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Transmission System

Reliability Standards
Effective January 1, 2006

Version 2.0
Edition 1.0

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD, 2006

Contents
TRANSMISSION SYSTEM RELIABILITY STANDARDS ........................................1
CONTENTS........................................................................................................................1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................4
1.1
1.2
1.3

GENERAL ..............................................................................................................4
APPLICATIONS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STANDARDS ...........................................5
SCOPE ...................................................................................................................6

CHAPTER 2: GENERATION RELIABILITY STANDARD ......................................8


2.1
GENERATION PLANNING SECURITY CRITERIA ......................................................8
2.2
REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH LOSS OF POWER INFEED ................................8
2.3
GENERATION CONNECTION CRITERIA...................................................................9
2.3.1 General Generation Connection Requirements...............................................9
2.3.2 Planning Criteria for Generation Connections .............................................10
2.3.3 Operational Criteria for Generation Connections ........................................13
CHAPTER 3: TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY STANDARD.................................14
3.1
GENERAL ............................................................................................................14
3.2
TRANSMISSION ADEQUACY AND SECURITY CRITERIA ........................................15
3.2.1 Planning Criteria ...........................................................................................15
3.3.2 Operational Criteria ......................................................................................18
3.2.3 Mitigating Unsecured Contingency Events ...................................................21
3.3
DEMAND CONNECTON CRTERA .......................................................................23
3.3.1 General ..........................................................................................................23
3.3.2 Planning Criteria ...........................................................................................23
3.3.3 Operational Criteria ......................................................................................24
CHAPTER 4: PERFORMANCE CRITERIA AND LIMITS .....................................25
4.1
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................25
4.2
VOLTAGE ............................................................................................................25
4.3
VOLTAGE PERFORMANCE MARGN .....................................................................28
4.4
FREQUENCY LMTS ............................................................................................29
4.5
STABLTY LMTS ...............................................................................................29
4.6
FAULT CLEARNG TMES .....................................................................................30
4.7
SHORT-CIRCUIT LIMITS ......................................................................................30
4.8
BASC INSULATON LEVEL ..................................................................................31
4.9
CRTERA FOR EVALUATNG UNSECURED CONTNGENCES ................................32
4.10 THERMAL LOADNG LMTS OF TRANSMSSON COMPONENTS ............................33
4.11 SUMMARY OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS NORMAL AND
EMERGENCY CONDITIONS...............................................................................................33

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Contents

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM POWER QUALITY STANDARDS ..............................36


CONTENTS......................................................................................................................37
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION...................................................................................38
1.1
1.2

POWER QUALITY DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS ............................................38


SCOPE .................................................................................................................40

CHAPTER 2: TRANSMISSION POWER QUALITY STANDARDS.......................41


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

VOLTAGE SAG OR VOLTAGE DIP ........................................................................41


VOLTAGE STEP CHANGE .....................................................................................42
VOLTAGE FLUCTUATONS AND FLCKER .............................................................42
HARMONICS ........................................................................................................44
PHASE UNBALANCE AND TRACTION LOAD .........................................................46
STEP CHANGES OF POWER ..................................................................................49

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Contents

GLOSSARY AND DEFINITIONS FOR TRANSMISSION SYSTEM


RELIABILITY STANDARDS AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM POWER
QUALITY STANDARDS ...............................................................................................50
APPENDIX A BACKGROUND TO THE STANDARDS ........................................66
A1 PURPOSE ...................................................................................................................67
A2 STANDARDS FOR BULK GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND DELIVERY .....................70
A3 STANDARDS FOR DISTRIBUTION ................................................................................71
A4 PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES ..................................................................................72
A5 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................77
APPENDIX B FOR TRANSMISSION SYSTEM RELIABILITY STANDARDS
GUIDANCE ON ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION OF GENERATION AND
TRANSMISSION CONNECTIONS..............................................................................79
B1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES ................................................................................................80
B2 GUDELNES ...............................................................................................................80
APPENDIX C FOR TRANSMISSION SYSTEM RELIABILITY STANDARDS
GUIDANCE ON SUBSTATION CONFIGURATIONS AND SWITCHING
ARRANGEMENTS .........................................................................................................82
C1 GENERAL GUDANCE .................................................................................................83
C2 GENERATON PONT OF CONNECTON SUBSTATONS .................................................84
C3 MARSHALLNG SUBSTATONS....................................................................................84
C4 GRD SUPPLY PONT SUBSTATONS ...........................................................................84
C5(1) TYPICAL TNB SUBSTATION LAYOUT AND SWITCHING ARRANGEMENTS .............86
C5(2) TYPICAL TNB SUBSTATION LAYOUT AND SWITCHING ARRANGEMENTS CONTD
........................................................................................................................................87
APPENDIX D FOR TRANSMISSION SYSTEM RELIABILITY STANDARDS
ADDITIONAL CRITERIA TO LIMIT THE COMPLEXITY OF TRANSMISSION
CIRCUITS ........................................................................................................................88
D1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES ...............................................................................................89
D2 REQUREMENTS/RESTRCTONS .................................................................................89

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1

General

1.1.1

In large interconnected Electric Power Systems its Reliability is of utmost


importance as electricity is an essential commodity, which underpins the
economic activity of a country. The Transmission Function of an Electric Power
System is pivotal to the objectives of:
a) Developing and maintaining an efficient, coordinated and economical
Transmission System for bulk delivery of electrical energy;
b) Ensuring continuous availability of sufficient electrical energy supply for all
consumers, with an adequate margin between supply and demand.

1.1.2

The distinct processes and their related Standards are paramount in ensuring
Reliability in planning the development of an Electric Power System, and in
ensuring its Secure and Robust operation:
1) The Generation Reliability Standard which relates to provision of sufficient
firm Generation Capacity to meet the Demand with a sufficient margin with
allowance for Plant maintenance, Plant breakdown and Plant Unavailability,
i.e., scheduled and unscheduled generating Plant outages, to meet the annual
and daily electric energy demand without the need to disconnect customers at
critical periods or cause interruptions in supply. This is used by Tenaga
Nasional Berhad (TNB) to determine additional generation investment
requirements on an annual basis.
2) Transmission Reliability Standard which relates to provision of sufficient
Transmission Capacity, operational facilities, maintenance activity and coordination with generation and Distribution Functions to enable continued
supply of electric energy to the distribution systems and Directly Connected
Customers. This Standard is used by TNB to determine the investment
requirements for the Transmission System and transmission operational
facilities and implement the necessary measures.
The development and maintenance of Transmission System Reliability Standards
is the duty of TNB Transmission Division under the provisions of the TNB
Licence that includes Generation Reliability Standards. These Standards are also
termed as License Standards.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 1:Introduction

1.1.3

This Standard contains technical terms and phrases specific to Transmission


Systems and the Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry. The meanings of some
terms or phrases in this Standard may also differ from those commonly used
elsewhere. For this reason a Glossary and Definitions has been included as a
separate document but attached to these Standards. All defined terms have been
identified in the text by the use of capitalised words.

1.1.4

Appendix A provides a background the Standards as well as general principles of


its applications.

1.2

Applications and Objectives of the Standards

1.2.1

The electric power Transmission System needs to be planned, operated and


maintained according to a set of Transmission System Reliability Standards. The
development of these Standards determines the investment requirements for
capital Plant and operational facilities; operation and maintenance practices; as
well as provision of Supplementary Services. The provision of levels of
Transmission System performance in accordance with these Standards is the duty
of TNB Transmission Division as specified in TNB License Conditions.

1.2.2

The transmission planning process involves the application of the Transmission


System Reliability Standard and the Transmission System Power Quality Standard
(as the second Standard within this combined document), together with strategic,
environmental and economic analysis, to determine the planned development of
the Transmission System to meet the forecast future demand.

1.2.3

The operational processes involve application of these Standards in operational


planning, maintenance and actual operation of the Electric Power System under
the Prevailing System Conditions on the actual operational day. Whilst the System
operational conditions are carefully planned at the operational planning stage, in
the months, weeks and days ahead, the operation of the System on the day is
dictated by the actual prevailing climatic conditions, planned outages as well as
the unplanned events that occur on the day, such as unscheduled generation
breakdown, unplanned transmission outages due to faults and exceptional
demand.

1.2.4

The Standards also provide the limits and permissible excursions of key System
parameters enabling secure implementation of operational measures.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 1:Introduction

1.2.5

The above-mentioned transmission Standards therefore determine a defined level


of Reliability for electric power that is delivered at the bulk demand supply points
at the interface between the Main Interconnected Transmission System (MITS)
and the 132kV and 66kV Systems, as well as other parts of the Transmission
System and the Distribution Systems at 33kV and below.

1.3

Scope

1.3.1

This document only covers the Transmission System Reliability Standards, which
are the responsibility of TNB Transmission Division. Amendments or changes to
these Standards can only be made with the concurrence of the Energy
Commission (EC) as provided for in the TNB License.

1.3.2

This document is solely concerned with the Standards for the Transmission
System, which includes the Main Interconnected Transmission System (MITS)
and its interface with the Generation Systems as well as the other parts of the
Transmission System which have voltages at 132kV and 66kV. These Standards
are applicable to bulk generation, transmission and delivery of electric power.
These Standards are also reflected in the Malaysian Grid Code which contains all
the technical requirements governing the planning, the development, connection
to, and operation of, the Generation and Transmission System as a whole known
as the Grid System.

1.3.3

Figure 1.1 indicates the contents of the Standards and the subject coverage in
terms of the generation, transmission and distribution Security and Reliability.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 1:Introduction

TOTAL
POWER
SYSTEMS

G
Generation
Reliability
Standards

Sufficient generation capacity


and connections to deliver full
generation output for normal
and Specific contingencies

Transmission
System
Reliability
Standards

Sufficient transmission
capacity to meet demand
for specified contingencies
Meeting standards
performance limits

Transmission
Reliability
Standards

Criteria for planning, designing


and operating of transmission
system to meet reliability and
power quality standards

Transmission

Transmission radial network


and demand points

Transmission
Power Quality
Standards

Sufficient transformer
capacity to meet demand
Power quality limits at
interfaces

DG

Distribution System

Distribution Supply
Security and Power
Quality Standards

DG

Distribution

Embedded Distribution

Customers

STANDARDS

Criteria for planning, designing


and operating of distribution
system to meet supply security
and power quality standards

CODES

DISTRIBUTION CODE

Main Interconnected
Transmission System

GRID CODE

Generation

Figure 1.1: The outline contents of the Transmission System Reliability Standards
and its relationship with the systems and codes

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 1:Introduction

Chapter 2: Generation Reliability Standard

2.1

Generation Planning Security Criteria

2.1.1 The Generation Security Standard for the Peninsular Malaysia Electric Power
System shall be the Reliability Index of Loss of Load Probability (LOLP). LOLP
is defined as the proportion of days per 365 days in a year when insufficient
generating capacity is available to serve the daily peak Loads. Alternatively, the
standard can also be defined in term of Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) which
is a measure of the time duration in a year when insufficient generating capacity is
available to serve the daily peak Loads. Normally, this is expressed in number of
days per year. For the Peninsular Malaysia Grid System the LOLE is normally set
at one (1) day per year, which translates to a LOLP of 0.0274 (ratio of LOLE to
number of days in a year).

2.2

Requirements Associated with Loss of Power Infeed

2.2.1

The Transmission System shall be designed to be secure for the instantaneous


Loss of Power Infeed represented by the output of a single Generating Unit,
CCGT Module, imports of power from External Systems or DC Link Monopole
as a result of a Secured Contingency Event. Following such an event the System
Frequency shall return to its Normal Operational Limits defined in the
Transmission System Power Quality Standard within sixty (60) seconds and the
System shall operate within normal voltage and Frequency limits, in a stable
manner both transiently and in the Steady State. There shall be:
(1) no loss of demand;
(2) no overloading of any transmission equipment;
(3) no operation outside post contingency voltage limits; and
(4) no excessive degradation of Voltage Performance Margins.

2.2.2

The Largest Loss of Power Infeed Risk for the Peninsular Malaysian Power
System is defined as the largest single generating unit or a CCGT module or a DC
Link Monopole or power import whichever is the largest. In order to ensure the
System is secure after such an event, TNB facilitates the provisions of sufficient
Spinning Reserve and Reactive Power Reserve to avoid deviation of Frequency
and voltage beyond Normal Operational Limits defined in the Transmission
System Power Quality Standard for more than sixty (60) seconds.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 2:Generation Reliability Standard

2.2.3

The instantaneous Loss of Power Infeed may exceed that of the Largest Loss of
Power Infeed Risk on very rare occasions which may occur for the loss of a
complete Power Station for contingencies outside the planning or operational
Criteria. This is termed an Infrequent Loss of Power Infeed Risk and is defined as
the loss of the largest single power station. For an Infrequent Loss of Power
Infeed Risk, planning and operational limits may be violated but the Transmission
System shall be planned and operated so that while controlled load loss is allowed,
the integrity of the Transmission System is maintained.

2.3

Generation Connection Criteria

2.3.1 General Generation Connection Requirements


2.3.1.1 This Section of Chapter 2 includes the planning and operational Criteria for the
direct connection of one or more Power Stations to the Transmission System. The
connection Criteria will also apply to the connections from a Demand Supply
Point to the Transmission System by which Power Stations embedded within the
Distribution System or within a Users Network that are connected to the
Transmission System.
2.3.1.2 In planning the Generation Connections, this Standard will be considered as met if
the connection design either:
(1) satisfies the minimum deterministic Criteria detailed in paragraphs 2.3.2.1 to
2.3.2.13 below; or
(2) varies from the design necessary to meet item (1) so as to meet a higher
Standard than those set out in paragraphs 2.3.2.1 to 2.3.2.13 below if the
higher Standards can be economically justified or if they are specifically
requested by an external party connecting to the Transmission System, to
ensure a higher level of connection Security and Reliability, which will then
be subject to appropriate commercial negotiation and contract. Guidance on
the economic justification of generation connections is given in Appendix B.
2.3.1.3 The overarching principle in this Standard applicable to the generation
connections is that the transfer capacity of the connection facilities for the
following conditions:
(1) normal System operation;
(2) (n-1) contingencies;
shall provide full export capability for the generation facility into the
Transmission System by satisfying the following Criteria:
(a) the continuous transfer capacity shall be at least equal to the Facility
Contractual Available Capacity (in MW), and
Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 2:Generation Reliability Standard

(b) the connection facilities and the Power Station shall not cause any reduction
in the power quality delivered at the Bulk Supply Points to the Distribution
System and/or to a Users Network.

2.3.2 Planning Criteria for Generation Connections


2.3.2.1 The connection configurations for Generating Units need to be planned to
minimise the effect of coincident Fault Outage(s) of generation and Transmission
Circuits and for the risk of losing multiple Generating Units within a Power
Station.
2.3.2.2 In this respect the Generating Unit connections define the magnitude of the largest
generation loss risk for which dynamic Spinning Reserve will be provided to
contain the Frequency deviation and restore the System Frequency to within limits
defined by the Transmission System Power Quality Standard. Therefore, there is
a requirement to provide sufficient switching facilities and sufficient connection
capability to ensure adequate operational flexibility, and compliance with the
Criteria defined below.
2.3.2.3 Generation connections shall be planned such that starting with an Intact System
the consequences of System contingency events and design of generation
connections to the Transmission System shall be as follows:
(1) following a Fault Outage of any single Transmission Circuit, no Loss of
Power Infeed shall occur;
(2) following the arranged outage of any single section Busbar, the Loss of Power
Infeed shall not exceed the Largest Loss of Power Infeed Risk;
(3) following a Fault Outage of any single Generation Circuit or a single section
of Busbar, the instantaneous Loss of Power Infeed shall not exceed the Largest
Loss of Power Infeed Risk;
(4) following the Fault Outage of any single Transmission Circuit, single section
of Busbar, during the arranged outage of any other single Transmission Circuit
or single section of Busbar, the Loss of Power Infeed shall not exceed the
Largest Loss of Power Infeed Risk;
(5) following the Fault Outage of any single Busbar coupler circuit breaker or
Busbar section circuit breaker or mesh circuit breaker, during the arranged
outage of any single section of Busbar or mesh corner, the Loss of Power
Infeed shall not exceed the Largest Loss of Power Infeed Risk.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 2:Generation Reliability Standard

10

2.3.2.4 The connection of a particular Power Station shall meet the following planning
Criteria set out in paragraphs 2.3.2.5 to 2.3.2.8 under the following background
conditions:
(1) the Active Power output of the Power Station and individual Generating Units
shall be set equal to their respective rated power output, and to the
corresponding full leading or lagging Reactive Power output; and
(2) conditions on the Transmission System shall be set to those which ought
reasonably to be expected to arise in the course of a year of operation. Such
conditions shall include forecast demand cycles, typical Power Station
operating regimes and typical arranged transmission equipment outage
patterns modified where appropriate by the provisions of paragraph 2.3.2.5.
2.3.2.5 The Transmission Capacity for the connection of a Power Station shall be planned
such that, for the background conditions described in paragraph 2.3.2.4, prior to
any fault there shall not be any:
(1) equipment loadings exceeding their continuous rating;
(2) voltages outside the Pre-Disturbance Planning Voltage Limits or Insufficient
Voltage Performance Margins; or
(3) System Instability.
The above performance requirements are summarised in Table 4.12, in section
4.11, under system condition classified as Category A No contingencies.
2.3.2.6 The Transmission Capacity for the connection of a Power Station shall also be
planned such that for the background conditions described in paragraph 2.3.2.4
and for the Secured Event of either an Outage of any of the following:
(1) a single Transmission Circuit or element, a reactive compensator or other
Reactive Power resource;
there shall not be any:
a) Loss of Supply Capacity;
b) Unacceptable Overloading of any Primary Transmission Equipment;
c) Unacceptable Voltage Conditions or Insufficient Voltage Performance
Margins; or
d) System Instability.
The above performance requirements, contingencies and impacts are summarised
in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under system condition classified as Category B
Events resulting in loss of a single element.
2.3.2.7 The Transmission Capacity for the connection of a Power Station shall also be
planned such that for the background conditions described in paragraph 2.3.2.4
and for the Secured Event of a Fault Outage of any of the following:

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 2:Generation Reliability Standard

11

(1) a Double Circuit Overhead Line (with the exception of 500kV and radial
275kV lines), or
(2) a single Transmission Circuit with the prior outage of another Transmission
Circuit (with the exception of 500kV and radial 275kV lines);
(3) a section of Busbar; or
(4) a single Transmission Circuit with the prior outage of a Generating Unit, a
reactive compensator or other Reactive Power resource;
there shall not be:
(a) cascade tripping; and
(b) System Instability.
Under the conditions described above, it is however acceptable for
planned/controlled loss of load to occur. The above performance requirements,
contingencies and impacts are summarised in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under
system condition classified as Category C Events resulting in loss of two or
more elements.
2.3.2.8 Under maintenance conditions it shall be assumed that the prior circuit outage(s)
specified in paragraphs 2.3.2.7(1) and 2.3.2.7(4) reasonably form part of the
typical outage pattern referred to in paragraph 2.2.2.4(2) rather than in addition to
that typical outage pattern i.e., only a reasonable typical outage pattern will be
assumed without any double counting or excessive and unrealistic outages being
included.
2.3.2.9 In the event of a contingency more severe than those described in 2.3.2.3, 2.3.2.6
and 2.3.2.7 of this chapter which results in a total generation infeed loss up to the
Infrequent Infeed Loss Risk the Frequency shall not fall below 47.5Hz, with all
defence measures inplace and operational. System performance requirements,
contingencies and expected impacts following more severe or extreme
contingencies than those described in 2.3.2.3, 2.3.2.6 and 2.3.2.7 are summarised
in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under system condition classified as Category D
Extreme events resulting in two or more elements removed or cascading out of
service.
2.3.2.10 Guidance on typical substation configurations and switching arrangements are
described in Appendix C. However, other configurations and switching
arrangements which meet those Criteria are also acceptable.
2.3.2.11 Variations, arising from a generation customers request, to the generation
connection design necessary to meet the requirements of paragraphs 2.2.1 to 2.2.3
shall also satisfy the requirements of this Standard provided that the varied design
satisfies the conditions set out in paragraph 2.3.2.12(1) to (3). For example, such a
Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 2:Generation Reliability Standard

12

generation connection design variation may be used to take account of the


particular characteristics of a Power Station.
2.3.2.12 Any generation connection design variation must not, other than in respect of
the generation customer requesting the variation, either immediately or in the
foreseeable future:
(1) reduce the Security of the Transmission System to below the minimum
planning Criteria specified in Chapter 3; or
(2) result in additional investment or operational costs to any particular customer
or overall, or a reduction in the Security and quality of supply of the affected
customers connections to below the planning Criteria in this chapter or in the
Transmission System Power Quality Standards, unless specific agreements are
reached with affected customers; or
(3) compromise TNBs ability to meet other statutory obligations or licence
obligations.
2.3.2.13 Should System conditions subsequently change, for example due to the
proposed connection of a new customer, such that either immediately or in the
foreseeable future, the conditions set out in paragraph 2.3.2.12(1) to (3) are no
longer satisfied, then alternative arrangements and/or agreements must be put in
place such that this Standard continues to be satisfied.
2.3.2.14 The additional operational costs referred to in paragraph 2.3.2.12(2) and/or any
potential Reliability implications shall be calculated by simulating the expected
operation of the Transmission System in accordance with the operational Criteria
set out in Chapters 3 and 4 of this Standard. Guidance on economic justification is
given in Appendix B.

2.3.3 Operational Criteria for Generation Connections


2.3.3.1 The operational Criteria for generation connections are the same as the operational
Transmission System criteria which are set out in Chapter 3 of this Standard.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 2:Generation Reliability Standard

13

Chapter 3: Transmission Reliability Standard

3.1

General

3.1.1

The Transmission System is and shall continue to be planned and developed such
that, under both normal System operational conditions or following a Secured
Contingency Event, there will be sufficient Transmission Capacity and capability
available to enable the System to return to normal operation. Normal operation of
the System in this respect means operation of the System within thermal, voltage,
Frequency and stability limits.

3.1.2

In rare circumstances, disturbed System operating conditions involving multiple


outages and/or equipment failures beyond the Secured Contingency conditions
can occur. Usually the occurrence of such events, will result in a controlled or
planned loss of load.

3.1.3

In some rare and extreme cases, Unsecured Contingency Events could also lead to
partial or full disruption of the whole System and affect supplies to consumers.
Under such adverse operating conditions, and as part of the special Protection and
defence measures, some generation and/or demand disconnection is permitted to
ensure stable operation of the remaining System in the post-contingency period.

3.1.4

This Chapter 3 includes:


(1) the Transmission Adequacy and Security Criteria which ensures adequate
Transmission Capacity so that the Security and integrity of the power System
is maintained for a set of defined Secured Contingency Events;
(2) the planning and operational measures that shall be applied towards mitigating
the impact of rare events with multiple outages and/or equipment failures
beyond the Secured Contingency conditions termed as Unsecured
Contingency Events; and
(3) the Demand Connection Criteria which ensures Adequacy of interface
connection capacity to meet demand.

3.1.5

This Chapter 3 also presents the planning and operational Criteria for ensuring
Reliability of the Transmission System. These Criteria apply throughout the
Transmission System and must be met by TNB in planning and operating the
Transmission System. In addition, in those parts of the Transmission System
where the Criteria of Chapter 2 also apply, those Criteria must be met.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 3:Transmission Reliability Standard

14

3.2

Transmission Adequacy and Security Criteria

3.2.1 Planning Criteria


3.2.1.1 The following System background conditions will be used to set up the base case
for the planning studies to determine the adequate Transmission Capacity
requirements for the Transmission System:
(1) For the Intact System, the base case power flows shall be set to those arising
from the Planned Transfer Condition prior to application of any fault or
outage;
(2) Conditions on the Transmission System shall be set to those which ought
reasonably to be foreseen to arise in the course of a year of operation. Such
conditions shall include forecast demand cycles, typical Power Station
operating regimes and consideration on arranged transmission equipment
outage. Rearrangement of transmission outages and appropriate reselection
of Generating Units, from those expected to be available may be considered
in order to satisfy the adequate Security Criteria provided that maintenance
access for each Transmission Circuit can be achieved and provided that such
measures are economically justified. Guidance on economic justification is
given in Appendix B;
(3) The expected Availability of generation reactive capability shall be set to that
which ought reasonably to be expected to arise. This shall take into account
the variation of reactive capability with the Active Power output as defined
in the machine performance chart. Any long term reactive capability
limitations and exemptions or derogations issued by the Energy Commission
will be taken into account. The target reactive output of generators, at this
stage, shall be set as close as possible to 50% of the expected available
reactive capability;
(4) The Planned Transfer Condition is defined as the condition arising from
scaling the Registered Capacities of each directly connected Power Station
and embedded Large Power Station such that the total of the scaled
capacities is equal to the Peak Demand plus dynamic spinning reserve for
Frequency control and minus imports from External Systems. This scaling
shall be achieved by ranking all directly connected Power Stations and
embedded Large Power Stations in order of likelihood of operation at times
of Peak Demand. Those Power Stations considered least likely to operate at
peak are progressively removed and treated as non-contributory until an
Operational Plant Margin of 10% or just fractionally below is achieved. This
is regarded as sufficient to meet the demand on the day with sufficient Plant
to cater for unscheduled outages and Plant breakdown;
Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 3:Transmission Reliability Standard

15

(5) The output of contributing Power Stations will include its operating reserve
which is calculated in accordance with their ability to provide dynamic
spinning response based on the characteristics of the Plant at that Power
Station;
(a) for thermal units, a typical dynamic response of about 8%, if the actual
response is not available;
(b) for GT units, a typical dynamic response of 10%, if the actual response
is not available;
(c) for hydro units, equally proportionally part loaded to balance the
demand, plus losses, plus interconnection infeed;
(d) power imports from External Systems (e.g., Thailand and/or
Singapore) shall be assumed to be at their typical values as indicated
by reciprocal agreements for the base case Planned Transfer Condition;
(e) a Load power factor of 0.9 or better shall be maintained, if the
measured power factor is not avilable, at the 132kV side of the
132/33kV and 132/11kV transformers; and
(f) for the Planned Transfer Conditions on the Transmission System there
shall not be:
(i) equipment loadings exceeding the pre-fault rating;
(ii) voltages outside the Pre-fault Planning Voltage Limits or
Insufficient Voltage Performance Margins; or
(iii) system Instability,
otherwise remedial planning measures to remove any violations will be
considered.
3.2.1.2 The minimum Transmission Capacity of the Main Interconnected Transmission
System shall be planned such that, for the background conditions described in
paragraph 3.2.1.1, prior to any fault there shall not be:
(1) equipment loadings exceeding the continuous current rating;
(2) equipment Three-Phase Short-Circuit currents exceeding 90% of their ShortTime Current Ratings;
(3) voltages outside the Pre-fault Planning Voltage Limits or Insufficient
Voltage Performance Margins; or
(4) System Instability.
The above performance requirements are summarised in Table 4.12, in section
4.11, under system condition classified as Category A No contingencies.

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 3:Transmission Reliability Standard

16

3.2.1.3 The minimum Transmission Capacity of the Main Interconnected Transmission


System shall also be planned such that for the background conditions described in
paragraph 3.2.1.1 and for the Secured Contingency Event of a Fault Outage of a
single Transmission Circuit or Element, a reactive compensator or other Reactive
Power resource there shall not be any of the following:
(1) Loss of Supply Capacity (except as permitted by the Demand Connection
Criteria detailed later in this Chapter 3);
(2) Unacceptable Overloading of any Primary Transmission Equipment;
(3) Unacceptable Voltage Conditions or Insufficient Voltage Performance
Margins; or
(4) System Instability.
The above performance requirements, contingencies and impacts are summarised
in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under system condition classified as Category B
Events resulting in loss of a single element.
3.2.1.4 The minimum Transmission Capacity of the Main Interconnected Transmission
System shall also be planned such that for the background conditions described in
paragraph 3.2.1.1 and for the Contingency Event of a Fault Outage of any of the
following:
(1) a Double Circuit Overhead Line (with the exception of 500kV and radial
275kV lines), or
(2) a single Transmission Circuit with the prior outage of another Transmission
Circuit (with the exception of 500kV and radial 275kV lines);
(3) a section of Busbar or mesh corner; or
(4) any single Transmission Circuit with the prior outage of another Transmission
Circuit, Generating Unit, reactive compensator or other Reactive Power
resource,
there shall not be:
(a) cascade tripping; and
(b) System Instability.
Under the conditions described above, it is however acceptable for
planned/controlled loss of load to occur. The above performance requirements,
contingencies and impacts are summarised in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under
system condition classified as Category C Events resulting in loss of two or
more elements.
3.2.1.5 In addition to the requirements set out in paragraphs 3.2.1.3 and 3.2.1.4, for the
background conditions described in paragraph 3.2.1.1, the System shall also be
planned such that operational switching of any component or part of the Main
Interconnected Transmission System shall not cause:
(1) Unacceptable Overloading of any Primary Transmission Equipment;
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(2) Unacceptable Voltage Conditions or Insufficient Voltage Performance


Margins;
(3) Any switchgear with duty exceeding 90% of its Short Circuit Break or Make
capacity;or
(4) System Instability.
3.2.1.6 Circuits comprising the Main Interconnected Transmission System shall not
exceed the circuit complexity limit defined in Appendix D.
3.2.1.7 Guidance on substation configurations and switching arrangements are described
in Appendix C. These guidelines provide an acceptable way towards meeting the
Criteria of this Chapter 3. However, other configurations and switching
arrangements which meet the Criteria are also acceptable.

3.2.2 Operational Criteria


3.2.2.1 The Main Interconnected Transmission System shall be operated under Prevailing
System Conditions so that for the Secured Contingency Event of a Fault Outage of
a single Transmission Circuit or Element, a reactive compensator or other
Reactive Power provider there shall not be any of the following:
(1) a Loss of Supply Capacity (except that under certain maintenance outage
conditions, should an unplanned outage occur, some loss of Load can be
accepted, and except as permitted in paragraph 3.2.2.3);
(2) Unacceptably High or Low Frequency Conditions;
(3) Unacceptable Overloading of any Primary Transmission Equipment;
(4) Unacceptable Voltage Conditions; or
(5) System Instability.
The above performance requirements, contingencies and impacts are summarised
in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under system condition classified as Category B
Events resulting in loss of a single element.
3.2.2.2 The Main Interconnected Transmission System shall be operated under Prevailing
System Conditions so that for Contingency Event of any of the following:
(1) a Double Circuit Overhead Line (with the exception of 500kV and radial
275kV lines); or
(2) a single Transmission Circuit with the prior outage of another Transmission
Circuit (with the exception of 500kV and radial 275kV lines); or
(3) a section of Busbar or mesh corner; or

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(4) any single Transmission Circuit with the prior outage of another
Transmission Circuit, Generating Unit, reactive compensator or other
Reactive Power resource, or
(5) the most onerous Loss of Power Infeed
there shall not be:
(a) cascade tripping; and
(b) System Instability.
Under the conditions described above, it is however acceptable for
planned/controlled loss of load to occur. The above performance requirements,
contingencies and impacts are summarised in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under
system condition classified as Category C Events resulting in loss of two or
more elements.
3.2.2.3 The operational Criteria above are subject to the following exceptions:
(1) Provided that it is in accordance with the appropriate requirements of the
demand connections criteria in part 3.3 of this Chapter 3, there may be an
associated Loss of Supply Capacity due to a Secured Contingency Event, for
example by virtue of the design of the generation connections and/or the
designed switching arrangements at the substations concerned. Typical
examples of this could be:
(a) at mesh substations where the loss of a Double Circuit Overhead Line
would result in the consequential loss of mesh corner Demand Supply
Point transformers;
(b) Demand Supply Point transformers which are teed off circuits that form
part of the Main Interconnected Transmission System and which would
become disconnected following the loss of these circuits.
(2) During periods of Severe Weather conditions or other high System risk
periods, TNB Transmission Division may implement measures to mitigate the
consequences of this risk. Such measures may include reducing output at
certain Power Stations.
3.2.2.4 For the purposes of paragraph 3.2.2.2, it is acceptable to utilise short term post
fault actions to avoid Unacceptable Overloading of Primary Transmission
Equipment which may include a requirement for demand reduction; however this
will not be used as a method of increasing reserve to cover abnormal post fault
generation reduction. Where possible these post fault actions shall be notified to
the appropriate Users. Normally the provisions of the Grid Code, in respect of
Emergency Manual Demand Disconnection will be applied. Additional post fault
actions beyond the Grid Code provisions may be applied, but only where they
have been agreed in advance with the appropriate Users.

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3.2.2.5 Post-fault Restoration of System Security - Following the occurrence of a Secured


Contingency Event measures shall be taken to re-secure the System to the above
operational Criteria as soon as reasonably practicable. To this end it is permissible
to put operational measures in place to facilitate the speedy restoration of System
Security.
3.2.2.6 Authorised Variations From the Operational Criteria - The principles of these
operational Criteria shall be applied at all times except in special circumstances
where TNB, following consultation with the appropriate Network Operator,
Generator or Directly Connected Customer, may need to give instructions to the
contrary to preserve overall System integrity.

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3.2.3 Mitigating Unsecured Contingency Events


3.2.3.1 In rare circumstances, disturbed System operating conditions, with multiple
outages and/or equipment failures beyond the Secured Contingency conditions
can occur on the Transmission System. Such events can lead to partial or full
disruption of the whole System and affect the Security and Adequacy of supplies
to consumers. Reasonably predicting the full extent and nature of such events
and hence putting sufficient investment in preventive measures is not fully
possible even when excessively large capital investment is available. These types
of events are therefore termed as Unsecured Contingency Events.
3.2.3.2 In practice however, TNB Transmission Division shall evaluate and install
special protective measures and defence mechanisms such that the impact of the
Unsecured Contingency Events is contained such that only part of the System
may be affected with some generation and demand loss.
3.2.3.3 The Transmission System is and shall continue to be planned and developed
such that special protective measures and defence mechanisms are included not
only to prevent a total System shutdown but also to facilitate rapid recovery to
normal System operation in the case of Unsecured Contingency Events. Under
such adverse operating conditions and as part of the special Protection and
defence measures loss of some generation and/or demand is permitted to ensure
stable operation of the remaining System in the post-contingency period.
3.2.3.4 Planning Requirements - As part of the System planning process, based upon the
System background conditions in paragraph 3.2.1.1 (used to set up the base case
for the planning studies to determine the adequate Transmission Capacity
requirements for the Transmission System), TNB shall study the impact of and
the sensitivity of the System to Unsecured Contingency Events relating to
multiple and very severe but rare System contingency events well beyond the
Secured Contingency Events.
3.2.3.5 For the impact assessment at the System planning stage the following types of
Unsecured Contingency Events will be considered and fully evaluated.
Consideration and full evaluation of events will not be restricted to those events
listed below but an assessment of reported events occurring in other power
Systems and a full consideration of such events as relevant to the Transmission
System. The types of Unsecured Contingency Events include:
(1) Loss of a bus section;
(2) Stuck breaker;
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(3) Loss of the transmission towers in a Right of Way (involving loss of two or
more double circuit lines);
(4) Loss of a substation; and
(5) Loss of a complete Power Station.
In making the assessment, system performance requirements, contingencies and
expected impacts following Unsecured Contingency Events or extreme
contingencies summarised in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under system condition
classified as Category D - Extreme events resulting in two or more elements
removed or cascading out of service - shall be considered.
3.2.3.6 Operational Requirements - The Main Interconnected Transmission System shall
be operated with all the special Protection and defence measures in a fully
operational state. If any one or more of these measures are out of service or on
maintenance then specific Operational Planning studies shall be carried out well
in advance to put in place appropriate operating regimes and alternative
measures with a target of reducing the risk.

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3.3

Demand Connection Criteria

3.3.1 General
3.3.1.1 The Demand Connection Criteria relate to the planning of demand connections
and provision of sufficient transformer capacity and/or demand transfer facilities
to avoid undue Loss of Supply Capacity for Secured Contingency Outages
included in the Transmission Reliability Standard. These Criteria enable TNB
Transmission Division and the Distributors, Network Operators or Directly
Connected Customers to make necessary investments ensuring the planning,
development and operation of the Transmission and Distribution Systems within
the provisions of Transmission System Reliability and Power Quality Standards,
and the Grid Code both under normal and Secured Contingency Outage
conditions.
3.3.1.2 This section of Chapter 3 presents the planning and operational Criteria for the
connection of demand to the Transmission System. In those parts of the
Transmission System where the Criteria of Chapter 2 of this Standard also apply,
those Criteria must also be met.

3.3.2 Planning Criteria


3.3.2.1 The objective of planning is to ensure there are sufficient connections from the
Transmission System at the Demand Supply Point such that the demand can be
fully met under secured contingency conditions.
3.3.2.2 The supply of demand shall also be planned such that for the background
conditions described in paragraph 3.2.1.1 and for the Secured Contingency Event
of a Fault Outage of a single Transmission Circuit, a reactive compensator or
other Reactive Power resource, or a step down transformer supplying demand
whose high voltage side is connected to the Transmission System, there shall not
be any loss of demand. The performance requirements, contingencies and impacts
for the demand connection are summarised in Table 4.12, in section 4.11, under
system condition classified as Category B Events resulting in loss of a single
element.
3.3.2.3 The above requirements shall not preclude the Customer/demand to be provided
with higher or lower security of supply level as stated in appropriate Agreement.

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3.3.2.4 It is permissable to secure demand against the contingencies outlined in section


3.3.2.2 by demand transfer or other methods at distribution voltages levels.

3.3.3 Operational Criteria


3.3.3.1 In the case of a planned outage of a single Transmission Circuit, a reactive
compensator or other Reactive Power resource, or a step down transformer
supplying demand whose high voltage side is connected to the Transmission
System, full demand may not be met for a subsequent forced outage.

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24

Chapter 4: Performance Criteria and Limits

4.1

Introduction

4.1.1

This Chapter 4 presents performance criteria and limits used in this Standard for
planning and operation. performance criteria and limits specified in this Chapter
are:
(1) Voltage;
(2) Voltage Performance Margin;
(3) Frequency Limits;
(4) Stability Limits;
(5) Fault Clearing Times;
(6) Short Circuit Limits;
(7) Basic Insulation Levels;
(8) Criteria for Evaluating Unsecured Contingencies; and
(9) Thermal Loading Limits of Transmission Components.

4.1.2

The specified criteria and limits in this Chapter shall be complied with for
planning and operation of the Grid as outlined in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.

4.2

Voltage

4.2.1

The Transmission System is planned, maintained and operated in accordance with


the Standards included in Chapters 2 and 3. Pre-Fault Planning Voltage Limits
and Unacceptable Voltage Conditions are defined as follows. The operation of the
System is planned in Operational Planning timescales for operation within the
Pre-Fault Planning Voltage Limits and operated under the Prevailing System
Conditions so that for the Secured Contingency Event of a Fault Outage, any
Unacceptable Voltage Conditions will not be experienced. Under rare Unsecured
Contingency Events some parts of the System may experience Unacceptable
Voltage Conditions and some parts of the voltage may experience total loss of the
supply voltage.

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4.2.2

The voltage limits applicable in planning studies for the pre-disturbance/pre-fault


state of the Transmission System are (see table 4.1):
Table 4.1: Pre-disturbance voltage limits for planning studies
Nominal Voltages
Maximum
Minimum (Note 2)
500kV

525kV (+5%)

500kV (-0.0%)

275kV

289kV (+5%)

275kV (-0.0%)

132kV

139kV (+5%)

132kV (-0.0%) (Note 1)

Lower Voltages

1.05 p.u. (+5%)

1.0 p.u. (-0.0%) (Note 1)

Note 1 There is no minimum planning voltage provided that, at the Busbar of the same nominal voltage at
the Demand Supply Point from which it is derived, it is possible (for example by tap changing) to achieve at
least 105% of nominal voltage.
Note 2 It is assumed that at the planning stage the load power factor at the 132kV bus is no lower than 0.9 .

4.2.3

In both planning and operational timescales the voltage is unacceptable if outside


the limits set out in table 4.2.
Table 4.2: Unacceptable voltage limits in planning and operation
Planning Timescales

Nominal
Voltage

Note 1
Maximum

Minimum

Operational Timescales
Maximum

Minimum

525kV (+5.0%)

475kV (-5.0%)

525kV (+5.0%)

450kV (-10.0%)

Note 2

Note 3

Note 6

275kV

289kV (+5.0%)

248kV (-10.0%)

303kV (+10.0%)

248kV (-10.0%)

132kV

139kV (+5.0%)

145kV (+10%)

119kV (-10%)

(+6.0%)

(-6.0%)

500kV

Less than
132kV
Note1

Note 2
Note 3

Note 4

Note 5
Note 6

(+5.0%)

Note 4
Note 5

These voltages to be achieved without widespread post-fault generation transformer re-tapping or


postfault adjustment of reactive compensation equipment reference voltage set points to increase the
Reactive Power output or to avoid exceeding the available reactive capability of generation or
reactive compensation equipment.
It is permissible to relax this to 550kV (+10%) if lasting for no longer than 15 minutes (or longer if
the equipment permits).
It is permissible to relax this to 450kV (-10%) if:
the affected substations are on the same radially fed spur post-fault;
there is no lower voltage interconnection from these substations to other Main
Interconnected System Substations; and
no auxiliaries of Large Power Stations are derived from them.
It shall be possible to operate the lower voltage Busbar of a Demand Supply Point up to 100% of
nominal voltage unless the Secured Contingency Event includes the simultaneous loss of a
500/275kV transformer.
The target operational voltages at Demand Supply Point should be as agreed with
relevant
Users.
It is permissible to relax this to 550kV (+10%) if lasting for no longer than 15 minutes (or longer if
the equipment permits).

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4.2.4

Under System operational conditions elements of the Transmission System need


to be switched to optimise the operation of the System, to facilitate maintenance
and to isolate faulty equipment for repair. Under such operational activities
switching of any element or equipment shall not cause unacceptable Voltage Step
Changes. The voltage change is deemed unacceptable if it changes by more than
the limits set out in table 4.3.
Table 4.3: Unacceptable voltage step changes in planning and operation
System Condition

Planning Timescales
Note 1
Voltage
Rise

Voltage Fall

Operational Timescales
Note 3
Voltage
Rise

Voltage Fall

+10%

-2.5% for
500kV
-5% for
others
Note 2

+10%

-2.5% for
500kV
-5% for
others
Note 4

Following operational
switching less frequent
than specified in ER P28

+3%

-3%

+3%

-3%

Otherwise

According to ER P28

Following Secured
Contingency Events

Note 1 These limits apply at all demand conditions and only to the interfaces between the
Transmission System and customers, and must be applied with the Load response to
voltage change taken into account.
Note 2 This is relaxed to -12% if the fault involves the loss of a section of Busbar, or a mesh
corner, or a Secured Contingency Event which also includes the simultaneous loss of a
500/275kV transformer (Applicable to voltage other than 500kV).
Note 3 Following Voltage Step Change within these limits, it must be possible to restore the
Steady State voltage to 95% of nominal at Demand Supply Points following any manual
and/or automatic facilities available, including switching in or out of relevant Apparatus.
Note 4 This is relaxed to -12% if the fault involves the loss of a Double Circuit Overhead Line, a
section of Busbar, or mesh corner (Applicable to voltage other than 500kV).

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 4:Performance Criteria and Limits

27

4.2.5

Limits of voltage changes due to frequent and infrequent operational switching of


Load both by TNB and the User are defined as follows (see table 4.4), provided
that this does not constitute a risk to the Transmission System.
Table 4.4: Voltage limits on switching of load
Load Switching
Limit of Voltage Change
Infrequent single switching or
disconnection of Load (e.g., twice a day)
3%
Including capacitor banks and reactors
Frequent switching and/or disconnection
1%
of Load (e.g., Many times in a day)

4.2.6

Immediately following a fault clearance and removal of the faulted item of


equipment from the Transmission System, and, prior to reaching Steady State
conditions whose limits are described in Sections 4.2.3 and 4.2.4 above, the
voltage at any point on the Main Interconnected Transmission System is
unacceptable if outside the limits set out in the table 4.5.
Table 4.5: Dynamic voltage excursion limits
Low voltage
0.7 p.u. for not more than 400ms

High voltage

1.2 p.u. for not more than 30s

4.3

Voltage Performance Margin

4.3.1

At the planning stage power transfer within the System and at each specific
demand point shall be limited such that there is a margin of 15% to the maximum
possible transmitted power, under the base case conditions described in Section
3.2.1.1 of this Standard.

4.3.2

At the planning stage power transfer within the System and at each specific
demand point shall be limited such that there is a margin of 7.5% to the maximum
possible transmitted power, under the contingency conditions described in Section
3.2.1.4 of this Standard.

4.3.3

During operation, power transfer within the System and at each specific demand
point shall be limited such that there is a margin of 5% to the maximum possible
transmitted power, under the contingency conditions described in Section 3.2.2.1
of this Standard.

4.3.4

These voltage margin Criteria are in additon to any other voltage Criteria
requirements.

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Chapter 4:Performance Criteria and Limits

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4.4

Frequency Limits

4.4.1

During normal steady-state operational conditions the Frequency is to be


maintained to within 1% of the nominal, that is, between 49.5 and 50.5Hz.

4.4.2

The System Frequency could rise to 52Hz or fall to 47Hz in extremely rare and
exceptional circumstances. Therefore the design of both TNB and User's Plant and
Apparatus must enable operation of that Plant and Apparatus within that range in
accordance with table 4.6.
Table 4.6: Frequency excursion limits
Frequency Range
Requirement
47.5Hz - 52Hz*

Continuous operation is required

47Hz - 47.5Hz

Operation for a period of at least 10 seconds is required


each time the Frequency is below 47.5Hz
*
This value may be lowered to 51.5Hz if substantive evidence can be provided to show
that the operation of the generating unit beyond 51.5Hz will affect the safety of the plant.

4.5

Stability Limits

4.5.1

The relative rotor angle of any two Generating Units in the System must not
exceed 180 degrees at any time.

4.5.2

Following any disturbance the Damping Ratio of power, angle or voltage


oscillation must not be less than 5%.

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Chapter 4:Performance Criteria and Limits

29

4.6

Fault Clearing Times

4.6.1

The following maximum fault clearance times (see table 4.7) are normally
expected from the Main Protection equipment installed in the Transmission
System.
Table 4.7: Maximum Fault Clearing Times
System Voltage (kV) Fault Location
500 and 275
132

Fault Clearance Time (ms)

Substation

100

Overhead Line/Cable

100

Substation

150

Overhead Line/Cable

150

4.6.2

For planning studies:


(1) a 100ms fault clearance time shall be used for system at nominal voltage of
500kV and 275kV;
(2) a 150ms fault clearance time shall be used for system at nominal voltage of
132kV.
Fault clearance time is defined as the time between fault inception and complete
disconnection of the faulted item of equipment from the Transmission System.

4.6.3

For operational studies the Protection times in 4.6.2 shall also be used. However,
where the used of fault clearing times in 4.6.2 is found to be limited, the actual
fault clearing times may be used.

4.7

Short-Circuit Limits

4.7.1

The Transmission System shall be planned such that the maximum sub-transient
three phase symmetrical short circuit fault levels are not greater than 90% of the
switching equipment short-circuit ratings, the breaking and making capacities of
switching equipment shall not be exceeded under maximum system short circuit
condition.

4.7.2

For three-phase or single-phase-to-earth faults, the planned maximum subtransient short circuit fault levels shall not be greater than that indicated in the
table 4.8.

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Table 4.8: Short-circuit limits


System Voltage (kV)
500
275
132

Circuit Breaker
Short Circuit Rating Break Capacity

50kA, 1s
40kA, 3s for bulk substation
50kA, 1s for Power Station and 275kV within 500kV
substation

31.5kA, 3s
40kA, 3s for Power Station and 132kV within a
500/275kV substation

33

25kA, 3s

22, 11, 6.6

20kA, 3s

0.415 and 0.240


31.5kA, 3s
Note: Typically closing-and-latching (momentary) capability of a circuit breaker as an
rms current is not more than 1.6K times Symmetrical Short Circuit Rating or as an
instantaneous peak current is not more than 2.7K times Symmetrical Short Circuit Rating.
For most circuit breakers, K is equal to one.

4.8

Basic Insulation Level

4.8.1

Typical Basic Impulse Insulation Levels (BIL) of the Transmission and


Distribution Systems are as given in the following table. The Users Plant and
Apparatus is required to match these insulation levels. These may vary under
specific circumstances.
Table 4.9: Basic insulation level (BIL)
System Voltage (kV)
BIL (kV)
500

1550

275

1050

132

650

33

170

22

125

11 and 6.6

75

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4.9

Criteria for Evaluating Unsecured Contingencies

4.9.1

For the purposes of determining the types of special Protection and defence
measures the following contingencies which will be considered together with the
appropriate Fault Outage Criteria to be considered are listed in table 4.10 and also
as described under Category D of Table 4.12, in section 4.11,. In all these cases
special Protection and/or defence measures shall be put in place such that whilst
some demand and generation loss may be experienced a total System shutdown
will be avoided.
Table 4.10: Unsecured contingencies to be evaluated
Unsecured
Fault Outage Criteria
Contingency
Note 1
Event

Outage of System
Elements

Bus Section Fault

Single-phase-to-ground fault cleared in


250 ms followed by the loss of the
entire bus section through tripping of
all circuit breakers connected to that
section of Busbar

All Transmission Circuits


and any transformers and/or
reactive compensation
equipment connected

Stuck Breaker
Fault Single Phase
Fault Initiation

Single-phase-to-ground fault being


cleared in 250 ms by the tripping of the
circuit breakers of transmission
elements in the immediate proximity to
clear the fault which could not be
normally cleared due to the stuck
breaker

All Transmission Circuits


and any transformers and/or
reactive compensation
equipment in the immediate
proximity

Stuck Breaker
Fault Three Phase
Fault Initiation

Three-phase fault cleared in normal


clearing time followed by a single line
to ground fault cleared in delayed time.
Typical delay time is assumed at
250ms.

All Transmission Circuits


and any transformer and/or
reactive compensation
equipment in the immediate
proximity

Loss of one Bipole of


the HVDC
Interconnector

Blocking of one Bipole through its


control equipment reducing the current
flow to zero and the resumption of
current flow

Outage of some elements of


the HVDC link

Loss of Right of Way

Three-phase fault cleared in 150ms or


100ms followed by the loss of circuits
on the Right of Way

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Loss of all circuits on the


Right of Way

Chapter 4:Performance Criteria and Limits

32

Unsecured
Contingency
Event

Fault Outage Criteria


Note 1

Outage of System
Elements

Loss of substation
(one transmission
voltage level plus
associated
transformers) i.e., loss
of a Busbar
Loss of a complete
Power Station

Three-phase fault cleared in 150ms or


100ms followed by the loss of circuits
connected to the busbar

Loss of all circuits


connected to the busbar

Three-phase fault cleared in 150ms or


Loss of all Generating Units
100ms followed by the loss of all
at the Power Station
Generating Units at the Power Station
Note 1: Normal clearing time - Three-phase fault duration for 500kV and 275kV is 100ms and for
and 132kV is 150ms

4.10 Thermal Loading Limits of Transmission Components


4.10.1 The thermal loading limits of equipment in planning and operational timescales
are defined in table 4.11.
Table 4.11: Thermal loading limits on transmission components
Equipment
Planning
Operation
Lines

No thermal overloading
allowed

Underground cables

Strict observation of
equipment continuous rating

Transformers

No thermal overloading
allowed

Switching and
Isolation Equipment

Strict observation of
equipment continuous rating

130% for not more than thirty


(30) minutes or an applicable
time dependent emergency limit
125% for not more than thirty
(30) minutes or an applicable
time dependent emergency limit
130% for not more than thirty
(30) minutes or an applicable
time dependent emergency limit
Applicable time dependent
emergency limit

4.11 Summary of Transmission System Requirements Normal


and Emergency Conditions
4.11.1 Table 4.12 summarises the required and/or expected performance of the
transmission system under four (4) categories of contingencies and for each
category:
(1) the initiating events and contingency elements; and
(2) system performance requirements and expected impacts
are specified.

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Chapter 4:Performance Criteria and Limits

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Table 4.12: Summary of System Performance Requirements Following Events


Involving Loss of Single or More Grid System Elements under Both Normal and
Emergency Conditions
Category

A
No
Contingencies
B
Event resulting
in the loss of a
single element

C
Event(s)
resulting in the
loss of two or
more (multiple)
elements

Contingencies
Initiating Event(s) and
Contingency Element(s)

System Limits or Impacts


System Stable
Loss of
Cascading
& both Thermal
Demand
Outages
and Voltage
or
Limits within
Curtailed
Applicable
Firm
Rating Note (a)
Transfers

All Facilities in Service


Single Line Ground (SLG) or 3Phase (3) Fault with Normal
Clearing (Note (e)):
1. Generator
2. Transmission Circuit
3. Transformer
Loss of an Element without a
Fault
Single Pole Block, Normal
Clearing (Note (e)):
4. Single Pole (dc) Line
SLG Fault, with Normal Clearing
(Note (e)):
1. Bus Section
2. Breaker (failure or internal
fault)

Yes

No

No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No
Note (b)

No
No
No
No

Yes

No
Note (b)

No

Yes

Planned/
Controlled
Planned/
Controlled
Note (c)

No

Yes

Planned/
Controlled
Note (c)

No

Yes

Planned/
Controlled

No

Yes

Planned/
Controlled
Note (c)

No

Yes

SLG or 3 Fault, with Normal


Clearing (Note (e)). Manual
System Adjustment, followed by
another SLG or 3 Fault, with
Normal Clearing (Note (e)):
3. Category B (B1, B2, B3 or
B4) contingency, manual
system adjustments, followed
by another Category B(B1,
B2, B3 or B4) contingency
Bipolar Block with Normal
Clearing (Note (e)):
4. Bipolar (dc) Line Fault (non
3) with Normal Clearing
(Note (e))
5. Any two circuits of a multiple
circuit tower (Note (f)).
SLG Fault, with Delayed
Clearing (stuck breaker or
protection system failure) (Note
(e)):
6. Generator

No

Note (c)
Yes

7. Transformer

Yes

8. Transmission Circuit

Yes

9. Bus Section

Yes

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Planned/
Controlled
Planned/
Controlled
Planned/
Controlled
Planned/
Controlled

No
No
No
No

Chapter 4:Performance Criteria and Limits

34

Category

D
Extreme event
resulting in two
or more
(multiple)
elements
removed or
Cascading out
of service
Note (d)

Contingencies
Initiating Event(s) and
Contingency Element(s)

System Limits or Impacts


System Stable
Loss of
Cascading
& both Thermal
Demand
Outages
and Voltage
or
Limits within
Curtailed
Applicable
Firm
Rating Note (a)
Transfers
3 Fault with Delayed Clearing (stuck breaker or protection system
Elevate for risks and
failure) (Note (e)):
consequences:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Generator
Transmission (Circuit)
Transformer
Bus Section

3 Fault with Normal Clearing (Note (e)) :


5. Breaker (failure or internal Fault)
6. Loss of tower with three or more circuits
7. Loss of all transmission lines on a common right-of way
8. Loss of a substation (one voltage level plus transformers)
9. Loss of a switching station (one voltage level plus transformers)
10. Loss of all generating units at a station.
11. Loss of large Load or major Load center
12. Failure of a fully redundant Special Protection System to operate
when required
13. Operation, partial operation, or misoperation of a fully redundant
Special Protection System in response to an event or abnormal
system condition for which it was not intended to operate
14. Impact of severe power swings or oscillation from Disturbances
in another Interconnected Systems

May involve
substantial loss of
customer Demand
and generation in
a widespread area
or areas
Portions or all of
the
interconnection
systems may or
may not achieve a
new, stable
operating point.
Evaluation of
these events may
require joint
studies with
neighboring
systems.

Notes:
(a) Applicable rating refers to the applicable Normal and Emergency facility thermal Rating (see table
4.11) or system voltage limit as determined and consistently applied specified in section 4.1 of this
Standard. Applicable Ratings may include Emergency Ratings applicable for short durations as
required to permit operating steps necessary to maintain system control.
(b) Planned or controlled interruption of electric supply to radial customers or some local Network
customers connected to or supplied by the Faulted element or by the affected area, may occur in certain
areas without impacting the overall reliability of the interconnected transmission systems. To prepare
for the next contingency, system adjustments are permitted, including curtailments of contracted firm
power transfers.
(c) Depending on system design and expected system impacts, the controlled interruption of electric
supply to customers (load shedding), the planned removal from service of certain generation, and/or the
curtailment of contracted firm power transfers maybe necessary to maintain the overall reliability of the
interconnected transmission systems.
(d) A number of extreme contingencies that are listed under Category D and judged to be critical will be
selected for evaluation. It is not expected that all possible facility outages under each listed contingency
of Category D will be evaluated.
(e) Normal clearing is when the protection system operates as designed and the Fault is cleared in the time
normally expected with proper functioning of the installed protection systems (see table 4.7). Delayed
clearing of a Fault is due to failure of any protection system component such as a relay, circuit breaker,
or current transformer, and not because of an intentional design delay. Three phase delayed clearing is
when a three phase fault is cleared in normal clearing time followed by a SLG fault cleared after a
delay time (to represent the single pole of a stuck breaker or protection system failure). Typical delay
times are 250 milliseconds
(f) System assessment may exclude these events where multiple circuit lowers are used over short
distances (e.g. substation entrance, river crossings).

Transmission System Reliability Standards

Chapter 4:Performance Criteria and Limits

35

Transmission System Power


Quality Standards
Effective January 1, 2006

Version 2.0
Edition 1.0

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD, 2006


Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Contents

36

Contents
TRANSMISSION SYSTEM POWER QUALITY STANDARDS ..............................36
CONTENTS......................................................................................................................37
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION...................................................................................38
1.1
1.2

POWER QUALITY DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS ............................................38


SCOPE .................................................................................................................40

CHAPTER 2: TRANSMISSION POWER QUALITY STANDARDS.......................41


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

VOLTAGE SAG OR VOLTAGE DIP ........................................................................41


VOLTAGE STEP CHANGE .....................................................................................42
VOLTAGE FLUCTUATONS AND FLCKER .............................................................42
HARMONICS ........................................................................................................44
PHASE UNBALANCE AND TRACTION LOAD .........................................................46
STEP CHANGES OF POWER ..................................................................................49

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Contents

37

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1

Power Quality Definition and Requirements

1.1.1

In this Standard, Power Quality is defined as the degree to which the Voltage at
the point of connection to the User of the Transmission System is maintained to be
Sinusoidal at declared rated Voltage and Frequency within the stipulated limits.

1.1.2

Major Power Quality Problems that are associated with the Transmission System
is Voltage Sag or Voltage Dip. Voltage sag would occur in the System during the
short-circuit fault. The most severe Voltage Sag would occur at the fault location
and the Voltage Sag effects would be propagated throughout the Systems with the
magnitude of the Voltage Dip attenuated.

1.1.3

Voltage Sag could also be caused by short circuit faults in Users System and
propagated to other Users Systems through the Transmission Systems or through
the Distribution System as the case may be. Majority of problems associated with
harmonics are caused by non-linear loads that draw non-sinusoidal current from
the system and thus causing the supply voltage to be distorted. Frequent switching
of large load such as motors is also another source of power quality problems that
result in voltage flicker to be experienced by other Users.

1.1.4

The approaches to resolving power quality problems depend on the types of the
power quality problems. Both utility and Customers have their individual roles
and responsibilities in resolving power quality problems. Individual Customer
shall ensure that any non-linear load to be connected to the Transmission System
does not produce harmonic currents that would result in voltage at Point of
Common Coupling to be distorted beyond the limits as set out in section 2.4 of
this Standard. Likewise the utility shall continue to monitor and ensure that
Harmonic limits as specified in section 2.4 are complied with.

1.1.5

Voltage sag could affect sensitive loads usually connected at low voltage network
of the Customers installation. Not withstanding the presence of several voltage
transformations from transmission voltage to low voltage, voltage sag caused by
Transmission faults can affect Customers voltage sensitive loads and the effect is
more pronounced during severe three-phase faults on the Transmission System. It
shall be the responsibility of the utility to provide appropriate information on
voltage sag and for the individual customer to ensure sufficient ride-through
capability of the voltage sensitive equipment.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 1: Introducton

38

1.1.6

The Standards contained in this document specify the Power Quality requirements
of the bulk supply point that delivers electricity supply to the Distribution System
and other bulk supply Users in terms of stable voltage and frequency within
specific limits so that Generator, TNB Transmission equipment or Consumers
equipment directly connected to the Transmission System can operate safely
within its design performance without suffering undue damage or breakdown.

1.1.7

The requirements and limits specified in this Standard shall also be complied with
by all Users connected or intending to be connected to the Transmission System.

1.1.8

Consequently these Standards also determine the investment required in provision


and/or procurement of Supplementary Services such as Reactive Power, Active
Power response, hot standby generation, fast start generation, demand control and
black start by TNB Transmission. They also indicate the investment required both
in the Transmission and Distribution Systems for containing harmonics, voltage
unbalance as well as the permitted types and levels of special Loads adversely
affecting the power quality and requirements for compensation plant to limit their
adverse effects. Compliance with these Standards is the responsibility of TNB
Transmission, Generators, Distributors, Network Operators and Non-Embedded
Customers.

1.1.9

In order to achieve the required Transmission Power Quality these Standards will
be used by TNB Transmission in planning, developing, maintaining and operating
the Transmission System as well as in connecting generation and demand to the
System. In turn the equipment utilised by the Generators, TNB Transmission,
Distributors and Customers also need to comply with the provisions of this
Standard. Compliance with these Standards is therefore not optional and where a
connecting partys plant or equipment is likely to be non-compliant at the
planning stage then such plant and/or equipment will not be energised until
appropriate remedial measures are put in place and are fully functional. In
addition, TNB Transmission shall put in place appropriate monitoring facilities to
ensure compliance with the provisions of this Standard as part of its Licence.

1.1.10 In cases where, the nature and operation of the new types of plant and equipment
to be connected to the Transmission System is perceived to be likely to cause
problems to other customers and users of the System, but not fully covered by
this Standard, appropriate remedial measures shall be put in place based on expert
advice within a mutually agreed time period.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 1: Introducton

39

1.2

Scope

1.2.1

This Standard covers most of the power quality related phenomena generated by
various types of plant and equipment connected to the Transmission System. In
each particular case the Transmission Power Quality that should be maintained is
indicated together with the remedial approach and responsibilities of parties.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 1: Introducton

40

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

2.1

Voltage Sag or Voltage Dip

2.1.1

Voltage sag, dip or swell is the transient phenomena which can affect the
voltage level and is usually experienced during System faults and the subsequent
recovery period. These phenomena can adversely affect some customer equipment
that are sensitive to such changes. This Standard does not specifically cover
voltage sag, dip or swell.

2.1.2

The voltage sags are caused by faults on the Transmission System due to short
circuits incidents which are cleared by System Protection. The nature and
technical detail of such events is a function of the location of the connection point
on the System, the distance of the short circuit from the connection point and the
short-circuit level at the connection point, the severity (magnitude and duration) of
the short circuit. Voltage Sag may also be caused by short-circuit fault in one
Users System and propagated to other Users Systems through the Transmission
System.

2.1.3

In most cases, the Transmission System faults were cleared within the primary
protection fault clearing time. Statistics of monitored events of voltage sags
indicates that not all faults on the Transmission System affect voltage sensitive
customer demand. However for certain severe fault, the voltage sag may be felt by
voltage sensitive customer up to (three hundred) 300km away from the fault
location.

2.1.4

There is no single Standard for voltage sag but statistical information is available
from TNB Transmission in terms of past records of voltage sag events. If Users
or prospective Users have equipment which are sensitive to voltage sags, they can
request such statistical information from TNB at the application stage to enable
compatibility assessment to be carried out, if necessary. Whenever necessary,
remedial actions may be rendered by TNB and/or the affected Customer through
appropriate Agreement.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

41

2.2

Voltage Step Change

2.2.1

Under System operational conditions, elements of the Transmission System need


to be switched to optimise the operation of the System, to facilitate maintenance
and to isolate faulty equipment for repair. Under such operational activities,
switching of any element or equipment shall not cause unacceptable Voltage Step
Changes. The voltage change is deemed unacceptable if it changes by more than
the limits set out in Secton 4.2.4 of the Transmission System Reliability
Standards.

2.2.2

Limits of voltage changes due to Load, frequent and infrequent operational


switching of Load both by TNB and the User are defined in Secton 4.2.5 of the
Transmission System Reliability Standards.

2.3

Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker

2.3.1

The limits of Flicker that are acceptable on the Transmission System are in
accordance with the Engineering Recommendation P28, Issued by The
Electricity Council of UK in 1989 entitled Planning Limits for Voltage
Fluctuation Caused by Industrial, Commercial and Domestic Equipment in the
United Kingdom (ER P28). TNB Transmission Division uses the procedures
contained in this document to plan the connection of Fluctuating Loads and
applies the limits therein in measuring and monitoring the levels of Flicker at such
points of connection.

2.3.2

In accordance with ER P28, voltage fluctuations at a Point of Common Coupling


with a fluctuating Load directly connected to the Transmission System shall not
exceed:
(1) 1% of the voltage level for step changes, which may occur repetitively. Any
large voltage excursions other than step changes or less frequent step changes
may be allowed up to a level of 3% provided that this does not constitute a risk
to the Transmission System or, in TNBs view, any other party connected to
the System.
(2) The planning limits for the Short and Long Term Flicker Severity applicable
for Fluctuating Loads connected to the Transmission System are as set out in
the table below (see table 2.1).

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

42

Table 2.1: Maximum allowable flicker severity


Transmission System
Absolute Short
Voltage Level at which the
Term Flicker
Fluctuating Load is
Severity (Pst)
Connected
500, 275 and 132kV
Less than 132kV

0.8
1.0

Absolute Long
Term Flicker
Severity (Plt)
0.6
0.8

2.3.3

In connecting a Fluctuating Load at a particular point or Point of Common


Coupling it is necessary to assess the total Flicker due to the Fluctuating Load
itself and the background Flicker measured at that point. In assessing the total
Flicker TNB shall use the so called RSS Rule. This assessment is carried out by
the RSS Rule by obtaining the sum of the squares of the Flicker from the
Fluctuating Load and the background Flicker, with the square root of this sum
yielding the total assessed Flicker at that Point of Common Coupling due to the
specific Fluctuating Load and the background Flicker at that point.

2.3.4

Connection of more than one Fluctuating Load at the same Point of Common
Coupling or addition of further Fluctuating Load at the same location is carried
out on a first come first served basis on the Transmission System. This means
that whilst the first Fluctuating Load may be within the allowable Flicker limits
and not require any Flicker mitigation or compensation equipment, the second
Fluctuating Load which may cause violation of Flicker limits will be obliged to
invest in appropriate Flicker mitigation or compensation equipment. At the
planning stage, in carrying out the assessment of the total Flicker due to more than
one Fluctuating Load connecting at a particular Points of Common Coupling TNB
shall use the methodology described in P28.

2.3.5

In assessing level of Flicker due to a Fluctuating Load at the planning stage the
assessment will be carried out at a realistic Weak System operating condition
giving the minimum number of connections with which that point on the System
can be operated within normal voltage limits with maintenance outages or
following Secured Contingency Events. This condition shall be considered as
representative of the type of System conditions under which the Flicker due to a
Fluctuating Load will be at its highest value as the voltage fluctuations due to the
Fluctuating Load will be at their highest level under such conditions.

2.3.6

If under the operating conditions described in 2.3.5 the Flicker due to a


Fluctuating Load exceeds the limits then Flicker compensation which will reduce
the Flicker to an acceptable level shall be installed. For the avoidance of doubt the
acceptance Criteria for Flicker is the 95% values of Short and Long Term Flicker
Severity i.e., Pst and Plt will be below the limits specified in the above table. Here
the 95% values mean the 95th percentile of the cumulative probability function of

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

43

the values of Flicker Severity measured and observed during the total observation
period. The System overall performance yardstick for the level of Flicker
reduction to be achieved shall be based upon enabling connection of other similar
Fluctuating Load and/or permitting for future extension and development of the
location with further Fluctuating Load installations. The Flicker compensation
method and equipment to be used shall be of a type that does not cause resonance
problems with the existing and intended future developments of the Transmission
System.
2.3.7

If the permissible Flicker limits cannot be met even with installation of Flicker
compensation at a particular Points of Common Coupling at a particular System
voltage level then connection of the Fluctuating Load at a higher voltage level or
elsewhere in the System shall be considered. The connection point of choice will
need to have to experience lower voltage fluctuations than the first connection
point considered under the operational conditions in 2.3.5.

2.4

Harmonics

2.4.1

The limits of Harmonics that are acceptable on the Transmission System are in
accordance with the IEC Standard 61000-3-6 Assessment of emission limits for
distorting loads in MV and HV power systems. TNB Transmission uses the
procedures contained in this document to plan the connection of Loads producing
Harmonics and applies the limits therein in measuring and monitoring the levels
of harmonics at such points of connection.

2.4.2

All plant and equipment connected to the Transmission System, and that part of
the Transmission System at each connection site, should be capable of
withstanding the following distortions of the voltage waveform in respect of
harmonic content. The maximum total levels of Harmonic Distortion at any
connection point on the Transmission System from all sources under both planned
outage and Secured Contingency Event conditions, unless abnormal conditions
prevail, shall not exceed:
(1) at 500kV, 275kV and 132kV, a maximum planning limit for Total Harmonic
Distortion of 3% with no individual Harmonic Voltage greater than that shown
in the table 2.2;
(2) infrequent short duration peaks may be permitted by TNB to exceed the above
levels for harmonic distortion;
(3) TNB will make an assessment for the connection of each Load to the
Transmission System, which may result in harmonic emission limits being
specified for these Loads in the relevant Agreement. The assessment will take

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

44

into account the position of existing and prospective Users Plant and
Apparatus in relation to harmonic emissions. Users must ensure that
connection of distorting Loads to their User Systems do not cause any
harmonic emission limits specified in the Connection Agreement to be
exceeded; and
(4) Users shall ensure that the Immunity Level of their plant and Apparatus is
compatible with the electromagnetic disturbances present on the System
including harmonics.
2.4.3

In assessing level of Harmonic Distortion and Individual Harmonic Levels at the


planning stage the assessment will be carried out at a realistic Weak System
operating condition giving the minimum number of connections with which that
point on the System can be operated within normal voltage limits with
maintenance outages or following Secured Contingency Events. This condition
shall be considered as representative of the type of System conditions under which
the Harmonic Distortion and Individual Harmonic Levels will be at their highest
value.

2.4.4

If under the operating conditions described in 2.4.3 the Harmonic Distortion and
Individual Harmonic Level due to the Load exceed the limits then harmonic filters
which will reduce the harmonics to an acceptable level shall be installed to bring
the levels within the limits. The System overall performance yardstick for the
level of harmonic reduction to be achieved shall be based upon enabling
connection of other similar harmonic producing Load and/or permitting for future
extension and development of the location with further harmonic producing Load
installations. The harmonic filters to be installed shall be of a type that does not
cause resonance problems with the existing and intended future developments of
the Transmission System.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

45

Table 2.2: Indicative Values of Planning Levels for Harmonic Voltage in HV


(35 < kV < 230) and EHV (kV >230)
Odd Harmonics
Odd Harmonics
Even Harmonics
(Non-multiple of 3)
(Multiple of 3)
Order
Harmonic
Order
h
Voltage (%)
h
3
2.0
5
9
2.0
7
15
1.5
11
21
1.5
13
>21
1.0
17
1.0
19
0.7
23
0.7
25
0.2+0.5(25/h)
>25
The total harmonic distortion level is 3%

Harmonic
Voltage (%)
2.0
1.0
0.3
0.2
0.2

Order
h
2
4
6
8
10
12
>12

Harmonic
Voltage (%)
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2

2.5

Phase Unbalance and Traction Load

2.5.1

In planning the limits on voltage unbalance, TNB makes reference to


Engineering Recommendation (E/R) P24, issued by the Electricity Council of
UK in 1984 entitled AC Traction Supplies to British Rail and its successor
document P 29 issued in 1990 entitled Planning Limits for Voltage unbalance in
the United Kingdom.

2.5.2

In all power Systems including the Transmission System, the impedances of each
phase of the transmission lines are unequal due to differences in their physical
geometry, and therefore create a voltage unbalance at the termination points of the
lines. As a general rule, the longer the line the higher this unbalance will be. In
addition the demands connected to each phase at a Demand Supply Point are not
precisely equal as customers connected to individual phases utilise their
equipment at varying times. Also there are large single-phase connected demands
such as railway traction Loads connected at various points. Together these factors
create a level of unbalance between the phases of the transmission lines within the
Transmission System causing the so called negative phase sequence currents to
circulate in the Transmission System which can be harmful to plant equipment if
they exceed certain levels.

2.5.3

To prevent the circulation of excessive negative sequence currents conductor


transpositions are applied over the length of line to reduce the level of inequality
between the phase impedances of the transmission lines in the Transmission

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

46

System. This process requires a change in the physical position of each phase
conductor over the length of the line. Thus a full transposition would involve each
phase conductor to physically occupy a different position at each third of the line
length. This undertaking by itself is sometimes not sufficient to reduce the
circulating negative phase sequence currents due to the connected single-phase
and unbalanced three-phase Loads. In such cases it is necessary to install
compensation equipment at the point of connection of the specific Load to achieve
balanced voltages within specified limits given below.
2.5.4

All plant and equipment connected to the Transmission System, and that part of
the Transmission System at each connection site, should be capable of
withstanding the following distortions of the voltage waveform in respect of Phase
Unbalance at the planning stage.
1) Under planned outage conditions, the maximum negative phase sequence
component of the phase voltage on the Transmission System should remain
below 1% unless abnormal conditions prevail (P29 limit is not exceeding 2%
for 1 minute).
2) Under the planned outage conditions, infrequent short duration peaks with a
maximum value of 2% are permitted for Phase Unbalance, subject to the prior
agreement of TNB under the connection agreement. TNB will only agree
following a specific assessment of the impact of these levels on TNB and
other Users plant and equipment with which it is satisfied.
3) At the terminals of a Users installation or specific Load the unbalance voltage
shall not exceed 1% for 5 occasions within any thirty (30) minute time period.
4) In terms of traction Loads connected to the Transmission System the
acceptable limits of unbalance are in accordance with Engineering
Recommendation (E/R) P24, issued by the Electricity Council of UK in 1984
entitled AC Traction Supplies to British Rail and its successor document P
29 issued in 1990 Planning Limits for Voltage unbalance in the United
Kingdom. TNB Transmission uses the procedures contained in this document
to plan the connection of Loads producing Unbalance and applies the limits
therein in measuring and monitoring the levels of unbalance at such points of
connection.

2.5.5

In assessing level of Unbalance at the planning stage the assessment will be


carried out at a realistic Weak System operating condition giving the minimum
number of connections with which that point on the System can be operated
within normal voltage limits with maintenance outages or following Secured
Contingency Events. This condition shall be considered as representative of the
type of System conditions under which the Unbalance will be at its highest value.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

47

2.5.6

If under the operating conditions described in 2.5.4 the Unbalance due to the Load
exceeds the limits then balancing compensation equipment which will reduce the
unbalance to an acceptable level shall be installed to bring the levels within the
limits. The System overall performance yardstick for the level of unbalance
reduction to be achieved shall be based upon enabling connection of other similar
unbalance producing Load and/or permitting for future extension and
development of the location with further unbalance producing Load installations.
The balancing compensation equipment to be installed shall be of a type that does
not cause resonance problems with the existing and intended future developments
of the Transmission System.

2.5.7

Current TNB practice requires that 500kV overhead line with more than fifty (50)
km in length to be fully transposed.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

48

2.6

Step Changes of Power

2.6.1

The magnitude of the step power constraint shall be as follows:


(1) The magnitude of step power for a single Load variation is limited to 50MW
or 50% of the full capacity whichever is the lower.
(2) In view of the technical difficulties of fulfilling the requirement in (1) above,
special approval shall be sought from TNB in deciding a suitable quantum of
step Load at the initial supply application stage.
(3) The magnitude of the step power shall be maintained for sixty (60) seconds
before any other step power may be applied.

2.6.2

In the case of an arc furnace installation the following restrictions will apply:
(1) No initial arcing is to be carried out simultaneously for any combination of
arcing Loads that lead to a step power magnitude greater than that described in
Section 2.6.1 (1) of this Standard.
(2) Suitable interlocking Systems shall be provided to ensure compliance with (1)
above.

Transmission System Power Quality Standards

Chapter 2: Transmission Power Quality Standards

49

Glossary and Definitions for Transmission System


Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power
Quality Standards

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD, 2006

50

TERM
Active Power

DEFINITION
The product of voltage and the in-phase component of alternating current
measured in units of watts and standard multiples thereof, i.e.:
1000 Watts = 1 kW
1000 kW = 1 MW
1000 MW = 1 GW
1000 GW = 1 TW

Adequacy

Adequacy of an electrical System is the ability of the System to supply


each customers electrical demand and energy requirement at all times
with due consideration to scheduled and credible unscheduled outages of
elements of that System.

Apparatus

All types of equipment in which electrical conductors are used, supported


or of which they may form a part or High Voltage electrical circuits
forming part of a System on which safety precautions may be applied to
allow work and/or testing to be carried out.

Apparent Power

The product of voltage and of alternating current measured in units of


voltamperes and standard multiples thereof, i.e.:
1000 VA = 1 kVA
1000 kVA = 1 MVA

Availability

A measure of the time a Generating Unit, transmission line, or other


facility is capable of providing service, whether or not it actually is in
service. Typically, this measure is expressed as a percentage of
Availability of the item for the period under consideration.

Available
Transfer
Capacity
Bulk Supply
Points

Power transfer capacity available as defined in the appropriate


Interconnection Agreement with an External System.

Busbar

The common connection point of two or more Transmission Circuits.

Connection
Agreements

Technical Agreements or Technical Sections of Power Purchase


Agreements between TNB and all Generators, Distributors, Non-

For the purpose of defining the boundaries between the Main


Interconnected Transmission System and Bulk Supply Point
transformer circuits, the Bulk Supply Point is taken to be the connection
point between the User System and the Transmission System.

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

51

TERM

DEFINITION
Embedded Customers and Network Operators
Transmission System excluding External Systems.

connected

to

Criteria/
Criterion

A defined set of conditions under which, a power System is judged to be


operating or capable of operating, without violating its design and
operational Standards.

Damping Ratio

A term used to describe the rate at which the amplitude of a Power


System oscillation frequency, represented by a complex pair of
eigenvalues (j), will decay as given by the expression:

(%) =

100

where is termed as the Damping Ratio.


DC Link
Monopole

An HVDC system comprising rectifier and inverter and uses one


conductor for connection with metallic or ground return.

Demand
Connection
Criteria

The Criteria which ensure Adequacy of transformer capacity to meet the


Distribution Systems or Network Operators or Non-Embedded
Customers demand connected at Demand Connection Points and
Demand Supply Points across the System.

Demand
Connection
Point

The high voltage side of a Demand Supply Point.

Demand Supply
Point

A point of supply from the Transmission System to Distribution


Networks, Network Operators or Non-Embedded Customers.

Directly
Connected
Customers

Users connected directly to the Transmission System without any


connection through and intermediate Distribution System

Distribution
Reliability
Standard

Distribution Reliability Standard or Distribution Security Standard,


which relates to provision of sufficient Distribution Capacity, operational
facilities, maintenance activity and co-ordination with transmission and
embedded generation functions to enable continued supply of electric

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

52

TERM

DEFINITION
energy to the customers connected to the Distribution System.

Distribution
Code

A set of technical rules setting the Criteria and Standards to be complied


with in planning the development of, connection to and operation of a
Distribution System, receiving bulk power from the Main
Interconnected Transmission System and which may also contain
generation plant, with legal status.

Distribution
Function

The particular functional unit of a person or company or User who


distributes electricity under a licence granted by the Energy Commission
under the Electricity Act 1990 acting in its capacity as a distributor in
Peninsular Malaysia.

Distribution
Power Quality
Standards

These Standards specify the quality of the supply to be delivered at the


connection point of the consumer to the Distribution System, in terms of
stable voltage and frequency within specific limits so that consumer
equipment connected to the System can operate safely within its design
performance without suffering undue damage or breakdown. These
Standards also indicate the investment required both in the Distribution
System for containing harmonics, voltage unbalance as well as the
permitted types and levels of special equipment and Loads adversely
affecting the power quality and requirements for compensation plant to
limit their adverse effects.

Distribution
System

The System consisting (wholly or mainly) of electric lines which are


owned or operated by a Distribution Company and used for the
distribution of electricity from Bulk Supply Points or Generating Units
or other connections to External Systems to the point of delivery to
Customers, or other Users, and includes any Plant and Apparatus and
meters owned or operated by the Distribution Company in connection
with the distribution of electricity, but does not include any part of the
Transmission System.

Distributors

A person or company who distributes electricity under a licence granted by


the Energy Commission under the Electricity Act 1990 acting in its
capacity as a distributor in Peninsular Malaysia.

Double Circuit
Overhead Line

A transmission line which consists of two circuits sharing the same towers
for at least one span or more.

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

53

TERM

DEFINITION

Electric Power
System

All the elements encompassing the production, transmission, distribution,


and delivery electric power to Users.

External
Interconnections

Apparatus for the transmission of electricity to or from the Transmission


System or a Distribution System into or out of an External System. For
the avoidance of doubt, a single External Interconnection may comprise
several circuits operating in parallel.

Facility
Contractual
Available
Capacity (in
MW)

The available capacity of a generating in MW as agreed in the Power


Purchase Agreement (PPA) between the Generator and TNB as the Single
Buyer and precisely defined in individual PPA.

Fault Outage(s)

An outage due to an event occuring on electric system such as a short


circuit, a broken wire or intermittent correction.

Flicker

Flicker is the sensation experienced by the human visual system when


subjected to changes occurring in the illumination intensity of light
sources. Persistently and rapidly varying illumination due to the System
voltage changes caused by rapidly varying Loads such as arc furnaces can
cause annoyance and adverse effects.

Flicker Severity
(Long Term)

A value derived from 12 successive measurements of Flicker Severity


(Short Term) (over a two hour period) and a calculation of the cube root
of the mean sum of the cubes of 12 individual measurements, as further set
out in Engineering Recommendation P28.

Flicker Severity
(Short Term)

A measure of the visual severity of Flicker derived from the time series
output of a Flicker meter over a ten (10) minute period and as such
provides an indication of the risk of customer complaints.

Fluctuating
Load

These are the types of non-linear Loads connected to Electric Power


Systems causing rapid voltage fluctuations due to rapid variations in their
active and reactive requirements dictated by the nature of the associated
process or the process control requirements. Typical examples of such
Loads are resistance welding machines, rolling mills, arc furnaces, arc
welders, saw/woodchip mills, rock crushers and large scale lasers.

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

54

TERM

DEFINITION

Frequency

The number of alternating current cycles per second (expressed in Hertz)


at which the Transmission System is running.

Generating Unit

Any Apparatus which produces electricity.

Generation
Adequacy or
Generation
Security
Standard

Generation Adequacy or Generation Security Standard relates to


provision of sufficient firm Generation Capacity to meet the Total
System Demand with a sufficient margin with allowance for plant
maintenance, Plant breakdown and Plant Unavailability, i.e., scheduled
and unscheduled generating Plant outages, to meet the annual and daily
electric energy demand without the need to disconnect customers at
critical periods or cause interruptions in supply.

Generation
Capacity

The sum of the rated outputs of Generating Units connected to the


Transmission System including allowances for reduction in the rating of
units.

Generation
Capacity
Requirements

The total installed Generation Capacity required to meet the peak


System demand during a specific period (normally a year) without
violating the requirements specified in the Generation Reliability
Standard.

Generation
Reliability
Standards

Standards relating to generation Reliability. See definition of


Generation Adequacy and Security Standard.

Generation
Circuit

The sole electrical connection between one or more Generating Units and
the Main Interconnected Transmission System, i.e. a radial circuit
which if removed would disconnect the Generating Units.

Generation Point A point at which a Generating Unit or a CCGT module, as the case may
be, which is directly connected to the Transmission System, connects to
of Connection
the TNB Transmission System. For the purpose of defining the
boundaries between the Main Interconnected Transmission System and
Generation Circuits, the Generation Point of Connection is taken to be
at point between the HV bushing and circuit breaker as per the Agreement

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

55

TERM
Generator

DEFINITION
A person or company who generates electricity under a licence granted by
the Energy Commission under the Electricity Act 1990 acting in its
capacity as a Generator in Peninsular Malaysia.

Grid Code

A document that sets out the principles governing the relationship between
the GSO, Energy Commission, Single Buyer and all Users of the Grid
System.

Infrequent
Infeed Loss Risk

This is the Infrequent Infeed Loss Risk which is secured by TNB by


long term provision of sufficient dynamic spinning reserve, Reactive
Power reserve, and defence measures such as under Frequency Load
and/or under voltage shedding, to avoid deviation of Frequency beyond
the extremely rare limits, and voltage outside the unacceptable limits,
defined in Chapter 4 of the Transmission System Reliability Standard.
The Infrequent Infeed Loss Risk for the Peninsular Malaysian Power
System is defined as 2100MW and will remain at that value until review
of this Standard.

Insufficient
Voltage
Performance
Margins

Insufficient Voltage Performance Margin occurs when the margin to the


maximum possible transmitted power is less than that defined in Section 2
of Chapter 4 of the Transmission System Relibaility Standard.

Intact System

This is the Transmission System with no Outage i.e. with no arranged


outages (e.g. for maintenance) and no unplanned outages (e.g. fault).

Largest Loss of
Power Infeed
Risk

This is the Largest of Loss of Power Infeed risk which is secured by


TNB by long term provision of sufficient dynamic spinning reserve and
Reactive Power reserve to avoid deviation of Frequency and voltage
beyond normal operational limits defined in Chapter 4 of the
Transmission System Reliability Standard for more than sixty (60)
seconds. The Largest Loss of Power Infeed Risk for the Peninsular
Malaysian Power System is defined as 700MW and will remain at that
value until review of this Standard.

Large Power
Stations

A Power Station with a Registered Capacity of 100MW or more.

Load

The Active, Reactive or Apparent Power, drawn by the particular

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

56

TERM

DEFINITION
installation or equipment connected to the Transmission System.

Loss of Load
Expectation

Refer to Loss of Load Probability

Loss of Load
Probability

A reliability index that indicates the probability that some portion of the
peak demand will not be satisfied by the available generating capacity as
defined in these standards. It may also be expressed as an expected
duration in a year for which the peak demand is not being met, in which
case it is referred as Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE).

Loss of Power
Infeed

The output of a Generating Unit or a group of Generating Units or the


import from External Systems disconnected from the System by a
Secured Contingency Event, less the demand disconnected from the
System by the same Secured Contingency Event. For the avoidance of
doubt if, following such a Secured Contingency Event, demand
associated with the normal operation of the affected Generating Unit(s) is
automatically transferred to a supply point which is not disconnected from
the System, e.g. the station board, then this shall not be deducted from the
total Loss of Power Infeed to the System. For the purpose of the
operational Criteria, the Loss of Power Infeed, includes the output of a
single Generating Unit, CCGT Module, boiler, or one pole of DC Link
loss as a result of an event.

Loss of Supply
Capacity

This is the reduction in the supply capacity at a Grid Supply Point as a


result of TNBs failure to maintain the potential to provide the supply
capacity in full. For the avoidance of doubt, where TNB does maintain the
potential to provide a supply but, following an outage, demand is lost
because of circuit configurations not under the control of TNB, that lost
supply does not constitute Loss of Supply Capacity.

Main
Interconnected
Transmission
System

Main Interconnected Transmission System (MITS) comprises all the


500kV and 275kV elements of the Transmission System but excludes
Generation Circuits, transformer connections to lower voltage Systems
and External Interconnections between the Transmission System and
External Systems.

Main Protection

Protection equipment or system expected to have priority in initiating


either a fault clearance or an action to terminate an abnormal condition in

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

57

TERM

DEFINITION
an Electrical Power System.

Malaysian
Electricity
Supply Industry

All the parties associated with the generation, transmission, distribution


and use of electrical energy and the institutions related to the governance
thereof in Peninsular Malaysia.

Marshalling
Substations

A substation which connects circuits from more than two line routes.

Network
Operator

A person with a System directly connected to the Transmission System


to which customers and/or Power Stations (not forming part of that
System) are connected, acting in its capacity as an operator of that System,
but shall not include a person who operates an External System.

Non-Embedded
Customer

A customer in Peninsular Malaysia, except for a Network Operator


acting in its capacity as such, receiving electricity direct from the
Transmission System irrespective of from whom it is supplied.

Normal
Operational
Limits

Limits are those parameters defined in the Standards to indicate the


performance of the System. The System is said to operating under
Normal Operational Limits when all those limits defined in the
Standards are met.

Peninsular
Malaysian
Electric Power
System

The Electric Power System in Peninsular Malaysia supplying the


demand, consisting of generation, transmission and distribution assets of
TNB, Independent Power Producers, Distributors, Network
Operators, Non-Embedded Customers and associated Networks.

Performance
Requirements
and Limits

These are the Performance Requirements and Limits derived from the
Standard which describe the performance Criteria and limits applicable
in the planning, operational planning and actual operation of the System
which should be complied with in ensuring Security of the System
together with the required quality of supply.

Phase Unbalance The inequality between the magnitudes of the three phase voltages at a
specific point on the Transmission System where there is an appreciable
difference due to either the inequalities between the Load connected to
each phase and/or the inequalities of transmission line impedances in each
Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

58

TERM

DEFINITION
phase due to their geometry.

Planned
Transfer
Condition

The Planned Transfer Condition is defined as the condition arising from


scaling the Registered Capacities of each directly connected Power
Station and embedded Large Power Station such that the total of the
scaled capacities is equal to the Peak Demand plus dynamic spinning
reserve for Frequency control and minus imports from External Systems.

Plant

Fixed and movable items used in the generation and/or supply and/or
transmission of electricity, other than Apparatus.

Point of
Common
Coupling

This is a point of connection of Fluctuating Loads to the TNB Electric


Power System where other customers which may be adversely affected by
such Loads are also connected.

Power Purchase
Agreement

A commercial agreement between TNB and a Generator for the purpose


of purchasing the power output of a particular generation Plant owned and
operated by the Generator. This agreement also contains technical clauses
relating to the connection and operation of the generation Plant.

Power Station

An installation comprising one or more Generating Units (even where


sited separately) owned and/or controlled by the same Generator, which
may reasonably be considered as being managed as one Power Station.

Pre-Fault
Planning Voltage
Limits
Prevailing
System
Conditions

The voltage limits applicable in planning studies are as defined in Section


4.2 of the Transmission System Reliability Standard

Primary
Transmission
Equipment

Any equipment installed on the Transmission System to enable bulk


transfer of power. This will include Transmission Circuits, Busbars, and
switchgear.

Protection

The provisions for detecting abnormal conditions on a System and


initiating fault clearance or actuating signals or indications.

These are conditions on the Transmission System prevailing at any given


time and will therefore normally include arranged outages (e.g. for
maintenance) and unplanned outages (e.g. fault).

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

59

TERM
Reactive Power

DEFINITION
The product of voltage and current and the sine of the phase angle between
them measured in units of voltamperes reactive and standard multiples
thereof, i.e.:
1000 VAr = 1 kVAr
1000 kVAr = 1 MVAr

Reactive Power
Reserve

The quantum of additonal reactive power from the Generating Units


and/or additional output from both static and dynamic reactive
compensation equipment to reach maximum reactive power output.

Registered
Capacity

In the case of a Generating Unit other than that forming part of a CCGT
Module, the normal full load capacity of a Generating Unit as declared
by the Generator, less the MW consumed by the Generating Unit
through the Generating Unit's unit transformer when producing the same
(the resultant figure being expressed in whole MW.) In the case of a
CCGT Module, the normal full load capacity of a CCGT Module as
declared by the Generator, being the Active Power declared by the
Generator as being deliverable by the CCGT Module at the Grid Entry
Point (or in the case of an Embedded CCGT Module, at the User
System Entry Point), expressed in whole MW.

Reliability

Reliability of an Electric Power System is defined as The degree of


performance of the elements of the bulk electric System that results in
electricity being delivered to customers within accepted Standards and in
the amount desired.
The level of Reliability may be measured by the frequency, duration,
and magnitude of adverse effects on the electricity supply.
A reliable Electric Power System is one that can cater for customer's
electrical requirement with very few supply interruptions. It can be
addressed by considering two basic and functional aspects of electric
System i.e. Adequacy and Security.

Robustness

The ability of the System to contain the extent of a disturbance resulting


from Unsecured Contingency Event into a wide scale outage or collapse.

RSS Rule

A rule used to assess at the planning stage, the resultant Flicker due to a
Fluctuating Load connecting at a particular Point of Common Coupling
and the background Flicker at that point. The assessment is carried out by
obtaining the sum of the square of Flicker from the Fluctuating Load and

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

60

TERM

DEFINITION
the background Flicker and the square root of this sum will yield the total
assessed Flicker at that Point of Common Coupling due to the specific
Fluctuating Load and the background Flicker at that point in accordance
with the procedure defined in P28.

Secured
Contingency
Event

A contingency which would be considered for the purposes of assessing


System Security and which must not result in the losss of supply/demand
and cause the remaining Transmission System to be in breach of the
Security Criteria with respect to performance limit.

Security

The ability of the Electric Power System to withstand pre-defined


specific types of sudden disturbances such as electric short circuits or
unanticipated loss of System facilities.

Spinning
Reserve

Unloaded generation that is synchronized and ready to serve additional


demand.

Standard

A complete description of the required


nominal and limit values of particular system variable(s)
under normal and defined contingency conditions.
Standards are:
Obligatory;
Measurable;
Monitored; and
require strict universal and unconditional compliance by all entities
connected to the Transmission System.
Standard as singular may also refer to a particular document containing
several Standards defined above.
Standard as singular carries a meaning of a document as in this
Standard. Standards as plural mean list of criteria, principles, measures
etc.

Steady State

A condition of a power System in which all automatic and manual


corrective actions have taken place and all of the operating quantities that
characterise it can be considered constant for the purpose of analysis.

Supplementary
Services

Services such as black start, MW response and reserve for Frequency


control, AGC, Reactive Power, reactive energy, stand-by reserve and
demand control.

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

61

TERM

DEFINITION

System

Any User System and/or the Transmission System, as the case may be.

System
Instability

System Instability means inability of electrical system to maintain a state


of equilibrium during normal and abnormal condition or distrubances. This
can take the form of the following:
(i)
poor damping - where electromechanical oscillations of
Generating Units are such that the resultant peak deviations in
machine rotor angle and/or speed at the end of a twenty (20)
second period remain in excess of 15% of the peak deviations at
the outset (i.e. the time constant of the slowest mode of
oscillation exceeds twelve seconds);
(ii)
pole slipping - where one or more synchronous Generating
Units lose synchronism with the remainder of the System; or
(iii)
voltage collapse - where progressive, fast or slow, voltage
decrease or increase develops such that it can lead to partial or
total System blackout.

Total System
Demand

The total electrical demand that must be supplied through the


Transmission System from generation and infeed through
interconnectors, and includes directly connected demand, demand at Bulk
Supply Points, exports through interconnectors and losses in the
Transmission System.

Tenaga Nasional
Berhad (TNB)

The registered incorporated company with separate generation,


transmission and distribution divisions licenced to undertake generation,
transmission and distribution activities under Electricity Act 1990 by the
Electricity Commission, owner operator of the Main Interconnected
Transmission System responsible for Security and integrity of the
Peninsular Malaysian Electric Power System.

Thermal Rating

The maximum amount of electric current that a transmission line or


electrical facility can conduct over a specific time period before it sustains
permanent damage by overheating or before it sags to a point that it violate
public safety requirement.

TNB
Distribution

Distribution Division of Tenaga Nasional Berhad(TNB).

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

62

TERM
TNB
Transmission

DEFINITION
Transmission Division of Tenaga Nasional Berhad(TNB).

Transmission
Adequacy or
Transmission
Security
Standard

Transmission Adequacy or Transmission Security Standard relates to


provision of sufficient Transmission Capacity, operational facilities,
maintenance activity and co-ordination with generation and Distribution
Functions to enable continued supply of electric energy to the distribution
companies and Directly Connected Customers.

Transmission
Capacity

The ability of a network or a connection to transmit electricity.

Transmission
Circuit

Part of the Transmission System between two or more circuit-breakers


which includes,for example, transformers, reactors, cables and overhead
lines but excludes Busbars and Generation Circuits.

Transmission
Equipment
Outage

The loss of any element of the Transmission System due to a planned


action or fault occurance.

Transmission
Function

Transmission Function of an electric power utility is the function which


owns and operates the Transmission System.

Transmission
Investment Plan

TNBs investment plans in developments of the Transmission System.

Transmission
Power Quality

The quality of the bulk supply to be delivered to the Distribution System,


at the bulk Demand Supply Points where the Distribution System is
connected to the Transmission System, in terms of voltage and
Frequency within specific limits so that Generator or consumer
equipment directly connected to the Transmission System can operate
safely within its design performance without suffering undue damage or
breakdown.

Transmission
System Power
Quality
Standards

The Standards, which specify the quality of the bulk supply to be


delivered to the Distribution System, at the bulk Demand Supply Points
where the Distribution System is connected to the Transmission System,
in terms of voltage and Frequency within specific limits so that
Generator or consumer equipment directly connected to the

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

63

TERM

DEFINITION
Transmission System can operate safely within its design performance
without suffering undue damage or breakdown.

Transmission
System
Reliability
Standard

The Standards, determining the investment requirements for capital Plant


and operational facilities; operation and maintenance practices; as well as
provision of services to ensure levels of Transmission System
performance in accordance with these Standards in the Peninsular
Malaysian Transmission System or Transmission System.

Transmission
Security
Standard

See Transmission Adequacy and Transmission Security Standard.

Transmission
System

The TNB Transmission System which comprises all the 500kV, 275kV,
132kV and 66kV elements but excludes Generation Circuits, transformer
connections to lower voltage Systems and External Interconnections
between the Transmission System and External Systems.

Unacceptably
High or Low
Frequency
Conditions

These are conditions where:


(i) the Steady State Frequency falls outside the statutory limits of
49.5Hz to 50.5Hz; or
(ii) a transient Frequency deviation on the Main Interconnected
Transmission System for Secured Contingency Event persists
outside the above statutory limits and does not recover to within
49.5Hz to 50.5Hz within sixty (60) seconds.

Unacceptable
Overloading

The overloading of any Primary Transmission Equipment beyond its


Thermal Rating.

Unacceptable
Voltage
Conditions

For Steady State Voltages, the voltage is unacceptable if it is outside the


limits set out in Section 4.2.3 of the Transmission System Reliability
Standard. For Voltage Step Changes, the voltage is unacceptable if it
changes by more than the limits set out Section 4.2.4 of the Transmission
System Reliability Standard

Unavailability

A measure of the time a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility


which is not capable of providing service, whether or not it actually is in
service. Typically, this measure is expressed as a percentage of
Unavailability of the item for the period under consideration.

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

64

TERM

DEFINITION

Unsecured
Contingency
Events

A set of rare unplanned simultaneous or multiple contingencies which


would be considered for the purposes of assessing System Security and
Robustness, which could cause disruption to parts of the System and
cause loss of customer demand against which special Protection and
defence measures are incorporated in planning and operating the
Transmission System. These type of contingency event are listed in
category C and D of Table 4.12.

User

Persons connected to and using the Transmission System.

Users Plant and


Apparatus

Plant and Apparatus owned and operated by a User.

User System

Any System owned or operated by a User comprising Generating Units


and/or Systems consisting (wholly or mainly) of electric lines used for the
distribution of electricity from Demand Supply Points.

Weak System

A system condition at minimum generation excluding short outages of


transmission lines.

Glossary and Defintions for Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power Quality
Standards

65

APPENDIX A Background to the Standards

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD, 2006

66

Appendix A
BACKGROUND TO THE STANDARDS

A1 Purpose
A1.1 The purpose and the objective of this appendix is to provide the background to
development and application of the Transmission System Reliability Standards
and Transmission System Power Quality Standards and their relationship to other
documents, technical codes and regulations governing the generation,
transmission, bulk delivery, distribution of electric power to all Users.
A1.2 The functions of Peninsular Malaysia Electric Power System, a comparison of
Peninsular Malaysia Standards with international standards, and the outline
contents of the Peninsular Malaysia Standards are shown in Figures A1 to A3.
Generation

Generation Circuit

Bulk
Production

Generation Point
of Connection

Main Interconnected
Transmission System

Bulk
Transport

Transmission

Demand Point
of Connection

1. Transmission System
Reliability Standards
2. Transmission System
Power Quality Standards

Transmission radial network


and demand points
Bulk
Delivery

Demand Supply
Point
DG

Distribution System
DG

Distribution
Embedded Distribution

Distribution

Distribution Supply
Security and Power
Quality Standards

Customers

Fig A1: The functions of the Peninsular Malaysian Interconnected Transmission


System and Outline of Associated Standards
Appendix A Background to the Standards

67

Generation

Generation
Security
Standard

Generation Circuit

Generation
Connection
Criteria

Generation Point
of Connection

Main Interconnected
Transmission System
Transmission

Demand Point
of Connection

Transmission
Security
Standard

Transmission
Security
Standard

Transmission
Planning &
Design Criteria

Transmission
System
Reliability
Standards

Transmission radial network


and demand points

Demand
Connection
Criteria
Quality of Supply
Standard
(Bulk Supply)

Demand Supply
Point

Distribution
Security
Standards

DG

Distribution System
DG

Customers

Transmission
System Power
Quality Standard

Distribution Supply
Security and Power
Quality Standards

Distribution
Power Quality
Standards

Embedded Distribution

Distribution

Generation
Security
Standard

Typical
International
Standards

Peninsular
Malaysia
Standards

Fig A2: The Reliability and Power Quality Standards applicable to the Peninsular
Malaysian Interconnected Transmission System shown in comparison with
International Security and Quality of Supply Standards

Appendix A Background to the Standards

68

Generation Circuit
Generation Point
of Connection

Transmission
Security
Standard

Main Interconnected
Transmission System

Transmission
System
Reliability
Standards

Transmission

Demand Point
of Connection

Transmission radial network


and demand points

Transmission
System Power
Quality Standard

Demand Supply
Point

Distribution
Supply
Security and
Power
Quality
Standards

DG

Distribution System
DG

Embedded Distribution

Distribution

Peninsular
Malaysia
Standards

Customers

Sufficient transmission and


transformer capacity to meet
the demand for specified
contingencies with limits set
in the Transmission System
Power Quality Standards
Criteria for planning & designing
the Transmission System that
will deliver the Transmission
system Reliability and Power
quality Standards

GRID CODE

Generation
Security
Standard

Sufficient transformer
capacity in accordance with
the size of demand
Limits of voltage, frequency,
harmonics, Flicker etc. variations
for specified contingencies

Sufficient distribution capacity


to meet the demand for specified
contingencies within the Power
Quality Limits

Fundamental
Contents of the
Standards

DISTRIBUTION CODE

Generation

Sufficient generation capacity


and connections to deliver full
generation output for normal
and specific Contingencies

Fig A3: The outline contents of Reliability/Security and Power Quality of Supply
Standards

Appendix A Background to the Standards

69

A2 Standards for Bulk Generation, Transmission and Delivery


A2.1 In large interconnected electric power Systems the Reliability and power quality
are of utmost importance as electricity is an essential commodity, which underpins
the economic activity. The Transmission Function of an electric power System is
pivotal to the objectives of:
(1) Developing and maintaining an efficient, coordinated and economical
Transmission System for bulk delivery of electricity supply;
(2) Ensuring continuous availability of sufficient energy supply for all consumers
with an adequate margin to ensure continuity of supply catering for equipment
maintenance and breakdown; and
(3) Ensuring defined levels of power quality which enables purchase, connection
and safe operation of equipment.
A2.2 In order to achieve the above objectives, the electric power Transmission System
needs to be planned, operated and maintained according to a set of Transmission
System Reliability and Power Quality Standards. The application of these
Standards determines the investment requirements for capital Plant and
operational facilities; operation and maintenance practices; as well as provision of
services for the Transmission System. The Transmission System Reliability
Standards include Generation Reliability Standards and Transmission Reliability
Standards which ensure Adequacy and secure planning and operation of
generation and transmission facilities.
A2.3 The transmission planning and development process involves the application of:
(1) Generation Reliability Standards;
(2) Transmission Reliability Standards; and
(3) Transmission System Power Quality Standards.
together with strategic, environmental and economic analysis, to determine the
planned development of the Transmission System to meet the forecast future
demand. The operational processes also involve application of these Standards in
operational planning, maintenance and actual operation of the power System
under the Prevailing System Conditions on the actual operational day. Whilst the
System operational conditions are carefully planned at the operational planning
stage, in the months, weeks and days ahead, the operation of the System on the
day is dictated by the prevailing actual climatic conditions, planned outages as
well as the unplanned events that occur on the day, such as unscheduled
generation breakdown, unplanned transmission outages due to faults and
exceptional demand. The Standards provide the limits and permissible excursions
of key System parameters in the form of Performance Requirements and Limits.
Appendix A Background to the Standards

70

Compliance with these limits enables secure and safe operation of the System
within the capability of the equipment constituting the System as well as
connected equipment.
A2.4 The Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power
Quality Standards mentioned above therefore determine a defined level of
Reliability and quality for electric power that is delivered at the bulk Demand
Supply Points where the Distribution System is connected to the Transmission
System as well as the points where Users are directly connected.
A2.5 The provision of levels of Transmission System performance in accordance with
these Standards is the duty of Transmission Function of Tenaga Nasional Berhad
(TNB) under Condition 13 of the TNB Licence granted under the Electricity
Supply Act, 1990 on 1st September 1990.

A3 Standards for Distribution


A3.1 In large electric power Systems the Distribution Systems are pivotal to achieving
the objectives of:
(1) Developing and maintaining an efficient, coordinated and economical
Distribution System for delivery of electricity supply from Bulk Supply Points
to consumers;
(2) Ensuring defined levels of power quality which enables purchase, connection
and safe operation of consumer equipment.
A3.2 In order to meet the objectives listed in paragraph A3.1, the electric power
Distribution System also needs to be planned, operated and maintained according
to a set of Distribution Supply Security and Power Quality Standards. The
development of these Standards, determine the investment requirements for capital
Plant and operational facilities; operation and maintenance practices; as well as
provision of services to ensure levels of Distribution System performance in
accordance with these Standards is the duty of the Distribution Function of Tenaga
Nasional Berhad (TNB) under Condition 14 of the TNB Licence granted under the
Electricity Supply Act, 1990 on 1st September 1990 and other Users with their
own Distribution Functions which are similarly licenced. There is also the
distribution planning process that involves the application of Distribution Supply
Security and Power Quality Standards, together with strategic, environmental and
economic analysis, to determine the planned development of the Distribution
System to meet the forecast future demand. The operational processes involve
application of these Standards in operational planning, maintenance and actual
Appendix A Background to the Standards

71

operation of the Distribution System under the Prevailing System Conditions on


the actual operational day.

A4 Processes and Procedures


A4.1 This Appendix A (and the main document) is solely concerned with the
Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power
Quality Standards which are the Standards applicable to bulk generation,
transmission and delivery of electric power. These Standards are also reflected in
the Grid Code which contains all the technical and operational codes governing
the planning, development, connection to and operation of the generation and bulk
Transmission System. The Distribution Supply Security and Power Quality
Standards are contained in a separate document and are reflected in the
Distribution Code which contains all the technical and operational codes
governing the planning, development, connection to and operation of the
Distribution System.
A4.2 The following distinct processes and their related Standards are recognised by
international best practice as paramount in ensuring Reliability, Security and
quality of supply in planning the development of an electric power System,
namely:
(1) Generation Security Standard which relates to provision of sufficient firm
Generation Capacity to meet the Demand with a sufficient margin with
allowance for Plant maintenance, Plant breakdown and Plant Unavailability,
i.e., scheduled and unscheduled generating Plant outages, to meet the annual
and daily electric energy demand without the need to disconnect customers at
critical periods or cause interruptions in supply. This Standard will be used by
TNB Transmission Division to forecast additional generation investment
requirements on an annual basis. The EC is responsible for implementation of
policies ensuring generation Adequacy.
(2) Transmission Security Standard which relates to provision of sufficient
Transmission Capacity, operational facilities, maintenance activity and coordination with generation and distribution functions to enable continued
supply of electric energy to the distribution companies and Directly Connected
Customers. This Standard is used by TNB Transmission Division to determine
the investment requirements for the Transmission System and transmission
operational facilities and implement the necessary measures.
(3) In the case of the Peninsular Malaysian Electric Power System the Generation
Security and Transmission Security requirements are combined and
recognised as the Transmission System Reliability Standards.

Appendix A Background to the Standards

72

(4) This Standard includes the Transmission System Power Quality Standards,
which specify the quality of the bulk supply to be delivered to the Distribution
System, at the bulk Demand Supply Points where the Distribution System is
connected to the Transmission System, and to Directly Connected Customers
to the Transmission System, in terms of voltage and Frequency within specific
limits so that Generator or consumer equipment directly connected to the
Transmission System can operate safely within its design performance without
suffering undue damage or breakdown. Consequently these Standards also
determine the investment required in provision of Supplementary Services
such as Reactive Power, Active Power response, Automatic Generation
Control (AGC), hot standby generation, fast start generation, demand control
and black start by TNB Transmission. They also indicate the investment
required both in the Transmission System and Distribution Systems for
containing harmonics, voltage unbalance as well as the permitted types and
levels of special Loads adversely affecting the power quality and requirements
for compensation Plant to limit their adverse effects. Compliance with these
Standards is the responsibility of TNB Transmission Division and the
interfacing Generating Companies, Distributors, Network Operators and
Directly Connected Customers. Ensuring compliance of all parties with these
Standards is the responsibility of TNB Transmission Division.
A4.3 These Standards only covers the Transmission System Reliability Standards and
Transmission System Power Quality Standards, which are the responsibility of
TNB Transmission Division. Discussion of proposals to amend or change these
Standards is ensured through Energy Commission (EC) by TNB. The
compatibility between the Standards contained in this document and Distribution
Supply Security and Power Quality Standards is ensured through the Energy
Commission (EC) by TNB.
A4.4 The Transmission System Reliability Standards and Transmission System Power
Quality Standards included in this document have been derived from previous
documents reflecting the Reliability and power quality practices developed and
adopted through the years and against which investments have already been made
to ensure compliance. These documents include:
(1) TNB Operation Planning Standards July 1998
(2) Guidelines of Power Quality Control for Connection to the Grid System (Issue
2 July 1998 and Revision 2004)
(3) Generation Planning Criteria and Methodology (Rev1/2002, November 2002)
(4) TNB Transmission Network Planning Manual (April 1998)
(5) Planning Criteria, Study Assumptions and Methodology 1998
(6) Voltage Control Policy 2000
Appendix A Background to the Standards

73

(7) Interconnection Agreements with Singapore and Thailand


(8) TNB Licence (1 September 1990)
A4.5 The aim of the Transmission System Reliability Standards, Transmission System
Power Quality Standards, Distribution Supply Security and Power Quality
Standards is to ensure sufficient investments in generation, transmission and
Distribution Systems and operational facilities. This means that if the facilities to
meet the above Standards are provided then the Reliability and power quality of
supply will be ensured within the defined Standards at both the transmission bulk
delivery point and the consumer terminals. In this respect, it is important to note
that the primary objective of the Criteria within these Standards is maintaining the
integrity of the electric power System under a set of defined System
contingencies, representing the most common, frequent and probable
contingencies that occur from time to time, related to Plant breakdown, adverse
weather or adverse operational conditions. This ensures that the power System is
planned and developed in a co-ordinated, economic and efficient manner without
making unnecessary investments to cater for events, which may very rarely or
never occur. It follows therefore that if the electric power System experiences
disturbances beyond those defined within the Criteria then it is likely that some
loss of supply will occur. Provision of System investments and operational
facilities to eliminate such rare System contingencies may be prohibitive. The
implementation of any proposed changes to the existing Criteria within the
Standards will therefore need to be examined in terms of the costs and the benefits
of the proposed changes.
A4.6 In certain cases it may be desirable to provide additional Reliability, Security and
power quality for certain Loads over and above that designated within the above
Standards. In such cases, the additional capital investment requirements will need
to be met by the party or parties seeking provision of the enhanced Reliability and
quality. As part of its Licence obligation it is the duty of TNB Transmission
Division to make appropriate investments to provide a connection and supply in
line with these Standards. Provision of a connection and supply with higher
Reliability and power quality is subject to commercial negotiation.
A4.7 Additional detailed technical Criteria, related to quality of supply and coordination
of System Protection facilities, are included in the Grid Code and the Distribution
Code. These Criteria together with the basic planning criteria referred to in the
Transmission System Reliability Standard ensure development of all the
Transmission System and facilities connected to it in a compatible manner. The
application of the above Standards in operational planning and on the day
operation, ensures day to day operation of the System compatible with the
Appendix A Background to the Standards

74

Generation, Transmission and Distribution Systems available on the day to meet


the demand under prevailing System and System contingency conditions.
A4.8 Any Transmission Investment Plan proposed for adoption under these Criteria
must ultimately be justifiable taking account of economic, financial, strategic and
environmental considerations in accordance with the economic and environmental
policy documents established under the terms of the TNB Licence.
A4.9 Under the provisions of TNB Licence the Transmission and Distribution
Functions of TNB are charged with the duties of preparing annual:
(1) investment plans to develop an efficient, co-ordinated and economical
Transmission System and international interconnections with neighbouring
countries Transmission Systems; and
(2) projections of Generation Capacity requirements, based on demand forecasts
prepared by its own Distribution Function and other distribution companies.
A4.10 The Transmission Investment Plans and Generation Capacity Requirements are
subject to the scrutiny of EC in accordance with the Conditions 7 and 12 of the
TNB Licence. Under Condition 10 of its Licence, TNB is obliged to furnish EC
with details of updated plans and capital programme, expenditure programme,
covering generation, transmission and distribution for the next ten (10) years
before the end of each financial year itemising details of major projects details of
all assumptions and a reconciliation between planned and actual expenditure in the
preceding financial year together with explanation of significant variations.
Under Condition 4 of the TNB Licence, TNB is prohibited from undue preference
and discrimination towards consumers wishing to connect to its System. Finally,
under Condition 8 of the TNB Licence and other Conditions such as 7, 10 and 12
TNB provides sufficient information to EC about the status of the electricity
supply Reliability and power quality both at the point of connection to the
Transmission System and to the Distribution System.
A4.11 Clearly the development plans for generation, transmission and distribution need
to be consistent and compatible with each other and extend to cover a mediumterm planning horizons of at least ten (10) years. The responsibility for the
consistency of plans and developments rests with the EC as stated in the
Electricity Supply Act 1990. The plans are prepared to achieve the levels of
investment leading to full compliance with the Transmission System Reliability
Standards, Transmission System Power Quality Standards, Distribution Supply
Security and Power Quality Standards taking into account existing provisions to
meet these Standards. These Standards will also be reflected in the terms offered
by TNB to parties wishing to connect to the Transmission and Distribution
Appendix A Background to the Standards

75

Systems. Therefore, in order to ensure satisfactory development of the Peninsular


Malaysian Electric Power System, these Standards and the additional detailed
technical Criteria related to quality of supply and coordination of System
Protection facilities included in the Grid Code and the Distribution Code, must be
complied with by all parties connected to the Peninsular Malaysian Electric Power
System as part of their Licence Conditions.
A4.12 The adequate and secure development of the Transmission System as well as the
generation and Distribution Systems connected to it delivering defined levels of
power quality at both the bulk power delivery points and consumer terminals will
be conditional on:
(1) Remedial investments to remove inadequacies and shortfalls from the
specified Standards in Generation, Transmission and Distribution Systems will
be approved and made;
(2) All Plant connected to the System will be operated in accordance with the
technical parameters set in the Grid Code and the relevant Agreements;
(3) All control Systems will be set as expected in the Grid Code and appropriate
Agreements to meet power System operational requirements and will be
normally kept in service unless otherwise requested by the Grid System
Operator;
(4) In the absence of any prior notice for non-compliance by any User, TNB
cannot be considered responsible for System events where non-compliant
Plant has had significant contributory or sole factor role or where the noncompliance is exposed by a System event;
(5) External Interconnections will be operated in accordance with the Available
Transfer Capacity and appropriate Interconnection agreements;
(6) TNB cannot be responsible for erroneous or invalid data submitted by other
parties;
(7) TNB Transmission Division and TNB Distribution Division are the sole
responsible respective parties for demonstrating the need for and the
economics of Transmission and Distribution System development.
A4.13 Design and operation of External Interconnections between the Peninsular
Malaysian and other power Systems such as Singapore and Thailand are covered
by other agreements which are consistent with this Standard. This Standard may
therefore be referenced in the relevant agreements and shall apply to the extent of
that specific reference.
A4.14 In the course of verifying compliance with this Standard, TNB Transmission
Division may identify cases of non-compliance with this Standard due to
inadequate capability of equipment or Systems not owned or operated by TNB
Appendix A Background to the Standards

76

(for example, the overloading of lower voltage connections). In such cases TNB
will notify the affected parties. Reinforcement or alternative operation of the
Transmission System to alleviate inadequacies of equipment or Systems not
owned or operated by TNB would be undertaken where it is agreed by both TNB
and the affected parties.
A4.15 Given the continuous development of the power System, while it is a requirement
for TNB to provide sufficient Transmission Capacity to meet the planning Criteria
contained within these Standards, it does not follow that the Transmission
Capacity should be reduced so that it only meets the minimum requirement of
those Criteria. For example, it may not be beneficial to reduce the ratings of lines
to reflect lower loading levels which have arisen due to changes in the generation
or demand patterns.
A4.16 All parties connected to the Transmission System and/or to the Main
Interconnected Transmission System in Peninsular Malaysia shall comply with the
provisions of this Standard in planning, developing, maintaining and operating
their individual Systems as related to their specific connections and Plant.
Compliance is an essential part of ensuring secure and robust operation of the
Peninsular Malaysia Electric Power System and is therefore not optional as these
Standards represent the minimum requirements necessary to achieve the
appropriate Adequacy, Security and Robustness.

A5 Summary
A5.1 As described above and illustrated in Figures A1 to A3 of this Appendix A and
Figure 1.1 of the Transmission System Reliability Standards, there will be many
parts of the TNB Transmission System where more than one set of Criteria apply.
In such places the requirements of all relevant Criteria must be met.
A5.2 In each of Chapters 2 and 3 of the Transmission System Reliability Standard,
planning is the first to be set out, followed by operational Criteria. The planning
Criteria set out the requirements for the Transmission Capacity for the TNB
Transmission System. The planning Criteria also require consideration to be given
to the operation and maintenance and so refer to the associated operational
Criteria. The operational Criteria are used in real time and in the development of
plans for using the Transmission System to permit satisfactory operation.
A5.3

In the course of verifying compliance with the Standards, TNB Transmission


Division may identify cases of non-compliance with the Standards due to

Appendix A Background to the Standards

77

inadequate capability of equipment or Systems not owned or operated by TNB


(for example, the overloading of lower voltage connections). In such cases, TNB
will notify the affected parties. Reinforcement or alternative operation of the
Transmission System to alleviate inadequacies of equipment or Systems not
owned or operated by TNB would be undertaken where it is agreed by both TNB
and the affected parties.
A5.4

Finally, by giving a clear understanding of the Reliability and power quality


Criteria used in the design and operation of the System in this Standard a clear
distinction is drawn between the planned Security and Robustness measures
included in the System. The concepts of planned Security and Robustness are
illustrated in Figure A4. In this respect planned Security refers to design and
operational measures put in place to ensure that the power System continues to
operate normally after the occurrence of the specific pre-defined sudden
disturbances such as electric short circuits or unanticipated loss of System
facilities designated in the Security Criteria. On the other hand planned
Robustness refers to design and operational measures put in place to ensure that
the power System quickly recovers from disturbances developing to beyond those
specified in the Security Criteria, the performance benchmark being the avoidance
of total blackout.

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

OPERATIONAL
SECURITY
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEMS

AUTOMATIC
VOLTAGE AND
FREQUENCY
REGULATION EQ.

DUPLICATE
MAIN PROTECTION
TRIPLE GRADING

UNDER
FREQUENCY
LOAD
SHEDDING

BACK-UP
PROTECTION
FAIL-SAFE
FAULT REMOVAL

EMERGENCY
AUXILIARY
SUPPLIES

FAST
RECLOSURE
FOR FAST
RESTORATION

ISLANDING
AND
HOUSE LOAD
OPERATION

MANUAL AND
UNDER VOLTAGE
LOAD
SHEDDING

EMERGENCY
FAST START
GENERATION

AUTOMATIC
FAST ACTIVE &
REACTIVE POWER
RESERVES

PERFORMANCE
MONITORING AND
FAULT
IDENTIFICATION

OPERATIONAL SECURITY
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
AND
PLANNED AUTOMATIC
RESERVES FOR FIRST
CONTINGENCY LEVEL
LAYERS OF PROTECTION
TO RAPIDLY REMOVE
THE FAULT
TO PREVENT TOTAL
SYSTEM BLACKOUT
IN MULTIPLE
CONTINGENCIES
TO ENSURE FAST
RECOVERY FROM
SEVERE
CONTINGENCIES

Figure A4: Planned Security Levels of Designed Operational Measures

Appendix A Background to the Standards

78

APPENDIX B for Transmission System Reliability


Standards Guidance on Economic Justification of
Generation and Transmission Connections

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD, 2006


79

Appendix B
GUIDANCE ON THE ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION OF
GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION CONNECTIONS
B1 General Principles
B1.1

These guidelines may be used to assist in the:


i) economic justification of investment in transmission equipment and/or
provision of Supplementary Services such as Reactive Power in addition to
that required to meet the planning Criteria of the Transmission System
Reliability Standards and the Transmission System Power Quality Standards;
ii) evaluation of any expected additional operational costs or investments
resulting from a proposed variation in connection design under the provisions
of paragraphs 2.3.2.10 to 2.3.2.12 of Chapter 2 Transmission System
Reliability Standards and/or paragraphs 2.3.3 to 2.3.7 of Chapter 2 of the
Transmission System Power Quality Standards.

B2 Guidelines
B2.1

The following are the guidelines:


i) additional investment in transmission equipment and/or the provision of
supplementary services would normally be justified if the net present value
(NPV) of the additional investment cost are less than the net present value of
the expected operational or unreliability cost that would otherwise arise.
ii) the assessment of expected operational costs and the potential Reliability
implications shall normally require simulation of the expected operation of the
Transmission System in accordance with the operational criteria set out in
Chapters 2, and 3 of the Transmission System Relaibility Standards and
criteria set out in Chapter 2 of the Transmission System Power Quality
Standards.
iii) the operational costs to be considered shall normally include those arising
from:
transmission power losses;
Frequency response;
reserve;
Reactive Power requirements; and
System constraints,
and may also include costs arising from:

Appendix B for Transmission System Reliability Standards Guidance on Economic Justification of Generation and
Transmission Connections

80

rearrangement of transmission maintenance times; or


modified or additional contracts for other services.
iv) all costs should take account of future uncertainties
v) the evaluation of unreliability costs expected from operation of the
Transmission System shall normally take account of the number and type of
customers affected by supply interruptions and use appropriate information
available to facilitate a reasonable assessment of the economic consequences
of such interruptions.

Appendix B for Transmission System Reliability Standards Guidance on Economic Justification of Generation and
Transmission Connections

81

APPENDIX C for Transmission System Reliability


Standards Guidance on Substation Configurations and
Switching Arrangements

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD, 2006


82

Appendix C
GUIDANCE ON SUBSTATION CONFIGURATIONS AND
SWITCHING ARRANGEMENTS
C1 General Guidance
C1.1 The key factors which must be considered when planning a substation include:
i)
Security and Quality of Supply
Relevant Criteria are presented in Chapters 2, and 3 of the Transmission
System Reliability Standards and Chapter 2 of the Transmission System
Power Quality Standards.
ii) Extendibility
The design should allow for the forecast need for future extensions.
iii) Maintainability
The design must take account of the practicalities of maintaining the
substation and associated circuits.
iv) Operational Flexibility
The physical layout of individual circuits and groups of circuits must permit
the required power flow control.
v) Protection Arrangements
The design must allow for adequate protection of each System element.
vi) Short Circuit Limitations
In order to contain short circuit currents to acceptable levels, Busbar
arrangements with sectioning facilities may be required to allow the System
to be split or re-connected through a fault current limiting reactor.
vii) Land Area
The low availability and/or high cost of land particularly in densely
populated areas may place a restriction on the size and consequent layout of
the substation.
viii) Cost
C1.2 Accordingly the design of a substation is a function of prevailing circumstances and
future requirements as perceived in the planning time phase. This appendix is
intended as a functional guidance for substation layout design and switchgear
arrangements. Variations away from this guidance are permissible provided that
such variations comply with the requirements of the Criteria set out in the main text
of the Transmission System Reliability Standard.

Appendix C for Transmission System Reliability Standards Guidance on Substation Configurations and Switching
Arrangements

83

C2 Generation Point of Connection Substations


C2.1 In accordance with the planning Criteria for generation connection set out in
Chapter 2 of the Transmission System Reliability Standards, Generation Point of
Connection substations should:
a.
have a double Busbar design (i.e. with main and reserve Busbars such that
Generation Circuits and Transmission Circuits may be selected to either);
b.
have sufficient Busbar sections to permit the requirements of paragraph
2.3.2.3 of the Transmission System Reliability Standards to be met without
splitting the substation during maintenance of Busbar sections;
c.
have sufficient Busbar coupler and/or Busbar section circuit breakers so that
each section of the main and reserve Busbar may be energised using either a
Busbar coupler or Busbar section circuit breaker;
d.
have Generation Circuits and Transmission Circuits disposed between
Busbar sections such that the main Busbar may be operated split for fault
level control purposes; and
e.
have sufficient facilities to permit the transfer of Generation Circuits
andTransmission Circuits from one section of the main Busbar to another.

C3 Marshalling Substations
C3.1 Marshalling Substations should:i)
have a double Busbar design (i.e. with main and reserve Busbars such that
Transmission Circuits may be selected to either);
ii) have sufficient Busbar sections to permit the requirements of paragraphs
2.3.2.3 and 3.2.2.2 of the Transmission System Relaibility Standards to be
met;
iii) have Transmission Circuits disposed between Busbar sections such that the
main Busbar may be operated split for fault level control purposes; and
iv) have sufficient facilities to permit the transfer of Transmission Circuits from
one section of the main Busbar to another.

C4 Grid Supply Point Substations


C4.1 In accordance with the planning Criteria for demand connection set out in Chapter 3
of the Transmission System Relaibility Standards, Demand Supply Point substations
configurations range from a single transformer feed into a Transmission Circuit to a
four switched mesh substation or a double Busbar substation. The choice and need
Appendix C for Transmission System Reliability Standards Guidance on Substation Configurations and Switching
Arrangements

84

for the extendability will depend on the circumstances as perceived in the planning
time phase.

Appendix C for Transmission System Reliability Standards Guidance on Substation Configurations and Switching
Arrangements

85

C5(1) Typical TNB Substation Layout and Switching


Arrangements

275kV

TNB Transmission

User

Generation Spur

275kV/132kV

Generation
Loop-in Loop-out

TNB Transmission

User
G
G

LV

Appendix C for Transmission System Reliability Standards Guidance on Substation Configurations and Switching
Arrangements

86

C5(2) Typical TNB Substation Layout and Switching


Arrangements contd

132kV

Network
Connection

132kV

TNB Transmission

132kV

Main Intake
Substation

Switching
Station

11kV
User

North
Busbar

275kV

South
Busbar
500/275kV Transformers
750MVA

One and Half


Breaker
Arrangement

North
Busbar

500kV

South
Busbar

Appendix C for Transmission System Reliability Standards Guidance on Substation Configurations and Switching
Arrangements

87

APPENDIX D for Transmission System Reliability


Standards Additional Criteria to Limit the Complexity
of Transmission Circuits

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD, 2006


88

Appendix D
ADDITIONAL CRITERIA TO LIMIT THE COMPLEXITY OF
TRANSMISSION CIRCUITS
D1 General Principles
D1.1 This appendix defines three restrictions to be applied by TNB Transmission when
Transmission Circuits are designed, constructed or extended. These restrictions are
intended to ensure that the time required to isolate and earth circuits in preparation
for maintenance work is kept to a minimum and is not disproportionate to the time
required to carry out maintenance work. The restrictions also limit the potential for
human error.

D2 Requirements/Restrictions
D2.1 The three restrictions to be applied to Transmission Circuits are as follows.
i)
The facilities, for the isolation and earthing of Transmission Circuits and
Transmission Equipment, shall not be located at more than three individual
sites;
ii) The normal operational procedure, for the isolation and earthing of
Transmission Circuits and Transmission Equipment, shall not require the
operation of more than six (6) circuit-breakers; and
iii) No more than three (3) transformers shall be connected together and
controlled by the same circuit breaker.
D2.2 A site, in this context, is defined as being where the points of isolation at one end of
a Transmission Circuit are within the same substation such that only one authorised
person is required, at the site, to enable the efficient and effective release and
restoration of the circuit.
D2.3 If the design of a substation is such that two circuit-breakers of the same voltage are
used to control a circuit (e.g. in a mesh type of substation), for the purposes of the
above restrictions the two circuit-breakers are to be considered as a single circuitbreaker. This also applies where duplicate circuit-breakers control a circuit
including those used for Busbar selection.
D2.4 Switch disconnecters are not rated for fault breaking duty and should not be
included in the design of new Transmission Circuits and substations. Where the
Appendix D for Transmission System Reliability Standards Additional Ciriteria to Limit the Complexity of
Transmisison Cicuits

89

extension of an existing Transmission Circuit includes an existing switch


disconnecter, that switch disconnecter can be considered for use in planned
switching procedures only.
D2.5 For the purposes of restriction in D2.1(iii) of this Appendix D, a transformer which
includes two low voltage windings in its construction shall be considered as single
transformer.

Appendix D for Transmission System Reliability Standards Additional Ciriteria to Limit the Complexity of
Transmisison Cicuits

90