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HighDensityPlantingSysteminFruitCrops

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HighDensityPlantingSysteminFruitCrops
BY:Dr.AmitGoswami|Category:Agriculture|Submitted:2014042704:59:03

Article Summary: "High density


planting is defined as planting at a
density in excess of that which
gives maximum crop yield at
maturity if the individual tree
grows to its full natural size. HDP
system is normally understood as a
system in which a higher number of
plants are accommodated within a
unit area in comparison to the

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HIGHDENSITYPLANTINGSYSTEMINFRUITCROPS
Authors:A.K.Goswami,MadhubalaThakre,A.NagarajaandJaiPrakash
IARI,NewDelhi110012
Indiaisthelargestproduceroffruitsintheworld.TheaverageproductivityoffruitsinIndia
is,however,lowascomparedtomanydevelopedcountries.Themainreasonsforlow
productivityareoldandsenileorchards,lowyieldingvarieties,poororchardmanagement
andinadequatetechnologicalupgradationandadoptionbythegrowers.Presently,the
continuingdeclineintheavailabilityofcultivableland,risingenergyandlandcoststogether
withthemountingdemandofhorticulturalproduce,havegiventhrusttotheconceptofhigh
densityplanting(HDP)ofhorticulturalcrops.Furthermore,itisofmainconcerntothe
growerswithsmalllandholdings.HDPisoneoftheimportantmethodstoachievehigh
productivityperunitareabothinshortdurationandperennialhorticulturalcrops.High
densityplantinginfruitgrowingwasfirstestablishedinappleinEuropeintheearlysixties.
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HighDensityPlantingSysteminFruitCrops

Highdensityplantingismoreefficientsinceitisprecocious,easily
manageable,hashigheryieldpotentialwithbetterqualityfruitsand
higherreturns/unitarea.Beinganintensivesystem,itrequiresmore
capitaltoestablishandismoreproductiveandprofitable,iffollowed
scientifically.Theadoptionofhighdensityplantingsystemsis
revolutionizingfruitgrowingovermuchoftheworldandpromisesto
haveasignificanteffectonhorticultureindustry.HighDensity
Planting(HDP)isaveryintensiveformoffruitproductionwhichhas
highrelevancetothefoodandnutritionalsecurityofourever
increasingpopulation.
Keyaspectsofhighdensityplantinginfruits:
TheHDPcanbewithonespecies(monospecies)orwithdifferent
species(multispecies,multistoreyed)ofcrops.Themonospecies
HDPbasicallycomprisetheplantingofsmalltreedensely,restricting
theirvegetativegrowthbyusingdwarfingrootstocks,bioregulators
orotherhorticulturaltechniquesuchaspruningthereby,diverting
muchoftheplantenergytotheeconomicalparts.Inthemulti
speciesHDP,theinterceptionofincidentsolarradiationatdifferent
tiersbycanopiesofvariousspeciesbasedontheirlighttransmission
characteristicsandshadetoleranceareexploited.Beside,
ramificationoftheirrootsystematdifferentsoildepthsensures
effectivenutrientandwateruptake.

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FiveimportantcomponentsofHDPare(a)Dwarfscionvarieties(b)
Dwarfingrootstocksandinterstocks(c)Trainingandpruning(d)Use
ofchemicals/PGR(e)Suitablecropmanagementpractices.These
componentsareharnessedinHDPwhichhelpsinattainingthegoals.
MeritofHDPoverNormalPlanting:
Thehighdensityplantinghascertaindefiniteadvantagesaswellas
limitationscomparedtotheconventionallowdensityplanting.Itis
worthmentioningherethatunderhighdensityplantingsystemthe
yieldperplantinlowascomparedtolowdensityplanting.However,
thetotalyieldperunitareaoflandisseveraltimeshigherthanlowdensityplanting.
Increasingpressureonlandowingtodiversionoffarmfieldtovariousotherobviousreasons
aswellasrisingenergyandlandcosts,togetherwithincreaseddemandforfruitshavemade
itnecessarytoachievehigherproductivityfromlimitedspace.Highdensityorcharding
appearstobethemostappropriateanswerandneedofthehourtoovercomelow
productivityandlonggestationperiodforearlyreturnsandexportqualityfruits.
Highdensityplantingfacilitatesbetterutilizationofsolarradiationandincreaseinbearing
surfaceperunitlandarea.
HDPplantsareprecocious,easilymanageableandfetchhigherreturnperunitarea.
Highdensityorchardshavebetteramenabilitytomodern,inputsavinghorticultural
techniquessuchasdripirrigation,mechanicalharvestetc.
Theuseofdwarftreesandmanagingexcessivevegetativegrowthgiveshigherproductivity
andharvestindexaswellasearlyeconomicreturns.
Highdensityplantingsystemismoreamenabletohorticulturaloperationssuchaspruning,
plantprotectionmeasuresandharvestingwhichreducesthelabourcostinvolved.

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ConstraintsinAdoptingHighDensityPlantingSystems
Pooravailabilityofplantingmaterialindwarfvarietiesaswellasvegetativelypropagated
rootstocksindifferenthorticulturalcrops.
LackofstandardizationofproductiontechnologyinHDPofvariousfruitcrops.
Highdensityplantingneedshigherinitialestablishmentcostascomparetotraditional
systemofplanting.
Avoidanceinuseofinterandmixedcroppingsystem.
Needforamoreprofessionalandscientificapproachformanagementcomparedtothe
conventionalplantingatwiderspacing.
Crowdingandinterminglingofbranchesmayoccurincomingyearswhichcanresultinpoor
performanceoftrees.
NonavailabilityofcompletepackageforHDPanduseofmechanization.
Highyieldandhighfruitqualitycanbeachievedwithahighdensityorchardwhenthe
orchardhasgoodlightdistributionthroughoutthetreecanopyandthereisabalancebetween
vegetativegrowthandcropping.Plantingdensityisoneofthemostimportantfactorswhich
determinetheyieldofanorchard.Afterthefirstfewyears,fertilizationregimeshouldbe
maintainedwithabalancebetweenfruitingandcropping.Excessfertilityoftenresultsin
excessivevegetativegrowth,delayedcroppingandsoftandpoorlycolouredunmarketable
fruit.ThegoalofHDPistogetthetreesintocroppingassoonaspossiblefromalimited
space.Thisisbestaccomplishedbyfollowingproperpruningandtrainingregimecombined
withaprecociousrootstocktoobtainedsignificantproduction.
Reference:
Bal,J.S.(2007).FruitgrowingKalyaniPublishers,Ludhiana,India.
Bose,T.K.,Mitra,S.K.andSanyal,D.(2001).Fruits:TropicalandSubtropical(Vol.1).
NoyaUdyog,Kolkatta6.
Chattopadhyay,T.K.(2008)AtextbookonPomology,Vol.4(Subtropicalfruits),Kalyani
publishers,Ludhiana,India.,
Goswami,A.M.,Saxena,S.K.andKurien,S.(1993).Highdensityplantingincitrus.In:
AdvancesinHorticultureVol.2FruitCrops,Eds.K.L.ChadhaandO.P.Pareek,Malhotra
PublishingHouse,NewDelhi
Ram,S.(1993).HighDensityplantinginmango.In:AdvancesinHorticultureVol.2Fruit
Crops.Eds.K.L.ChadhaandO.P.Pareek,MalhotraPublishingHouse,NewDelhi
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