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A serious accident has occurred.

During investigation it is found that an inspection of the


workplace had taken place before the accident. Outline possible reasons why the inspection failed
to identify a problem.

Management has not acted on time to put suggested control measures in place/lack of management
commitment (no procedure to fix serious issues immediately).
Not all hazards are obvious or visible during inspection
Unsafe practices may not happen during the inspection
Eliminating the hazard may be dealing with the symptoms rather than the cause
Person conducting inspection has limited knowledge of workplace
Person conducting inspection could have limited knowledge of the controls provided/to be provided.
Person conducting inspection could have less experience of the process
Training in inspection techniques was not effective which could have resulted in poor interpretation of hazards.
Communication and writing skills of the person conducted inspection could have not been effective
(interpretation of inspection report was difficult).

Outline what the organization needs to consider when deciding who should carry out risk
assessment

Thorough understanding of processes and procedures involved


Good communication skills
Knowledge of risk assessment process
Cooperative and flexible
Good listener
Keep an open mind
Knowledge of local legislation

Outline why it is important to involve workers in the development of Safe System of Work. (4)

People feel valued and involved in decision making a more.


Creates a more positive HSE climate.
Better control of workplace risks.
Helps in accurately identifying hazards, assess risks and develop ways to control and remove risks.
Since employees have extensive knowledge about work activities they take better decision in developing SSOW.
A stronger commitment to implement decision and actions as employees are actively involved in the process.
It helps in applying joint problem solving techniques.

Outline why it is important to for SSOW to be in writing. (4)

Changes monitored
Basis of reference
Legal requirements
To indicate approval or authorization
Version control and document change management.
Roles and responsibilities clearly defined.
Helps in standardization of processes.

Outline factors that could reduce the effectiveness of Respiratory Protective Equipment (8)

Incorrect selection of RPE


Incorrect usage
Lack of training and knowledge in correct use of RPE
Incorrect storage of RPE
Level of personal comfort felt too hot
Enforcement of use within the company
Nature of hazard
Type of RPE
Lack of availability and Interfered with work

Identify hazards related to office cleaning activity (8)

Slips trips and falls


o Spillages
o Wet floors
Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries
o Heavy loads
o Cleaning machines
o Full mopping bucket
Working at heights
Contact with bleach and other cleaning chemicals e.g. solvents, detergents and chemical vapors may cause
breathing problems.
Machine cleaning of floors
Lone working
Electrical check plugs, sockets, cables etc

Outline the factors to be considered when assessing the risks to a long distance transport vehicle
driver. (8)

Driver
o
o
o
o

Experience
Valid driving license for the type of vehicle
Skills and expertise
Fitness and health

Medical examination

Eye sight

Do not drive while taking a course of medicine that might impair their judgment

Vehicle
o Suitability for load etc.
o Fit for purpose desert drive
o Condition

Maintenance

Safety equipment first aid kit, fire extinguisher etc.

Safety critical information tyre pressure, engine temperature etc.


Ergonomics
o Seat whether adjustable or not?
o Seating posture
o Driving posture
Journey
o Route

Identify hazards related to warehouse activities (8)

Fall from height racking


Manual handling conveyor, pallet truck, lift truck
Slip, trip and falls spillages, debris, packing material
Falling objects from racking load limit signs on racking, defective pallets withdrawn
Operation of lift truck
Traffic movement delivery vans
Machinery
o Stretch-wrap machine
o Conveyor belt for unloading from lorry
Portable electric appliances
o Industrial cleaner
o Kettle
o Heater
Fire

Hazardous substances
o Vehicle exhaust fumes engine stopped, ventilation
o Eye irritation
o Respiratory problems
Bleach and cleaning
Battery charging
o Release of hydrogen
o Spillage of acid
Lighting
Hygiene
Temperature hot and cold

The use of a road drill (pneumatic breaker) can expose workers to hand-arm vibration and whole
body vibration.
a) Identify two health effects from exposure to HAV (2)
b) Identify two health effects from exposure to WBV (2)
c) Outline factors that should be considered when carrying out RA for workers exposed to
vibration when using the road drill (8)
d) Outline control measures to be considered to reduce risk for above (8)
(a)

Hand arm vibration syndrome


a. Tingling
b. Numbness in fingers
c. Loss of strength
d. Fingers going white (VWF)
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome

(b)

a. Pain and swollen joints


Back pain, increased heart rate, blood pressure, chronic permanent spinal damage, damage of
central nervous system, hearing loss, circulatory and digestive problems.

(c)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Processes exposure to vibration


Which jobs and tools produce a risk?
Refer to machine manual to verify whether any warning of vibration risks mentioned
Who is likely to be effected
Estimate of employees exposure
Identify what you need to do to comply with legislation

a.
b.

Alternative work method use of breaker attachment on an excavating machine


Equipment selection lowest vibration
i. Large hole in brickwork use a diamond tipped hole cutting drill bit with a rotatory action
rather than tungsten tipped hole bit which requires rotatory and hammer action
Work station design
i. To minimize loads on employees hands use jigs and suspension systems to reduce the
need to grip heavy tools tightly
ii. Heavy grinder suspended from a counterbalance system to reduce the load on operators
arms and tightness on grip
Maintenance program
i. Sharpen chainsaw teeth regularly
Work schedules
i. Limit time
ii. Shorter period
iii. Employee rota
iv. Team work
v. Warm and dry
clothing

(d)

c.

d.
e.

f.

Identify precautions that would need to be considered before welding work can commence. (8)

Prevent fire
o Remove nearby combustible material
o Protect nearby combustible material that cannot be removed e.g. metal sheets, fire retardant
blanket
o Keep fire extinguishers nearby.
o Check all connections and equipment for faults and leaks
Flash back arrestor
Prevent cylinders from falling or knocked down by securing them and use of trolleys
Use of PTW
Adequate ventilation to be made available
Lighting
Adequate PPE e.g. welders gloved, welding goggles/face shield, apron, boots, hand shield etc.
Competence, training and qualified welder

Contractors are carrying out a major building project for an organization.


Outline how this organization could reduce the risks to contractors
carrying out the project.
The organization could reduce the risks to contractors by;
1 Selecting competent contractors

carrying out checks to ensure they have experience of the type of job and industry,
suitable references,
suitable safety management documentation - policy, risk assessments,
safe systems of work, accident data, means of demonstrating employee competence,
selection of subcontractors ,
supervision etc

2 Planning the job

information to be provided to the contractor by the organization regarding the nature of the job,
The task, site specific hazards, site rules etc. so the contractor can incorporate these into risk
assessments and safety method statements which are then checked by the organization.
Each partys responsibilities for H&S must be clearly defined.

3 Controlling contractors on site

H&S rules communicated to the contractors before attending site and reinforced on site with
induction training.
Organization to nominate a site contact to provide general communication,
pre- commencement checks to ensure contractor can carry out work as agreed,
Ensuring site controls in place e.g. permits to work.
Emergency arrangements and monitoring performance.

4 Checking contractors work

Monitoring at agreed intervals and also carrying out unannounced checks.


Frequency of monitoring depends on the degree of risk.

Question
Give reasons why visitors to a work place might be at a greater risk of injury than workers?
Answer
Visitors are unaware of the sites layout, rules and procedures including emergency procedures. As a result they are
more likely to behave in a dangerous way that puts them at risk of an accident. Visitors are not competent to work
safely on site and endanger themselves by using incorrect and unsafe working practices. Sometimes visitors may not
be correctly supervised and lead them to work in a dangerous way. At times visitors do not have the necessary safety
personal protective equipment and can put them at risk of personal injury. Visitors are not even aware of the
hazardous activities going on at site and they are not aware of risk assessments.
Visitors do not receive appropriate supervision leading to unsafe conditions especially when there is construction
machinery operational at site.
Question
Identify the information given to the workers in a training session on a safe system of work.
Answer
The training session on a safe system of work will include:
Method of development of safe system of work.
Systematic examination of task
Analysis of task considering materials, equipment, environment and people involved.
The method of implementation of the safe system including PPE, training, supervision and legislation requirements.
Monitoring the system using reactive and proactive monitoring techniques.
The activities which need safe system of work e.g. cleaning, maintenance, emergency breakdowns and contract
works.

Q - Outline the control measure to reduce the risk to workers when using non powered tools?
Answer:
Examples of non powered tools are picks, crowbars, shovels, axes, wrenches, saws, chisels, hammers, screwdrivers
etc.
Suitability
Every tool has its proper application. The correct size, type and weight of tool should be selected for the job. All tools
should be suitable for the purpose and location in which they are used. This will include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

insulated tools for electricians


non-sparking tools for flammable atmospheres
tools made of suitable quality materials which will not chip or splay in normal use
correct tools for the job, for example, using the right-sized spanner and the use of mallets on chisel heads
safety knives with enclosed blades for regular cutting operations
scissors with blunted ends

Inspection
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

regular inspection of hand tools to be carried out


discarding or prompt repair of defective tools
proper storage to prevent damage and corrosion
locking tools away when not in use to prevent them being used by unauthorized people
Grease moisture and dirt should be regularly cleaned off
cutting edges should be kept sharp to permit accurate working and to avoid unnecessary pressure

Training
1.
2.

Proper training to be provided in safe use of these tools


This will be particularly important with specialist working conditions or work involving young people.

Outline the factors to be considered when determining the frequency for the inspection and
testing of electrical equipment.(8)

Manufacturers recommendations set for testing and inspection of electrical equipments.


Working environment e.g. wet, presence of heat, etc.
Risk of an equipment becoming faulty and how the equipment is constructed.
Requirement set by national or international regulations
The competency of the employees using electrical equipment.
Type of electrical system being used e.g. low, medium or high voltage

Outline factors to be considered when carrying out fire risk assessment of a workplace.(8)

Fire load available at workplace


Material available at workplace (e.g. combustible, flammable, etc.) and their quantity,
National and international regulations for fire prevention
No. of employee, gender and employees with special needs (disabled, pregnant women, children, young
workers)
Safe storage of combustible/flammable material
Emergency evacuation procedures, first aid arrangements
Possible ignition sources.
Availability of alarm and their audibility
Emergency contact details
Frequency for conducting mock drills,
Training requirements (first aid, firefighting, etc.)
Positioning of fire extinguishers and their suitability.
Testing and maintenance of fire detection (detectors, etc.) and fire protection system (fire extinguishers, etc.
Safe system of works

Outline factors to be considered when undertaking an assessment of health risks from hazardous
substances to be used in the workplace.(8)

Check the possibility of purchasing less hazardous substances in place of more hazardous substance.
Duration of exposure, toxicity and concentration of the hazardous substance.
Form of hazardous substances e.g. solid, liquid, gas.
Storage requirements for the substances (as per MSDS, legal requirements)
Frequency for conducting Health Surveillance.
Availability of MSDS, COSHH
Training, information, supervision, instruction
Development of procedure for safe handling and usages of hazardous substances
Provision of protective measures e.g. local exhaust ventilation, fire protection and detection system and their
maintenance.
Work place monitoring
Procedure for reporting of ill health
Properties of substances in regards to health effect;
e.g. irritant, toxic, harmful, etc.

Identify hazards to which a worker might be exposed that would result in that person requiring health
surveillance.(8)

Exposure to hazardous substances such as lead, asbestos,


Exposure to noise,
Exposure to vibration,
Exposure to ionizing radiation e.g. industrial radiography
Exposure to biological agents
Manual handling

Display screen equipment


Welding
Working in cement industry
Painting and sand blasting
Working in dusty environment e.g. road works, sand blasting etc.

Outline role of health surveillance in the control of exposure to hazardous substances.(8)

Health surveillance results could indicate the effectiveness of the control system provided to control
exposure to hazardous substances.
It helps giving early warning that the protective measures are adequate or not.
It helps to identify work-related ill health at an early stage so that steps can be taken to treat the condition
and prevent further damage.
Protect workers who are at an increased risk.
Compliance status in regards to local/international laws/regulations gets verified.

Outline how national government can contribute towards good standards of health and safety within their
territories.(8)
National government can contribute towards good standards of health and safety within their territories by;
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Issuing or approving regulations, code of practices on


health and safety,
By reviewing legislative enactments,
By providing information and advice regarding Health and Safety matters,
By providing specific measures to prevent major catastrophe,
By Liaising with international bodies to keep themselves updated,
By conducting inspections of workplace to evaluate compliance to HSE requlations,
By initiating health and safety campaign to spread awareness,
By liaising with organizations in regards to emergency planning,
Setting requirements such as RIDDOR 1995, to enforce organizations to report injuries to enforcing
authorities

Outline what an organization may need to consider when setting health and safety objectives.(8)

Health and safety objectives need to be specific, measurable, agreed with those who deliver them, realistic
and set against a suitable timescale (SMART).
Size and nature of organization
Both short- and long-term objectives should be set and prioritized against business needs.
Objectives at different levels or within different parts of an organization should be aligned so they support
the overall policy objectives.
Personal targets can also be agreed with individuals to secure the attainment of objectives.
Training people so that an improved health and safety planning process can be established
Adequacy of workplace precautions and compliance with the law will also be necessary.
Competency of employees.

Identify principles to be followed when siting (positioning) fire extinguishers.(8)

Accessibility
Visibility
Proximity to escape routes
Travel distance
Means of supporting the extinguishers off the ground
Weight of fire extinguisher
Need to protect fire extinguishers from the weather and other sources of damage.
The height at which fire extinguisher to be positioned.

Identify sources of radon that could affect workers in a building (4)

Underground spaces such as basements, caves, mines


High concentration in ground floor buildings because they are usually at slightly lower pressure than
surrounding atmosphere this allows radon from the sub-soil underneath buildings to enter through cracks
and gaps in floor.
Radon is emitted by radium in the ground, ground water and building material
Radon enters a building through the lowest level in the home that is in contact with open ground.

Identify control measures that could be used in a workplace affected by significant levels of radon gas (4)

Improving ventilation of the house and avoiding the transport of radon from the basement into living rooms.
Installing a radon sump system in the basement
Installing a positive supply ventilation system
Sealing small gaps around service penetrations such as pipes and cables, and cracks in the floor itself.

A factory producing furniture uses wood in the manufacturing process and is concerned about the health
risks of wood dust.
(a)

(b)

(c)

Identify operations that are likely to produce high levels of wood dust in this workplace.
Sawing
Hand sanding
Wood cutting
Dry sweeping dusty floors
Spindle moulding machine
Machine sanding
Identify health risks that could be associated with the wood dust (4)
Contact dermatitis/skin disorders
Cause nasal dryness, irritation and obstructions of respiratory system
Asthma
A rare type of nasal cancer.
Outline control measures that could reduce the risk from the wood dust. (12)
Elimination outsourcing to another workplace with adequate controls
Substitution replacing more hazardous timbers with less hazardous species of wood.
Isolation enclosed plant or keep workers away from dusty area.
Engineering control - dust extraction using Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV)
Administrative Controls
o Use suction cleaners to remove accumulated dust.
o Rotate dusty tasks to reduce workers exposure times to wood dust
o Shower before eating or drinking
o PPE face mask and respirators are a last line of defense. Long sleeve coveralls.

Outline ways in which poor housekeeping can lead to injury to pedestrians in a workplace. (4)

Water on the floor


Slippery tiles
Poor lighting
Ice buildup on the floors
Slipping on greasy, oily or dirty surfaces
Striking against projecting poorly stacked material
Projecting nails, wire or steel strapping
Taps or pipes leaking

Outline housekeeping measures to reduce the risk of injury to pedestrians (4)

Keep isles, floors clean, dry and in good condition


Stack and store items properly and safely
Keep entrances and exits clear
Follow maintenance requirements for facilities and buildings
Keep lighting sources clean and clear
Construction of floorings to be using non slip tiles

Outline precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried out on the sloping roof of a building (8)

Sloping roof requires scaffold to prevent people or material falling from edge. Edge protection must be fixed
to the eaves of any roof.
Use of working platforms, guard rails and toe boards to be made mandatory as required.
Use of crawling board for material and manpower movement on sloping roofs
Where task is of short duration (tasks measured in minutes) properly secured ladders to access the roof and
proper roof ladders may be used.
Safety nets or soft landing systems such as bean bags or inflated air bags can minimize the consequences
of any potential injury.
Mobile elevating platforms can also be used for carrying out minor repairs at sloping roofs.
Work on sloping roofs to be stopped during extreme weather conditions e.g. rain, freezing conditions, high
winds etc.
Use of PPE such as harnesses and helmets to be used
Health condition of individual working at height to be checked e.g. vertigo or a heart condition.
Material to be secured near roofs to avoid flying off during high winds
Overhead live power lines to be taken care

A portable electric sander is being used in the production area of a factory


(a)

(b)

Identify hazards that may be present (4)


Electrical shock
Noise
Dust
Vibration
Ergonomic hazards e.g. pulling effect
Moving parts e.g. belts in a belt sander
In-running nip points
Wood splinters and chips may be thrown from the sanding action
Outline precautions that could be taken to reduce the risk. (4)
Use sander in a dry environment
Use of earth leakage detection and RCD
Check the sander and all electric cables and connections are in good condition
Pre-use checks to see whether any worn out belt, breaks in cable or other signs of physical damage are not
existing
Wear dust masks particularly such as lead paint, fibre cement
If belt needs changing, always make sure that the belt sander is unplugged first.
Use of guards on the running belt.
Enclose drum and disc sanders with guards to avoid flying objects.
Keep fingers away from moving belts
Loose jewelry, neckties, loose clothing etc. should not be used.