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How to Size Current Transformers

One common method used internationally is IEC 60044 and this is what we will be concentrating
on.
The key to CT dimensioning is symmetrical short circuit current and transient dimensioning
factors:

Kssc - rated symmetrical short-circuit


short
current factor

Kssc - effective symmetrical short


short-circuit current factor

Ktd

- transient dimensioning factor

The factor Kssc is relatively easy to understand and relates to the liner portion of a CT
characteristic. The voltage and current across a CT are linear only up till a certain value
(normally specified as a multiple of the nominal rating), after which the CT will saturate and the
curve will level off. A CT rated at say 5P20 will stay linear to approx
approximately
imately 20 times its
nominal current. This linear limit is the Kssc (i.e. Kssc = 20). As a reminder, the 5 [in the 5P20]
would be the CT accuracy class and the P signifies a protection class CT.
Slightly more complicated is the effective factor, Kscc. This is a calculated value which takes
into account the burden (resistance) of the relay, resistance of the CT windings and resistance of
the leads:

Rct - secondary winding d.c. resistance at specified temperature

Rb - rated resistive burden of the relay

Rb - Rleads + Rrelay; this is thel connected burden

CTs need to be able to supply the required current to drive the relays during transient fault
conditions. The ability of the CT and relay to operate under thes
thesee conditions is a function of

Kscc and the transient performance of the relay, Ktd. The factor, Ktd is supplied by the relay
manufacturer. Correct functioning is achieved by ensuring the following is valid:

Issc max - maximum symmetrical short


short-circuit current

Ipn - CT rated primary current

That it. Once you have confirmed the above is ok, you know your CT is ok.

What the Manufacturer Wants


Time for an example but before that, there is a slight complication in the manufacturers know
their relays better than we (or the IEC) do. You should always refer to the manufacturers
information firstly it is the only way to get the factor Ktd. Secondly
ly manufacturers sometimes
have additional requirements; for example Siemens overcurrent, motor protection, line
differential (non-pilot)and
pilot)and transformer differential are good to go with the above, while their line
differential (pilot wire) and distance relays
relays require the above and have additional limitations on
Kscc.

Example Calculation
Now for the promised example:

CT: 600/1 5P20 15 VA Rct = 4 (the VA is the output rating of the CT)

CT Leads: 6 mm2, 50 m long (use R=2 l /a to calculate = 0.0179 /m)

Relay: Siemens 7SJ45, Ktd = 1

Iscc max = 30 kA

To find the lead resistance Rleads (two leads supply, return) we can use the standard formulae
for resistivity:
Rleads = 2 l /a = 2 x 0.0175 x 50 / 6 = 0.3
Numerical relays have low burdens, typically 0.1 (where possible the relay manual should be
consulted). Plugging everything into the equations:
Rb = 15 VA / 1 A2 = 15
Rb = Rleads + Rrelay = 0.3 + 0.1 = 0.4
Kscc = Kscc (Rct + Rb)/(Rct + Rb) = 20 (4 + 15 )/ (4 + 0.4) = 86.4
Required Kscc > 1 x 30000/600 = 50
In this case the effective Kscc of 86.4 is greater than the required Kscc of 50 and the CT meets
the stability criteria.