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# In the simplification of laminate Analysis, the stiffness matrices terms may be made zero by

having desired stacking sequence of the laminate there by avoiding the unnecessary coupling between
bending and extension or twisting or between normal force and shear strain.
Following are the conditions (orientation sequence of the laminae) that simplify the stiffness matrices.
Simplification if the coupling stiffness matrix B= 0
Contribution of the B matrix is given by the product of the corresponding term in Q matrix and the
difference between of square of Z coordinates of top and bottom ply.
The contribution of the lamina above the geometric mid plane can be nukllified by placing an identical
lamina an equal distance below the midplane. Thus the B matrix is made zero for the laminates in which
for each ply above the midplane there is an identical ply placed at an equal distance below the
midplane.
SYMMETRIC LAMINATE:
The laminates which are constructed by placing the laminae symmetrically with respect to the
midplane are often termed as symmetric laminate
Simplification by the Orthotropic nature [ Specially orthotropic = 0 or 90 ]
Simplification of the stiffness matrix is achieved by fabricating a laminate that behaves as an
orthotropic layer with respect to in plane forces and strain.
A laminate in which there is no coupling between the normal stresses and shear strain. This is possible
when A16 and A26 = o
The contribution of a lamina to particular term of A matrix is given by the product of the term in the Q
matrix and the thickness of the lamina (difference between Z coordinates of top and bottom ply). It is
apparent from the equation of Q that the terms Q11, Q12, Q22 and Q 66 are always positive. And therefore
the terms A11, A12, A22 and A 66 cannot be made zero. The terms Q 16 and Q 26 are zero for the
orientations of 0 and 90 and can be negative for intermediate angles. Since Q 16 and Q 26 are ODD
functions, they are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. The terms A 16 and A 26 can be made zero
for every lamina oriented at a positive angle there exists a another lamina of equal thickness at a
negative angle. Relative positions of the two laminae are immaterial.
Simplification of the bending matrix D:
Contribution of a lamina in particular term of D matrix is given by the product of the
corresponding term in Q matrix and the difference between of cubes of Z coordinates of top and bottom
ply. The geometrical contribution that is difference of the cubes cubes of Z coordinates of top and
bottom ply is always positive hence D11, D12, D22 andD 66 cannot be made zero. But Q 16 and Q 26 are ODD
functions,thereforeD 16 and D 26 can be made zero if the laminae are oriented at 0 or 90 or for every
lamina oriented at a positive angle above the midplane there exists a identical lamina at an equal
distance below the midplane and oriented at a negative angle
CROSS PLY LAMINATE:
The laminates which are constructed by placing the orientation sequence of laminae as
[o/90/0/90] are often termed as cross ply lamiante laminate
Simplification by isotropic
Simplification of the stiffness matrix is achieved by fabricating a laminate that behaves as an
isotopic in regard to the extensional stiffness matrix [A].
i.i A11=A22; 2A66 = A11=A12
QUASI ISOTROPIC LAMINATE:

The laminates which are constructed by placing the orientation sequence of laminae in such a
way that the laminate behaves as an isotopic in regard to A matrix are often termed as quasi isotropic
laminate.
For a laminate to be Quasi isotropic
The total number of layers must be three or more.
The individual layer must have identical stiffness matrix Q and thicknesses,
The layers must be oriented at equal angles. For example if n is the number of layers the
orientation angle of the laminas are at increments of is /n[ 60/0/-60]; [45/0/-45/90].
Failure envelope:
Using Maximum stress criterion:
For Graphite epoxy lamina

## 11t=fiber direction tensile strength = 1500 Mpa

11c=fiber direction compressive strength = 1500 Mpa
22t = transverse direction tensile strength =40 Mpa
22c=transverse direction compressive strength = 246 Mpa
12= in plane shear strength = 68 Mpa
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