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The Origins and Legacy of

World War I.
An (Austro-)Hungarian Perspective
Andrs Jo (Hungary)

MARCZALI HENRIK
HOW THE GREAT WAR WAS
MADE? (HOGYAN KSZLT A NAGY HBOR?)
DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF
TISZA

THE REAL DECLARATION OF WAR


WAS THE REGICIDE IN SERBIA ON
THE 12TH JUNE 1903

A FRIENDS APOLOGETIC REMINISCENCES


WITH A TOUCH OF CRITICISM
COUNT ISTVN BURIN
his policy, which was always
rather of a broad-minded order,
was somewhat out of tune with the
times. The disposition of forces in
the country had gradually shifted,
especially under the influence of
neighbouring national states, who
followed the general trend of the
time

A MISSING HORIZON IN HUNGARY


INTERNAL POLICY NARRATIVES
DOMINANCE OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS CHARACTERIZED BY
POLITICAL OBSTRUCTION, LIMITED INTEREST IN WORLD
AFFAIRS BEYOND REGIONAL GOALS AND STATUS QUO BEFORE
WWI
ONE OF THE FEW COUNT ANDRSSYS WORK WHICH
PROVIDES A DEEPER INSIGHT INTO THE INT. CONTEXT
APOLOGETIC TOWARDS HIS FATHER, THOUGH CRITICISING
ANNEXATION

ANDRSSYS OBSERVATIONS
THE SYSTEM MAINTAINED PEACE LONGER
THAN A CONCERT OF FULLY INDEPENDENT
STATES WITH A FREE HAND WOULD HAVE
DONE YET A SHORTER PEACE WOULD NOT
HAVE ENDED WITH A WORLD DISASTER
ITALY APPEARS AS A DESTABILISING FACTOR
WITHIN THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE, GIVING IT A
TOUCH OF ANTI-FRENCH ATTITUDE
(OVEREMPHASIZED)

ANGLO-GERMAN ANTAGONISM
EVEN ANDRSSYS GENERALLY OBJECTIVE
REASONING SHOWS CLICHS OF ENCIRCLEMENT
STILL PROBABLY THE BEST GEOPOLITICAL ESSAY
AS FOR PERSONAL ROLES KING EDWARD VII. PUT
INTO THE CENTRE
CONTEMPORARY SOURCES SUPPORT THE IDEA
THAT CLICHS AND SCAPE-GOAT THEORIES WERE
WIDESPREAD (MREY, AEHRENTHAL, SZGYNY MARICH)

ANGLO-GERMAN ANTAGONISM
COUNT ALEXANDER HOYOS (HOYOS
SNDOR) CHEF DE CABINET OF FOREIGN
MINISTER BERCHTOLD
PROTAGONIST OF THE JULY CRISIS

VIABILITY OF THE DUAL MONARCHY


DISSOLUTION PROBLEM AND WAR
FRANZ FERDINAND (ANTAGONISM OF SCHLOSS
BELVEDERE AND THE HUNGARIANS)
ACCORDING TO OTTOKAR CZERNIN:
So ergreifend die Umstnde seines Todes waren vielleicht war
es ein Glck fr ihn. Es ist kaum denkbar, da sich der Erzherzog,
einmal auf dem Thron, mit seinen Ideen htte durchsetzen knnen.
Das Gebude der Monarchie, welches er gerne sttzen und festigen
wollte, war bereits dermaen morsch, da es keinen strkeren
Eingriff mehr vertrug

PESSIMISM/DETERMINISM
SOLOMON WANK
ENDZEITSTIMMUNG
GENERAL FEELING REFLECTED IN POST WAR
MEMOIRS
wenn nicht dieser Krieg von auen, so htte es
wahrscheinlich die Revolution von innen gesprengt
der Kranke war schwerlich mehr in der Lage, die
Operation auszuhalten

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTEXT


EVEN LESS FREQUENT TO FORM A LINK
BETWEEN INTERNAL REFORM EFFORTS AND
THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION
MISSING LINK BETWEEN THE RAISON DETRE
IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE EUROPEAN
BALANCE OF POWER AND THE CREATION OF
INTERNAL UNITY AND A FORM OF NEW
PATRIOTISM (HEIMAT DES HERZENS)

JZSEF KRISTFFYS UNIQUE


INTERPRETATIONS
ONE OF THE RARE FRIENDS OF FRANZ
FERDINAND IN HUNGARY
ALSO CHARACTERIZED BY DETERMINISM
NO STRONG HAND VA-BANQUE
LACK OF PUBLIC SUPPORT

FRANZ FERDINAND VS TISZA ANALYSIS

RESPONSIBILITY WAR GUILT


One sometimes got the impression that the
public felt almost as strongly about it as about
the result of the war itself. This feeling contains
a real element of truth. If the whole guilt for all
the horrors brought upon the world by the
catastrophe of the war could be attached either
to anindividual
(Burin: Austria in Dissolution)

COOPERATION OF THE DEFEATED


CONFERENCE OF KRIEGSSCHULDFORSCHER
BEHIND CLOSED DOORS (FROM 15TH 19TH APRIL
1926 IN BERLIN)
COORDINATED PROPAGANDA EFFORTS
A JOINT EFFORT TO QUESTION THE WAR GUILT
DEFINED IN THE PEACE TREATIES
AVOID BLAMING FORMER ALLIES

A VISION OF A NETWORK OF INSTITUTES


HISTORIAN JEN HORVTH WAS INVOLVED
PLANS AND EFFORTS TO ORGANISE INT.
CONFERENCE WITH THE SUPPORT OF CARNEGIE
ENDOWMENT

FAILURE OF LEADERSHIP
In all countries the person in charge of foreign affairs is
either the chief or a member of the cabinet () He may need
to secure the agreement of the other members of the
cabinet, but they too need to secure his. This gives him the
necessary influence upon the whole policy of government,
and assures the necessary co-ordination of internal and
external policy. Only in Austria-Hungary the Minister of
Foreign Affairs was in an isolated position. He was joint
minister for the two countries, but did not form any cabinet
() he was always specifically appointed to preside at a "
joint ministers' conference "
(Burin: Austria in Dissolution)

ANYONE IS RESPONSIBLE WHO WAS


INVOLVED IN GOVERMENTAL POLICIES,
POLICY-MAKING SIMILAR REASONING OF
KRISTFFY
ESPECIALLY DIPLOMATS WITH THEIR
COBWEB, AS CUNNING SPIDERS
RESPONSIBILITY OF KAISER WILHELM
SOMEWHAT OVEREMPHASISED
goston, A hbor okozi, 232-233.

COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY
NOT ONLY POLICY MAKERS, BUT THE GOVERNED CAN
ALSO BE MADE RESPONSIBLE, AS THEY REMAINED
PASSIVE AND COOPERATING

What is beyond empire?