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Notes to the Vowels A, I and U

jwr47

Basic Idea
The roots for cuneiform scripts probably have been introduced by the Sumerians. The Sumerians
started by developing sets of hieroglyphs, in which some graphical symbols shared correlating
fundamentals. This paper concentrates on the highest ranking sky-god and the ego-pronoun I.
Initially the mother-symbol shared the same graphical representation with the I-symbol and the
house-symbol, although the verbal representations used different roots.
The main letter symbol for the mother-word (ama) and the sky-god's name (an, anu) started
with an A.
In the course of time the core vowels however expanded to three elements: A, I and U.
In this paper I documented the evolution of the primary vowels A, I and U, which may have been
the root elements of the reduced instruction set of letters.
The vowels A, I and U also belong to the border elements of vocal activity. The A is the low vowel,
defined as an [a], for which the tongue is positioned low in the widely opened mouth. In high or
raised vowels, such as [i] and [u], the tongue is positioned high in the mouth. These extremes have
been used to symbolize the most important definitions in philosophy and religion, on which the
state's power had been built.
The vocal boundary conditions are valid for human beings and it would be a natural case to use the
vowel triad [i][a][u] for symbolism, which may explain the names Dyaus, IaU-piter and IA
(Jeue) for religious core elements. Some of these names extend the threefold vowel core with
consonants such as a leading D and trailing s.
I invested some time to compare the various records of vowel designs and vowel symbolism,
concentrating on the coding area of [i][a][u] and their linguistic equivalents, which all had been
marking the center [a] and the extremities [i] and [u] of the vocal range.
In the course of time the divine name evolved to Ia'u or Ya'u and the ego-pronoun to Ia-a-ti1 or
Ya-ti, which seem to concentrate on the vowels A, I and U.
The concentration on a reduced set of vowels simplifies study, because vowels usually have been
defined as individual elements, whereas consonants often have been integrated into syllable
elements.
The words for water (sometimes interpreted as seminal fluid) preferably seemed to have been
designed with the central A-core.
The I and U-border elements had been used in philosophies which had to be based on antipodal
elements. This may have been the case in designing divine names such as Diaus or IOU-piter.

The word is highly vowel-concentrated and must be considered as a religious symbol related to God

Overview
From Sumerian hieroglyphs we may identify the correlation between the words for mother,
house, I and the divine symbol for Sumerian An or Akkadian Ilu. The divine symbol
Dingir both symbolized the words Ia'u or Ya'u respectively the ego-pronouns Ia-a-ti or Ya-ti.

From Ia'u the words YHWH and IEYE respectively the PIE-root *deiuo lead us to Daeva,
Dewan and Dieu as well as to the ego-pronouns Ieu (Provencal), Je (French) and I
(English).

Another branch leads from Anaku to An's child, symbolizing Ana (Aramaic I), Ani
(Hebrew I), ana (Ugaritic I), uk (Hittite), ik (Gothic).

The principal vowel A leads to the A hieroglyph for water ( semen), and the initial
runic letter ansuz (A), the word anses (Gothic), sir (gods).

The steps of these three derivation branches may be detailed in subsequent steps, documented in a
series of chapters. Apart from the basic vowel A both the vowels I and U seem to symbolize
a pair of symbols for bipolarity, which may have been developed in later evolutionary stages.

1: Evolution of the divine names, I and gods

Sound reproduction
The I and U are high vowels, for which the tongue must be positioned high in the mouth, whereas
the A is a low vowel for which the tongue must be positioned low in the mouth.
Vowel height is named for the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof
of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. In high or raised vowels, such as [i] and [u], the
tongue is positioned high in the mouth, whereas in low vowels, such as [a], the tongue
is positioned low in the mouth. The IPA prefers the terms close vowel and open vowel,
which respectively describe the jaw as open or closed.2
In front vowels, such as [i], the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth, whereas in
back vowels, such as [u], the tongue is positioned towards the back of the mouth.

2: Cardinal vowel tongue position-front.png.


created by Badseed under GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later

The basic tokens A, DI, U had been designed as control tokens for the mouth for producing the
required vocal sounds. The horn-like shape of the U-token may represent the kissing mouth.

The U-token represents a kissing mouth, rounded open with circular lips like a horn,
which is preferred to produce a low long uuu-sound.

The A represents an wide-open mount in which the tongue is to be retracted as low as


possible to produce a long aaa-sound.

The I-token represents a highly elevated, stretched tongue to produce an iii-sound.

The vocal boundary conditions are valid for human beings and it would be a natural case to use the
vowel triad [i][a][u] for symbolism, which may explain the names Dyaus, IaU-piter and IA
(Jeue) for religious core elements. Some of these names extend the threefold vowel core with
consonants such as a leading D and trailing s.
2

Vowel - Articulation - 1.1 Height

Chronological evolutionary steps for the Vowels' Symbolism


Equivalent Sumerian Hieroglyphics
In Sumerian the house-symbol and the I-symbol had been identical and seemed to match the
mother-symbol:

5: ama
(mother)
3000 BCE

3: ae
(I)
2500 BCE

4: a
(house)
2500 BCE

a [HOUSE] wr. a2; ma "house" Akk. Btu (2500 BCE)

ae [I] (609x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. a2-e; e26 "I" (2500 BCE)

Although the mother-symbol is the most complicated of these three, the mother-symbol is the
oldest of these hieroglyphs:

ama [MOTHER] (863x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. ama "mother" Akk. Ummu (3000 BCE).

The only additional element in the mother-symbol seemed to be the Dingir-symbol, which had
been defined as the sky - a symbol for the sky-god an or in Akkadian language the sky-god
Ilu. Obviously the mother had been seen as the link between the ego-pronoun ae (I) or the
house (a) and the sky an, respectively ilu.

6: an, ilu
sky(-god)
The cuneiform Dingir-symbol probably had been developed from a predecessor symbol such as one
of the following more primitive inscription drawings:

Pre-cuneiform Sumerian tablets3 3,000 BCE


In the oldest known line-written pre-cuneiform Sumerian tablets, God is written with a
triad of stars4. This was later simplified to a single star5.
The ancient logogram for tri also uses three cross-types of stars
divine trigram?

. Is it a

Turkic runic alphabet middle of the 1st millennium BC6

Location: in Southern Siberia and Jeti-Su

7: The Vowels in the Turkic alphabet

8: The "D"- and "T"-runes in the Turkic alphabet

Tri, Diir, Tir (Sky, God)


Among these characters show up sometimes ancient graphic logograms
tri (Sumer.
diir7) "Sky; God, deity", compare Kazakh. tir, tiri "God" or zegir "great, high, highest",
Karakalpak. di aspanda "very high, up in the sky" (phonetic transition t~d~z in the beginning of a
word)8.

3 Notes to the Turkic Runic Alphabet


4 see Figure 1, in Tengri, Khuday, Deos and God - The word "God" in different languages
5 Source: Tengri, Khuday, Deos and God - The word "God" in different languages
and The Gentile Names of God by Gordon Holmes Fraser
6 History of Ancient Trkic Script A.S.Amanjolov (2003)
7 The quotation refers to Tengri, Khuday, Deos and God - The word "God" in different languages and
"A Symposium on Creation" Vols. 1-5 @ http://www.creationism.org/symposium.
8 Genesis Of The Trkic Runic Alphabet, Posted by skit : 13-Oct-2009 at 09:22, also posted in Scribd at Genesis Of
The Trkic Runic Alphabet

Following the link to (Sumer. Diir9, which of course is rather close to the PIE-name Dyaus) I
found some more details to the name of God. The link between Turkish vowel in tri and 10 in
Dyus, Dy and (I)11 might be explained from the global religious symbolism in vowels12.

God in relation to the Assyrian first personal pronoun


As a remarkable observation the Assyrian first personal pronoun seems to be related to the divine
name (God), which also has been observed in modern languages such as French/Provencal (ieu
related to Dieu), Italian (io related to Dio) and in a great number of Mediterranean dialects13.
As tribal languages and dialects emerged, new phonetic values were expressed by the same
symbol, and this trend continued as long as the cuneiform script was used in Sumerian,
Hittic, Ugaritic, Chaldean and Babylonian, and Old Persian.
C. J. Ball writes that "the character Fig.#1-D, an 'high,' 'heaven,' and, 'The God of Heaven,'
which was read (in Sumerian - Translator's Note) Dingir in the sense of a god also meant (in
Semitic - Translator's Note) Ia'u or Ya'u and Ia-a-ti or Ya-ti. The latter Ia-a-ti14 or Ya-ti is the
Assyrian first person pronoun15 . . . and may well be the prototype for the Semite first
personal pronoun."27 He also suggests that Ia'u and Ya'u are the predecessors of the final
form of the Hebrew JHVH.28
The PIE-name Dyaus and the previously mentioned Ia'u and Ya'u use all three vowel archephonems
A, I and U.
In tri two of the vowels belong to the vowel archephonems are A (a, ), I (, i) and U (o, u, , ),
but the third one (U) is missing.

9 The quotation refers to Tengri, Khuday, Deos and God - The word "God" in different languages and
"A Symposium on Creation" Vols. 1-5 @ http://www.creationism.org/symposium.
10 for ternity - A World made of Word(s)
11 Etymology for Dy, Tiw and (I)
12 On the Symbolism of the Vowels A-E-I-O-U
13 The Hermetic Codex II - Bipolar Monotheism and The Keywords in God's Name
14 The word is highly vowel-concentrated and must be considered as a religious symbol related to God
15 Tengri, Khuday, Deos and God - The word "God" in different languages

Sumeria (3300 BCE to 100 CE)


The traditional basic vowels of archaic language I, A, U (and maybe also E) are found in Sumerian
scripture. Initially the letters seem to have been derived from hieroglyphs.
This early scripture had been a syllabic encoding system, to be optimized for simple syllables of the
form CV or VC16. The system also included 4 vowels, A, E, I and U, but apart from the semi-vowel
W only A, I, U really reveal the simplicity of root symbols.
As used for the Sumerian language, the cuneiform script was in principle capable of distinguishing
at least 16 consonants, transliterated as: b, d, g, gg, , k, l, m, n, p, r, , s, , t, z as well as four vowel
qualities, a, e, i, u. The =I-Symbol signifies the numeric sign 517.

Table 9: Syllabary listing of the stand-alone Sumerian vowels A, E, I, U

12: "E"

13: A

11: I

10: U

Sumerian Vowels A, I, U from the ePSD-database

14: wuwa [SOUND] wr. wu-wa "a


sound (onomatopoeic)"

16 V = Vowel, C = Consonant.
17 List of cuneiform signs

15: "W"

Water, House and I

18: a
[WATER]

17: e
[HOUSE]

16: a [HOUSE]

19: ae [I]

house - water

The words for house and water had been sharing the same symbol in Sumerian.

a [WATER] (2329x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium, unknown) wr. a "water; semen; progeny"
Akk. m; rihtu. (3000 BCE)

e [HOUSE] (13124x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain, unknown) wr. e2; a2; e4 "house; temple; (temple)
household; station (of the moon)?; room; house-lot; estate" Akk. Btu

In Danish and in Dutch the vowel A is associated with water, or river.

o-o river - In Danish an "" is a stream, small river or a creek18.

house - I

The words for house and I had been sharing the same symbol in Sumerian.

e [HOUSE] (13124x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain, unknown) wr. e2; a2; e4 "house; temple; (temple)
household; station (of the moon)?; room; house-lot; estate" Akk. btu

ae [I] (609x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. a2-e; e26 "I"

In Danish the ligature vowel is associated with the ego-pronoun I:

o-o I (first-person singular personal pronoun) (dialectal, mostly found in Trndelag,


northern Norway, and parts of western and southern Norway).

18

Dingir (DIIR)

20: Dingir
(Sumerian)

21: Dingir (Akkadian)

Dingir also meant sky or heaven in contrast with ki which meant earth. Its emesal pronunciation
was dimer.
The Akkadians inherited An as the god of heavens from the Sumerian as Anu-, and in Akkadian
cuneiform, the DINGIR character may refer either to Anum or to the Akkadian word for god, ilu-,
and consequently had two phonetic values an and il. Hittite cuneiform as adapted from the Old
Assyrian kept the an value but abandoned il.
The Assyrian sign DIIR could mean the Akkadian nominal stem il- meaning "god" or "goddess",
derived acrophonically from the Semitic ilAnu (An)

The Sumerian sign DIIR originated as a star-shaped ideogram indicating a god in general, or the
Sumerian god An, the supreme father of the gods.
In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; from Sumerian ? An, "sky, heaven") was a sky-god.
Anu had several consorts, the foremost being Ki (earth), Nammu, and Uras. By Ki he was
the father of, among others, the Anunnaki gods. By Uras he was the father of Nin'insinna.
According to legends, heaven and earth were once inseparable until An and Ki bore Enlil,
god of the air, who cleaved heaven and earth in two.
An and Ki were, in some texts, identified as brother and sister being the children of Anshar
and Kishar. Ki later developed into the Akkadian goddess Antu (also known as "Keffen
Anu", "Kef", and "Keffenk Anum").
Anu existed in Sumerian cosmogony as a dome that covered the flat earth; Outside of this
dome was the primordial body of water known as Tiamat (not to be confused with the
subterranean Abzu).[1]
In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some
cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted.

Akkadian Vowels (2500 BCE to 100 CE)


The Akkadian and Hittite vowels may be considered as copies from the Sumerian vowel symbols.

22: Akkadian and Hittite Vowels A, E, I, U from Ancient Scripts

Babylonian ego-pronouns
The independent Babylonian ego-pronoun is anku19, in the suffix-version -ku or -k, which
correlates to the Sumerian god An, the supreme father of the gods.

Ugaritic ego-pronouns (1300 BCE to 800 BCE)


Independent personal pronouns in Ugaritic are20 as follows: an, anku ("I), which:

'ana' (Aramaic) - I (first person singular - usually used for emphasis)

Ani ( )is the Hebrew first person singular nominative (I) pronoun21.

Anku22, in the suffix-version -ku or -k, also may have inherited its k-sound to the
Gothic and ultimately to the Dutch ik-variants.

19
20
21
22

Introduction to the Babylonian Language - Pronouns (pdf)


Independent personal pronouns in Ugaritic grammar
Does Eheyeh mean you are or ANI in Hebrew
Introduction to the Babylonian Language - Pronouns (pdf)

Hittite Vowels (1700 BCE to 1100 BCE) a divine name Sius


The Hittite inherited the Akkadian Vowels A, E, I, U.

23: Akkadian and Hittite Vowels A, E, I, U from Ancient Scripts

Hittite - Sius (God)


In the Hittite document Proclamation of Anittas the word DSiu-summin is translated as our
Sius23. The word sius, which is otherwise the generic word meaning "god," is derived from IndoEuropean *dyeus, the father god of the sky.
The Hittite ego-pronoun is k, amm24.

Luwian Vowels (1400 BCE to 700 BCE)


Basically the Luwian Vowels had been restricted to A, I and U. These signs may be of hieroglyphic
origin.

24: Luwian vowels A-I-U (1400 BCE to 700 BCE)


The Luwian ego-pronoun is (a)mu25.

23 Hittite Online
24 spreadsheet of Swadesh words
25 spreadsheet of Swadesh words

Proto-Sinaitic (1900 BCE to 1100 BCE)


The Proto-Sinaitic alphabet has been evolving from Egyptian hieroglyphic origin. This set really
managed the transition from syllabic writing to individual alphabetical symbols.
In this alphabet the sacred name YHWH may be transliterated (from phonetics to Greek) as IEYE,
in which the characters Aleph (Greek A) and Ayin (Greek O) are missing. The only relevant signs
for YHWH now are I-E-Y (which in Roman script would have been I-E-U.

25: Proto-Sinaitic, Phoenician and Greek letters

Reduction the cuneiform alphabet to a 5-element character set


After introduction by the Sumerians the archaic cuneiform script had been adopted by the
Akkadians from c. 2500 B.C.E., and by 2000 B.C.E. had evolved into Old Assyrian
cuneiform, with many modifications to Sumerian orthography.
The Semitic equivalents for many signs became distorted or abbreviated to form new
"phonetic" values, because the syllabic nature of the script as refined by the Sumerians was
unintuitive to Semitic speakers. At that stage, the former pictograms were reduced to a high
level of abstraction, and were composed of only five basic wedge shapes: horizontal,
vertical, two diagonals and the Winkelhaken impressed vertically by the tip of the stylus. The
signs exemplary of these basic wedges are:
ge [BLOW] wr. ge14; ge15; ge3; ge22; ge23 "blow; wound; stroke of the stylus;
(piece of) writing, copy, exemplar, written" Akk. mihitu; mihitu; aru26
1. U (B661, U+1230B) ge14: the Winkelhaken, symbolizing a "hole"
2. A (B001, U+12038) ge15: horizontal stroke;
3. DI (B748, U+12079) ge3: vertical stroke;
4. GE22 (B647, U+1203A) ge22: upward diagonal stroke;27
5. GE23, DI ten (B575, U+12039) ge23: downward diagonal stroke28;
The idea now concentrated on the vowels and their symbolism. The ePSD-database had sorted these
5 strokes as ge [BLOW]. I investigated these symbols and found both the diagonal strokes as
symbolically empty. There had not been any link to special characterization. Their only usage
seemed to have been correlated to "a unit of surface measurement" 29. These diagonal strokes never
had been used for philosophical purposes. The only good reason to keep these in the records was
their reservation for later purposes. I knew the symbols had been designed as placeholders for
vowels and the number of Roman vowels A, E, I, O, U had been extended to 5.
The abstracted and reduced set of basic cuneiform tokens (A, DI, U, GE 23, GE22) more or less
could be considered as the digital encoding or analog/digital-conversion of hieroglyphic
symbolizing. This digitizing nearly produced a binary code.
In fact only three elements A, DI, U represented the fundamentals of the previous symbolism.
The diagonal symbols (GE23, GE22) performed minor tasks.
Basically the abstracted tokens A, DI, U could be identified as the original vowel tokes in the
Sumerian cuneiform. The horizontal stroke A had been copied from the A, the vertical stroke
DI from the I, the U from the original Sumerian U-symbol.
Only the vowel E had been missing in the reduced set of 5 Basic Cuneiform Tokens. In fact the
letter E never had been a basic symbol. The E looked like a strange newly composed mixture
from A and I, a somehow newly created element in a 3-vowel structure.
26
27
28
29

Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary Project (PSD)


GE22 -A quarter ik (unit of area).
GE23,DI ten - One half ik (unit of area).
upu [UNIT] wr. upux(|A@z|) "a unit of surface measurement" Akk. ub

The Basic tokens A, I, U


Five basic tokens had been specified. Only three (A, DI, U) could be assigned to the vowels A, I,
respectively U.

The A-token had been representing the Akkadian Assur (god) and the Hittite "solar disk",
phonetically correlating to the A-vowel and numerically to 1.

The DI-token represented a determiner for male personal names and the letters I or m
and numerically 1 (in Akkadian) respectively 60 (in Sumerian culture).

The U-token in all languages represented the letter U, in Sumerian a hole and
numerically 10.

Name Cuneiform
A

DI

letter

Wikipedia entry in Akkadian cuneiform

ePSD-entry

phonetic values
1. Sumerian: A, DILI, DIDLI (= A.A)
2. Akkadian: , z, dil, del, ina, r, rum
3. Hittite: , (r)
In Akkadian: Assur (god), sanctuary,
son
In Hittite: A.ME "solar disk"
(KUR)URUA.UR "Assur"
In Sumerian: Cardinal number 1

a [ONE] (191x: ED IIIb,


Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. a "one"
Akk. iten

phonetic values
1. Sumerian: DI, NIGIDA, GI2, GE2
2. Akkadian: ana, g, i
3. Hittite: di, ti, d, t

di [ONE] (5x: Old


Akkadian, Ur III) wr. di;
de-e-u2; di-id; di-t- "one"
Akk. itn

In Sumerian:
Determiner for male personal names,
transliterated as superscript I or m.
Related: GI2 numeral "60" (U+12415)

Titled: Winkelhaken
Cuneiform sign for vowel 'u' in
Akkadian , Hittite, Luwian and
Sumerian
In Sumerian Numeral "10" and clusters
BR(BUR3), U7

(3000 BCE)

(2500 BCE)

u [HOLE] wr. u "hole"


Akk. lu "depression,
concavity".

BUR3 "hole"
U7 "curse, bewitch"

GE23,
DI
ten

One half ik (unit of area).

GE22

A quarter ik (unit of area).

CUNEIFORM SIGN ASH ZIDA

CUNEIFORM SIGN ASH KABA

ge [BLOW] wr. ge14; ge15;


ge3; ge22; ge23 "blow;
wound; stroke of the stylus;
(piece of) writing, copy,
exemplar, written"
Akk. mihitu; mihitu;
aru

Table 1: Abstracted and Reduced Set of Basic Cuneiform Tokens (~2500 BCE)

Linear B (1500 BCE to 1200 BCE)


In Linear B the vowels A-E-I-O-U had been preserved. These seemed to be hieroglyphic characters

26: Linear B Vowels A-E-I-O-U from Ancient Scripts


Comparing the Sumerian cuneiform a correlation may be assumed:

27: Correlating Linear B to Sumerian Vowels

Ugarit Scripture (1300 BCE to 800 BCE)


The Ugaritic script is basically the consonant alphabet rendered in cuneiform. The inventors
combined the idea of the alphabet with cuneiform writing.
In analogy to Hebrew Ugaritic uses Matres Lectionis to represent three vowels representing a, i,
and u.30

Ugarit Vowels A, I, U from the Ugaritic Grammar


Independent personal pronouns in Ugaritic are31 as follows:

an, anku "I


atta "you" (m.)
atti "you" (f.)

There is one Ugaritic text which seems to indicate that among the inhabitants of Ugarit, Yahweh
was viewed as another son of El. KTU 1.1 IV 14 says32:
sm . bny . yw . ilt
The name of the son of god, Yahweh.

28: Ugarit Alphabet (Original file public domain)

30 Introduction to Ugaritic Grammar (Quartz Hill School of Theology) - Lesson Two


31 Independent personal pronouns in Ugaritic grammar
32 Ugarit and the Bible

29: Ugarit Alphabet by M. Adiputra


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Ogham Vowels (Irish, 4th to 6th centuries) a divine name Dwan


Ogham is also known as or ogham craobh (tree ogham) beth luis fearn or beth luis nion, after the
first few letters.
The Ogham vowels are the five notches (vowels), which only may reveal some symbolism from
their names.

A ailm (white fir) [a]


O onn - *osen (gorse) [o] (*osno-)
U r (heather) [u]
E eodhadh (poplar) [e]
I iodhadh (yew) [i]

More important may have been the additional Forfeda-letters, in which the EA and AEcombinations may have been used to define the symbolism of the -character in Northern Europe.
The Forfeda are the "additional" letters of the Ogham alphabet, beyond the basic inventory of
twenty signs. The most important of these are five forfeda which were arranged in their own aicme
or class, and were invented in the Old Irish period, several centuries after the peak of Ogham usage.

EA abhadh
OI r (gold)
UI uillaen (elbow)
P, later IO ifn (pine)
X or Ch (as in loch), later AE emancholl

30: Ogham Vowels

The letter labelled IA (Ifn) earlier had the value of p. An additional (secondary) letter p is shown as
26th character (peith). This is the vertical writing of Ogham; in the horizontal form, the right side
would face downward.

Dwan (God)
In archaic Irish (in Ogham scripture) the divine name had been written dwan 33. The vocal w
however may also be considered as a half vowel UU, which implies the central core of the word
dwan may also contain E, U and A.

31: dwan

Daeva

In the Pahlavi books DW is understood as demon and Dwan as the plural demons. In the
Gathas, the oldest texts of the Zoroastrian canon, the daevas are "wrong gods" or "false gods" or
"gods that are (to be) rejected". Daeva, the Iranian language term, should not be confused with the
devas of Indian religions.
Daeva (dauua, daua, dava) is an Avestan language term for a particular sort of supernatural
entity with disagreeable characteristics34.
Old Avestan dauua or dava derives from Old Iranian *daiva, which in turn derives from IndoIranian *daiv- "god," reflecting Proto-Indo-European *deiuu with the same meaning. For
derivatives in a European context, see Tyr. The Vedic Sanskrit cognate of Avestan dauua is dev-,
continuing in later Indo-Aryan languages as dev.
In the RigVeda (10.124.3), the devas are the "younger gods", in conflict with the asuras, the "older
gods".

33 Translation of Tgoddit in wsskan do atareregiy esyan kenutan writ dwan - They went into the wilderness to
atone for their sins before God.
The stone of Lugnaedon son of Limenueh From: Inchagoill Island, County Galway, Ireland - An Old Irish Joke in
Primitive Irish (translation by David Stifter)
34 Daeva

Gothic Vowels (4th century) a divine name Teiws


The Gothic alphabet, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating
the Bible, is a form of the Greek alphabet, with a few additional letters to account for Gothic
phonology: Latin F, two Runic letters to distinguish the /j/ and /w/ glides from vocalic /i/ and /u/,
and the letter air to express the Gothic labiovelar.
It is completely different from the 'Gothic script' of the Middle Ages, a script used to write the Latin
alphabet.
Two letters used in its transliteration are not used in current English and may draw our attention,
which already had been concentrated on the symbolic highlights: the vowels A, E, I, O, U and W.

the Runic (representing //), thyth < iu "good" or aurnus "thorn"

(representing /h/). Hwair (also air, huuair, hvair) is the name of , the Gothic letter
expressing the [h] or [] sound (reflected in English by the inverted wh-spelling). Hwair is
also the name of the Latin ligature (). Gothic is the reflex of Common Germanic *x,
which in turn continues the Indo-European labiovelar *k after it underwent Grimm's law.
The same phoneme in Old English and Old High German is spelled hw.

Aa (ahwa)

Aa, f. (97), river, stream, water (Mdl. E. ea, , water). Romanization: ahwa; The Old
English word was ea "river," cognate with Latin aqua (see aqua-).

33: : /a/
(asha)

32:
(Hwair)

34: : /a/
(asha)

Seven Vowels
The Gothic vowels are A. E, I, O, U, W, . Especially the exotic may have been an important
symbol.

35: : /a/
(asha)

36: /e/
aihvus

41: /i/ Eis

37: /o/
Othal

38: /u/ (urus) 39/w/ Winja

40:
(Hwair)

God35
The word god itself is derived from the Gothic word guth for a pagan idol (presumably a wooden
statue of the kind paraded by Winguric on a chariot when he challenged the Gothic Christians to
worship the tribal gods, executing them after they refused).
35 Gothic paganism

Gothic Teiws o=o Tiwaz (?)


Regarding the individual gods worshipped among the Goths, very little can be said with certainty.
They did have a cult of a god of war, identified with Roman Mars, presumably a manifestation of
Germanic Tiwaz, perhaps (on the basis on the letter names) called *Teiws in Gothic, among the
Tervingi perhaps also known as "The Terwing"36.

/a, a/ o-o aza < ans "god" or asks "ash" ( *ansuz )

/d/ [d, ] o-o daaz < dags "day" ( *dagaz )

/s/ o-o sugil < saul or sjil "sun" ( *swil )

/t/ o-o tyz < *tius "the god Tr" ( *twaz)

/x/? o-o enguz < *iggus or *iggvs "the god Yngvi" ( *ingwaz)

Gothic Ansis (half-god)


sir is the plural of ss, ss "god" (gen. sir) which is attested in other Germanic languages, e.g.,
Old English s (gen. pl. sa) and Gothic (as reported by Jordanes) anses "half-gods". These all stem
from Proto-Germanic *ansis ~ ansuz

36 Gothic paganism

Runes (400-1800)
Historically, the runic alphabet is a derivation of the Old Italic alphabets of antiquity, with the
addition of some innovations. No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long
and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken
languages of the time.

Elder Futhark
The earliest known sequential listing of the alphabet dates to 400 and is found on the Kylver Stone
in Gotland37:

[f] u a r k g [w] h n i j p 38 z s t b e m l d o
Initially Futhark used 6 vowels A, I, , E, O, U.

44: /u()/
?*ruz

47: /a()/
*ansuz

42:/i()/
*saz

43: ()
*(h)waz/
*ei(h)waz

46: /e()/
*ehwaz

45: /o()/
*ila-/
*ala-

37 Elder Futhark
38 is also transliterated as , and may have been either a diphthong, or a vowel near [] or [].

The Orkhon Vowels (8th to 10th century)39


The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Gktrk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey
script) is the alphabet used by the Gktrk and other early Turkic Khanates during the 8th to 10th
centuries to record the Old Turkic language.
The relevant vowels A, E, I, O, U, Y had been defined as follows:

50: a,

48: y, i (e)

49: o, u

51: ,

Tengri
Worship of Tengri is Tengrism. The core beings in Tengrism are Sky-Father (Tengri/Tenger Etseg)
and Earth Mother (Eje/Gazar Eej).
A reading example (right to left):
sky god, Tengri (/teri/).

transliterated tri, this spells the name of the Turkic

The Proto-Turkic form of the word has been reconstructed as *Teri or *Tar.

39 Old Turkic alphabet

Appendix Flow Charts


Vowel evolution from Sumerian to Ugarit
In this overview the vowels A-E-I-O-U and the semi-vowel W

Evolution of the Dingir-Rune to the sir and the Ego-pronoun I

Evolution of the divine names, I and gods

52: Evolution of the divine names, I and gods

Contents
Basic Idea.............................................................................................................................................1
Overview..............................................................................................................................................2
Sound reproduction..............................................................................................................................3
Chronological evolutionary steps for the Vowels' Symbolism.............................................................4
Equivalent Sumerian Hieroglyphics................................................................................................4
Pre-cuneiform Sumerian tablets 3,000 BCE....................................................................................5
Turkic runic alphabet middle of the 1st millennium BC.................................................................5
Tri, Diir, Tir (Sky, God)....................................................................................................5
God in relation to the Assyrian first personal pronoun...............................................................6
Sumeria (3300 BCE to 100 CE)......................................................................................................7
Water, House and I...........................................................................................................8
house - water...................................................................................................................8
house - I ..........................................................................................................................8
Dingir (DIIR)...........................................................................................................................9
Anu (An).................................................................................................................................9
Akkadian Vowels (2500 BCE to 100 CE)......................................................................................10
Babylonian ego-pronouns .............................................................................................................10
Ugaritic ego-pronouns (1300 BCE to 800 BCE)...........................................................................10
Hittite Vowels (1700 BCE to 1100 BCE) a divine name Sius..................................................11
Hittite - Sius (God)....................................................................................................................11
Luwian Vowels (1400 BCE to 700 BCE)..................................................................................11
Proto-Sinaitic (1900 BCE to 1100 BCE).......................................................................................12
Reduction the cuneiform alphabet to a 5-element character set...............................................13
The Basic tokens A, I, U...........................................................................................................14
Linear B (1500 BCE to 1200 BCE)...............................................................................................15
Ugarit Scripture (1300 BCE to 800 BCE).....................................................................................16
Ogham Vowels (Irish, 4th to 6th centuries) a divine name Dwan............................................18
Dwan (God)............................................................................................................................19
Daeva....................................................................................................................................19
Gothic Vowels (4th century) a divine name Teiws...................................................................20
Aa (ahwa)...............................................................................................................................20
Seven Vowels............................................................................................................................20
God............................................................................................................................................20
Gothic Teiws o=o Tiwaz (?)...............................................................................................21
Gothic Ansis (half-god).............................................................................................................21
Runes (400-1800)..........................................................................................................................22
Elder Futhark.............................................................................................................................22
The Orkhon Vowels (8th to 10th century).....................................................................................23
Tengri........................................................................................................................................23
Appendix Flow Charts.....................................................................................................................24
Vowel evolution from Sumerian to Ugarit.....................................................................................24
Evolution of the Dingir-Rune to the sir and the Ego-pronoun I.............................................25
Evolution of the divine names, I and gods.............................................................................26