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I AM WILLING TO CHANGE. ARE YOU?

STUDY GUIDE
Special Political & Decolonization
1

INDEX:
1.
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.

Introduction to the Dias ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 2


Topic A: Eradicating the threat of ISIS --------------------------------------------------4
The Early Days --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
The Rise and Fall ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5
The Beginning of ISIS ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
The Final Battle --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
Current Status ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
Currently Identified Personnel --------------------------------------------------------------- 8
Finances ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9
Equipment ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
Recent Timeline --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
World's Opinion --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
Expectations of the Committee ---------------------------------------------------------------- 14
QARMA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14

I started off this little infatuation with stacks of research, ties and those unforgiving formal shoes
back in the 11th grade at MUNIK III. After four years of experience, fortunately enough, I got
the opportunity to take the next step of my MUN-ing career and to be on other side of the dais
last year at MUNIK V, since then my addiction to MUN-ing has quadrupled. I am currently
pursuing my bachelors in Economics and Mathematics at
Institution of Business Administration and apart from
MUN-ing; watching repeated episodes of FRIENDS,
cycling and meeting deadlines at IBA is what keeps me
busy.
Special Political and Decolonization committee, Id say is
one of the easiest yet the toughest committee of General
Assembly. Easy for those who wish not to be recognized
and sit silent until the end of conference. Tough for those
who enter the very door of this committee to display their
diplomatic instincts and negotiating skills, for those who
start off with the aim of being entitled as an Outstanding
Diplomat by the end of this conference. If anything, I can
promise you that a plethora of great attributes among people
you've probably never met before will become evident, and
that you'll learn plenty from said attributes. Years from
now, you'll probably meet those people and exchange the
words 'Mexico' and 'Russia' instead of your actual names. I can't wait to meet each and everyone
of you this winter.
Taha Abdul Ghafoor
Committee Director
SPECPOL

Hello Delegates,
Welcome to DALMUN 2015,
My name is Saad Jabbar and I will be serving as the
Committee Director of SPECPOL along with my Co-Chair,
Taha Abdul Ghafoor.
I wish you all the best. Research well and I will see you in
January.
Saad Jabbar
Committee Director

SPECPOL

Greetings Delegates,
It is with great joy that I welcome you all to the third
edition of Dawood A Levels Model United Nations. I am
Abdullah Zahid and I am currently pursuing my A Levels
from The City School PAF Chapter.Committing to Public
speaking was something I never imagined myself capable
of, as the very idea of facing an audience would send
shivers down my spine. But fate works on mysterious
ways. Now I cannot imagine life, without my new found
Public Speaking family. I have been participating in
various MUNs as a delegate and now DAL MUN has
given me an oppurtunity to take my passion to greater
heights.
I, along with the rest of the dias, look forward to three days of intense debates, political bashing,
diplomatic dialogue and innovative yet viable solutions and the best part of a Model UNEntertainment sessions. Best of luck for DAL MUN and may the odds be ever in your favor.
Abdullah Zahid
ACD-SPECPOL

My name is Bilal Mansoor Kadwani. I feel privileged to


welcome you all to the third edition of DAL MUN 2015,
where you'll find me as an Assistant Committee Director
for one of the most interesting committees, which is
Specpol . I am an O levels student at St. Patrick's High
School. Apart from this, my interests in public speaking
and discussion came way back in 2013. i started in my
Munning career from Pafmun and ever since that awesome
experience i find Muns as a platform for young men like
me to discuss politics
As for the question, Why DALMUN?
I think MUNs help build confidence in an individual and
that plays a vital role in a person's personality. An
individual may face failures in the beginning but its not a
matter of having that trophy but to learn something
different in life. Best of Luck everyone !
Bilal MansoorKadwani
ACD Specpol

TOPIC A

Eradicating the constantly growing


threat of ISIS
The Sunni militants who now threaten to
take over Iraq seemed to spring from
nowhere when they stormed Mosul in early
June. But the group
that recently renamed itself simply the
Islamic State has existed under various
names and in various shapes since the early
1990s. And its story is the story of how
modern terrorism has evolved, from a
political and religious ideal into a death cult.
The Early Days

The group began more than two decades ago


as a fervid fantasy in the mind of a
Jordanian named Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. A
onetime street thug, he arrived in
Afghanistan as a mujahideen wannabe in
1989, too late to fight the Soviet Union. He
went back home to Jordan, and remained a
fringe figure in the international violent
jihad for much of the following decade.
He returned to Afghanistan to set up a
training camp for terrorists, and met Osama
bin Laden in 1999, but chose not to join alQaeda.
The fall of the Taliban in 2001 forced
Zarqawi to flee to Iraq. There his presence
went largely unnoticed until the Bush
administration used it as evidence that alQaeda was in cahoots with
Saddam Hussein. In reality, though, Zarqawi
was a free agent, looking to create his own
terror organization. Shortly after the U.S.led invasion of Iraq in 2003, he set up the

forerunner to todays Islamic State: Jamaat


al-Tawhidwal-Jihad
(the
Party
of
Monotheism and Jihad), which was made up
mostly of non-Iraqis.
Although Zarqawis rhetoric was similar to
bin Ladens, his targets were quite different.
From the start, Zarqawi directed his
malevolence at fellow Muslims, especially
Iraqs majority Shiite population. Bin Laden
and al-Qaeda regarded the Shiites as
heretics, but rarely targeted them for
slaughter.
From the start, Zarqawi directed his
malevolence at fellow Muslims.
Zarqawis intentions were underlined with
the bombing of the Imam Ali shrine in
Najaf, the holiest place of Shiite worship in
Iraq. I was at the shrine when it happened,
and remember many survivors asking, Why
us? Why, when there are so many
Americans around, bomb us?
One reason: sheer convenience. The Shiites
were easier targets because they didnt yet
have the ability to fight back. But there was
also a political calculation. After Saddam
was toppled, Shiite politicians replaced the
Sunnis who had long dominated power
i
structures in Iraq. Zarqawi was counting on
Sunni resentment against the Shiites to build
alliances and find safe haven for his group.
It worked: Zarqawi sent dozens ofsuicide
bombers to blow themselves up inmosques,
schools, cafes, and markets,usually in
predominantly
Shiiteneighborhoods
or
towns.

The Rise & fall


By 2004, Zarqawis campaign of suicide
bombings across Iraq had made him a
superstar of the international jihadi
movement, and won the endorsement of bin
Laden himself. Zarqawi now joined his
group to bin Ladens, rebranding it al-Qaeda
in Iraq, or AQI. (It is also sometimes called
al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, but dont confuse
thatwith AQIM, which refers to the Algerian
franchise, al-Qaeda in the Maghreb.)
Soon, however, Zarqawis targeting of
civilians created misgivings among the core
al-Qaeda leadership. In 2005, bin Ladens
right-hand man, Ayman al-Zawahiri, wrote a
letter chiding the Jordanian for his tactics.
Zarqawi paid it no heed. Last year Zawahiri
likewise took ISISs new leader, Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi, to task for his excessive
ferocityand was again ignored.
By the spring of 2006, Zarqawi was
beginning to see himself as something more
than an emir or insurgent commander: He
aspired to spiritual leadership as well. (His
successor as emir, Baghdadi, would make
the same transformation, appointing himself
caliph after taking Mosul.) No longer
content merely with alliances, he began to
insist that his Iraqi Sunni hosts submit to
his harsh interpretation of sharia law veils
for women, beheadings for criminals, and
the whole nine yards. Those who resisted,
even prominent figures in the community,
were executed.
But Zarqawis ambitions were cut short in
June, 2006, when the U.S. Air Force
dropped a pair of 500-pound bombs on his
hideout, 20 miles north of Baghdad.

His death came just as the tide was turning


against AQI. Many Sunni tribes, chafing at
Zarqawis sharia rules, had begun to fight
back. The U.S. military, led by General
David Petraeus, capitalized on this to
finance and support an insurgency-withinan-insurgency, known as the Awakening.
Tribesmen willing to fight AQI, even if they
had previously fought the Americans, were
designated Sons of Iraq, to underscore the
fact that most of AQIs commanders were
foreigners, like Zarqawi himself. These Iraqi
Sunnis believed that joining forces with the
U.S. would give them immunity from
prosecution from previous crimes, lucrative
government contracts to rebuild devastated
Sunni areas, and a share of political power
in Baghdad.
Petraeuss Awakening campaign was
accompanied by a surge of U.S. troops,
andit worked up to a point.
Demoralized by the loss of Zarqawi, AQIs
foreign cadres melted away. But Petraeuss
plan was designed mainly to reduce the
violence and allow the U.S. to leave Iraq,
not to repair the Shiite-Sunni rift that
Zarqawi
had
opened
up.
Americanpoliticians
and
military
commanders talked of creating a space for
political dialogue between the two groups,
but the effort to enable that dialogue was, at
best, desultory. It was left to Iraqs elected
government, led by Prime Minister Nouri alMaliki, to make a lasting peace.
As the U.S. discovered, Maliki and his
Shiite-led governing coalition were more
interested
in
recrimination
than
reconciliation. The Sons of Iraq were denied
salaries they had been promised. Tribal
leaders never got those government
contracts. In Baghdad, Sunni politicians
were ignored, often humiliated, sometimes
prosecuted. The most senior of them, Vice

President Tariq al-Hashimi, fled the country


after being charged with terrorism; he was
eventually sentenced to death in absentia.
Meanwhile, Maliki filled the ranks of Iraqi
police and military with Shiites, some of
them partisans from militias that had
previously killed Sunnis. Sunni resentment
now bubbled up again, setting the stage for
AQIs return.
Beginning of ISIS

By 2011, when the U.S. troop withdrawal


was complete, AQI was being run by Abu
Bakr al-Baghdadi, and had morphed from a
largely foreign to a largely Iraqi operation.
Baghdadi himself, as his name suggests, is
local. The absence of foreigners made it
easier for the Sons of Iraq and their kin to
ignore previous resentments against the
group. There wasalso another rebranding:
AQI was now better known as the Islamic
State of Iraq, or ISI.
Baghdadi took Zarqawis tactics and
supercharged them. The Shiites were still his
main targets, but now he sent suicide
bombers to attack police and military
offices, checkpoints, and recruiting stations.
(Civilian targets remained fair game.) ISIs
ranks were swelled by former Sons of Iraq,
many of whom had previously been
commanders and soldiers in Saddams
military. This gave Baghdadis fighters the
air of an army, rather than a rag-tag militant
outfit.
The group is now able and willing to seize
and control territory, not simply send suicide
bombers to their death.
With thousands of armed men now at his
disposal, Baghdadi opened a second front
against the Shiitesin Syria, where there

was a largely secular uprising against


President Bashar al-Assad. What mattered to
Baghdadi and his propagandists was that
Assad and many of his senior military
commanders were Alawites, members of a
Shiite sub-sect. Battle-hardened from Iraq,
ISI was a much more potent fighting force
than most of the secular groups, and fought
Assads forces to a standstill in many areas.
Soon, Baghdadi renamed his group the
Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS),
reflecting his greater ambitions. His black
flags, emblazoned with the Arabic words for
There is no god but god and the
reproduction of what many believe to be the
Prophet Mohammeds seal, became
ubiquitous.

The Final Battle

Just as Zarqawi had in Iraq, Baghdadi


overplayed his hand in Syria. He began to
impose harsh strictures on Syrian towns and
villages under ISIS control, especially in the
province of Raqqa. In early 2014, Assads
forces had regrouped and begun to strike
back; in May, they retook the city of Homs,
which had been the symbolic heart of the
uprising. It was a blow for the rebels.
But Baghdadi was planning a much bigger,
bolder strikein his home country. The
taking of Mosul the following month
marked a new phase in ISISs evolution: It
was now able and willing to seize and
control territory, not simply send suicide
bombers to their death. Baghdadi used the
occasion to promote himself to caliph and
renamed the group the Islamic State, in a
nod to its now even bigger ambition of
ruling
the
entireregion
from
the
Mediterranean to the Gulf.

He also broadened his list of targets.


Although ISIS had encountered minority
religious and ethnic groups like Christians
and Kurds in Syria, there seems to have
been no central directive about what to do
with them: Fighters were free to exercise
their discretion. But in Mosul, the word
came down from the caliph: Nonbelievers must either pay a special tax,
leave, convert, or face death. The last two
options were preferred. The citys ancient
Christian community was the first to be
targeted, and thousands fled. Then, as the
Islamic State widened its operations,smaller
groups found themselves in the firing line.

caliphate has been criticized and ridiculed


by Muslim scholars and rival Islamists
inside and outside the occupied territory.

By now, IS and Baghdadi were dominating


headlines around the world in ways Abu
Musab al-Zarqawi could hardly have
imagined. While the world has previously
been wondering from where these people
came from, you as a committee have to
come out on top and present a resolution that
will put an end to this ongoing conflict once
and for all.

Analysts observed that dropping the


reference to region in the group's new name
widened its scope, and LaithAlkhouri, a
terrorism analyst, thought that after
capturing many areas in Syria and Iraq, ISIS
felt this was a suitable opportunity to take
control of the global jihadist movement.

Current Status of ISIS


On 29 June 2014, ISIS removed "Iraq and
the Levant" from its name and began to refer
to itself as the Islamic State, declaring the
territory under its control a new caliphate
and naming Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as its
caliph. On the first night of Ramadan,
Shaykh Abu Muhammad al-Adnani alShami, spokesperson for ISIS, described the
establishment of the caliphate as "a dream
that lives in the depths of every Muslim
believer" and "the abandoned obligation of
the era". He said that the group's ruling
Shura Council had decided to establish the
caliphate formally and that Muslims around
the world should now pledge their allegiance
to the new caliph. The declaration of a

By that time, many moderate rebels had


been assimilated into the group. In August
2014, a high-level IS commander said, "In
the East of Syria, there is no Free Syrian
Army any longer. All Free Syrian Army
people [there] have joined the Islamic
State. The Syrian Observatory for Human
Rights claimed that the Islamic State
recruited more than 6,300 fighters in
July2014 alone, many of them coming from
the Free Syrian Army.

A week before it changed its name to the


Islamic State, ISIS captured the Trabil
crossing on the JordanIraq border, the only
border crossing between the two countries.
ISIS has received some public support in
Jordan, albeit limited, partly owing to state
repression there, but has undertaken a
recruitment drive in Saudi Arabia, where
tribes in the north are linked to those in
western Iraq and eastern Syria. Raghad
Hussein, the daughter of Saddam Hussein,
now living in opulent asylum in Jordan, has
publicly expressed support for the advance
of ISIS in Iraq, reflecting
the Ba'athist alliance of convenience with
ISIS and its goal of return to power in
Bagdad.
In June and July 2014, Jordan and Saudi
Arabia had moved troops to their borders
with Iraq, after Iraq lost control of, or
withdrew from, strategic crossing points that

had then come under the control of ISIS.


There was speculation that al-Maliki had
ordered a withdrawal of troops from the
IraqSaudi crossings in order "to increase
pressure on Saudi Arabia and bring the
threat of Isis over-running its borders as
well".

Abu Waheeb (ISIL militant in Al


Anbar, Iraq)

Jihadi John (ISIL member with


British accent seen in beheading videos)

In July 2014, BokoHaram leader


AbubakarShekau declared support for the
new caliphate and Caliph Ibrahim.

Abu Suleiman al-Naser (Minister of


War, Islamic State of Iraq)

Abu Yusaf[132][133] (senior security


commander)

In August, Shekauannounced that Boko


Haram had captured the Nigerian town of
Gwoza. Shekau announced: "Thanks be to
God who gave victory to our brethren in
Gwoza and made it a state among the
Islamic states". Boko Haram launched an
offensivein Adamawa and Borno States in
northeastern
Nigeria
in
September,
following the example of the Islamic State.
In August 2014, ISIS captured Kurdishcontrolled territory and massacred a large
number of Yazidis. The US launchedan
aerial bombing campaign against ISIS and a
humanitarian mission to aid the Yazidis.
Currently Identified Personnel

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Leader declared emir of the Islamic State of Iraq in
2010[131] and caliph of the self-declared
Islamic State on 29 June 2014)

Abu Muslim al-Turkmani (Deputy


Leader for Iraq)

Abu Ali al-Anbari (Deputy Leader


for Syria)

Abu Mohammad al-Adnani (Official


spokesperson)

Abu Omar al-Shishani (ISIS field


commander in Syria)

Finances

A study of 200 documentspersonal letters,


expense reports and membership rosters
captured from Al-Qaeda in Iraq and the
Islamic State of Iraq was carried out by the
RAND Corporation in 2014. It found that
from 2005 until 2010, outside donations
amounted to only 5% of the groups
operating budgets, with the rest being raised
within Iraq. In the time-period studied, cells
were required to send up to 20% of the
income generated from kidnapping,
extortion rackets and other activities to the
next level of the group's leadership. Higherranking commanders would then redistribute
the funds to provincial or local cells that
were in difficulties or needed money to
conduct attacks. The records show that the
Islamic State of Iraq was dependent on

members from Mosul for cash, which the


leadership used to provide additional funds
to struggling militants in Diyala, Salahuddin
and Baghdad.
In mid-2014, Iraqi intelligence extracted
information from an ISIS operative which
revealed that the organization had assets
worth US$2 billion, making it the richest
jihadist group in the world. About three
quarters of this sum is said to be represented
by assets seized after the group captured
Mosul in June 2014; this includes possibly
up to US$429 million looted from Mosul's
central bank, along with additional millions
and a large quantity of gold bullion stolen
from a number of other banks in
Mosul.However, doubt was later cast on
whether ISIS wasable to retrieve anywhere
near that sum from the central bank, and
even on whether the bank robberies had
actually occurred.
ISIS has routinely practiced extortion, by
demanding money from truck drivers and
threatening to blow up businesses, for
example. Robbing banks and gold shops has
been another source of income. The group is
widely reported as receiving funding from
private donors in the Gulf States, and both
Iran and Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri alMaliki have accused Saudi Arabia and Qatar
of funding ISIS, although there is reportedly
no evidence that this is the case.
The group is also believed to receive
considerable funds from its operations in
Eastern Syria, where it has commandeered
oilfields and engages in smuggling out raw
materials and archaeological artifacts. ISIS
also generates revenue from producing
crude oil and selling electric power in
northern Syria. Some of this electricity is
reportedly sold back to the Syrian
government.

10

Since 2012, ISIS has produced annual


reports giving numerical information on its
operations, somewhat in the style of
corporate reports, seemingly in a bid to
encourage potential donors.

Equipment

The most common weapons used against US


and other Coalition forces during the Iraq
insurgency were those taken from Saddam
Hussein's weapon stockpilesaround the
country, these included AKM variant assault
rifles, PK machine guns and RPG-7s. ISIS
has been able to strengthen its military
capability by capturing large quantities and
varieties of weaponry during the Syrian
Civil War and Post-US Iraq insurgency.
These weapons seizures have improved the
group's capacity to carry out successful
subsequent operations and obtain more
equipment. Weaponry that ISIS has
reportedly captured and employed include
SA-7 and Stinger surface-to-air missiles,
M79 Osa, HJ-8 and AT-4 Spigot anti-tank
weapons, Type 59 field guns and M198
howitzers, Humvees, T-54/55, T-72, and M1
Abrams main battle tanks, M1117 armored
cars, truck mounted DShK guns, ZU-23-2
anti-aircraft guns, BM-21 Grad multiple

rocket launchers and at least one Scud


missile.
When ISIS captured Mosul Airport in June
2014, it seized a number of UH-60
Blackhawk helicopters and cargo planes that
were stationed there. However, according to
Peter Beaumont of The Guardian, it seemed
unlikely that ISIS would be able to deploy
them.
ISIS captured nuclear materials from Mosul
University in July 2014. In a letter to UN
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Iraq's UN
Ambassador Mohamed Ali Alhakim said
that the materials had been kept at the
university and "can be used in
manufacturing
weapons
of
mass
destruction". Nuclear experts regarded the
threat as insignificant. International Atomic
Energy
Agency
spokeswoman
Gill
Tudorsaid that the seized materials were
"low grade and would not present a
significant safety, security or nuclear
proliferation risk".
The Recent Timeline of ISISrelated
events

1
September:
The
German
government's Cabinet decision to arm the
Kurdish Peshmerga militia was ratified in
the Bundestag by a "vast majority" of votes,
after an emotional debate.

2 September: The IS released a video


showing the beheading of a man whom they
identified as American journalist Steven
Sotloff.

4 September: A member of the


Islamic State issued a threat to Russian
President Vladimir Putin, vowing to oust
him over his support of Bashar al-Assad's
regime in Syria.

11

5
September:
The
German
Bundeswehr dispatched the first of a
planned series of cargo planes to Iraq,
loaded with helmets, vests, radios, and
infrared night-vision rifle scopes. After a
three-hour stopover in Baghdad for
inspection, the aircraft will deliver the
equipment to German personnel already in
Erbil for distribution to the Kurdish fighters.
QassemSoleimani, Commander of the elite
Iranian Revolutionary Guard Quds Force,
has been to the Iraqi city of Amirli, to work
with the United States in pushing back
militants of the Islamic State.

8 September: The Islamic State


carried out a double suicide attack in a town
north of Baghdad, killing nine people and
wounding 70 others.

10 September: After ISIS outraged


American opinion by beheading two
American journalists and seized control of
large portions of Syria and Iraq in the face
of ineffective opposition from
American allies, President Obama decided
on a new objective for a rollback policy in
the Middle East. He announced: "America
will lead a broad coalition to roll back this
terrorist threat. Our objective is clear: We
will degrade, and ultimately destroy, ISIL
through a comprehensive and sustained
counterterrorism strategy."

13 September: UK humanitarian aid


worker David Cawthorne Haines, whose life
had been threatened by Jihadi John in the
Steven Sotloff video, was purportedly
beheaded in a video titled "A Message to the
Allies of America".

15 September: The Battle of Suq al


Ghazi ended with a USIraqi win.


18 September: The Australian
Federal
Police,
Australian
Security
Intelligence
Organization,
Queensland
Police and New South Wales Police
launched the largest counterterrorism
operation in Australian history. The targets
were ISIS-linked networks thought to be
planning to behead an Australian at home
and launch mass-casualty attacks in
populated areas. Fifteen people were
arrested in the raids by police and
intelligence organizations, with one being
charged with terrorism offenses.

20 September: The hostages from the


Turkish consulate in Mosul who had been
captured on 11 June 2014 were released.

21 September: Islamic State forces


overran an Iraqi military base in Al Anbar
province.

21 September: Official spokesman


Abu Mohammad al-Adnani released a
speech, titled "Indeed, Your Lord is Ever
Watchful", encouraging Muslims around the
world to kill non-Muslims.

23 September: Aerial operations


began over Syria. Cruise missiles and
precision-guided bombs struck ISIS targets
in Syria, and military aircraft from Bahrain,
Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United
Arab Emirates participated in the airstrikes
against ISIS. The Syrian Observatory for
Human Rights estimated that about 400 ISIS
fighters died in the airstrikes.

29 September: ISIS releases third


video of "long-term prisoner" and journalist
John Cantlie entitled "Lend Me Your Ears Messages from the British Detainee John
Cantlie: Episode 2". As in previous videos,
Cantlie appears alone, sitting at a desk
wearing an orange prison uniform. The

12

scripted video criticizes US president


Barack Obamas strategy of using air strikes
to defeat Islamic State fighters.

3 October: After a meeting of the


Australian National Security Committee,
Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott
announced that Australia would contribute
eight F/A-18F Super Hornets to aid the war
effort against Islamic extremists in Iraq. The
aircraft join a KC-30A Tanker and an E-7A
Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft already
deployed.
The Worlds Opinion
TURKEY:
Having refugees at their border with Syria,
Turkey aids the Peshmergas and Kurds in
fighting the ISIS. They have troops in Iraq
and Syria that are currently working to put
an end to this tyranny once and for all.
Turkey has taken steps to cut the flow of
money to ISIS and denied entry to or
deported several thousand foreign fighters
heading to Syria to join the extremists.
Recently, on the 20th of March, Turkey was
attacked by three ISIS members, according
to government officials in which a
policeman,
a
non-commissioned
gendarmerie officer and a truck driver were
killed, and five soldiers were wounded.
Clearly, this may be the start of more major
attacks on the state. The United States
believes that Turkey, along with a few other
states has promoted a proxy Shia-Sunni war.
USA
The United States Of America has been
carrying out airstrikes on the ISIS for a long
period of time now (almost over 150) and
has gained massive success. A report stated
the last drone strike injured both Jihadist
John and Abu-Bakr Al Baghdadi. America
is also looking for allies and support against

the ISIS as it believes that saving these


countries is not only its duty. Although they
have sent their troops to Baghdad, to protect
their Embassy, they have denied intervening
as the Iraqi and Syrian government is to deal
with the ISIS themselves.

local Sunni tribes but have received a very


poor response as a very few have agreed to
support them, leaving them unable to even
try
to
defeat
the
ISIS.

FRANCE:
France is one of the two European nations
along with Britain to start their own series of
air strikes. Ithas six Rafale fighter jets and
just under 1,000 soldiers based in the Gulf.
It has carried out two rounds of air strikes in
Iraq against the extremist group which has
seized vast swaths of land across Iraq and
Syria in recent months.France has planned
measures which could see more troops sent
to France's military base in the Gulf and
support increased to ground forces such as
the Kurdish Peshmerga to which they
already deliver arms.

SAUDI
ARABIA
Although belonging to the same sect,
i.e.;WahabiSunnism, the Saudi government
clearly opposes the ISIS. Having several
border clashes and many threats, the ISIS
was unable to manage taking control of
Saudi territories. The government has
offered to train rebels on its soil and has put
500 million dollars into the coffers of the
U.N. humanitarian aid agencies in Iraq.
Saudi Arabia is deeply committed to the
effort to terminate this terrorist group.

UNITED KINGDOM:
The United Kingdom was the first European
nation to pledge airstrikes against ISIS. It
has also deployed drones to help further the
cause.
UK, working closely, with Turkey is also
beginning to have doubts about the
effectiveness of airstrikes and is considering
a
ground
offensive.
IRAQ
Being the epicenter of the ISIS activities,
Iraq is the major area affected by this group.
Their weak military does not stand a chance
in defeating the ISIS and a record shows that
they fled the battlefield against them. The
ones who fought till the end were then
captured and tortured to death. The Iraqi
Government has even asked for the help of

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RUSSIA
Like almost every other country, Russia
opposes the ISIS but is unable to do
anything to stop them because of the
imposing of sanctions. The ISIS Chechens
especially, pose a great threat to Russia.

KURDISTAN
Being a large group of fighters standing
against the ISIS, the Kurds have the support
of the USA. Their solidarity has increased
dramatically as they are trying to push for an
independent state. Kurd military is also
fighting in Syria and have managed to
capture some land. The President
MasoudBarzani has also said, "Leaders of
the semiautonomous region of Iraq are
willing to send their Peshmerga forces to
fight beyond their borders if there's a
comprehensive international strategy put in
place."
SYRIA
Another one of the major areas of the ISIS
activities is Syria. With an ongoing civil war
which the ISIS is taking a full advantage of,
Syria is left with support from absolutely no
country as even the USA has declared the

Syrian Government as a dictatorship.


Although Russia supported the Syrian
president, Bashar Al Assad and helped him
during the war, they lost a lot of land
including their oil and gas fields that played
a huge part in their economy and now in the
ISIS's finances. The ISIS has a stronghold in
or nearby the area. The Free Syrian Army
has been involved in several clashes with
ISIS and has enjoyed some success in
defeating it.
QATAR:
The Qatari policy on ISIS is an ambiguous
one. While there have been reports of
sighting of ISIS leadership with Qatars
ruling elite, Qatar has shocked the world by
joining the US led coalition against
ISIS.Qatar's decision to join the hostilities
was a pragmatic response to pressure from
fellow Gulf Arabs, who have rebuked Qatar
for backing Islamists during Arab Spring
revolts. It can also be said that Qatar's
reticence about its role suggests that it is
also being careful to preserve influence with
Islamist forces it believes are the long-term
future. Qatar is also hosting the member of
the Al-Nusra front.

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What is expected in the committee?


This topic is not much discussed in recent
MUN conference and it is an ongoing
conflict. Events will be frozen as soon as
you walk in the committee. This is very
important to remember because if something
happens in the real world during the
conference that information will not be
discussed. We expect the committee to find
out what is going to be the future plan,
create an understanding of the Finances of
ISIS, establish an accepted approach
towards the solution of this threat, find out
whether its possible to join forces, if yes
then decide the terms and conditions
according to your stances and if not then
come up with an alternative plan of action
and above all design the resolution so its
positive

QARMA:

1. How to contain ISIS from launching a


military offensive
2.How to address the political causes behind
ISIS
3.How to curb the finances available to ISIS
4.How to eliminate the religious sentiments
behind ISIS
5.What repercussions should states face for
supporting ISIS
6.How to counter ISIS recruitment and
reverse it
7.How can the middle eastern government
fill the power vacuum created by ISIS
8.How to encourage greater cooperation
between regional authorities
9.What changes can be made in the socio
economic lifestyle of the Middle east to stop
such organizations emerging

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