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Calendar is an object in SAP that is used in different situations. For example, HR uses calendars to
properly calculate payroll. Logistics uses calendars to plan production and delivery activities. Even
Finance may use calendars for some background job planning.

Calendar maintenance can be split into three layers. They are like three parts of the SCAL transaction.

1. First, you need to maintain a list of holidays that are relevant to your calendar. Each holiday may
have different rules for calculation, like fixed day, or offset to Easter, or even floating day from
year to year.
2. Second, you assign holidays to your holiday calendar and specify the validity of the calendar
itself and of the holidays within it.
3. And third, you create a logistics (or sometimes it is called a factory) calendar, which has
default workdays, uses the holiday calendar, and may have some special rules.

This is the logistics calendar which may be used in delivery planning or job scheduling.
Including Calendar in the transport
Calendar is a cross-client object. It means that if you have maintained your calendar in the
Development client of your Development system, all other clients in the same system get
exactly the same changes immediately. You do not need to do anything in this case.
However, if you need to move calendar changes across to the Test or Production system, you
need to use the transport system.
Before moving changes, you need to consider whether it is better to maintain the calendar in
each system individually, or move changes via the transport system. Both approaches have
benefits and downsides, and it is up to you to decide for the project who does the maintenance
of the actual Production calendar, and in which system it is done.
If you decided to make changes in the Development system and then move them across, you
need to bear in mind two things:
Transporting Calendar includes the full, and only full, content of SCAL transaction: holidays,
holiday calendars, logistics calendars. You cannot move only part of it.
Transport, once in new system, will erase all calendar-related data in the target system, and fully
rewrite it with new data. Therefore, it is highly advisable to either always maintain Calendar in
Production or always transport it. Cross-over will not do any good.
So, if you decided to include the calendar data into the transport, here are 5 steps for it:
Create or request creation of workbench transport request.
Call up transaction SCAL.
Select menu Calendar Transport.

Read and confirm information shown on the pop-up window.

Specify transport request.

Now you are ready to release the transport request and move it to your target system using the
Transport System functionality.
What is the most common use of the calendars? You are right, there are many. Just to list a few:
calculate payroll
plan work for staff
plan SAP background jobs
The unusual purpose
For most of us, the calendar has a pretty simple structure. There are years, there are 12 months
in each year, there are 28 to 31 days in each month.
But not all the activities go well with that simple structure. The difficulty comes into place when
you need to account for weeks and/or irregular periods. Weeks may be split between months,
and even between years. Some activities may have an irregular period.
One of the possible examples is the 4-5-4 or 4-4-5 fiscal year calendar, so widely used by Retail
companies, and even some non-Retail companies where like-for-like comparison is
What is 4-5-4 or 4-4-5? This is a split of fiscal periods into chunks of 4, 5, and 4 weeks in a
quarter. Or 4, 4 and 5, if you want. For example:
Period 1 starts on the 1st of January and runs for 4 weeks.
Period 2 starts on the 29th of January and runs for 5 weeks.
Period 3 starts on the 5th of March and runs for 4 weeks.
Period 4 starts on the 2nd of April and runs for 4 weeks.
And so on
Your fiscal year then consists of 4 quarters, in which each quarter has exactly 13 weeks.
I leave it to you to think about benefits of this approach to a fiscal year split.
Now imagine you need to plan SAP background jobs to cover exactly each of the periods. Of
course, you can schedule it to start on a particular day of the month which definitely falls within
a period, for example the 10th. However, how can you tell the system that you need to select
dates between the 1st and 28th of January for the 1st period, and between the 29th of January
and 5th of March for the 2nd period? There is no fixed number of days between the execution
date and start/end dates of the period.

Here comes the calendar! Apart from elements listed above, holidays, holiday calendars and a
list of working days, it may contain special rules. These special rules allow you to define oneoff working or holiday days outside of the normal schedule.
Creating the Calendar with Special Rules
Lets go into transaction SCAL and create a Logistics Calendar.
Give it a name, a code, a validity range, and leave all other fields empty. There is no default
holidays calendar, there are no default working days.

Save your data.

Now click the Special rules button. It gives you an option to add one-off rules to the calendar.
Start with creating a new rule. Specify the start and end date for the rule as the same day, for
example 01.01.2014, tick the Workday checkbox and give it a description Start of Period 1.

Confirm the creation of the rule.

Now do the same for the following dates:
28.01.2014, naming it End of Period 1.
29.01.2014, naming it Start of Period 2.
04.03.2014, naming it End of Period 2.
and so on.

At the end, your list should look like this:

It includes start and end dates of each irregular period.

Now save your data and leave transaction SCAL.
You can now move your configuration, if this is required. Use the method described in this
article by SAP Expert.
Using the calendar
Now lets create a variant that would use the calendar we have just created.
My example uses the FBL3N transaction, but you may apply the same approach to any report
where date range selection is required.
Specify the Dynamic Date Calculation option for that field in the variant and select Date xxx,
Date + yyy (work days) in the list of variables.

When you make this selection, another pop-up window appears. Here you specify 3 as xxx
value and 2- as yyy value. Factory calendar should be specified as the one we have created on
the previous step.

Confirm your selection and save the variant.

Now you can apply the variant and see that SAP automatically calculates the date range from
the calendar.

The last step is to schedule the job that would use the variant we have just created. Make it run
on the date which always falls inside the period.
Now, when the job runs, it will use the dates from your irregular intervals.
What are the other unusual applications of SAP Calendars you know?