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Reservoir Petrophysics PETR 2311 Fall 2014

Final Exam 11th Dec (8:00 AM to10:50 AM firm)


First Name
Last Name
IMPORTANT:

a) In all problems, show your work.


b) Please keep your student ID on the table for the proctor to check throughout the test.
c) Please write only your student ID on the cover sheet.
d) Please write all answers in the space provided. Backs of pages must be labeled with the
problem number. Please instruct the grader to look at the back if you want them to do so.
e) Numbering pages will certainly help ensure nothing is lost.
f) You can use either pencil or pen (black or blue) for this test.
g) You can bring a simple scientific calculator to the exam. Programmable calculator,
graphing calculators, computers, tablets, cell phones, PDAs, smart phones are NOT
allowed. If you dont have a simple scientific calculator, please borrow one from your
friends before the test.
h) This is a closed book test. No written material, books etc. will be allowed. Please bring
only pencil, pen, eraser, calculator and ruler.
i) In all actions, make it as easy as possible to give you credit.

j) Sign the Academic Honesty commitment


Academic Honesty
Sign below to confirm your commitment to the rules of academic honesty of the University of
Houston.
In brief, infractions of the policy include any conduct which a reasonable person in the same or similar
circumstances would recognize as dishonest or improper to an academic setting. These infractions include:

Obtaining test questions or answers to questions and responses to assigned work, in any fashion other
than that designated as proper by the instructor of the class involved;
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Presenting someone else's work as ones own (plagiarism); and
Failing to report an observation of someone involved in one of the preceding activities.

I commit to follow the rules of academic honesty of the University of Houston.


Student Signature

Date

PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014

First Name
Last Name
Student ID
Question No.

Total

Possible

17

16

15

20

16

16

100

Achieved

Problem 1 (17 points = 2 + 3 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2)


a. Sketch a plot of how porosity and permeability vary with depth in a deltaic reservoir.

b. If you know the mass and volume of a water filled clean sandstone core and you know
the total mass of the grains, derive the equation for the porosity.

c. List at least three factors that affect porosity.

PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014


d. Compressional waves in rock travel about (twice as fast, the same speed, half as fast) as
shear waves in the same rock. Circle one answer.
e. Draw a typically phase diagram. Label the regions for solid, liquid, and gas phases.
Label the critical point.

f. Draw two capillary tubes in wetting liquid and air.


Draw a capillary tube for a non-wetting liquid in air.

g. State Archimedes principle in one sentence.

h. Describe the difference between effective porosity and total porosity.

PETR2311 Final Exaam Fall 2014


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Problem
m 2 (16 po
oints = 12 + 4)
A clean sandstone
s
zo
one is marked on the folllowing logs. Note that th
the scale on tthe resistivitty log
is linear, which is unusual but no
ot intended to
o trick you. The verticall scale is twoo feet per
division.

W is the water
w
saturatiion in that zo
one? You m
may assume tthe same forrmation wateer
a. What
th
hroughout with
w resistivitty 0.05 ohm--m. Use rulees of thumb as necessaryy.

PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014

b. Describe how you would get a better value for the resistivity of the formation water if
you were given the salinity and ionic composition.

PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014

Problem 3 (15 points = 13 + 2)


A flat rectangular plate of area 100 cm2 glides on a layer of oil 1 mm thick on a stationary table.
The plate is pulled at a constant velocity of 1cm/sec by a movable wire of width 10 cm that
bounds a thin film of the same oil of height 5 cm.

Plate

Oil

Table

Moveable
wire
10cm
5cm

Oil
a. Calculate the ratio of the surface tension to the viscosity of the oil in cgs units.

PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014

b. Suppose the height of the oil film bounded by the moveable wire were 10 cm. Circle the
single correct statement about the ratio of the surface tension to the viscosity:
a. Less than Part a
b. Equal to Part a
c. Greater than Part a
d. Insufficient information to compare to Part a

PETR2311 Final Exaam Fall 2014


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Problem
m 4 (20 po
oints = 6 + 6 + 2 + 6))
A clean sandstone
s
reeservoir 50 feet
f thick wiith permeabiility 100 mD
D has Sw=1. The pressuure in
the reserv
voir 100 ft from
f
a 5 inch
h diameter well
w is 5000 psi. You m
may approxim
mate the preessure
in the weell as zero.
a. Calculate
C
the rate of flow
w into the well in cgs unitts.

rw

re

PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014


b. Suppose the well was fractured to create a vertical planar fracture into which the flow can
occur. You may again approximate the pressure in the fracture as zero. Calculate the
flow into the fracture from both sides of the fracture. You may simplify to use a
rectangular volume with side 200 ft. (about the same size as the cylinder in 3a)

rw

Flow
direction

Flow
direction
2re

re

re

PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014

c. Based on your answers to 3a and 3b, does the fracturing increase or decrease the flow?
Explain why you answer is reasonable or not.

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PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014


d. Returning to the radial geometry in 3a, if all the flow goes up the well 10000 ft from the
bottom of the well to the surface, calculate the pressure drop between the bottom of the
well and the surface in psi? You may ignore gravity for this problem.

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PETR2311 Final Exaam Fall 2014


4

Problem
m 5 (16 po
oints = 4 +10
+ + 2)

Surfaaceofth
heEarth

Drillpipe
Wellbo
ore

Reservo
oir
well bore at tthe
Suppose the pressuree at the surfaace of the earrth is 1 atm aand the pressure in the w
d
is 5000
0 psi.
reservoirr at 8000 ft depth
a. What
W density of drilling fluid
f
in the well
w bore is nnecessary to hold the preessure in thee
reeservoir, i.e., no flow? The
T drillpipee is 6 inches in diameter and the wellbore is 8 inches
in
n diameter.

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PETR2311 Final Exaam Fall 2014


4

W remove th
he drillpipe and
a reduce the
t density oof the drillingg fluid so thaat the pressuure in
b. We
th
he well bore at the reserv
voir is reduced by half. Fluids can nnow flow outt of the reserrvoir,
in
nto the well, and up to th
he surface. If
I the water ssaturation inn the reservoir is 80% annd
th
here is neglig
gible oil in th
he reservoir,, which is thhe volumetricc flow of gass in cgs unitts at
th
he top of the well?
The
T base (abssolute) perm
meability is 10
00 mD. Thee pressure inn the reservooir is constannt 100
ftt from the weell. The thicckness of thee reservoir iss 50 ft. Use reasonable rrules of thum
mb
fo
or any other parameters you
y are not given.
g

Krw=10
0%
Krw=20
0%
Krw=40
0%
Krw=60
0%

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PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014

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PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014

c. Describe in words how you would obtain a value of the viscosity of gas that is better than
the rule of thumb.

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PETR2311 Final Exaam Fall 2014


4

Problem
m 6 (16 po
oints = 2 + 2 +6 +6)
A core iss extracted frrom a reserv
voir and the capillary
c
preessure curve is measuredd in the lab. The
rock in th
he core is baarely consolidated, so wh
hen the presssure was rem
moved goingg to the lab, tthe
entire corre expanded
d (grains and pores) by 10%.

a. Using
U
a simple packing model
m
of sph
herical grainss, estimate thhe change inn porosity.

U
a simple pipe modeel, estimate the
t change iin permeabillity.
b. Using

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PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014


c. Translate the lab capillary pressure curve to a reservoir capillary pressure curve and label
the reservoir pressure on the same curve.

d. If the core has 80% saturation of 40 API oil and no gas was observed, at what height
above the free water level was the core taken?

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PETR2311 Final Exam Fall 2014


Mass

1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton

Length

1 in = 2.54 cm
1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm = 106 micrometer = 1010 angstrom = 39.37 in = 3.2808 ft = 1.0936 yd
= 0.0006214 mile
1 ft = 12 in = 1/3 yd = 0.3048 m = 30.48 cm

Volume

1 m3 = 1000 L = 106 cm3 = 106 mL = 35.3145 ft3 = 220.83 imperial gallons = 264.17 gal = 6.29 barrels
1 ft3 = 1728 in3 = 7.4805 gal = 0.028317 m3 = 28.317 L = 28317 cm3
1 barrel = 42 gal

Speed

1 mile/hour = 1.46667 ft/sec = 44.7 cm/sec

Force

1 kg*(9.8 m/sec2) = 2.20462 lbs

and

1 N = 1 kg m/s2 = 105 dynes = 105 g cm/s2 = 0.22481 lb

weight

1 lb = 4.4482 105 dynes

Pressure

1 atm = 1.01325 105 N/m2 (Pa) = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 bar = 1.01325 106 dynes/cm2
= 760 mm Hg at 0 C (torr) = 10.333 m H2O at 4 C = 14.696 lb/in2 (psi) = 33.9 ft H2O at 4 C
= 29.921 in. Hg at 0 C

Energy

1 J = 1 N m = 107 ergs = 107 dyne cm = 2.778 10-7 kWh = 0.23901 cal = 0.7376 ft lb
= 9.486 10-4 Btu

Power

1 W = 1 J/s = 0.23901 cal/s = 0.7376 ft lb/s = 9.486 10-4 Btu/s = 1.341 10-4 hp

Area

1 acre = 43560 ft2


1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2
1 hectare = 10000 m2

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