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Vitamins

Compiled and Edited by

Dr. Syed Ismail
Associate Professor, SSAC
VN Marathwada Agricultural University,
Parbhani, India

What are vitamins?




Organic molecules with a wide variety of functions
Cofactors for enzymatic reactions
Essential, supplied in the diet
Two distinct types: Fat soluble (A, D, E, K)
Water soluble (B – complex, C)

Vitamins

are organic molecules that are essential for normal
health and growth. They are required in trace amounts and must
be obtained from the diet because they are not synthesized in the
body. Before vitamins were discovered, it was known that lime
juice prevented the disease scurvy in sailors and that cod liver oil
could prevent rickets. In 1912, scientists found that, in addition to
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, certain other factors called
vitamins must be obtained from the diet.

Why are they good for us?
Greater need due to
worse environment

Improve immunity

Prevent ilnesses

Slower aging

.

Soluble in aqueous solutions Watersoluble vitamins Used as cofactors by many enzymes Not stored in the body .

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but not in aqueous solutions Important in vision. antioxidants. bone formation. E. D. D E K Soluble in lipids. and blood clotting Stored in the body .Fat-Soluble Vitamins A Are A. and K.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins .

TPP coenzyme is required by enzymes in the decarboxylation of -keto carboxylic acids. and nerve degeneration). Deficiency results in beriberi (fatigue. Is part of the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate(TPP). . weight loss.Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Was the first B vitamin identified.

cereals.Thiamine Influences sacharide metabolism Helps against tiredness Is destroyed by severe washings of rice and vegetables Severe deficiency leads to beriberi Sources: yeasts. legumes . liver.rice.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 80 Made of the sugar alcohol ribitol and flavin 55% Part of the coenzymes flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). H3C N H3C N N N H O D-Ribitol CH2 CH CH CH CH2 OH OH OH OH . 30% Needed for good vision and healthy skin O Description of the contents D.

yeast.Sacharide and lipids metabolism Curing of skin diseases Support of sight function Light sensitive Sources: cerals. vegetables. eggs. liver . dairy products.

Niacin (Vitamin B3) • Is part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) involved in oxidationreduction reactions. and loss of appetite. and whole grains. • Deficiency can result in dermatitis. muscle fatigue. • Is found in meats. . rice.

eggs. retarded growth and anemia. • Part of coenzyme A • Reduces stress. prevents tiredness • Necessary for formation of glycogen. steroid hormones • Sources: whole grains. yeast CH3 OH O HO CH2 C CH3 O CH C N CH2 H CH2 C OH . • Deficiency can result in fatigue. and vegetables . heart. fatty acids.Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) • Is part of coenzyme A needed for energy production as well as glucose and cholesterol synthesis.liver.

. which are converted to the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). • Deficiency of pyridoxine may lead to dermatitis.Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) • Pyridoxine and pyridoxal are two forms of vitamin B6. • PLP is required in the transamination of amino acids and decarboxylation of carboxylic acids. fatigue. and anemia.

liver. legumes . yolk. fish.Pyridoxine • Aminoacids and protein metabolism • Cure of anemy • Formation of red blood cells • Sources: meat. cerals. vegetables.

.Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) • Consists of four pyrrole rings with a Co2+. • Deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia and nerve damage. • Is a coenzyme for enzymes that transfer methyl groups and produce red blood cells.

Cyanocobalamin • Formation of red blood cells • Maintenance of neuro tissue • Cure of neuro diseases. sea products . anemia • Sources: dairy products. meat. poultry.

citrus fruits. blueberries. • Is found in Indian gooseberries. red and green vegetables. and anemia. slow-healing wounds. CH2OH O HO O CHOH OH . broccoli. tomatoes.Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) • Is required in collagen synthesis. • Deficiency can lead to weakened connective tissue.

diarrhea • Hypovitaminosis: scurvy • Source: fruits. cure of cuts • Hypervitaminosis: addiction.vegetables . collagen synthesis • Infection resistance.Vitamin C • Hormone.

Vitamin A • Vitamin A is obtained from meats and beta-carotenes in plants. H3C CH3 CH3 Beta-carotene CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C H3C CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C CH3 CH3 CH2OH Retinol (vitamin A) 21 . • Beta-carotenes are converted by liver enzymes to vitamin A (retinol).

genital glands Provitamin changes to A vitamin in liver • Sources: liver. dairy products • provitamin: carrots. spinach. yellow fruits Compiled & Edited by Dr.Syed Ismail. pepper. egg yolks. Parbhani 22 . eyes.Vitamin A and provitaminA • • • • Retinol Cancer cure and prevention Skin.MAU.

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.Vitamin D Vitamin D (D3): • Is synthesized in skin exposed to sunlight. egg yolk. • Sources include cod liver oil. • Deficiency can result in weakened bones. and enriched milk. • Regulates the absorption of phosphorus and calcium during bone growth.

yolks.Vitamin D • • • • Calciferols the sun vitamin (UV rays) regulation of calcium metabolism sources: yeasts. dairy products 25 . fish.

CH3 HO CH3 H3C O CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 . and vegetables. whole grains. • May prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.Vitamin E • Is an antioxidant in cells. • Is found in vegetable oils.

beans . vegetable oil. dairy products. eggs.Vitamin E Tocoferols • Antioxidant (lipid protection) • improves immunity • Cures muscle. burns • Sources: green vegetables. bread. heart and skin diseases. corn. peas.

• Vitamin K2 in animals has a long unsaturated side chain.Vitamin K • Vitamin K1 in plants has a saturated side chain. O O CH3 CH3 O CH3 CH3 CH3 3 n CH3 Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) O CH3 CH3 Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) . • Vitamin K2 is needed for the synthesis of zymogens for blood clotting.

tomatoes. beef liver. people with liver diseases.Syed Ismail. soy. wheat. yolks. butter. Parbhani 29 .Vitamin K • Blood clotting • Higher need by newborns. or fat malabsorbtion • Sources: green fruits and vegetables.MAU. cheese Compiled & Edited by Dr.

200 B2 (riboflavin) 25 .5000 C (Ascorbic acid) 2 .15 B12 (Cynocobalamine) 5-8 H (Biotin) 300 . niacinamid) 30 .100 B5 (Pantothenic acid) 20 .500 B6 (pyridoxine) 10 .Daily values: Vitamin: Daily values [mg]: A (retinol) 1-3 B1 (thiamine) 30 .200 B3 (niacin.12 g D (cholecalciferol) 10 E (tokoferol) 400 .2000 K 80 .

Thank You! .