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HowHow toto identifyidentify inferentialinferential typestypes ofof questionsquestions

WhatWhat isis inferenceinference ??

An inference is an educated guess about unstated ideas in a passage. Because authors don’t always clearly state every idea in a passage, you have to make inferences by :

drawing conclusions,

forming generalizations, or

making predictions.

NoteNote :: When you make an inference, look for evidence in the text that will support your educated guess.

WhatWhat doesdoes itit teststests ??

Ability to draw inferences from facts and statements in the reading passages.

Questions of this type ask you to consider factual statements or information and, on the basis of that information, reach a general conclusion.

Let'sLet's

dodo

somesome

simplesimple

exercise exercise

Let'sLet's InferInfer

'The shade of the tree beating back the heat; and James changed his dress and applied sunscreen.'

ExplanationExplanation

'The shade of the tree beating back the heat; and James changed his dress and applied sunscreen.'

What shall we infer ?

It was a hot day

James sweated

So he changed his dress to get cool.'

Let's rephrase the given sentence 'James stood in the shade of a tree, that helped beat back some of the heat. He changed his dress and put sunscreen on his skin.'

The observation presents only the facts. We know it's a hot day because it states, “beating back the heat”, there is nothing stated explicitly about it being a hot day. But the we can infer that it's a hot day by the information presented.

MakeMake logicallogical inferenceinference andand notnot illogicalillogical

There are logical and illogical inferences, inferences that "fit" the rest of the text and inferences that don't. Make sure your inference has the right fit by relying on the author's words more than on your own feelings and opinions.

ForFor egeg :: If the writer uses glowing language to describe the presidency of Bill Clinton, but never states an opinion of the Clinton years in office, you probably shouldn't infer that the writer is a Clinton critic just because you yourself thought Bill Clinton was a terrible president.

33 TypesTypes ofof inferrenceinferrence

Drawing conclusion

Forming generalization

Making prediction

11 .DRAWING.DRAWING CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS

This type of inference is like putting together all the details or information stated in the passage with information that is implied or with guesses you make based on your own experience.

In other words, you answer questions such as:

What is the author suggesting in this passage?

What makes sense based on what I’m reading?

Drawing conclusions helps you better understand the ideas in the passage.

DRAWINGDRAWING CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION ExampleExample

Meanwhile Paul’s mother turned the television to a national weather channel. “There’s a big snowstorm hitting parts of Colorado and New Mexico,” she said. She grabbed an atlas from the bookshelf and flipped quickly to the index. “There’s a Farmington, Colorado,” she said, flipping back to the map to check the town’s location, “but it’s not in the right area.” She turned back to the index. “There’s also a Farmington, New Mexico,” she called, “and it looks to be right in the middle of the storm.”

Ans : It is not snowing there.

What information did you use to draw this conclusion?

Paul’s mother compares the location of the storm on the television map to the map in the atlas and says that “it’s not in the right area.”

2.2. FORMINGFORMING GENERALIZATIONSGENERALIZATIONS

A generalization is a judgment. Making generalizations depend on being able to put together what you know and what you have read.

Example : Suppose you read a newspaper article about an increase in the number of Little League teams being formed in cities across the United States. From this information you might make this.

Little League is becoming more popular in the United States.

ValidValid andand InvalidInvalid GeneralizationGeneralization

A generalization is a judgment. For a generalization to be valid, it must be based on evidence.

Generalizations are not guesses. Valid generalizations often use words such as many, often, and some.

Rain falls in many southern states occur during spring.

Generalizations that are not valid often make statements that are too broad and use words such as all, always, every, and never.

Every student has read chetan bagat.

3.3. MAKINGMAKING PREDICTIONSPREDICTIONS

When you make a prediction in a passage, you guess what might happen based on information in the passage with your own experience.

As you read, try to guess or predict what will happen next.

Have a track on what clues helped you make that prediction?

NoteNote :: Remember, predictions can be changed as you read new details. You should continually make predictions as you read and confirm or adjust those predictions as you continue to read.

ExampleExample forfor PREDICTIONSPREDICTIONS

Read the passage below. What prediction can you make ?

The curtains were about to open, but the play could not begin without Alisha. She had a starring role. Mrs. Dolly nervously watched the door. She hoped that at any second it would swing open and Alisha would rush in. Mrs. Dolly tried to ignore the fact that the play should have started 10 minutes ago, but the rustling and whispering from the other side of the curtain grew louder. The audience was growing restless! “Bring me Alisha’s costume, please,” Mrs. Dolly said to a stagehand. As she waited, Mrs. Dolly whispered, “I sure hope that skirt ﬁts me.”

What do you predict Mrs. Dolly will do?

Mrs. Dolly will take the place of Alisha in the play.

What clues helped you make this prediction?

Although the play should have begun 10 minutes ago, Alisha hasn’t arrived yet. Mrs. Dolly tells a stagehand to bring her Alisha’s costume. She whispers to herself that she hopes the costume will ﬁt.

As you read, you may have to change a prediction based on new information in the passage

Let'sLet's solvesolve aa fewfew questionsquestions

HowHow dodo inferenceinference questionsquestions looklook like?like?

Before diving into an example, let’s make sure you know how to spot an inference question. Most inference questions are characterized by the words suggest, infer, or imply. They might look something like this:

What might be inferred by the final paragraph

The

packed because…

author

implies

that

the

frontiersmen

quickly

By revealing the results of the scientific study, the author suggests…

Read through the entire passage to get an understanding of what it is about.

As you read try to draw conclusions by connecting the text with your background knowledge.

Try to combine new ideas and information.

Create unique understandings of the text.

Make predictions about the text, confirm or disconfirm those predictions based on textual information.

PassagePassage

PassagePassage

Warm-blooded animals have elaborate physiological controls to maintain constant body temperature (in humans, 37°C). Why then during sickness should temperature rise, apparently increasing stress on the infected organism? It has long been known that the level of serum iron in animals falls during infection. Garibaldi first suggested a relationship between fever and iron. He found that microbial synthesis of siderophores substances that bind iron in bacteria of the genus Salmonella declined at environmental temperatures above 37°C and stopped at 40.3°C. Thus, fever would make it more difficult for an infecting bacterium to acquire iron and thus to multiply. Cold- blooded animals were used to test this hypothesis because their body temperature can be controlled in the laboratory. Kluger reported that of iguanas infected with the potentially lethal bacterium A. hydrophilia, more survived at temperatures of 42°C than at 37°C, even though healthy animals prefer the lower temperature. When animals at 42°C were injected with an iron solution, however, mortality rates increased significantly. Research to determine whether similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded animals is sorely needed.

WhatWhat typetype ofof questionquestion itit isis ?? WhatWhat wewe needneed toto do?do?

Which of the following can be inferred about warm-blooded animals solely on the basis of information in the passage?

WeWe needneed toto ConcludeConclude withwith thethe helphelp ofof evidenceevidence

ClueClue

Warm-blooded animals have elaborate physiological controls to maintain constant body temperature (in humans, 37°C). Why then during sickness should temperature rise, apparently increasing stress on the infected organism? It has long been known that the level of serum iron in animals falls during infection. Garibaldi first suggested a relationship between fever and iron. He found that microbial synthesis of siderophores substances that bind iron in bacteria of the genus Salmonella declined at environmental temperatures above 37°C and stopped at 40.3°C. Thus, fever would make it more difficult for an infecting bacterium to acquire iron and thus to multiply. Cold- blooded animals were used to test this hypothesis because their body temperature can be controlled in the laboratory. Kluger reported that of iguanas infected with the potentially lethal bacterium A. hydrophilia, more survived at temperatures of 42°C than at 37°C, even though healthy animals prefer the lower temperature. When animals at 42°C were injected with an iron solution, however, mortality rates increased significantly. Research to determine whether similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded animals is sorely needed.

QuestionQuestion

Which of the following can be inferred about warm- blooded animals solely on the basis of information in the passage?

(A) The body temperatures of warm-blooded animals

cannot be easily controlled in the laboratory.

(B) Warm-blooded animals require more iron in periods

of stress than they do at other times.

(C) Warm-blooded animals are more comfortable at an

environmentaltemperature of 37°C than they are at a

temperature of 42°C.

(D) In warm-blooded animals, bacteria are responsible

for the production of siderophores, which, in turn,

make iron available to the animal.

(E) In warm-blooded animals, infections that lead to

fever are usually traceable to bacteria.

ProcessProcess OfOf EliminationElimination

Eliminate the wrong answers. Typically, the wrong answers to an inference question will have one or more of the following characteristics:

Distortion of a detail (tying two details together in a way the author didn’t intend)

Making an inference that is the opposite of what is stated in the passage

Making an inference that is out of the scope of the paragraph or the entire passage.

Using extreme language (since most inferences are reasonable and easy, you’ll rarely find words like “never,” or “always,” in the correct answer choice.

WATCH OUT for inaccurate / contradictory information.

NoteNote :: Make sure your answers are supported by accurate information from the specified passages.

Make sure that the answer choice you decide on does not violate or contradict the Main Idea of the passage - if it does, the answer choice is probably wrong.

Which of the following can be inferred about warm- blooded animals solely on the basis of information in the passage?

(A) The body temperatures of warm-blooded animals cannot be easily controlled in the laboratory.

(B) Warm-blooded animals require more iron in periods of stress than they do at other times.

 (C) Warm-blooded animals are more comfortableat an environmental temperature of 37°C than they are at a temperature of 42°C. (D) In warm-blooded animals, bacteria are responsible for the production of siderophores, which, in turn, make iron available to the animal.

(E) In warm-blooded animals, infections that lead to fever are usually traceable to bacteria.

PassagePassage

The 1973 Endangered Species Act made into legal policy the concept that endangered species of wildlife are precious as part of a natural ecosystem. The nearly unanimous passage of this act in the United States Congress, reflecting the rising national popularity of environmentalism, masked a bitter debate. Affected industries clung to the former wildlife policy of valuing individual species according to their economic usefulness. They fought to minimize the law's impact by limiting definitions of key terms, but they lost on nearly every issue. The act defined "wildlife" as almost all kinds of animals-from large mammals to invertebrates-and plants. "Taking" wildlife was defined broadly as any action that threatened an endangered species; areas vital to a species' survival could be federally protected as "critical habitats" Though these definitions legislated strong environmentalist goals, political compromises made in the enforcement of the act were to determine just what economic interests would be set aside for the sake of ecological stabilization.

QuestionQuestion

It can be inferred from the passage that if business interests had won the debate on provisions of the 1973 Endangered Species Act, which of the following would have resulted?

 (A) Environmentalist concepts would not have become widely popular. (B) The definitions of key terms of the act would have been more restricted. (C) Enforcement of the act would have been more difficult. (D) The act would have had stronger support from Congressional leaders.

(E) The public would have boycotted the industries that had the greatest impact in defining the act.

WhatWhat typetype ofof questionquestion itit isis ?? WhatWhat wewe needneed toto do?do?

It can be inferred from the passage that if business interests had won the debate on provisions of the 1973 Endangered Species Act, which of the following would have resulted?

WeWe needneed toto “Predict”“Predict”