hand, seem to consist of questions which have little or no
application in the real world. Yet these types of questions appear in most graduate and management
aptitude tests.
PersonnelServicesintheCareer
CounselingProgram
Theprincipal isakeymanwhocooperateswithhisstaff inplanningtheprogramforhis
school. He arranges the needed supervision of his teachers in the different departments, provides
favorableconditionsforcarryingonthework,helps membersofhisstafftoseeandperformtheir
31

particulardutiesintheprogram,andchecksonhoweffectivelythesedutiesareperformedinassisting
andhelpingstudentsattaintheirneeds.
Theguidancecounseloristheprincipalsagentinsupervisingtheguidanceprogramwithinthe
school. He counsels students and arranges the schedule for individual counseling. He has direct
responsibilityforseeingtoitthatadequatestudentrecordsareavailableforcounselinginterviews.He
helpsstudentsseekingworktomakeproperuseofplacementservicesoftheschoolsystem,andperform
manyothersimilarduties.
Thehomeroomsearchersandtheregistrar reporttothecounselorsoffice significantdata
concerningindividualstudents.Theythemselvesdocertaintypesofcounseling,cultivateafavorable
attitudetowardthecareerguidanceprogram,andcooperatewiththecounseloronotherways.
Subjectteachershelpstudentsdiscovertheirabilitiesandlimitations,observeandreporttothe
counselorspecialattitudes,interestandpersonalitytraitsofparticularstudents,assisttheirstudentsto
obtaininformationconcerningopportunitiesincareerselectionandrequirementsofoccupationclosely
relatedtothesubjectswhichtheyteach.
Theschoollibrarianseestoitthatthelibraryfunctionsaseffectivelyaspossibleinproviding
neededinformationconcerningcareerselectionandreporttothecounseloronspecialinterestshownby
studentsintheirreading.
Placementcoordinatortakeschargeinfindingasuitableplacetostartawiselychosencareer.
Hehelpsstudentstoseetheirservicesinafavorablemarket.Hemakessurethatthestudentsareinthe
rightpathtowardtheirdevelopment,throughtheiryearsofstayintheschool,andthisiscontinuedinthe
earlyyearsoftheiremploymentlife(Mendoza,2001).
ContributionsofGuidanceProgramtoAcademicAchievement
32

Flores(2010),statedthattheaimoftheprogramistoaddressthebehavioral,
social, and academic adjustment of students. Emphasis is placed onthe academic achievement of
students by improving school attendance and school behavior, increasing student achievement, and
enhancing students levels of self-esteem and attitudes toward school (Beale, 2004).
In1997,Lapan,Gysbers,andSunsurveyedastatewidesampleofstudentsandfoundthatin
schools where comprehensive guidance and counseling programs existed, there are several positive
relationships between counseling programs and student achievement. The programs highlights
included:a)higherselfreportedgrades;b)studentperceptionsthattheywerebeingbetterpreparedfor
theirfuture;c)studentperceptionsthattheirschoolsweredoingabetterjobprovidinginformationona
multitudeofjobopportunities;andd)studentperceptionsthatschoolclimatewasbetter.
Higher Confidence Level While
In School and After Schooling
In 2001, Lapan, Gysbers, and Petroski studied the effects of comprehensive guidance and
counseling on several areas of students lives. Specifically, they wanted to: determine if students who
attended schools attain a higher level of satisfaction with their education; if the programs in place had an
effect on student grades and perceptions of their relationships with teachers; and appreciate how those
students regard the importance and relevance of their education to their future (Lapan,
Gysbers&Petroski, 2001) as cited by Flores, (2010).
The study found that there was a correlation between complete implementation of a
comprehensive guidance and counseling program and students satisfaction with school; and there was a
direct and positive relationship between program implementation and student perceptions of school
safety and success. Additionally, more complete counseling implementation and higher student grades

33

might both result from the schools organizational structure, leadership and/or personnel strengths rather
than being casually related to each other.
Factors Affecting Course Preferences
Several studies have identified some factors that influence students course or career preferences.
Leong, (2004) as cited by Pascual (2013) found the family as one of the factors that affect the
students selection of career in college which confirms other researchers findings that Filipino students,
whether immigrants or non-immigrants, depend on their parents decision-making. This is because of the
students expectation of financial support from their family to finish their education. Studies in other
Asian countries also show parents impact on the decision making regarding students course preference.
Leongs study emphasized that parental commitment has a positive impact on students education
and career choice. It is noted that parents are deeply involved and influential to the career choices of
their high-achieving children. The study also found that open houses of schools and dialogues with
college friends, alumni, and admitted-student programs exert a strong influence on students course
preferences. In addition 26% of the students sample paid a specialist or advisor during the college
decision making process.
These studies are important to the present study since they explain the significance of taking
parents advice and permission in choosing a college course.
Likewise, Planck, (2001) as cited by Pascual, (2013) researched on economic factors which
includes the employability and availability of job for the future of the students. Employability is the
realistic feasibility of being employed in a stable job, which becomes an important factor in career
decision-making. Arising from a collective culture, immigrant parents and children seek careers that will
support the whole family. Moreover, it is found that Asian American men and women tend to be more

34

interested in technical fields, the physical sciences, and non-enterprising business positions over artistic,
social, or socially interactive business careers.
For practical reasons, the parents usually encourage careers that will not cost much money, but at
the same time are stable sources of income. Careers in nursing, accounting, and engineering are highly
popular for Filipino families because of expectations of high paying jobs and these are usually chosen by
financially-challenged families.
Tennessee Department of Education (2001) revealed that Career Technical Education (CTE) was
perceived positively by middle school and high school counselors in Tennessee who saw the need for
career awareness to begin in a students early years before high school. However, the counselors felt
that they did not have enough time to provide career counseling to students. Being informed and ready
to choose a career focus area in a student freshmen year could help them make the transition from
middle school to high school easier thus help prevent the student from dropping out of school before
graduation.
On the importance of integrating the academic curriculum in students preparation for a college
course choice, it is explained that academics should be integrated with career-focused courses so
students can see practical applications for the academic courses such as mathematics, science, reading
and writing.
Personality and interest are not the only criteria for choosing a career. An individuals aptitude
and intellectual abilities are equally of great importance. An aptitude is a potential for success in an area
after undergoing some trainings but a layman may define aptitude as a flair for something. The context
in which people live, their personal aptitudes and educational
influence peoples career choice (Planck, 2001 as cited by Pascual).

35

attainment are other things that do

Another researcher (Atlanta, 2006) made an investigation on the importance of having an


effective career planning. It was found that students who receive help in exploring careers and planning
programs of study related to their career interest are more likely to see school as meaningful. High
school students who work as early as the eight grade develop a six-year plan for all four years of high
school and two years after graduation. These students should work with their parents, teachers, and
school counselors to develop high school courses and future goals. Students who see a direct link
between school and the future are more definite in their career and post secondary goals. Middle schools
lay the foundation for career choices by getting students to explore career fields which interest them, and
then in high school, counselors help students align the curriculum to the academic and industry
standards of those careers. The involvement of family, school administration and guidance counselor to
help students make good career choices in the future is emphasized in the study who mentioned that
parents, teachers, and school counselors are being involved in students career decision-making process.
The researchers agreed that the American Education Career Development Plan aims to prepare
students for the next formal learning experience. But if little opportunities in career development
activities are provided, students are simply encouraged to attend school until they can go no further
(Trusty, 2005).
In 2001, Bandura mentioned that as early as the third grade, students are expected to acquire the
skills to investigate the world of work in relation to knowledge of self and to make career decisions. In
the middle school, grades six through eight, school counselors help students identify interests and
abilitiesthroughselfassessmentactivities,comparingmiddleschoolwithhighschool,andthenuse
assessment results in academic and career planning. When students enter ninth grade, the school
counselingandcareerguidancestandardsstatethatstudentsshouldbeabletoassesstherelationship
betweenaptitudesandintereststodevelopasixyearacademicplan,formulatelongtermeducational
36

andcareergoals,andcorrelatecoursesofstudytolongtermgoals.Studentsareexpectedtoresearch
their future options and investigate the world of work in relation to selfknowledge and use that
informationtomakeinformedcareerdecisions.Then,inhighschool,studentsareexpectedtocreate
strategies to achieve future career success and satisfaction by modifying their educational plans to
supporttheircareergoals,toevaluateandupdatetheircareerplanningportfolios,andtoapplyacademic
andemploymentreadinessskillsthroughprogramssuchasworkbasedlearning.
Furthermore,itwasemphasizedthatacomprehensiveanddevelopmentalviewof
educationandcareerplanning,especiallyinmiddleschoolsisimportant.Middleschoolcounselorsare
instrumentalinimplementingeffectiveeducationandcareerplanningsystemstohelpstudentswiththeir
educationalandcareerdevelopment.
Researchhasshownthatthechoicesofthemiddleschoolstudents haveastrongbearingon
their educational and career development for decades to come, particularly academic choices.
Furthermore,itismentionedthatschoolcounselorsandschoolcounselingprogramsplaykeyrolesin
preparingstudentstosuccessfultransitiontothenextlevel,whetheritissometypeofpostsecondary
education or joining the work force. In addition, the study emphasized that education and career
planningfromalifecareerperspectivedevelopmentandplanningencompassingeducation,work,and
leisure.Therefore,extracurricularactivities,hobbies,civicparticipation,andculturalexperiencesshould
bepartofmiddleschoolstudentseducationandcareerplanning(SREB,2006).
Erictas(2013)researchfoundthatmostofthestudentrespondentspreferredtotakecoursesin
scientificfieldswith40.6%preferringcourseswhichincludeengineeringcourses,BSStatisticsandBS
Geology.Moststudentspreferredcoursesinthedifferentfieldsofengineering,particularlyciviland
electronic engineering. The next highest courses preferred by the 29 % of the students were the
37

professional courses. These are medicinerelated courses, such as BS Pharmacy, BS Nursing and
MedicalTechnologycourse.Thethirdmostpreferredgroupofcoursesareinthecommercialcategory
with 20.3% indicating these as their choices. These are courses in accountancy and business
management. Nexttothelastpreferredcoursesarethoseinthetechnicalcategory,suchasmarine
technology, information technology and criminology. The least preferred category of courses by
studentsareagriculturalrelatedwithonly2.9%indicatingtheseastheirchoice.
SimilartothesefindingsaretheresultsoftheBrainardOccupationalPreferenceInventorywhich
showedthat30.4%ofthestudentrespondentsaresuitedtotakeprofessionalcourses. Occupations
includedinthiscategoryincludethoserelatedtomedical,legalandsocialwork,educationalwork,and
personnelwork.Thisisfollowedbythecommercialfieldwith23.2%indicatingthisastheirchoice.
Thisincludesprofessionsrelatedtoaccounting,clericalwork,sellingandbusinessmanagement.The
scientificfieldswereselectedby17%ofthestudentsandthesefieldsincludecoursesthatundertake
statistical,physical,biologicalandchemicalresearches.Thirteenpercentoftherespondentsfeelsuited
tothemechanicalrelatedjobswhichperformmachinedesign,machineoperation,finemanualwork,
andbuildingconstructionwork.Thosewhoaresuitedfortheagriculturalfieldconstitute8.7%ofthe
distribution.Thesecoursesincludejobsrelatedtofarmanddesign,smallanimalraising,forestryand
animalhusbandry.
Career Counseling Development Program
According to Flores (2010), a comprehensive career/guidance and counseling program is vital to
the achievement of excellence in education for all students. It is an integral component of every schools
academic mission to promote standards in academic, career, and personal/social development. The

38

program likewise enhances the learning process for all students by ensuring equitable access for all
students to participate fully in the educational process .
The guidance counselors focus in designing this program is to value and respond to the diversity
and individual differences among students. It is developmental by design because it includes sequential
activities and is implemented with the support of teachers, administrators, students, parents, community
members, and other academic stakeholders (American School Counselor Association, 2005).
From the above review of literature and studies reviewed, the researcher gained enough insights
as background in conducting the present study.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design, respondents of the study, instrument, data gathering
procedure and statistical tools used to analyze and interpret the data.

39

Research Design
This study employed the descriptive method of research to determine the factors affecting the
course preferences of the high school students of NCC, Laboratory High School.
As a descriptive study, it described the characteristics of fourth year students in terms of sex,
religion, socio-economic status of parents, academic grades, personality traits, study habits, and the
talent and abilities of the students as determined by Howards test of multiple intelligences. It also
identified the course preferences of fourth year students.
Using the chi-square, this study, determined the relationship between the course preferences of
the students and the independent variables. From the data and information gathered, the researcher
developed a career counseling development program.
Locale of the Study
The study was conducted at Northern Christian College-Laboratory High School (NCC-LHS)
located along Mabini Street, corner Zacarias Flores Street, Barangay 5, Laoag City. The NCC-LHS is a
private secondary school used as a laboratory high school for students taking up Bachelor of Secondary
Education in the college; implementing the K to 12 curriculums since school year 2012 2013.
A church-related institution, the NCC has been in existence for 68 long years as an institution of
higher learning in Northern Luzon and for 50 years as a corporate entity. It is dedicated to a Christcentered development for all students and is focused on faith and ministry. It was established after the
liberation of the Philippines, by a group of evangelical leaders in Ilocos Norte who in 1945 decided to
put up a college offering both religious and secular courses. The following year, after presenting the
said plan to the Convention of the Church of Christ of Northern Luzon with great sentiments of
enthusiasm, the doors of Northern Christian College were opened to the youth of Northern Luzon.

40

The NCC Laboratory High School achieved accredited status on September 26, 1987 when the
College sought the accreditation of its curricular programs during the incumbency of Dr. Rueben
Batoon, the third president of the institution. At present, the NCC Laboratory High School has attained
Level II accredited status as Level II, among the 27 public and private secondary schools of Ilocos
Norte (www.ncc.edu.ph.)
Almost two decades ago, the NCCs Board of Trustees invited Dr. Caesar I. Agnir, a retired
corporate manager, to become president and he assumed office on September 27, 1995 as the College
fifth president. Through the leadership of Dr.Agnir, NCC has committed itself to the delivery of quality
education. With the very able financial management of the president, the school became the most
financially stable institution of higher learning in the northern part of the country.
Figure 2 presents a location map of the College campus.

41

Figure 2. The
Northern Christian College Campus Map indicating the different

42

buildings

Respondents
Respondents of the study were 41 fourth year students of NCC Laboratory High School during
the school year 2012-2013. Twenty eight (28) of them were males and thirteen (13) were females.
Table 1 presents the demographic characteristics of the respondents.
Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the fourth year high school students

VARIABLES

FREQUENCY

PERCENT

Gender
Male
Female

28
13

68.29
31.71

Age
15
16
17
18
21
21
20
19

14
13
5
3
3
2
1
1

34
32
12
7
7
5
2
2

years old
years old
years old
years old
years old
years old
years old
years old

Residence
Laoag City
33
Sarrat
2
Vintar
2
San Nicolas
1
Nueva Era
1
Banna
1
Pagudpud
1
Religion
Catholic
31
Iglesia Ni Cristo
3
United Church of Christ of the Philippines 2
Iglesia Filipina Independiente
2
Seventh Day Adventist
1
Born Again
1
Foursquare
1

43

80.4
4.8
4.8
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
67.74
7.31
5.0
5.0
2.43
2.43
2.43

Instrumentation
To facilitate the gathering of data, the researcher developed the research instrument which
consisted of three parts.
The first part gathered data on the characteristics of the respondents, like sex, religion, socioeconomic status of parents, academic grades, personality traits and study habits. The portion on
personality traits

was patterned after Eysenck Theory (Manual of the Eysenck Personality

Questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stoughton). Items consisted of pairs of contrasting traits whose selfperceived manifestation in the respondent was indicated on a four-point scale from very high indication
to slight indication. The individual respondents checked under the column that which he/she feels most
likely described him/her. The study habits indicators were based on the instrument of (Naggappa,
1995).These were classified into four, namely, decision-making, knowledge skills, understanding and
process skills.
The second part was a tool to measure the multiple intelligence of the respondents. The
questionnaire was based on a DepEd Module for Teachers Learning Activities for Different Learners
(Inciong, 2009) from the Bureau of Elementary Education. The researcher developed 10 statements to
reflect each of the 10 intelligences. She added another ten indicators for existential and spiritual
intelligence

based

on

Armstrong

(2000,

Multiple

Intelligence

http://www.ThomasArmstrong.com/multipleintelligences.htm). This instrument was approved by the


thesis adviser and committee members. Students indicated the degree to which they believed the items
described them from exactly to a little. Based on their responses, the multiple intelligences of the
students as a group were described.
The third part, gathered data on the course preferences of students which are categorized as
technical vocational courses, baccalaureate courses and highly professional courses. Furthermore,
44

interview guide questions administered to the respondents were classified in four categories, namely:
decision-making, knowledge skills, understanding skills and process skills.
Validation of the Instrument
The instrument was presented to the members of the thesis committee for their comments and
suggestions.

Suggestions for revision were implemented, like using the bipolar scale instead of the

Liker scale for personality traits, and the improvement of some of the indicators of study habits. Then
questionnaire was reproduced and tried out on 10 randomly selected third year students to test their
validity. The tryout sample did not have any difficulty in responding to the different items, thus the
instrument was considered valid.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher requested permission from the President of Northern Christian College through
the principal of the NCC LHS to conduct the study and to administer the questionnaire. The researcher
asked the help of the fourth year adviser to assist her in gathering the data.
The researcher validated the academic grades written on the questionnaire of each respondent
using the students / Form 138 or rating card and Form 137 or Permanent Record. Since the study was
conducted during the third quarter, their general average grade in their third grading period was used as
their academic grades. Thus document analysis was also used to gather background information of the
students like occupation and educational attainment of parents, and academic grades.
The top ten (10) graduating students were interviewed to substantiate the data gathered through
the questionnaire.
Respondents were asked to freely indicate their course preferences which were classified by the
researcher into baccalaureate, highly professional, or technical-vocational courses.
45

Statistical Treatment
The data gathered were tallied, tabulated and analyzed accordingly.
Frequency counts and percentages were used to describe the characteristics of the students, such
as sex, age, address and religion, the parents socio- economic status such as educational attainment of
parents, monthly income and occupation.
The mean described the students personality traits and study habits.
Numerical and descriptive ratings were used to describe the academic grades gathered from the
Form 138 or Card and Form 137 or Permanent Record .
Chi-Square was used to measure relationships between two nominal variables. The semantic
differential (SD) described the respondents reaction to stimulus words and concepts using the bipolar
scale with contrasting adjectives at each end. Means were interpreted with qualitative descriptions,
such as slight, moderate, high, and very high indication.
The study habit indicators of data were measured by using the range scale in scoring.
The sum of the points obtained for each type of intelligence determined the type of intelligence
of a respondent.
Course preferences of the student respondents were described using frequency counts and
percentages. The choices were further categorized whether technical vocational, baccalaureate and
highly professional courses.
The Chi-Square was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables and
the course preference of the fourth year students of NCC Laboratory High School.
The 0.05 level of significance was used in the analysis and interpretation of findings.
Scoring and Interpretation
46

Academic grades data were measured and interpreted as:


90% and above

Very Good

85% 89.99%

Good

80% - 84.99

Average

75% - 79.99%

Passed

74% and below

Failed

The personality traits were scored and interpreted with the range scale of:
2.51-3.00

Very High indication

1.51-2.50

High indication

1.00-1.50

Moderate indication

0.01-0.99

Slight indication

Study habits were measured and interpreted by using the range scale such as:
4.51-5.00

Very Good

3.51-4.50

Good

2.51-3.50

Average

1.51-2.50

Poor

1.00-1.50

Very Poor

Multiple intelligences were measured and interpreted by using point system for scoring:
41-50

Exactly

31-40

Much

21-30

Well
47

11-20

A Little

1-10

Not At All

Chapter IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter presents the data gathered, the analyses and interpretations made
of the findings.
Characteristics of the Fourth Year High School Students
The fourth year high school students of Northern Christian College Laboratory High School
were described in terms of certain demographic and psycho-social characteristics. These are presented in
Tables 1 to 8.

Sex
48

As shown in Table 1 (page 45), sixty-eight percent (68.29%) of the respondents were males and
the rest (31.71%) were females. This indicates that about two-thirds of the class were boys. This is
different from the observed proportion of the sexes in most high schools, where there are more females
than males. The distribution of the sexes in the respondent class is remarkable because more boys are
trained in the spiritual orientation of the College.

Age
The average age of fourth year high school students is 16 years , and 13 (32%)

of the

respondents belong to this age while 14 (34%) 15 years old, the youngest age group. The ages of the
rest range from 17 to 21 years. Those whose ages are 18 years and above are male transferees from
neighboring schools, like the Ilocos Norte College of Arts and Trades and Ilocos Norte National High
School. The youngest is 15 years old and the eldest is 21 years old.
Religion
Two-thirds (67.74%) of the students are Roman Catholics while the rest belong
to other Christian churches or denominations. This is remarkable for although NCC is a United Church
of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP)-related school,

it is ecumenical in its approach in terms of

education.
Among the non-Catholics, three (7.31%) belong to Iglesia ni Cristo, two (5%) each to UCCP
and Iglesia Filipino Independiente one belongs to the Foursquare Church. Two respondents are UCCP;
another two, Iglesia Filipina Independiente, and one (2.43%) each to Seventh Day Adventist, Born
Again group, and Four Square Church.

Residence
49

With regard to residence, 33 (80.4%) are from and reside in Laoag City, while the rest (8 or 19%)
come from and reside in towns of the province near Laoag City.

Socio-Economic Status of Parents


Table 2 presents the other characteristics by which the high school students are described in this
study.
Socio-economic status is defined in this study in terms of their parents educational attainment,
occupation, and monthly income.

Table 2. Other characteristics of the fourth year students of the Northern


Christian College Laboratory High School.
===============================================================
VARIABLE
FREQUENCY
PERCENT

50

Socio-Economic Status of Parents


a. Fathers Educational Attainment
College Undergraduate & Lower
College Graduate
b. Mothers Educational Attainment
College Undergraduate & Lower
College Graduate
BS+MA Units
c. Fathers Occupational Category
Blue Collar
White Collar
d. Mothers Occupational Category
White Collar
Blue Collar
e. Monthly Income
P10,001 P20,000 (Average)
P10,000 and below (Low)
P20,001 and above (High)
Mean = P22,378.00 (High)
Median = P 16,000.00
SD = P15,798.25

29
12

70.73
29.27

23
16
2

56.10
39.02
4.87

38
3

92.68
7.32

38
3

92.68
7.32

19
12
10

46.34
29.27
24.39

==============================================================
Educational Attainment of Parents. Parents educational background is a factor that may
influence students to continue with their college schooling or not, and if they do. Parents educational
attainment may also influence and encourage their children to pursue certain course preferences.
Usually, children endeavor to pursue the degree that their parents graduated with and to be in the same
profession that they practice.
Majority (70.73%) of the fathers are college undergraduate or had lower educational attainment.
Only a few (12 or 29.27%) are college graduates. This implies that the fathers are at least literate.
Despite this, parents educational attainment is not a hindrance for the students to enroll in a private
school for their high school education.

51

On the other hand, more mothers (16 or 39.02%) finished college while 23 (56.10%) are college
undergraduates. It was noted that a few college-graduate mothers have even earned some master of
arts units. This finding suggests that some college-undergraduate fathers are married to wives who are
college graduates, thus it must be the mothers who have a stronger influence in the education of their
children, especially their enrolment in a private Christian school.
Occupation of Parents. The occupations of parents were categorized into either white-collar and
blue-collar jobs. The same number (38 or 92.63%) of fathers and mothers have blue-collar jobs. The
fathers are mostly carpenters, tricycle drivers, or small businessmen. The remaining three (7.32%) in
each parent-group have white-collar jobs and work either as a teacher, a nurse, or an office employee.
Many of the parents, especially the mothers work as household helpers abroad.
Monthly Income. Almost one-half (19 or 46.34%) of the respondents parents have monthly income
ranging from P10,001 to P20,000. This pay range is considered in this study as an average income
status. More than one fourth (12 or 29.27%) have monthly income of P10,000 or lower. This classifies
the family in the low-income group, while a mean monthly income of P22,378.00 which 10 (24.39%) is
considered a high-income status.
If a family of four does pay rent for a house, the mean monthly income of P22,378.00 could be
enough for the basic needs of the family and the education of the children. This is due to the fact that
the family lives in the province where cost of living is a lot cheaper than metropolitan centers like
Manila.
These findings imply that the families of the fourth year students of NCC Laboratory High
School are not financially hard-up.
Academic Grades

52

Another variable by which the fourth year high school students were described is their
academic grades during the third grading period of SY 2012-2013. These are presented in Table 3.
The data in Table 3 show that the academic grades of the students are not normally distributed.
Nine (21.95%) students ratings of 90% and above which are described as very good performance while
17 (41.46%) had good performance with ratings of 85% to 89.99% . Some 10 (24.39%) earned ratings
ranging from 80% to 84.99% which is described as average performance, and the rest (5 or 12.19%)
merely passing performance. Nobody got a failing average grade.
Table 3. Academic grades of the students during the third grading period.
VARIABLE
Verbal Description

FREQUENCY

PERCENT

Rating

Very Good

( 90% and above)

21.95

Good

( 85% 89.99%)

17

41.46

Average

( 80% - 84.99%)

10

24.39

Passed

(75% - 79.99%)

12.19

Failed

(74% and below)

00.00

Mean = 83.52

Median = 82.20

S D = 4.87

Personality Traits
The students characteristics were also described in terms of personality traits they exhibit.
These are shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Personality traits that are indicative of the respondents


INDICATORS OF TRAITS

MEAN

INTERPRETATION
53

1 Friendliness

1.49

Moderately Friendly

2 Cheerfulness

1.44

Moderately Cheerful

3 Kindness

1.22

Moderately Kind

4 Independence

0.95

Slightly Independent

5 Industriousness

0.71

Slightly Industrious

6 Sociability (Outgoingness/Shyness)

0.56

Slightly Sociable

7 Patient

0.51

Slightly Patient

8 Promptness

0.49

Slightly Prompt

9 Dependability

0.49

Slightly Dependable

10 Assertiveness

0.24

Slightly Assertive

Legend: Range
2.51 3.00
1.51 - 2.50
1.00 - 1.50
0.01 - 0.99

Descriptive Interpretation
Very High indication
High indication
Moderate indication
Slight indication

A seven-point scale was used and descriptive interpretations of the data ranged from very high
indication (of the specified trait) to slight indication. The mean of personality traits of the group was
computed and this is .74 which indicates that the respondents exhibit a slight indication

of all the

specified trait. Taken separately, the traits of friendliness, cheerful and kindness are moderately evident
or indicated in the respondents.
These findings suggest that, based on personality traits, it is not yet clear what courses are
suitable to the students. There are jobs that need applicants who are extrovert, outgoing and friendly to
their clients while there are jobs that need kind, patient, hardworking, and quiet atmosphere so that they
can be productive and creative in their working place. Personalitytraithasplayedavitalrolein
obtainingandkeepingemploymentinthefieldofcoursepreference.Attitudesusedininterviews,along
54

withcompatiblemethodsofworkingwithinteamsandalongsidecoworkershavedependeduponthe
rightpersonality.Onceacareerhasbeensecured,ambitionandsincerity,alongwithpromotionsmay
determineanemployeesfuture.(http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2002/2002borchertm.pdf ).
Personalityisimportantforthestudenttomakeafavorableimpressiononpotentialemployers,
whichisanimportantissueduringtheinterviewprocesspriortobeinghired. Thedevelopmentof
desirablepersonalitytraitsintheyoungisoftenachallengeforparentsandteachers,especiallyifthe
student or parent has a future career in mind. The students personality must be related to the
requirementsforthechosencourse.
Itishelpfultoconsidertheattitudesofpeopleholdaboutthemselveswhenchoosingacareer.
Whatmakesupthecognitivemapofapersonalitymayneverbefullyknown.Thiscognitivemapis
made up of constructs or traits considered desirable and valuable when choosing a career. The
environment,suchasformaleducation, hasplayedamajorroleintheformationofsuchconstructs.
Thatiswhythedevelopmentofthesetraitsisanimportantconcernforparentsandteachers(Borchert,
2002).
Study Habits
The study habits of the students were also described. This is based on the assumption that study
habits are strong influence for work habits. How a student works on his lessons can greatly determine
how he will work on his job in the future. The study habits of the students are presented in Table 5.
The mean score of 2.42 is indicative of poor study habits among the students. The only items
with mean ratings ranging from 2.71 to 3.20, all of which are interpreted as average are surfing the
Internet for additional readings,, preparing for an exam long before schedule to avoid cramming, and

55

reviewing lessons to attain mastery. The rest of the items got mean scores ranging from 1.61 to 2.46
all of which are interpreted as poor study habits.
These findings show that the students rarely make use of the library, read lessons on their own,
without being told or even if there is no exam, or read in advance. They also rarely seek the assistance
of someone, whether the parent, a teacher or a private tutor. Hiring a private tutor has the lowest mean
because it entails additional expense for the parents.
These findings support the previously discussed average grades of the students. It is not a
surprise that their mean academic ratings are merely average. This may be due to poor study habits.
These findings pose a problem and a challenge to parents and teachers to help students develop good
study habits so that they can make good course choices.

Table 5: Statements reflecting study habits of the respondents


INDICATORS OF STUDY HABITS

MEAN

56

INTERPRETATION

1 Surf the internet for additional readings

3.20

Average

2 Prepare or review before a scheduled long


examination to avoid cramming

2.78

Average

3 Study and review lessons well to attain mastery


level

2.71

Average

4 Make use of the library for research work and


to gather additional information

2.46

Poor

5 Read assigned lessons on my own

2.44

Poor

6 Ask the help of teachers for different lessons

2.41

Poor

7 Read lessons in advance, even if not assigned

2.24

Poor

8 Study lessons with the help of parents

2.24

Poor

9 Study lessons even without being told

2.10

Poor

10 Avail the assistance of a private tutor

1.61

Poor

Mean

2.42

Poor

Legend: Range
4.51 5.00
3.51 - 4.50
2.51 - 3.50
1.51 - 2.50

Interpretation
Very Good
Good
Average
Poor

It is noted that the respondents use the internet for more readings. This skills could be useful in
helping the students improve their study habits and their grades, and in making career choices. Actually,
among the indicators of study habits, surfing the net is the most prevalent with a mean score of 3.20
interpreted as average.

AsummaryofthedescriptiveratingsofthestudyhabitsofthestudentsisshowninTable6.
57

Table 6. Summary of the study habits profile of the respondents


STUDY HABITS
1 Very Good ( 4.51-5.00)
2 Good ( 3.51-4.50)

FREQUENCY
(N=41)
0
0

PERCENT
0.00
0.00

3 Average (2.51-3.50)

14

34.15

4 Poor ( 1.51 2.50)

26

63.41

2.44

5 Very Poor (1.00 1.50)

Majority (63.41%) of the students have poor study habits, several (34.15%) average(34.15%)
and one student (2.44%) very poor. The researcher even suspects that even if the item Surfing the
internet for additional readings is done by majority of the students, they may be doing surfing mainly
for entertainment, and secondarily for additional readings.

Multiple Intelligence Table 7 shows that the mean of multiple intelligence scores of the
respondents which may be a factor that affects their career preferences. Multiple intelligences are
difficult to measure so this study only used indications of each intelligence as borrowed from a DepEd
Module for Teachers Learning Activities for Different Learners (Inciong, 2009). This rating scale
could just be on reflection of the specialized inclinations or abilities of the students. For lack of a
scientific measure of these innate abilities, the statements are merely indicative of inclinations.
Table 7. Multiple intelligences of the respondents
==========================================================
TYPE OF INTELLIGENCE
MEAN
INTERPRETATION
1 Spiritual Intelligence

36.46

Much
58

2 Visual Intelligence

30.37

Much

3 Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence

29.49

Well

4 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

28.90

Well

5 Naturalist Intelligence

28.85

Well

6 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

28.24

Well

7 Interpersonal Intelligence

28.07

Well

8 Verbal Linguistic Interpersonal

28.00

Well

9 Intrapersonal Intelligence

27.90

Well

10 Existentialist Intelligence
22.05
Well
===============================================================
Legend: Range
Descriptive Interpretation
41 50
Statements describe the students exactly (Exactly)
31 - 40
Statements describe the students much (Much)
21 30
Statements describe the students well (Well)
11 - 20
Statements describe the students a little (A Little)
Results show that the students scored highest in the spiritual aspect (Mean=36.46) followed by
visual-spatial (30.37). Both mean ratings indicate that the students as a group are well inclined to these
specialized abilities. The means for the rest of the intelligences indicate that the students are merely well
inclined.

In other words, they have a little inclination to be verbal-linguistic (28.00), logical-

mathematical (28.90), musical-rhythmic (29.47), bodily-kinesthetic, (28.24) interpersonal (28.07),


intrapersonal (27.90), naturalist (28.85).
The strong inclination of the students as a group toward the spiritual may be due to the fact that
they are studying in a church related school where in the Bible studies are always conducted not only as
subject and the bi-weekly worship service. Likewise, the researcher, as an Art mentor, noticed that
most of the students are also artistically inclined. They can easily conceptualize pictures and make
sketches or drawings. They also have a keen sense of location and direction.
59

The researcher likewise observed the respondents to be musically inclined. Many can sing well,
others play the guitar and the piano. Some write songs and compose music. But it is surprising why
their mean score for musical intelligence is merely within the range of well inclined.
The students are also well inclined toward mathematics. Most of the males are good in dealing
with numbers in their physics and mathematics classes, better than the females. The males are generally
rational, good in finding patterns and establishing cause and effect relationships. So, they can be good
accountants, statisticians, bankers, economist, engineers , computer programmers and software
developer in the future.
The students have been observed to be very much interested in their Biology classes, thus they
are well inclined towards naturalist intelligence. They can recognize and classify numerous species like
the flora and fauna. The female respondents are observed to be more inclined to this field than the males
in their biology class.
With regard to bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, majority of the students can dance
well, whether folk or modern dance. Some males and females are members of the dance troupe in
school, both males and females are active in participating activities related to the physical self that can
make precise bodily movements with ease and agility. Several are also inclined toward sports. They
enjoy physical challenges like sports and athletics. They can be a good dancers, athletes and actors in
school programs/activities.
The students generally get along well with their classmates and schoolmates, as
well as teachers. This is an indication of their interpersonal intelligence. They know how to work well
with others, regardless of age. They are generally and naturally friendly and outgoing. They have been
observed to be good team players and learn best when they can relate to other people.

60

The respondents are also verbally and linguistically inclined, although the females have been
observed to be more interested in learning languages and improving in communication skills than the
males. During school programs, more females are willing to deliver speeches, like opening remarks,
welcome address and etc.
The students are also observed, like working on their own.

Several seem to be able to

understand themselves, their moods and reactions, thus they strive to control their behaviors. None of
the students indicated having an inclination toward existentialist intelligence. This is understandable
considering the age and interests of the students.
A summary of the number of students who indicated and inclination toward the different
intelligences is presented in Table 8.

Table 8. Summary of the number of respondents falling under each intelligence or


inclination.
TYPE OF
INTELLIGENCE/INCLINATION

FREQUENCY*
(N=41)

PERCENT

Spiritual Intelligence

23

56.10

Visual Intelligence

17.07

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

9.76

Naturalist Intelligence

4
61

9.76

Verbal Linguistic Intelligence

4.87

Interpersonal Intelligence

4.87

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

2.44

Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence

2.44

Intrapersonal Intelligence

2.44

10
Existentialist Intelligence
0
0.00
==============================================================
*There are students whose intelligence or inclination have more than one.
As discussed earlier more than half of their number are spiritually inclined because of the school
being church-related. This does not mean, however, that they will pursue courses that are religious in
nature. Nobody shows any existentialist intelligence or inclination since this would not be manifested
yet at their age and experience.

Course Preferences of Fourth Year High School Students


The course preferences of the students are shown in Table 9. Although the course preferences
were indicated in specific courses, these were grouped into three.

Table 9: The number of respondents categorized under their course preferences.


==========================================================
Category of the Course Preferences
Baccalaureate Course

Frequency (N=41)
21

Percent
51.22

Technical-Vocational Course

16

39.02

Highly Professional Course


TOTAL

4
41

9.76
100.00

62

=============================================================
There are 16 (39.02%) students who prefer technical vocational courses, and 21 (51.22%) who
choose baccalaureate courses, while only 4 (9.76%) prefer the highly professional courses. The lure of
the baccalaureate courses could be explained by the Ilocanos culture of wanting to have in the family a
college graduate. Furthermore, the students think that this is the passport to enter the white collar
job/market. The students have no knowledge of the labor market outside their country that is in need of
technical-vocational graduates.
Relationship between Characteristics and Course Preferences
of Respondents
Table 10 shows the data on the relationship of the independent variables such as: sex, religion,
socio-economic status of parents, academic grades, personality traits, study habits, multiple intelligence
and course preference of students.
Religion, and socio-economic status of parents, particularly the mothers occupation, and
parents monthly income are factors significantly related to the students preferred courses with chisquare values of 6.61 for religion, 13.09 for mothers occupation, and 7.17 for monthly income of
parents. The obtained probabilities of religion, mothers occupation and monthly income of parents were
all greater than the

critical values (5.99) which previously set as the rejection level. The null hypothesis of no significant
relationship is rejected. This means that religion, mothers occupation and income of parents are factors
in the course preferences of students.

63

The significant relationship between religion and career preference may be explained by the fact
that NCC is a religion-oriented institution and the students undergo several religious or spiritual
activities during the school year. Some of them may really intend to pursue a religious vocation.

The mothers occupation significantly influences a childs career choice because in Filipino
culture, the mother is the one who provides care and nurturance to her children, while the father earns
for the familys sustenance. Thus the mother is emotionally closer to the children and may lead them to
follow her footsteps with regard to occupation.

Table 10. Relationship of Student Characteristics and Course Preferences of


Respondents
Characteristics

Chi-Square
Value

Sex
Religion
Socio-Economic Status of Parents
Fathers Educl
Attainment
Mothers Educl
Attainment

Critical Value

Interpretation

1.83
6.61

5.99
5.99

Not Significant
Significant

3.27

5.99

Not Significant

2.02

9.49
64

Not Significant

Fathers Occupation
Mothers Occupation
Monthly Income
Academic Grades
Personality Traits
Study Habits
Multiple Intelligences
Legend:
Significant p<0.05
Not Significant p>0.05

3.73
13.09
7.17

5.99
5.99
5.99

Not Significant
Significant
Significant

5.845
3.08
3.962
2.32

9.49
9.49
5.99
5.99

Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant

The finding that parents income significantly influences a childs course preference supports
Flores (2010) finding that the socio-economic status of parents plays an influential role in course
preference of children. This is due to the fact that it is the parents who spend for a childs education, so
the latter can only pursue courses that the parents can afford.
Other independent variables, such as sex, and other components of socio-economic status of
parents, like educational attainment of parents and fathers occupation, academic grades, personality
traits, study habits and multiple intelligence are not related to the students preferred course to be taken
in college. The obtained probabilities were all lower than 5.99 which was set as the rejection level. This
implies that the null hypotheses of no significant relationship is accepted, for these variables.
Finding implies that sex, educational attainment of parents, fathers occupation, academic grades,
personality traits, study habits and multiple intelligence are not factors in the course preference of
students.
Relationship of Individual Student Characteristics
and Course Preferences of Respondents.
Sex.

Data in Table 10 show that sex was found not significantly related to the perceived

factors that affect course preferences as shown by the obtained chi-square value that (1.83) is less than
the critical value (5.99). Findings reveal that sex is not a factor in the course preference of students.
65

The courses were categorized into technical-vocational, baccalaureate and highly professional.
There are more 14 (10.92%) of males who choose technical vocational fields than 10(12.80%)
baccalaureate courses and only few 4(2.73%) selected the highly professional courses.
This is opposed to the course preferences of most females 11 (8.20%) which are baccalaureate
courses. Only a few 2 (5.07%) females preferred the technical vocational courses. Not one among the
females indicated a highly professional course as a choice. This implies that courses preferred are not
gender sensitive.
Religion. Religion is significantly related to the course preferences of students as shown by the
obtained chi-square which is greater than the critical value (5.99). The obtained probabilities are all
greater than 0.05 which is the previously set rejection level. This means that religion is a factor in the
course preferences of students.
Majority of the Catholics preferred the baccalaureate courses followed by the technicalvocational courses and very few 3(0.87%) selected the highly professional courses while the nonCatholics had an equal distribution of course preferences among them.
This implies that the respondents choice of a course is influenced by their religion. The
respondents preferred courses make them morally upright.
Socio-economic Status of parents. Except for the mothers occupation and income of parents,
all the rest of the components of socio-economic status of parents are not significantly related to course
preference of respondents as shown by the obtained chi-square and critical values as seen in Table 10.
The obtained probabilities are all lower than 5.99 as previously set for rejection level.
The above findings indicate that fathers and mothers educational attainment and fathers
occupation are not factors in the course preference of students. This implies that

66

a course is preferred regardless of parents education. It should be recalled that majority of the fathers
of the students are college undergraduates and most of their mothers finished college.
Since both fathers and mothers are at least literate, majority of the students prefer the
baccalaureate course, although some choose a technical-vocational and a few a highly professional
course.
Majority of the fathers have blue collar jobs while mostly of the mothers have white collar jobs.
Almost one-fourth of the respondent-parents have high monthly income, majority of them are average
and a few parent have a low monthly income. This may explain why the fourth year students of
Northern Christian College, Laboratory School prefer to pursue a baccalaureate course, instead of a
highly professional course, although some indicated liking technical-vocational course. It is a fact that
highly professional courses are more expensive than baccalaureate courses. And since the respondents
parents have merely average income, they cannot afford to let their children take expensive courses.
Parents with higher income would prefer a more expensive course for their children.
Academic grades.

Data in Table 10 show that there is no significant relationship between

academic grades and course preference as shown by the obtained chi-square (5.85) which is less than the
critical value (9.49).
This means that academic grade is not a factor in the course preference of the respondents. It
implies that the respondents prefer a course regardless of their academic grades. It implies further that
whether the grades are high or not so high, the respondents choose the courses they like.
Majority of the students prefer baccalaureate courses, some are technical-vocational inclined
and a few prefer highly professional course. This indicates that the respondents select their course
regardless of their academic grades which means that whether the grades are very good, good, average
and merely passed, the respondents just choose their courses.
67

Personality traits.

There is no significant relationship between personality traits and course

preference since the obtained chi-square (3.08) is less than the critical value (9.49). This indicates that
personality trait is not related in the course preference of students. This means that personality trait is
not a factor to the course preference of the respondents regardless of their personality traits, a particular
course is always chosen by respondents. The personality traits are described either as with very high
indication, high, moderate, and slightly indication of specific traits. Regardless of personality trait, more
students chose the baccalaureate type of course, and next the technical- vocational
course.
Study habits. The study habits of students are not related in their course preferences. There is no
significant relationship between study habits and course preference since the obtained chi-square (3.96)
is less than the critical value (5.99) set as the rejection level. This means that study habits whether good
or bad is not a factor in the course preference of the respondents.
The study habits of respondents are described as very good, good, average, poor, and very poor.
Majority have poor study habits and their main choice of course categories is technical-vocational,
followed by baccalaureate, with highly professional courses as the last. Those with average study
habits mostly prefer baccalaureate courses rather than the technical-vocational and the highly
professional.
This implies that no matter the quality of study habits students have, their course preferences are
not affected.
Multiple intelligence.
and course preference

There is no significant relationship between multiple intelligence

since the obtained chi-square (2.32) is less than the critical value (5.99).

Specific intelligence is not significantly related in the course preference of students.

68

This means that multiple intelligence is not a factor in the course preference of the respondents.
This may be because the students are not aware of their specific intelligences or inclinations. Besides,
the measure to intelligence or inclination may not truly measure the ability of the students. This means
that regardless of their sphere of intelligence or inclination, the respondents make their own choice of
courses to pursue.
ACTION PLAN
for a
CAREER GUIDANCE PROGRAM
It is part of the academic mission of the Northern Christian College to promote excellence and to
assist students in analyzing their capabilities and interests so that they can be assisted to make wise and
practical career choices. It is imperative, therefore, that the school, particularly the Laboratory High
School, should have a Career Guidance Program.
Career Guidance is a part of the entire guidance program of the school and, through the
cooperation of the guidance counselors, administrators, teachers, librarians, and parents, the following
objectives can be attained:
1. Help the high school graduates make decisions and choices involved in planning of their
future career and in choosing their job, preparing for it, and doing it;
2. Assist students to form valuable impressions and general understanding of the world of work
and workers;
3. Develop positive and relevant attitudes such as promptness, regular attendance, industry and
harmonious working relationship;
4. Enable students to choose an appropriate course suited to their personality and level of
understanding;
5. Motivate and encourage learners to participate in co-curricular activities to widen their
knowledge and skills;
6. Create an updated list of agencies interested in job placement;
69

7. Strengthen and deepen relationship among other colleges and universities in order to provide
informations about correct opportunities;
8. Orient students to the availability in the school of career guidance placement services and
other career development.
The following Career Guidance Program specified activities and strategies to be undertaken to
attain specific objectives in the different guidance services. A time line is given for each activity and
persons involved are specified. Estimates of budgetary requirements for each activity are given and
possible sources of funds are suggested. It is expected that this program will result in clearer career
choices for the students, as well as greater chances for success for them.

The quality of academic

services extended by the College will likewise be expanded and greatly improved.
SERVICES

OBJECTIVES

Individual
Inventory
Service

Counseling
Service

PROGRAMS/
ACTIVITIES

PERSONS/
AGENCIES
INVOLVED

BUDGETARY
REQUIREMENT
(ESTIMATE)

To assist the
Evaluation/
students to
Assessment
know
more activities
about
themselves

Conduct/
3rd
Guidance
administer
week of Staff/
psychological
June
Personnel
tests.
August
Section
Advisers
Use of rating
Clinic
skills health
Personnel
records, socioStudents
gram reports,
interview,
economic data.

The
budge
required depends
upon the nature o
type of activity t
be conducted b
the school.

To help
Interviews
students make with the
a career plan of students
action.
To help
students
overcome
obstacles in
making appro-

Individual/
Sept.
Group
October
discussion of
Career choices.

The budget
required depends
upon the nature o
type of activity to
be conducted by
the school.

73

STRATEGIES

TIME
FRAME

Guidance
Counselors/
Staff,
Advisers
Teachers
Students

priate career
moves.
Information
Service

To help the
students get to
know more
about the
world of work

and the factors


that impinge
upon it.

Career Week
Career
Guidance
Program

Holding a
career
orientation
program where

Information different
Dissemination professionals
are invited to
talk about their
professions.
Representative
of colleges and
universities are
invited to talk
on the various
courses offered
in their
schools.
Distribution of
printed
materials such
as career or
course
brochures,
course
websites, etc.
Presentation
of film clips
documents on
the different
career choices.
Reading of
biographical
sketches of
74

Nov.
Dec.

Guidance
Counselors
Resource
Speakers/
Lecturers

Teachers
and advisers
Students
Colleges
and
universities
( Public &
Private)

possible career
models.

Placement
Service

To facilitate
the entry into
the proper
setting

Training
program

Conduct of
appropriate
training
programs such
as musical or
dance school
gymnastics,
art, etc.

YearRound

Guidance
Counselors
Advisers
Teachers
Administrat
ors
Students

JanuaryMarch

Guidance
Counselors
Advisers
Teachers
Parents
Students

The selection
and entry into
the appropriate
high school
setting
(technical
vocational,
science regular
basic
education and
post high
school
courses),

Follow- up
Service

To assess
students
performance
and
satisfaction in
the setting

( techvocational,
Certificate
program,
degree
program).
selection and
entry into a
post graduate
course.
Conduct
interview with
the students.

Interviews
Counseling/
Discussions

Individual/
Group
75

P 5,000.00

pursued.

Research and
Evaluation

To iron out
difficulties to
work out
certain
adjustments
required.
To determine the
success rates
of graduates in
the educational
or occupational
setting entered
and to decide
on the
modification or
strengthening
of certain
program /

Counseling

Assessment /
Evaluation of
The Career
Program
implemented.

activities used
for preparing
the students.
To determine
whether
strategies /
techniques
employed for
career
guidance and
planning are
appropriate,
effective and
satisfying in
bringing about
the goals of the
Career
Program.

76

Use of assess- March


ment
April
questionnaire

Guidance
Counselors/
Staff
Advisers
Teachers
School
Heads
Administrators
Students

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study, the highlights of findings, conclusions generated
and recommendations made.
Summary
This study described the factors affecting the course preferences of fourth year high school
students of Northern Christian College Laboratory High School of Laoag City, Ilocos Norte, School
Year 2012-2014.
Specifically the study, 1) described the characteristics

of fourth year students of

NCC

Laboratory High School in terms of a) sex, b) religion, c) socio-economic status of parents, d) academic
grades, e) personality traits, f) study habits g) multiple intelligences; 2) identified the course preferences
of fourth year students; 3) determined the relationship of course preferences of students to the following
independent variables; 4) developed a career counseling program.
The study employed the descriptive method of research design which determined the factors
affecting the course preferences of the fourth year high school students of Northern Christian College,
Laboratory High School with 41 students as respondents; described the perceived factors that affect the
course preferences of high school students; and identified the course preferences of high school students.
The mean, weighted mean, and frequency were used to describe and analyze the factors affecting
the course preference and its perceived impact on the students. Chi-square was used to determine the
relationship of course preferences of students and the factors affecting the choice.
The 0.05 level of significance was used in the interpretation of findings on relationships.
Findings
79

Characteristics of the respondents.


Age. Most of the students were adolescents with a mean age of 16 years. The youngest age was
15 years old and the oldest, 21 years old;
Socio-economic status of parents. The parents had an average monthly income of Php 10,001
which is above the poverty line as established by the National Economic Development and Authority.
The fathers were mostly college undergraduates while majority of the mothers finished college. Both
parents are literate.
Academic grades. The academic grades of most of the students were good; some average and
few very good.
Personality traits. The respondents manifested positive personality traits as a group.
Study habits. Generally the respondents had poor study habits, although they use the Internet to
look for references, study well for an exam and study in advance. .
Multiple intelligences. The respondents as a group are well inclined toward spiritual intelligence
and a little toward visual-spatial intelligence. Their inclination for the other types of intelligences was
minimal.
.Course Preferences
Majority of the students preferred to take up baccalaureate courses, others technical-vocational
courses, and a few highly professional courses.

Relationship Between Characteristics


And Course Preferences
There is a significant relationship between religion, mothers occupation, parents monthly
income and course preference.
80

There is no significant relationship of course preference to sex, academic grades, personality


traits, study habits, and multiple intelligences.
Conclusions
Based on the findings, it is concluded that most of the students who are adolescents are
Catholics, have fathers who are college undergraduates and mothers who are college graduates with an
average monthly income that enables them to send their children to a private high school.
The students academic grades are average. , most of

them

are good performers, some

performing average and only a few are very good learners and the rests are passing. With regard to
personality traits, most are described as slightly friendly, cheerful, and assertive. But as a whole their
traits are positive.
The students have poor study habits and they are slightly inclined toward spiritual and visualspatial with regard to multiple intelligences.
These findings indicate the need for a career guidance program to be formulated to aid them in
making course choices suited to their abilities.
Recommendations
The career plan for students developed in this study must be adopted by the College and
implemented continuously. It should start at grade 7 or the first year high school to give the student
sufficient time to identify thoroughly the suited course for them.
Religion, mothers occupation, and parents monthly income should also be considered in the
career program development of students so that the parents themselves can help their children choose
which course best fits their personal interest and intellectual ability.

82

83

LITERATURE CITED

LITERATURE CITED
American School Counselor Association. (2005). The ASCA national model: A
framework for school counseling programs (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.
Allen, Margarette (2010) New Child Development Theory Bridges Nature versus
Nurture Parental Guidance. Retrieved from http://blog.smu.edu/research/2010/12/01/newchild-development-theory-bridges-nature-vs-nurture parental guidance shapes childsstrengths/
84

Armstrong, Terry (2000) Multiple Intelligences


http://www.ThomasArmstrong.com/multipleintelligences.htm
Babad, E. &Tayeb, A. (2003).Experimental analysis of students course selection. The
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(Pt3): 373-393.
Baker, S. (2000). School counseling for the twenty-first century. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (2001) Social Cognitive Theory of Self-regulation. Organizational
Behaviours and Human Decision Processes.
Beale, A.V. (2004, November, December). Questioning whether you have a
contemporary school counseling program. The Clearing House, 78(2), 73-76.
Calderon, Jose (2000), Foundation of Education, Rex Printing Company, Manila.
Castillo, M. (2012) Parents Involvement In Childrens Education: Its Relationship
To The Internal Efficiency of Elementary Schools of Batac City.
Cinco, Linda Ambida (2008). Guidance and Counseling in Schools. National Book Store.
Dahir, Carol A. (2001). The National Standards for School Counseling Programs:
Development and Implementation of Professional School Counseling.
Ericta, Carmelita. Employment rate in January 2013 is estimated at 92.9 percent (Results
from the January 2013 Labor Force Survey).www.census.gov.ph.(March 25,2013).
Eysenck, Hans Jurgen&Eysenck,Sybil B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality.
Flores, Irene L. (2010) Guidance Counselors Constructs of their Performance in
Nurturing Academe-Community-Workplace Interface.

Interventions

Gardner, Howard (1999). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st
York, USA.

Century. New

Gardner, H. (2004) Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people's
minds. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, p. 196.
Gardner, Howard, and Seana Moran. (2006). The science of Multiple Intelligences
theory:
A
response to Lynn Waterhouse. Educational Psychologist, Volume 41,
Issue 4, Fall 2006, pp. 227
232.
Henderson, A.T. &Mapp, K.L. (2002): A new wave of evidence: The Impact of family,
school, community connections on student achievement, Austin, TX Southwest
Educational Development Laboratory.
85

Hewit, K. M. (2010). Gender and ethnic differences in career goal attainment. Career
Development QuarterlyImproved Career Decision Making (ICDM) in a
Changing World, NOICC, Garrett Park Press, 1996, p.4-4 - 4-6
Inciong, Teresita G. (2009). Learning Activities for Different Learners.DepEd Manual,
Module for Teachers.
Lardizabal, Amparo Santamaria (1988). Foundations of Education (psychological,
Sociological and Anthropological Rex Bookstore, Inc.
Leong, F.T.I., Kao, E.M., Lee, S (2004). The relationship between family dynamics and
career interests among Chinese Americans and European Americans. Journal of
Career Assessment 12(1), 65-84.
Mendoza, Elenita Decal (2005) Guidance and Counseling Today, Rex Book Store, Inc.
(RBSI) at 856 Nicanor Reyes, Sr. St. Sampaloc Manila.
Mendoza, Elenita Decal (2001). Homeroom Guidance, Educational Journal. Vol. 20 No.8
Mulvey, Jeanette (2010). Parents Big Impact Career Choices. Retrieved from
http://www.livescience.com/9059-parents-big-impact-career-choices.html
Naggappa, R.S. and Venkataiah, N. (1995). Study Habits of Secondary School Students
of Mysore City.Experiments in Education Vol. 23 No. 9.
PascualNancy (2013). International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research
(IJSBAR) (http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2002/2002borchertm.pdf ).
Planck, S. (2001). A question of balance: CTE, academic courses, high school
persistence, and student achievement. Journal of Vocational Education Research,
26 (3), 1-32.
Punsalan, Twila G. etal. (2008). Values Education High School Series, Goodness in
Makati City: Salesiana Books by Don Bosco.

Spirit

IV:

SEAMECO INNOTECH. Multiple Intelligences (Module)


Smith, J.S (2006). Similarities and differences in students and parents perceptions of the
transition from middle school to high school. Research in Middle Level Education, 29(10), 1-9.
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) (2006). Building transitions from high
school to college and careers for Tennessees youth. Tennessee Education Forum
on September 8,2005. Atlanta, GA: Author, 2006.
Stone, C.B., &Dahir, C.A. (2006).The transformed school counselor. Boston: Houghton
86

Mifflin Company.
Tennessee Department of Education (2001). School Counseling and Career Guide
Standards.www.tennessee.gov/education/ci/cistandards2001/guidance/ciguid35ht m. (January 7,
2013).
Trusty, J.,Niles, S., & Carney, J. (2005) Education-career planning and middle school
counselors, Professional School Counseling, 9 (2), 136-143.
Wattles, Wallace(2009).How To Get What You Want.The Princeton Licensing Group.

87

APPENDICES

Appendix A
Letter Request to the President of Northern Christian College
Of Laoag City to conduct the study
NORTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE
Institution for Better Life
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Laoag City

88

January 14, 2012


DR. CAESAR I. AGNIR
President
Northern Christian College
Laoag City
Thru: Petronila E. BatugalEd.D.
Principal
Sir;
Greetings!
I am Nicandra Milagros B. Bobiles, a Secondary School Teacher of NCC Laboratory High
School, enrolled in the Graduate School. As a requirement for my Thesis Writing II, I would like to float
my questionnaire for my study titled: Factors Affecting Course Preferences of Fourth Year Students
of Northern Christian College Laboratory High School.
In this regard, I humbly ask your office to please allow me to float my questionnaire to the
fourth year students of the Laboratory High School, School Year 2012-2013.
Thank you very much for your kind approval on the matter.
Very truly yours,
(SGD) NICANDRA MILAGROS B. BOBILES
Researcher
Approved by:
SGD) DR. CAESAR I. AGNIR
President
Appendix B
Letter Requesting Approval of the Principal of Northern Christian College Laboratory High
School of Laoag City to conduct the study
NORTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE
Institution for Better Life
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Laoag City
January 18, 2012
89

DR. PETRONILA E. BATUGAL


Principal
NCC Laboratory High School
Laoag City
Madam:
Greetings!
I am presently undertaking a study titled: Factors Affecting Course Preferences of Fourth Year
Students of Northern Christian College Laboratory High School, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree leading to the Master of Arts in Education in the Graduate School of
Northern Christian College, Laoag City.
In relation to this, may I request your office to please allow me to gather datafrom the fourth year
students of the Laboratory High School, School Year 2012-2013.
The results of this undertaking will hopefully provide information and a help to the students.
Attached herewith is the approved request from the President of Northern Christian College,
Laoag City to conduct the study.
I hope for your approval on this request

Very truly yours,


(SGD) NICANDRA MILAGROS B. BOBILES
Researcher
Appendix C
Interview Guide Questions Administered to Chosen Fourth Year Students to Improve the
Reliability and Validity of the Instrument.
I. Decision-making Skills:
1.How do you feel about making a decision about your career?
2. Have you made other important decisions in the past? Is there a particular process that you like
to use?
90

3. What has been the biggest and hardest decision that you have ever had to make? What made it
hard for you?
4. When making decisions do you tend to solicit input from others? How much do you rely upon
them to help you make decisions? Do you tend to follow their

advice or take it into consideration?

5. Based on prior experiences, how would you evaluate your decision making ability?
II. Knowledge Skills:
1.When you need information to make a decision, how do you go about it?
2. How do you know if the information you get is valid or accurate?
3.Who are the people do you trust most to give you accurate and helpful information?
4. How often do you disagree with the information you received from them? Can you think of an
example?
5.What do you like and dislike from your career related experiences?

III. Understanding Skills:


1. What interests do you think will be the most important to you in a career?
2. Which academic subjects interest you most?
3. What are the greatest personal interest or social strengths that you have?
4. What are the greatest academic strengths in your studies?
5. How do you choose your career and what interest you most?
IV. Process Skills:
1. Who is influencing your decisions?
2. What is influencing your decisions?
91

Appendix D
QUESTIONNAIRE
FACTORS AFFECTING COURSE PREFERENCES OF FOURTH YEAR STUDENTS OF
NCC LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL.
Part I. Socio-demographic Profile
(Please fill up all the necessary informations about you honestly and accurately
on this questionnaire).
A. Personal Profile
Name_________________________________ Sex ______________Age__________
Address___________________________

Religion__________________________

B. Parents Socio-economic Status


92

Fathers Educational Attainment__________________Occupation__________________


Mothers Educational Attainment_________________Occupation_________________
Parents Monthly Income ______________________
C. Educational Background/Academic Grades
Secondary:

Fourth Year

Academic Grades (Gen. Ave.: First Grading to Third Grading)


Filipino _____________

TLE

English _____________

MAPEH___________ Math

____________

E.P.

____________

____________

Science ____________

Computer___________

A.P

Char. Educ._________

_____________

General Average:___________

D. Personality Traits
Direction: Below are pairs of contrasting traits with seven points between the
opposite traits. The middle space indicates midpoint (0) of the opposite adjectives whether the trait
applies to you very high indication or slight indication. The higher the number to be checked at each
space the higher indication is the trait that describes you.
Put a checkmark on the space that you feel most likely describes you.

-1
93

-2

-3

Friendly

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Unfriendly

Assertive

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Quiet

Dependable

______ ______ ______ ____________ ______ _____Not dependable

Patient

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Impatient

Outgoing

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Shy

Prompt

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Not prompt

Cheerful

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Gloomy

Kind

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Unkind

Hardworking ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Lazy

Independent

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Dependent

Quiet

______ ______ ____________ ______ ______ ______

Talkative

E. Study Habits
Below are some ways of studying. Rate yourself according to the scale provided
by checking the column that best describes how you study your lessons.

Indicators

Very
Good
5

1. Read assigned lessons on my own.

94

Good

Average

Poor

Very
Poor
1

2. Read lessons in advanced, even if not


assigned.
3. Study lessons even without being told.
4. Study lesson with the help of parents.
5. Ask the help of teachers for different
lessons.
6. Avail of the assistance of a private tutor.
7. Make use of the library for research work
and to gather additional information.
8. Surf the internet for additional readings.
9. Prepare or review before a scheduled long
examination to avoid cramming.
10. Study and review lessons well to attain
mastery level.

95

Part II. Intelligences or Inclination


Direction: Read each statement carefully. Rate each statement indicating

how well the statement describes you following the rating scale below:

Legend:

1 = Statement does not describe you at all


2 = Statement describes you little

4 = Statement describes you much


5 = Statement describes you exactly

3=Statement describes you well


A. Verbal Linguistic Intelligence
_______Books are very important to me.
_______I can hear the words in my head before I read, speak or write them down.
_______It is easy for me to say what I think in an argument or debate.
_______I show an aptitude for word games like Scrabble, Anagrams and Word
Factory.
_______I enjoy entertaining myself or others with tongue twisters, nonsense
rhymes or puns.
_______Other people ask me to explain the meaning of the words I use in writing
or speaking.
_______English, Social Studies and History were easier for me in school than

Math and Science.


_______I enjoy listening to a good lecture, speech or homily.
_______My conversation includes frequent references to things that I have read
or heard.
_______I have written something Im proud of and received recognition from others.
B. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
_______I can easily compute numbers in my head.
_______Math and or Science were among my favorite subjects in school.
_______I enjoy playing games or solving brain teasers that require logical thinking.
_______I love to solve jigsaw puzzles.
_______I like to set up little what if patterns, regularities, or logical sequences in
things.
_______I am interested in new developments or discoveries in Science.
_______I believe that almost everything has a rational explanation.
_______I sometimes think clear, abstract, wordless, imageless concepts.
_______I find logical mistakes that people say and do at home and at work.
_______I feel more comfortable when something has been measured, categorized,
analyzed, or quantified in some way.
C. Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence
_______I have a pleasant singing voice.
_______I can tell when a note is off-key.
_______I frequently listen to music on radio, records, cassettes or compact discs.
_______I can play a musical instrument.

_______My life would be lonely and miserable without music.


_______I sometimes catch myself walking down the street with a jingle or tune in my
mind.
_______I can easily keep in time a piece of music with simple instrument.
_______I know the tunes of many different songs or pieces.
_______If I hear a selection once or twice, I am usually able to sing it back well.
_______I often make tapping sounds or sing little melodies while working or studying.
D. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
_______I engage in at least one sport or physical activity on a regular basis.
_______I find it difficult to sit still for long periods of time.
_______I like working with my hands at concrete activities such as sewing,
weaving, carving, carpentry or model-building.
_______My best ideas often come to me when I am out for a walk or a jog or
when I am engaged in some kind of physical activity.
_______I frequently use hand gestures or other body language when conversing
with people.
_______I need to touch things in order to learn more about them.
_______I enjoy daredevil amusement rides or similar thrilling physical
experiences.
_______I have a good sense of balance and coordination.
_______I need to practice new skill rather than simply reading about it or seeing a
video that describes it.
_______I love to participate in folkdances, ballroom dancing and gymnastics

during school programs.

E. Visual-Spatial Intelligence
_______I often see clear images when I close my eyes.
_______I am sensitive to colors.
_______I frequently use a camera or camcorder to record what I see around me.
_______I enjoy doing jigsaw puzzles, mazes and other puzzles.
_______I have vivid dreams at night.
_______I can generally find my way around unfamiliar territory.
_______I like to draw or doodle.
_______Geometry was easier for me than Algebra in school.
_______I prefer looking at reading material that is heavily illustrated.
_______I easily remember places and streets Ive gone before and can orient
myself with either maps or landmarks.
F. Interpersonal Intelligence
_______I am the sort of person whom my classmates come to for advice and
counsel.
_______I prefer group sports like badminton, volleyball or softball rather than
individual sports.
_______I have at least three closest friends.
_______I favor social pastimes such as Monopoly or bridge rather than
recreations such as video games or solitaire.
_______I consider myself as a leader for others have called me that.

_______I feel comfortable in the midst of a crowd.


_______I love to get involved in social and religious activities.
_______I would rather spend my evenings at lively gatherings than stay at home
alone.
_______I like to be with different kinds of people.
_______I enjoy appreciating others when they have done well.

G. Intrapersonal Intelligence
_______I regularly spend time alone meditating, reflecting or thinking about
lifes important questions.
_______I have attended counseling sessions or personal growth seminars to learn
more about myself.
_______I have opinions that set me apart from the crowd.
_______I have a special hobby or interest that I keep pretty much to myself.
_______I have some important goals for my life that I think about on a regular
basis.
_______I have realistic view of my strength and weaknesses (borne out of
feedback from other sources)
_______I would prefer to spend a weekend alone in a cabin in the wood rather
than a fancy resort with lots of people around.
_______I consider myself to be strong willed or independent minded.
_______I keep a personal diary or journal to record the events of my inner life
_______I am self-employed or have at least thought seriously about starting my

own business.

H. Naturalist Intelligence
_______I enjoy gardening and like to grow different kinds of plants.
_______I am delighted in the sounds of nature, like the chirping birds and the
sounds of the waves.
_______I get excited about biological museum tours and fieldtrips to beautiful
tourist spots.
_______I am concerned with proper garbage and waste disposal.
_______I can often tell when it is going to rain.
_______I can usually tell precisely what my pets need.
_______I can identify many different kinds of trees or plants.
_______I prefer to spend my time in natural settings than inside buildings.
_______I am interested in fossils, and can identify different kinds of rocks.
_______I can identify different species of animals.
I.Existential Intelligence
_______I doubt if God is real.
_______I am curious why humans exist.
_______I wonder what the real mission of humans in this world is.
_______I wonder sometimes if love is real.
_______I dont believe in religion.
_______I only believe in God if I see him.
_______I dont believe in God because I havent seen him.

_______I believe that I can achieve all my dreams even if I dont believe in God.
_______I dont believe that miracles can happen in anybodys life
_______I believe that God is just a product of human imagination.
J. Spiritual Intelligence
_______I believe that God is the source of everything.
_______I center myself to God.
_______I believe in the Holy Spirit.
_______I become more caring to others because of my strong faith in God.
_______I trust the Lord with my decisions in life.
_______I keep Holy the Lords Day or I go to church on Sundays.
_______I believe that God saved us from our sinfulness by dying on the cross.
_______I attend Bible study.
_______I read the Bible and reflect on Gods words.
_______I give offering and tithes to the church.
Now add the points and record your total score for each category. Put the results on
the space below.
RESULTS
A. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence

_______

B. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

_______

C. Spatial Intelligence

_______

D. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

_______

E. Musical Intelligence

_______

F. Interpersonal Intelligence

_______

G. Intrapersonal Intelligence

_______

H. Naturalist Intelligence

________

I. Existentialist Intelligence

________

J. Spiritual Intelligence

________

Analyze your scores. In which intelligence did you get the highest points and the lowest
points? How would you then describe yourself in terms of multiple intelligences.

Part III. Course Preferences of the Respondents.


Below are courses listed. Please check the course you would like to pursue in college.
_______Law
_______Engineering
_______Medicine
_______Priesthood
_______Computer
_______Electrical
_______Electronics
_______Radio mechanic
_______ Associate in Hotel and Restaurant Technology
_______ Bachelor of Elementary Education Major in Early Childhood Education
_______Bachelor in Secondary Education Major: Values Education, English, Filipino,
Mathematics, THE, PEHM,
_______Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource
Development Management

_______Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Financial Management


_______Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Marketing Management
_______Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Operations Management
_______Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Hotel and
Restaurant Technology
_______Bachelor of Science in Office Administration
_______Bachelor of Arts in Political Science
_______Bachelor of Science in Agriculture
_______BS Criminology
_______BS in Theology
_______BS Accountancy
_______Midwifery
_______Bachelor of Science in Nursing
_______Bachelor of Science in Commerce
_______Bachelor of Science in Tourism
_______ Bachelor of Arts Major in History
_______Bachelor of Arts Major in Communication
_______Bachelor of Arts Major in Economics
_______Bachelor of Arts in Environmental Science
_______Bachelor of Science in Social Work
Others (pls. specify) _______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Appendix E

RESEARCH
DISSEMINATION
FORUM

RESEARCH
FORUM
October 17, 2014
(10:oo A.M.)
Adamson Hall

NORTHERN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE


Institution for Better Life
LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL
Laoag City

THANK YOU!

PROGRAM
INVOCATION

PTR. FLORENCIO MANZANO


College Instructor

PATRIOTIC SONG

PROF. GERONIMA C. MATIAS


College Instructor

MESSAGE

PROF. LUCITA V. RAYOAN


Principal

RESEARCH FORUM
INTRODUCTION OF PRESENTER

DR. NORMA L. FERNANDO


Dean, CASESW
Adviser

ORAL PRESENTATION OF PAPER

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COURSE PREFERENCES


NICANDRA MIAGROS B. BOBILES
OF FOURTH YEAR STUDENTS OF NORTHERN CHRISTIAN
MAEd, Candidate
COLLEGE LABORATORY HIGH SCHOOL: BASIS FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF A CAREER COUNSELING PROGRAM

OPEN FORUM

MODERATOR

MRS. EDITHA D. AGDEPPA


Master of Ceremonies/Moderator

PICTORIA
LS

Opening prayer with Ptr. Florencio Manzano

Message from Prof. Lucita V. Rayoan

Dr. Norma L. Fernando, presenting the researcher

The researcher disseminating her study

Prof. Marnie dela Cruz, dean of the College of nursing and teachers attentively listening

The researcher expressing her gratitude

Starting the Forum with Mrs. Leah Mateo

Mrs. Editha D. Agdeppa and Mrs. Milagros D. Bali follow up questioned