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FAO

Fishing Manuals

Netting materials
for fishing gear
by Gerhard Klust

Published by arrangement with the


Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Food and

by FUUftf News Books 14*


1 Lon* Garden Walk

FAO

1973, 1982

First published 1973

Second edition 1982

The copyright in this book is vested in the Food and Agriculture


Organization of the United Nations, for which Fishing News Books Ltd.
acts as publisher. The book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, by
any method or process, without written permission from the copyright
holder. This applies in particular to photocopying of the designs. Applications for permission to engage in any form of reproduction, translation or
degree of microfilming or fair copying should be addressed to: The Director,
Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, accompanied by
a detailed explanation of the purpose and extent of the reproduction desired.

British Library CIP data

Klust, Gerhard
Netting materials for fishing gear.

(FAO

fishing

1.

Fishing nets

I.

Title.

II.

639'.22'028

ISBN

manuals)

Series

SH344.8.N4

85238 118 2

Printed in England

by

AdlardA Son Limited,


Bartholomew

Press,

Dorking, Suitoy

2nd

ed.

CONTENTS

page
1.

RAW MATERIALS FOR

1.1

Vegetable fibres

NETTING

1.1.1

Rotting

1.1.2

Preservation against rotting

1.2

Synthetic fibres

1.2.3

Remarks on the manufacture


Chemical classification
Trade names

1.2.4

Basic fibre types

.2.1

.2.2

6
10
12
16

1.2.4.1

Continuous filaments (multifilament yarn)

16

1.2.4.2

Staple fibres

16

1.2.4.3

Monofilaments

17

1.2.4.4

Split fibres

18

1.2.4.5

Use

18

.2.5

for netting yarns

Main

characteristics of synthetic fibres

19

Endurance

19

1.2.5.4

Density
Melting point

20
24
24

1.2.6

Identification

25

1.2.6.1

General remarks

1.2.6.2

Water

25
26
2$
36
28
30

1.2.5.1

1.2.5.2
1.2.5.3

in water
Resistance to weathering

test

K2.6.3

Visual inspection

1.2.6.4

Burning

M6.5

Solubility test

LZ6.6

Melting point

test

......
test

...,,,^

,.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

VI

2.

NETTING YARNS

31

2.1

Construction of netting yarn

31

2.1.1

Terms and

31

definitions

2.1.1.1

Netting yarn

31

2.1.1.2

Yarn

31

2.1.1.3

Single yarn (55)

2.1.1.4

Netting twine or folded yarn


Cabled netting twine or cabled yarn
Braided netting twine
Twist
The direction of twist
Coefficient of twist or twist factor, a

32
32
32
32
32
32

2.1.1.5
2.1.1.6
2.1.1.7
2.1.1.8

2.1.1.9

2.1.1.10 Braiding
2.1.1.11 Strand

33
33
33

2.1 .2

Construction of twisted netting yarn

33

2.1.2.1

Single yarn
Netting twine

2.1.2.4

Cabled netting twine


Cabled netting twine of higher order

33
34
34
35

2.1.2.5

Amount

40

2.1.3

Construction of braided netting yarns

42

2.1.3.1

Core

2.1.3.2

Number

2.1.3.3

of strands
Structure of the braid

42
44
45

2.1.4

Netting yarn from knotless netting

46

2.1.4.1

2.1.2.2
2.1.2.3

of twist

2.1.4.3

Japanese twisted netting


Raschel netting
Braided netting

2.1.4.4

Properties pf knotless netting

47
48
49
49

2.2

Designation of netting yarns

52

The tex system


Tex system for netting yams

53
54

2.L4.2

54

Complete designation

2JLZ2

Brief designation

2.13

Conventional systems and lex system


International titre.

55

56
56

CONTENTS

VII

2.2.3.3

Metric number
English cotton count

2.2.3.4

Runnage

58
58
58

2.3

Properties of netting yarns

59

Terms and

definitions

60

60
60
60
60

2.2.3.2

2.3.

2.3.1.1

Standard atmosphere

2.3.1.2

Tensile test

2.3.1.3

Tensile stress or tensile strength

2.3.1.4

2.3.1.6

Tenacity
Breaking strength or breaking load
SI units of force

2.3.1.7

Knot breaking

strength

61

2.3.1.8

Mesh breaking strength


Load at rupture

61

2.3.1.5

2.3.1.9

2.3.1.10 Breaking length


2.3.1.11 Nominal gauge length
2.3.1.12 Pre-tension
2.3.1.13 Time-to-break

2.3.1.14 Extensibility
2.3.1.15 Elongation (Extension)
2.3.1.16 Elongation percent
2.3.1.17 Elongation at the half knot breaking strength
2.3.1.18 Load-elongation curve

2.3.1.19 Tensile hysteresis curve


2.3.1.20 Elasticity
2.3.1.21 Toughness

2.3.1.22 Flexural stiffness


2.3.1.23

Abrasion resistance

2.3.1.24 Shrinkage
2.3.1.25 Knot stability
2.3.2

61
61

61

61

61

62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
63

Testing of netting yarns

63

2.3.2.6

Flexural stiffness

64
66
66
68
68
69

2.3.2.7

Abrasion resistance

71

2.3.3

Breaking strength and knot breaking strength of netting yarn

71

2.3.3.1

Fineness.

71

2.3.3.2

Breaking strength of straight netting yarns

76

2.3.2.1

Breaking strength

2.3.2.2

Elongation

2.3.2.3

2.3.2.4

Knot stability
Change of length

2.3.2.5

Diameter

in

water

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FXSHINO GEAR

Vffl

Weaver's knot breaking strength


Other knots

81

2.3.3.4

2.3.4

Diameter, Rtex, and knot breaking strength

88

2.3.4.1

2.3.4.3

Diameter and knot breaking strength


Wet knot breaking strength and Rtex
Diameter and mass

90
94
95

2.3.5

Flexural stiffness

96

2.3.5.1

PA single monofilaments
PA continuous filament netting yarns
PA folded monofilament netting yams

96
96
97
99
99

2.3.3.3

2.3.4.2

2.3.5.2
2.3.5.3

2.3.5.4
2.3.5.5
2.3.5.6

85

PES and PP continuous filament netting yarns


PP split fibre and PE folded monofilament netting

yarns

2.3.5.7

Vegetable fibre netting yarns


Stiffening agents

2.3.6

Change

2.3.6.1

Netting yarns made of PES, PE and PP

105

2.3.6.2

PA continuous

105

2.3.6.3

in length in

water

104

filament netting yarns

2.3.6.4

Change of meshsize

Vegetable fibre netting yarns


in water

107

2.3.7

Extensibility

HO

2.3.7.1

2.3.7.2

Elongation at half knot breaking strength


Load-elongation curves

107

112

2.3.7.3

Toughness

112
122

2.3.7.4

Elasticity

126

2.3.8

Abrasion resistance

134

2.3.8.1

Criticism of testing methods


Vegetable fibre netting materials

135
137

2.3.8.5

Synthetic netting materials


Influence of treatment and construction
Roughening of netting materials

139
139

3.

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

142

&i

General remarks

142

34

Specification

2.3.8.2

23.8.3
2*3.8.4

137

of netting yarn and netting for purchase

,.+*.

-,...

,,..,,

143
144

CONTENTS

3.2.1.1

Fibre

3.2.1.2

Size

IX

144
144
145

3.2.

.3

3.2.

.4

Twisted or braided netting yarn


Degree of twist or of tightness of braid

3.2.

.5

Direction of final twist

3.2.

.6

Core

3.2.

.7

Weight

145
145
145
145

Netting

145

3.2.2
3.2.2.1

Knotted or knotless

3.2.2.2

Size of

3.2.2.3

Size of netting

3.2.2.4

3.2.2.6

Selvedges
Direction of stretching
After-treatment

3.2.2.7

Type of gear

146
147
147
147
148
148
148

3.3

Choice of netting material for bottom trawlnets

148

3.3.1

High breaking strength


High extensibility and toughness

149
149

3.3.4

Small diameter
High abrasion resistance

3.3.5

Polyamide and polyethylene

150
150
150

3.3.5.1

3.3.5.2

Arguments
Arguments

3.3.6

Size of netting yarns

151

3.4

Choice of netting material for midwater trawlnets

155

3.4.1

Requirements

155

3.4.2
3.4.3

Kind and size of netting yarns


Hard twisted PA netting yarns

3.5

Choice of netting material for purse seine nets

3.2.2.5

3.3.2
3.3.3

mesh

in favour of
in

polyamide
favour of polyethylene

3.5.1

Requirements

3.5.2

Kind and

3.6

Choice of netting material for

size

3.6.1

Requirements

3.6.2

Kind and

3.6.2.1

Salman

3.6.2.2

Cod

3.6.13

Madcerel

size

150
150

58

58

161

161

of netting yarns

161
gillnets

162
163

of netting yarns

gillnets

giilnets

gilteets

163

166
1#5
167

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

3.6.2.4
3.6.2.5

Gill (drift) nets for herring


Very fine giflnets

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

and sardine

167
168

171

LIST

OF FIGURES

page

FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE

3a.

Micro-photograph of cotton fibres from a used fishing net


Resistance to rot of cotton and manila netting yarns
Manufacturing process of PA 6.6 salt

3b.

Manufacturing process of

4.

Netting yarns of different types of fibres


Breaking strength of braided trawl twines after immersion
Breaking strength of netting yarns after exposure to
sun
Device for melting point determination
Construction of twisted netting yarns
Construction of a complicated netting yarn
Twist counter (or twist tester)
Braided netting yarn with core and 8 strands
16 strand braid for heavy trawls
Most common constructions of braided netting yarns ...
Braided netting yarns of different construction
Examples for constructing bars and joints of knotless

2.

5.

6.

7.
8.

9.

10.
1 1

12.
1

3.

14.
15.

PA

2
5

6.6 fibre

17

19

22
30
35
36
37

44
45

46
47
48

netting

FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE

16.

17.

8.

19.

Braided knotless netting


Complete designation of netting yarn of cabled netting
twine type
Tensile testing machine (electronic)

Two

20.
21.
22.

23*
24.

strength

knot stability
Load-elongation curve of slipping weaver's knot
Apparatus for measuring length of netting yarn
Gauge for measuring diameter of netting yarns
Apparatus far measuring flexural stiffness of netting
Possibility for testing

yarns

FIGURE 25,
FIGURE 26.

56
65

forms of weaver's knot and testing arrangement for

mesh breaking
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE

50

Apparatus for testing abrasion resistance


Types of knots

66
67
67
68
69

70
72
80

xn

FIGURE
FIGURE

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

27.

Direction in knotted netting

28.

Relationship between breaking strength dry, straight and


wet, knotted of different kinds of netting yarn
Netting with selvedge of thicker netting yarn

81

FIGURE 29.
FIGURE 30. Single and double weaver's knots
FIGURE 3 la Most common sorts of twisted PA continuous filament

89

netting yarns

PA

FIGURE
FIGURE

32.

FIGURE

33.

FIGURE

34.

Relationship between wet knot breaking strength and


diameters of different netting yarns

FIGURE

35.

Relationship between wet knot breaking strength and

FIGURE

36.

Rtex of twisted netting yarns made of different fibres


Relationship between Rtex and diameter of twisted netting yarns made of different fibres

FIGURE

37.

Changes

FIGURE

38.

FIGURE

39.

FIGURE

40.

FIGURE

41.

FIGURE

42.

FIGURE

43.

31fr

Twisted

90

staple fibre netting yarns

Netting samples of cotton and PA continuous filament,


netting yarns of equal wet knot breaking strength
Netting yarns of equal wet knot breaking strength made
of PA and PE

in

of finest

mesh

size

PA

Load-elongation curves of heavy twisted netting yarns


(wet) of PA continuous filaments
Load-elongation curves of netting yarns (wet) made of
staple fibre

FIGURE

45.

FIGURE

46.

Load-elongation curves at low loads of netting yarns of

FIGURE 47.

FIGURE 48.

Load-elongation curves of PA netting yarns in dry and


wet condition
Load-elongation curves of wet netting yarns made of

FIGURE 49.

Characteristic examples for the toughness of wet netting

PVAA staple fibres


different fineness

and

94
97
108
113

114

116

116
117
118

120

different construction

Elasticity of netting yarns of


tested in wet condition

123

124
1 25

yams
50.

93

119

different fibres

FIGURE

92

115

Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns (wet)


made of PES continuous filaments
Load-elongation curves of braided netting yarns (wet)
made of PES continuous filaments
Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns (wet)
made of PE folded monofilaments
Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns (wet)
made of PP continuous filaments
Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns made of

FIGURE 44.

91

due to alternate wetting and drying

material in fine gillnets


Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns (wet) of
PA continuous filaments

PA

82
84
87

different kinds

of

fibres

127

LIST

OF FIGURES

XIII

FIGURE
FIGURE

51.

FIGURE

53.

FIGURE
FIGURE

54.

FIGURE
FIGURE
FIGURE

56.

58.

Elasticity of braided PE netting yarns of varied make


Load-elongation curves of braided PA and PP continuous
filament netting yarns (wet) with approximately same wet
knot breaking strength and construction
Elasticity of dry PA and PP continuous filament netting
yarns loaded for 24 hours with 30 percent of their
breaking strength, dry, unknotted
Knots damaged by abrasion
Netting yarns of manila and PA continuous filaments
after equal frictions in wet condition
PA codline of a large bottom trawl
Section of a river stow net with distorted meshes
Section of the codend of a large bottom trawl after

FIGURE
FIGURE

59.

in propeller
Designation of size of mesh

60.

Influence of the level of twist

52.

55.

57.

61.

130
135

136
138
139

146

on wet knot breaking

made of PA continuous

fila-

ments

FIGURE

129

140

damage

strength of netting yarns

128

Load-elongation curves of PA netting yarns showing the


great influence of the level of twist on the extensibility

159

160

PREFACE FOR THE SECOND EDITION


Since there have been no significant technical developments in synthetic
materials for fishing nets, for this second edition of the FAO Fishing Manual
Netting materials for fishing gear the basic contents and the layout of the
first edition (1973) did not need to be changed. There are, however, a fair
amount of corrections, modifications and additions in order to up-date the
material with particular regard to ISO Standards and developments in
terminology. The author, therefore, hopes that this second edition will
improve the usefulness of this Manual for fishermen and netmakers in the
selection of the most appropriate kind and size of netting materials for the
various fishing gears.
The author wishes to express his sincere thanks to Mr. P. J. G. Carrothers
(St. Andrews, Canada), Dr. E. Dahm (Hamburg, Germany) and Mr. Russ
(Berlin, Germany) for their advice, as well as to the staff concerned of the
FAO Fisheries Technology Service for the technical editing of this second
edition.

G. Klust

CHAPTER

RAW MATERIALS FOR NETTING


According to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
netting is defined as "a meshed structure of indefinite shape and size, composed of one yarn or of one or more systems of yarns interlaced or joined .".
(54 in bibliographical references.) The raw material of the netting consists of
fibres of which two main groups may be distinguished: natural fibres and
.

man-made fibres.
Of the natural

fibres for fishing nets vegetable fibres are utilized

almost

and

particularly cotton, manila, sisal, hemp, linen and ramie.


Animal fibres, such as silk or hair, are either not suitable or too expensive for
fishing nets. One exceptional example is the Japanese fishery where silk nets

exclusively

have been used for

specific gear.

Of the man-made fibres

only the category of

the synthetic fibres has particular advantages for fishing nets. Others such as
those made of regenerated cellulose (rayon, cellulose wool) are not superior
to natural fibres

and therefore do not need to be considered. For reasons

outlined below synthetic fibres have already taken over almost completely in
progressive fisheries and natural fibres for fishing nets are therefore not
being discussed here in any detail.

1.1

Vegetable fibres

fibres which grow on the seeds of the cotton plant are very
and a diameter of about 0.01 to OXM
with a length of only 20 to 50
mm. This fineness allows the manufacture of a wide range of netting yarns
diameter such as is required for very light
from the finest of only 0.2
gillnets up to practically any size. Consequently also many other types of
fishing gear have been made of cotton netting such as various seines, small
trawls, fyke nets, trap nets, lift nets, cast nets, trammel nets. In the past
cotton was the most important fibre for fishing nets.
The hard fibres sisal and manila or abaca are leaf fibres obtained from the
tissue of the leaves and leaf bases of an agave plant (sisal) or of the fibre
banana plant respectively (manila). They are coarse and therefore are mainly

The cotton

mm

fine

mm

used for heavy netting as

is

needed for bottom trawls and for ropes.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

Linen, hemp and ramie are bast fibres derived from the bast tissues of the
stems. Twines made of these fibres were the material of special nets, for
instance, linen for salmon gillnets, ramie for drift nets in the Asiatic fisheries
and hemp for river stownets or trawlnets in Europe.

U.I.

ROTTING

Vegetable fibres are parts of dead plants and consist mainly of cellulose.
Therefore, when conditions are humid or when they are immersed in water
they are attacked by cellulose digesting micro-organisms, especially bacteria.
This process of decomposition of dead organic material is of vital importance
for maintaining the life cycle because it releases the inorganic nutrients such as
phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium and makes them available for new plant
growth. Thus the continuity of the life of plants and animals is assured.
Unfortunately, the side effect on fishing nets is a source of increased labour
and financial loss and is the main reason for the advance of synthetic fibres.
A micro-photograph of cotton fibres taken from a used fishing net
(Figure 1) shows the damage (corrosion) caused by cellulose-decomposing

Micro-photograph of cotton fibres taken from


showing corrosion caused by microorganisms. X = undamaged fibres. (For better visibility of
the damage the fibres have been swollen by caustic soda.)

FIGURE
a used

I.

fishing net,

bacteria. There is a direct relation between the number of corroded fibres in a


cotton netting yarn and its loss in breaking strength so that determining by
microscope the percentage of damaged fibres is an effective means for

judging the state of decomposition and the remaining usefulness of cotton


yarn or netting.

RAW
The four

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

factors mainly determining the speed of decay of cellulose

fibres are:

kind of

fibre,

water temperature,
rotting power of the water,
duration of immersion in water.

The

resistance of the various kinds of vegetable fibre against rotting

and increases in the following order: linen, hemp, ramie, cotton, sisal,
manila and coir. However, with regard to practical use in fishing these
differences hardly count at all, and the resistance to rotting of all (untreated)
vegetable fibres must in general be considered as not adequate.
The activity of the cellulolytic bacteria depends to a great extent on the
differs,

water temperature. Consequently during the cold season the decay of vegetable fibres is considerably slower than during the warm season. In the
tropics nets become useless faster than in temperate climates.
As regards the characteristics of the water, running waters generally have
a greater decaying power than stagnant waters. In fertile marine or fresh
water which contains a high percentage of organic substances, lime and
phosphorous (eutrophic water) and consequently has a high yield of fish,
unpreserved nets of vegetable fibres are more quickly destroyed than in
unfertile, clear water. For instance, in the fertile brackish water of a North
Sea harbour (Europe) with a high rotting power, cotton netting yarns

decayed completely within seven to ten days during summer and autumn at
15 to 20C temperature, and heavier manila netting yarns lost 75 to 85
percent of their breaking strength within four weeks.
Fishing gear left uninterruptedly in water for a long time is naturally more
liable to rotting than when used only temporarily, and is especially liable to
rot if set on the bottom where the contact zone between the putrid mud and
the water has the strongest rotting power. Rotting is stopped only when nets
are completely dried out even to the inside of the knots.

1.1.2

PRESERVATION AGAINST ROTTING

The search for means to increase the resistance against rotting is probably
as old as the use of vegetable fibres for fishing nets and a great number of
preservation methods have been developed by practical fishermen, by fishery
research institutes or the chemical and textile industries. The methods of the
practical fishermen mostly consist of the use of coaltar, wood-tar or carbolineum, either alone or combined with petroleum, benzene, etc., or in the

treatment with tanning solutions as catechu ("cutch"), or other extracts of


the bark or wood of certain trees. The use of metallic compounds such as
potassium bichromate, copper naphtenate, copper sulphate, coprous oxkfe
(e.g,

"Tettalin") were introduced by research institutes

industries.

tod the chemical

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

Of the variety of preservation methods, two comparatively highly efficient


and thoroughly tested combination methods deserve attention the "Testalin"
preservation and the preservation by tannin plus potassium bichromate (9a).
:

method: The nets are boiled for 30 minutes

in a solution conof
or
a
tannin
catechu
2
agent (e.g.
taining
percent
mangrove-extract)
with an addition of 1 percent of the coprous oxide agent "Testalin."
After the nets are dried, the treatment is repeated, adding another 2
percent of the tannin agent but no more Testalin. Additionally the
nets, while still wet, may be dipped in carbolineum.

Testalin

Tannin plus potassium bichromate method: The nets are boiled for 30
minutes in a solution containing 2 percent of a tannin agent. After
drying they are put for one hour into a solution containing 3 percent
of potassium bichromate and after rinsing in water they are dried.
This process is repeated, adding another 2 percent of tannin agent. If,
in addition, the nets are dipped in carbolineum a "three-bath-method"
is obtained which is one of the best net preservation methods known
in fisheries.

The preservation effect obtained by the various methods depends on the


degree of the cohesion between the preserving agent and the fibres. Tar and
carbolineum, even if deposited in a thick layer on the surface of the netting
yarn, do not cling tightly round the individual fibres but leave gaps. They are
therefore considerably less effective than the two methods described above,
by which the surface of each fibre is completely covered with the bactericide
preserving agent, which also penetrates into fibre-cuticles and cell-walls.
Furthermore these agents are also not easily removed by the water and
therefore provide vegetable fibre nets particularly cotton with a comparatively
high degree of resistance to decay.
Figure 2 demonstrates how many times the usefulness of netting yarns,

preserved by various methods, can be increased as compared with untreated


samples. Nos. 6 and 7, representing the methods briefly described above, rank
highest. Simple preservations, e.g. by tar, carbolineum or tannin alone

(Nos. 1 to 3) are quite unsatisfactory unless they are repeated frequently at


short intervals. A high preserving effect can only be obtained by combining
the treatments with tannin, a metallic compound, and carbolineum or tar. Of
the metallic compounds tested potassium bichromate is the best. It may be
mentioned that most preservations offered by the chemical industries, which
consist in only soaking the nets in special solutions, do not improve the
resistance against rotting to any considerable extent.
With regard to the, efficiency of net preservation against rotting, four
essential reservations should be made ;

tLi Even the best preservation can only retard the decomposition of vegetable
fibres in water but cannot prevent it.

RAW MATERIALS

FOR NETTING

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

The various vegetable

fibres react differently to preservation.

As shown

in

Figure 2, a high degree of protection can only be obtained for cotton


but not for hard fibres (manila) and also not for hemp.

As

really efficient preservation methods require a number of operations


and costs cannot be neglected, the fishery is reluctant to accept them
and instead uses less efficient ones usually with unsatisfactory results.

preservation of fishing nets may have side effects on the physical


properties of the netting, such as stiffness, flexibility, extensibility,
which
elasticity, breaking strength, mass, colour, shrinkage, diameter,
have to be considered because they may be disadvantageous for fishing

The

gear.

summing up, it can be stated that for fishing gear vegetable fibres
many disadvantages, the most important of which is the short useful
lifetime. Still, for thousands of years, fishermen had no choice and had to
work with gear made of material which, properly speaking, is not really
suitable for this purpose. The fact that the introduction of synthetic fibres
was one of the most important revolutions in modern fishing is mainly due to
one predominant characteristic: they do not rot. Furthermore, no other
innovation in fishing can be as widely applied as the new net material. It is of
In

present

equally great advantage to large scale deep-sea industrial fishing as it is to the


small-scale artisanal fishery and one can only agree with the words of an

expert that synthetic fibre "brings to one of man's oldest occupations the
miracle of science and, in doing so, provides easier living for the fisherman."

1.2

Synthetic fibres

"Synthesis" is the scientific and technical term for a chemical process by


which chemical elements or simple basic substances are combined and built up
to complicated and completely new fabrics with new properties. Man-made
fibres synthetically

made of such

simple substances as phenol, benzene,

acetylene, prussic acid, chlorine a.o. are, therefore called synthetic fibres, as
compared with other artificial fibres made of complicated natural products

such as cellulose and protein which have only to be transformed into fibres
(cellulose rayon, cellulose wool, protein rayon).

2. 1

REMARKS ON THE MANUFACTURE

Hie development of synthetic fibres was started around 1920 by


tions of the
chemistry in

motecutes in

investiga-

famous chemist H. Staudinger (winner of the Nobel Prize for


1 953). fie found thai all fibrous material consists of long chain
which a great number of equal simple units are linked together.

RAW MATERIALS FOR NETTING


It is this very structure which gives the fibrous material the
properties required from a textile fibre. Based on this knowledge, a great deal of further
chemical research has been carried out in the last 50 years, at first in the
USA and in Germany, to create such fibre-forming "macromolecules," a
term much used in chemistry, which was introduced by Staudinger. At
present the most important countries manufacturing man-made fibres are,
in the order of their output: USA, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany,

USSR, Great

Britain, Italy

and France.

neither possible nor necessary to deal very intimately with the very
complicated methods of manufacturing synthetic fibres. Only the most
It is

important steps shall be mentioned, without entering into details. For this
purpose, a schematic and simplified outline for the best known synthetic
fibre, nylon (Figures 3a and 3b) may serve as an example.

First step:

At the beginning there is a simple raw material originating of course


from a natural product such as coal, oil, lime, common salt. In the
case of nylon the raw material is phenol, made of coal tar (see Figure
3a).

Second

step:

From

the raw material, the basic substances, the monomers, needed


up the macro-molecules, are obtained by a number of chemical
processes. For the production of nylon, two basic substances are
to build

required: adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine, which are combined


to the PA salt (see Figure 3a).

Third step:

The next important manufacturing process is the polymerization or


polycondensation, i.e. the forming of the chain of macro-molecules or
polymers. This process mainly consists in heating in an autoclave
under high pressure by which, in the case of nylon, a great number of
hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid molecules are alternatingly
joined to each other in such a manner that, in the end, long linear
polymers are formed. In the nylon polymers the two components are
linked together by a special atomic grouping (NHCO) which is known
an amido group. For this reason polymers of this particular type
are called polyamides. The polyamide polymer leaves the autoclave
as

in the

form of ribbons which are cut

into chips (see Figure 3b).

Fourth step:

most now be
(See Figure 3b) The substance polyamide (nylon)
this
For
melt
purpose the
converted into fibre form by
spinning.
the
are
formed
threads
and
melted
by
squirting
are
polyamide chips

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

water

coal

air

coke

JflL

benzene
*

hydrogen nitrogen

chlorine

chlorobenzene

ammonia

phenol
hydrogen

hydroxylamine
nitric

acid

cvclohexanol

cvclohexanone
+ nitric acid
Qdjpic acid
+

ammonia

adiponitriie
+

hydrogen

hexamethvlenediamine

FROM CHEMICAL RAW MATERIALS


TO POLYAMIDE &B SALT

proccw of
Mwurfacturmf
~ "
-

PA

6.6

wh. Coo*

^TWo the bk substance* adipic


*

(schematized).

RAW MATERIALS

PA

6.6

FOR NETTING

salt

POLICONDENSATION
*
Finished Polymer PA

^>

cut into chips

-SPINNING

spinneret-*
cooling air-*

DRAWING
FROM PA SALT

TO PA NETTING

YARN

FIGURE 3b. Manufacturing process of PA 6,6 fibre. Fnom


the ttage of fonning the polymer to the final product.
<ichetn*tized)

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

10

molten substance through spinnerets. The viscous threads become


stiff in air, but they are not yet suitable for the use in yarns. They are
still extremely ductile and have a comparatively low tensile strength.
Fifth step:

The manufacturing of

filaments

is

finished

by drawing. The threads

are stretched three to five times their original length, a process by


which they obtain their final fineness, diameter, tensile strength and
extensibility.

1.2.2

CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION

The following chemical groups or

classes of synthetic fibres are used for

fishing nets:

Polyamide

Symbol:

PA

Polypropylene

PES
PE
PP

Polyvinyl chloride
Polyvinylidene chloride

PVC
PVD

Polyvinyl alcohol

PVAA

Polyester

Polyethylene

These technical terms indicate the various fibre-forming substances of the


different groups. The symbols or abbreviations of the terms, adopted internationally, should be kept in mind because they are frequently used in
technical literature and also in this manual.
The polyamide (PA) fibres are manufactured in several types differing in
their chemical components and also in some properties, e.g. the melting
point (see Table 2c). Each type is marked by a figure which is added to the
generic name and refers to the number of carbon atoms in the components
(monomers). The most important types are PA 6.6 and PA 6.
Polyamide 6.6, the manufacturing of which is presented in Figures 3a and
3b, has two components, hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid, each
containing six carbon atoms. The fibre was developed in 1935 by W.H.
Carothers (USA), one of the most eminent scientists in the chemistry of
macro-molecules, and was called "nylon."
Polyamide 6, first known under the trade name "Perlon" is built up from
one monomer called caprolactam, which contains six carbon atoms, and was
developed in 1937/38 by the chemist P. Schlack (Germany). At present there
are in the world more producers of PA 6 than of PA 6.6.
Prom the fisheries point of view there is no difference between these two
PA types which have practically the same mechanical properties. Netting
yarns made of PA 6.6 or PA 6, when manufactured in exactly the same manner, wHl also have the same suitability for fishing nets. Therefore, when

RAW

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

11

discussing the properties of netting yarn in this manual, the two PA types are
not distinguished.
The polyester (PES) fibres were developed by J.R. Whinfield and J.T.
Dickson (UK) in 1940-41. They result from polycondensation of terephthalic

and

the alcohol ethylene glycol. Chemical compounds of an acid and an


known as "esters," from which the term polyester for this fibre
group results. The first trade mark of this fibre was "Terylene."
Polyethylene (PE) fibres, which are used for fishing gear, are produced by

acid

alcohol are

a method developed by Ziegler (Germany) in the early 1950's. Contrary to an


older technique of polymerization (UK), which required very high pressure
of 1000 atm or more, the newer method works with low pressure and organ o-

metal catalysts, e.g. aluminium alkyl. The fibres obtained by this new method
have greatly improved physical properties. The monomer ethylene, the basic
substance of polyethylene, is normally obtained by cracking petroleum. The

same

applies to propylene, the basic substance for producing polypropylene.


Polypropylene (PP) fibres, which were developed in 1954 by Natta
(Italy), were first known under the trade name "Meraklon." Polyethylene and
polypropylene are often collectively called "polyolefines." Here they are
distinguished as two separate groups because of their different properties with

regard to fishing nets.


Polyvinyl chloride, (PVC) developed by F. Klatte and H. Hubert (Germany) from the monomer vinyl chloride, was the first synthetic fibre to be
produced on an industrial scale (1934). It was also the first synthetic material
to be used for fishing gear under the trade name "PeCe," and thus the first to
demonstrate the immense practical advantages of rot-proofness (9a).
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVD), developed in 1939 in the USA, is produced

by co-polymerizing a mixture of vinylidene chloride (at least 80 per cent) and


a second component, e.g. vinyl chloride. In this composition it is known under
the name "Saran." Another group of chlorofibres obtained by co-polimerization is covered by the name "Vinyon" (USA).
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres, the production of which is based on the
research of W.O. Hermann and W. Haehnel (1931), have been greatly
improved in Japan since 1938. The type of PVA-fibre made and used for
fishing nets in Japan has been made insoluble in water by different levels of

and now has the symbol PVAA (e.g. "Kuralon").


PVC, PVD and PVAA are less widely spread in fisheries
over the world as the other groups. They are mainly produced and used for
acetalization

The

last three,

fishing nets in Japan.


The above selection is restricted to the application for fishing nets and
does not cover all chemical groups of synthetic fibres produced by die

industry. For instance, one of the most important group for the textile
industry, the polyacrylonitrile fibre, is not mentioned. It is known, among
others, by the trade names Acrilon (USA, UK, Canada), Casimtilon (Japan,

South Krnca), Cresian (USA), Crytenka, Nymcryion (Netherlands), Doha,


Braton, Redon (FR of Germany), Exlan (Japan), LeacrH (Italy). Nitron
(USSR), Often (USA, UK, Canada, Netherlands).

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

12

K2.3

TRADE NAMES

The chemical terms for the various groups of synthetic fibres are somewhat complicated. Furthermore, producers want specific trade names for
commercial reasons. Consequently there are not only one or a few names for
each type of fibre but many, which vary from country to country and often
within a country from manufacturer to manufacturer. The development of
modern extruders, which simplify the production of monofilaments and
fibrillating films from PP and PE, has lead to an increase in number of
manufacturers and thus further contributed to the somewhat confusing
number of trade names for one and the same product.
In one of the most extensive publications of trade names of
fibres for the

whole world

man-made

(28) there are listed:

88 trade names for polyamide 6.6 (PA)


186
,
,
,
polyamide 6 (PA)
100
polyester (PES)

78
136
19

polyethylene (PE)
polypropylene (PP)
polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
polyvinylidene chloride (PVD)

24

polyvinyl alcohol

46

(PVA and PVAA)

In spite of this large number of names this list is still not complete because it is
virtually impossible to keep it up to date. Fortunately, only a relatively
small number of these trade names is used and needs to be known in the
selection of the most important ones for fishing nets are
fishing industries.

Table 1 which are intended to enable the identificagroup so that the suitability of a product offered under
the trade name only can better be judged.
in italics in the lists in

tion of the chemical

Hie

selection

of trade names in Table

1,

apart from the products of the

large industrial countries, especially includes the products of countries with


small chemical industries which may he of interest with regard to price, time

of delivery,
certainiy

is

etc. In general this list does not claim to be comprehensive and


not meant to indicate any preferences.

Some of

the terms are no longer trade names only but have become
for a whole group of fibres. For example, "nylon" is applied as
terms
generic
a synonym for all PA fibres (nylon 6.6 or nylon 6); "Saran" is the generic
'

RAW
TABLE

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

TRADE NAMES OF SYNTHETIC

13

FIBRES

=
Brazil; Can = Canada; CSSR = Czechoslovakia;
Argentina; Braz
German Democratic Republic; Den = Denmark; Fra = France; Germ = Federal
=
Great Britain; Ind = India; It = Italy; Jap = Japan;
Republic of Germany; GB
Mex = Mexico; Neth = Netherlands; NZeal = New Zealand; Norw = Norway;
=
=
Pak
Poland; Port = Portugal; Roum = Roumania; SKor = South
Pakistan; Pol
Korea; Swed = Sweden; Swit = Switzerland; Turk = Turkey; Yug = Yugoslavia.

Arg

DDR

POLYAMIDE
Akulon (Neth)
Amilan (Jap)

Amilon (CSSR)
Anzalon (Neth)
Atlas-Draht (Germ)
Atom (Taiwan)
Ayrlyn (USA)
Bifil (Neth)
Bodanyl (Swit)
Caprolan (USA)
Celon (GB, Fra, Swed)
Century nylon (Ind)

Chemlon (CSSR)
Chinlon (China)
Cifalon (Port)
Clion (It)
Cordenkalon (Neth)

Cuerda-Nylon (Mex)
Cydsa-Nylon (Mex)

Dayan

(Spain)

Dederon

(DDR)

Delfion (It)
Dimafil (GB)

Duralon (Mex)

6 (PA 6)

Enkalan (Neth)
Enkalon (Neth, GB)
Enzlon (NZeal)

Garnyl (Ind)

Nytelle (USA)
Ortalion (It)
Perlon (Germ)
Pescalon (GB)

Glamour

Platil (6

Fisisa (Peru)

Forlion

(It)

(Peru)

Kapron (USSR)
Korlon (SKor)

Seflon (Turk)
Silon (CSSR)
Sttton (Pol)

Nailonsix (Braz)

Supralon (Yug)
Teco-Polyamid (Germ)
Tecron (Spain)

Neva-Perlon (Germ)

Textilion (Braz)

Nilom

Turlon (Turk)
Ulon (Taiwan)
Unel (Can)
Yuan Bao (Taiwan)

Monosheer (USA)

(Pafc)

Nirlon (Ind)
Nurel (Spain)
Nycel (Mex)
6.6

(PA

Amyd (USSR)

Cordura Nylon (USA)


Ducilon (Arg)
Herox (USA)

Bri-Nylon (GB)
Cedilla

(USA)

6.6)

Hisilon (Arg)

Neva-Nylon (Germ)
Nylon
Poliafil

(USA)

Prenyl (Arg)
Promilan (Jap)

Jayanka (Ind)

Roblon (Den)

Kenlon (GB)
Knoxlock (GB)
Luron (GB)

Synthyl (Greece)

POLYESTER

(PES)
Terlenka (GB, Neth)
Teron (Roum)
Terylene (GB)

Amfi-Terfenka (Neth)
Avlin (USA)
Celtron (Venezuela)

Kalimer(lt)
Krafter-F (Jap)
Lalelen (Turk)

Dacron (USA)
Delcron (Mex)
Dicrolene (Arg)

Lavsan (USSR)

Tetoron (Jap)

Nerlen (Mex)
Polycron (Peru, Chite)

Torten(Pol)

Diolen (Germ)

Quintess Polyester

Encron (USA)

Slotera

(CSSR)

Vestan(Germ)

Bnkatene (Neth)

Tergal (Fra)
Tcriber (Spain)

Vycron (USA)

GrisuteMDOR)

Tcriprat, Tcrprat (Spain)

Wellene (USA)

Hualon (Taiwan)

7Vr/r/(It)

Fortrcl

(USA)

(Germ)

Relon (Roum)
Rulon (Roum)

Lilion (It)
Mirlon (Swit)

Celfibras (Braz)

Brilon (Arg)

6.6)

Platon (Germ)
Polygal (Chile)
Prenylon (Arg)
Pylon (Pak)

POLYAMIDE

Antron (Arg)
Anzylon (NZeal)
Blue C Nylon (USA, GB)

Helion (Malta, It)


Hilon (SKor)
Hirlon (Arg)
Hsien-Chin (Taiwan)
Jaykaylon (Ind)
Julon, Yulon (Yug)

Akvalon (Norw)

Anyd (USSR)

Nylfil (Mex)
Nylpak (Pak)

(USA)

Trevira (Germ)
Vcnccron (Venezuela)
Vitel

(USA)

dOO

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

14

TABLE

continued

POLYETHYLENE
Hostalen
(Germ)
Hsien-Chin (Taiwan)

Akvaflex (Norway)

Kanelight (Jap)
Laveten, PE, PP (Swed)
Levilene (ft)
Marlin (Iceland)

Amerfil, PE, PP (USA)


Argon (Fra)
Bellex (Jap)
Caralyan (Jap)
Ccrfil (Port)
Corfiplosle (Port)

Nex-M

Courlene (GB)

Norfil

Monolene, PE, PP (Can)


Multilene, PE, PP (Can)
(Jap)

(GB)
Northylen (Germ)
Nymplex (Neth)

Dawbac, PE, PP (USA)


Diamond, PE, PP (USA)
Drylene 3 (GB)
Etylon (Jap)
Fifmtex, PE, PP (Norw)
Filtrona, PE, PP
Flotten (Fra)
Fortiflex (USA)

(PE)

Amco, PE, PP (USA)


PP (USA)
Amcostrap, PE,

(GB)

PE, PP (Can)
Radiant Twine, PE, PP
Polytie,

(USA)
Rigidex (GB)
Rofil

(GB)

Sainthene (Fra)
Scanflex, PE, PP (Den)
Spiralok, PE, PP (Can)
Sunline (Jap)
Tanikalon (Jap)

Teco-Polyathylen (Germ)
Tiptolene, PE, PP (Neth)

Omni,PE,PP(Mex)
PCX, PE, PP (GB, USA)

Trofil

Platilon (Jap)
Polex (Jap)

Tufton, PE,

Polital,

PE,

PP (Germ)

Gold Metal, PE, PP (USA)

Politen-Omni (Mex)
Poly-twine, PE, PP (Can)

Hiralon (Jap)

Polyex, PE,

Hi-Zex (Jap)

Poly-Net (Germ)

PP (USA)

(Germ)

Tuff-Lite-L

(USA)

PP (Can)
Velon LP (USA)
Velon PS (USA)

Vestolen
(Germ)
Vislene (It)

Wynene, PE,
X-Crin

PP (Can)

(It)

POLYPROPYLENE
(see also

(PP)
under PE)

Akvaflex PP (Norw)
Beamctte (USA)
Cotton (GB)

Merakrin

Cournova (GB)

Multiflex (Den)

Danaflex (Den)
Drylene 6 (GB)

Narco-Olefin (USA)

Duracore (USA)
Ourcl (USA)

Duron (GB)
Fibrite

(GB)

Gcrlon(It)

Herculon (USA)
Hostalen

PP (Germ)

Labren(CSSR)
Marvess(USA)

(It)

Monopro (Can)
Movlon (Port)

Prolene (Arg)
Propycell (Can)

Pro-Zex (Jap)

Red

Star (GB)
Ribofil (GB)

Novolen (Germ)

RR (Den)

Nymplex P (Neth)
Olanc (USA)
Patlon (USA)
Polyclassis (Germ)

Three Diamonds Pylen (Jap)

Tenite

Polyfitene (Neth)
Polygrit (USA)

Polyprop-Omni (Mcx)
Polysplit (Swed)

Pro-Fax (USA)

(USA)

Tritor

(GB)
Trofil P (Germ)
Tuff-Lite-P (USA)
Ulstron (GB)
Velon PP (USA)
Vestolen P (Germ)
Viking (GB)
XP-Filaments (USA)

POLYVWYL CtOJORIDE <fVC)


Teviron (Jap)

Avi*coVinyon(USA)

Thermovyl(F
Valtren(J

VinyonE(
Wynene
Stavioyl

RAW

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

TABLE

15

continued

POLYV1NYLIDENE (PVD)
Clorene (Fra)

(Copolymer Fibres)
Omni-Saran (Mex)

Ssaniw (USSR)

Darvan (USA)

Saniro (USSR)

Tejido (Arg)

Draka-Saran (Neth)
Furlon (Jap)

Saran (Jap, USA)


Soviden (USSR)

Velon (USA)

Kurehalon (Jap)

Spark-L-Ite-Saran

POLYV1NYL ALCOHOL
Cremona

(Jap)
Kancbian (Jap)
Kuralon (Jap)
Kuremona (Jap)
Manryo (Jap)

(USA)

(PVA(A)) (and

similar)

Mewlon (Jap)
Mikron (SKor)
Mikulon (SKor)

Titanol

Niti-Vilon (Jap)

Woolon

(USSR)

Trawlon (Jap)
Vinylon (Jap)
(Jap)

Many trade names of synthetic fibres are combined trade names, composed of the generic name of the fibre and the name of the producer or country. These are not included in Table 1. Some examples are:

PA
PES
PE
PP

PVD
PVAA

Asahi Kasei Nylon, Bayer-Perlon, Beaunit Nylon 6, Celanese


Nylon, DuPont Nylon, Enka-Nylon, Firestone-Nylon,
Nailon-Rhodiatoce, Nylon-Fabelta, Nylsuisse, Toray Nylon.
Enka-Polyester, Kanebo-Polyester, Teijin Tetoron.

Imperial Polyolefine, Industrial Polyolefine.


Chisso Polypro, Dawbarn DLP, Mitsubishi Pylen, Teyobo
Pylen, Wyomissing Polypropylene.
Asahi-Saran, Bolta-Saran.
Kurashiki Vinylon, Nichibo Vinylon.

Another category of trade names which must be mentioned refers to


combination twines for fishing gears which consist of two different synthetic
fibre components and are mainly produced in Japan. Examples are:

+ Saran
+ Saran
+ PVAA staple
+ Saran
+ PVC filament
+ Saran
+ PVAA or PVC staple
+ PVAA staple
+ Saran
+ Saran
+ PVC filament
+ PVC filament
+ PVC filament
+ Saran

+ PA staple
+ PVC*tapie

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

16

1.2.4

BASIC FIBRE TYPES

fishing nets there is now a wide choice of textile materials available.


In addition to the seven synthetic fibre groups providing different properties,
there are within these groups various types or forms of fibres which again
provide different properties. Most synthetic fibres are produced in several of

For

the following basic forms:

continuous filaments (multifilaments),


staple fibres,

monofilaments,
split fibres,

cut thin monofilaments,


textured continuous filaments.
1 .2.4. 1

Continuous filaments (multifilament yarn)

These are

of indefinite, practically

They have a
of fineness, gendiameter. The finest types, of which 1,000
erally much thinner than 0.05
metres have a weight of less than 0.2 gram, are even thinner than natural silk.
Material of fishing nets is usually made of filaments of which 1,000 metres in
length weigh between 0.6 gram and 2 grams.
quantity of continuous filaments is gathered up, with or without twist,
to form a filament yarn, in ISO Standards frequently described as multifilament. These yarns are smooth and have a high degree of lustre unless they
have been treated by chemical means. All filaments run the whole length of
the yarn which, at any point, contains exactly the same number of filaments
in the cross-section. Sample (a) in Figure 4 shows a netting yarn consisting
of fine filaments.
silk-like

fibres

appearance and are produced

mm

infinite length.

in different degrees

special type of continuous filaments are the textured continuous


filaments (multifilaments). They are looped and tangled before twisting and

have a good knot

stability.

This type of fibre

is

not usually used in fishing

gear.
1.2.4.2

Staple fibres

These are discontinuous fibres, usually prepared by cutting filaments into


lengths suitable for the yarn spinning process. Their fineness is similar to that
of continuous filaments, their length generally ranges from 40mm to 120mm,
or more.

bound by twisting to form a spun yarn. It is only by the


this
caused
pressure
twisting that the short fibres are held together and
by
form a continuous strand which is called a single yarn. In this regard synthetic stapic fibre yarns resemble cotton or wool yarns. Netting yarns made of
stapie fibre have a rough surface owing to the numerous loose ends of fibres
stteking out from the twire. This hairy nature decreases slippage of the
jJuM^s, Spw stapte fibre yarns have a lower tensile strength and higher
Staple fibres are

RAW

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

extensibility than continuous filament yarns


thetic fibre material.

17

made of the same kind of syn-

special type of PP staple fibres is made from PP monofilaments with a


diameter of about 0.11 to 0.13mm and fibre lengths between 90cm and
112 cm. Yarns are produced on bast or hard fibre spinning systems (92a).

4.
Netting yarns composed of different
types of fibres (a) fine filaments ; (b) monofilaments
(synthetic wires); (cO splitting film tape; (c 2 )

FIGURE

split-fibres.

1.2.4.3

Monofilaments

The term monofilament, in the proper sense, means a single filament


which is strong enough to ftinction alone as a yarn without having to undergo
further processing. This is the essential difference to the fine continuous
filaments and staple fibres described above which cannot directly be used (as
individual fibres) for netting. Especially transparent PA monoftlainents are
used as single filaments for fine gillnets. In practice, however, the term monofilament is a more general term covering all coarse filaments with larger

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

16

diameter and stiffness and a wiry character (synthetic wires). They mostly
or more,
have a circular cross-section and diameters between 0.1 and 1.0
but monofilaments with oval or flat cross-section are also manufactured,
0.48 mm.
or 0.24
0.34
i.e. 0.17
number of monofilaments may be twisted together to form a yarn.
There is no special International Standard term for this type of yarn. Some-

mm

mm

times they are described as folded monofilament yarns or yarns made of


monofilaments. Sample (b) in Figure 4 represents a netting yarn composed
of monofilaments with oval cross-section.

1.2.4.4

Split fibres

Split fibres which have been developed rather recently, originate from
oriented plastic tapes (films) which are stretched during manufacture by such
a high draw-ratio that the tapes split longitudinally when twisted under
tension. Therefore, a yarn made of these fibrillating tapes contains split
fibres of irregular fineness which, in some respects, are similar to natural

hard or bast

fibres.

in Figure 4 is such a plastic tape which already shows the


of
longitudinal splitting. Sample (c 2 ) represents a netting yarn
beginning
made of tapes which have split up into fibres during the twisting process.

Sample (cO

Split fibres may also be obtained


directly after extrusion.

.2.4.5

by mechanically

fibrillating film tapes

Use for netting yams

For netting yarns not all fibre types are available for each of the seven
chemical groups (see also Table 2b).
Polyamide (PA) netting yarns: preferably made of continuous filaments
marine fishing gear; staple fibres also
available; monofilaments mainly as single filaments, but also twisted
to yarns or twines; no split fibres.

(multifilaments), especially for

Polyester (PES) netting yarns: mainly

made of continuous

filaments;

no

split fibres.

Polyethylene (PE) netting yarns: most commonly made of folded monofilaments (wires); staple fibres not manufactured; continuous filaments

and

split fibres available

but not

common

in fishing gear.

Polypropylene (PP) netting yarns mainly made of continuous filaments or


split fibres; monofilaments suitable for ropes. (PP is the most suitable
for producing fibrillating film tapes, followed by PE.)
Pdyvinyl chloride (PVC) netting yams: mainly made of continuous
filaments, but staple fibres also available; no split fibres.
:

Potyvinyiidene cWoride

;-,^^^
ftrfyvmyi tfcota

(PVD)

netting

yams; mainly
-.,,.,

twisted monofila-

of staple

fibres,

RAW
1.2.5

MAIN

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

19

CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC FIBRES

In the following only those properties are mentioned which are prereview is given in Table 2. In
dominantly based on the fibre substance.
order to fully characterize the properties of netting material, the influence of

twine construction and twine fineness must also be considered, but this will
be dealt with separately further on. The following explanatory remarks on
fibre characteristics are meant to supplement Table 2.
1.2.5.1

Endurance

in

water

As already mentioned, for the fishery the greatest advantage of synthetic


fibres is rot-proofness, i.e. their resistance against destruction by mildew in
air and bacteria in water. This property is of such great importance for
fishermen that

it

now

has become the prime requisite for a fibre to be con-

sidered suitable for fishing nets.

mean that synthetic


when immersed in water

Rot-proofness, however, does not


entirely unaffected in their properties
periods. As an example, Figure 5

materials are
for prolonged

shows the influence of uninterrupted


water for about 1 years on the breaking strength of netting
yarns made of different kinds of synthetic fibres. In order to properly appreciate the relatively small reduction in breaking strength, it must be stressed
that this test provided severe conditions. In practical fishing it never occurs

immersion

10

in

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100%

FIGURE 5, Remaining breaking strength of braided trawl


twines in percentage of the Initial breaking strength after

eaiiiiemii^i^^
of a hwtoaTwith high decaying power,
3

>
;

20

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

that a fishing gear stands uninterruptedly in water for so long a time, and untreated cotton twines tested simultaneously were destroyed within seven days.

The long

durability of synthetic fibre nets which are not subjected to strong


mechanical wear and tear may be demonstrated by two examples fyke nets
made of the polyvinyl chloride fibre PeCe have been used in lakes for more
than 25 years, and a large river stow net made of PA is continuing to catch
fish after 19 years in a big river with a strong current and very polluted
:

water.

1.2.5.2

Resistance to weathering (see Table

2,1}.

The term weathering

is used to describe the combined effects of light,


wind, industrial smokes, and gases on the properties of textile material.
It is virtually impossible to distinguish between the separate effects of each
of these factors, but it can be taken for granted that the strongest deterioration
effect is caused by the ultra-violet part of the sun's radiation. Owing to
seasonal and local variations in the intensity of sunlight, the degree of

rain,

damage done

to synthetic fibrous materials

may

differ;

it

will,

however, in

general exceed that caused by immersion in water (see 1.2.5.1).


The various kinds of synthetic fibres differ very much in their susceptability
to and rate of deterioration by exposure to light and weather (see Table 2,1)

which

is measured by the decrease in the breaking strength.


Non-treated synthetic fibres, especially in the form of continuous filaments
or staple fibres, are white and lustrous. For textile purposes they may also be
manufactured as dull or semi-dull fibres, delustred by incorporating special
delustring agents, e.g. titanium dioxide, into the polymer before melt-

spinning (see Figure 3b). PA fibres delustred in this way have a considerably
lower resistance against weathering than the normal lustrous types of the
same kind of fibre and should therefore not be used for fishing nets. This
dullness, however, should not be mistaken for the dull appearance of machine-

made netting which is normally due to coating with special resins in order to
reduce slippage of the knots.
The effect of weathering also depends on the thickness of the netting yarn.
The thicker the netting yarn the lower the losses in breaking strength.
Therefore, in the case of ropes, the deteriorating effect of weathering will in
general be almost negligible (92a).
Fibres made of non after-chlorinated

PVC, e*g. Rhovyl, Envylon, Teviron,


have the highest resistance against sunlight even when exposed for several
years. In trials carried out at a place in Central Europe (Figure 6) a netting
yam made of PVC had not changed its breaking strength after having been
exposed to the effect of 1500 sun-hours, (Polyacrylonitrile fibres, which are
not tised in fishing gear, have similar properties in this regard.)
Normal PA fifres (continuous filament and staple) have a similar
ttpista^
ample 2X ^AA,

^%$09^^

J^

vegetable fibres,
fib

PES

more

(Figure 6,

resistant. It
IB

RAW

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

21

I
s

I
">
<s

Sic
8
Jg

s
^

fT)

ww

288
3

$
&

55

_,
-

xxx
3
vo
NO

vvv,
XXX|

f"

f>l

^1

>.a*

<n

H
m
o

.9

^ W
S|8 ^
.a'

-s

^?

r
15
.9

I
B.

6 S

i.

,s.

22

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

10

20

30

^0

50

60

70

80

90

100

FIGURE

mm

6.
Remaining breaking strength of netting yarns (of approximate 2-3
diameter) in percentage of the initial breaking strength after exposure to

1500 SUB hours.

than the other because the results of weathering trials vary with different
places, different seasons and also due to differences in the properties of
fibres produced by different manufacturers.

PP had originally a very low resistance against sunlight, but the incorporation of proper antioxidants and radiation-absorbers into the polymer
has greatly improved this property, although not to the extent provided by
PA (sec Figure 6, samples 1 and 3). Other synthetic fibres also need such
fight absorbers, especially PE.
!5*e sttweiiti io far <MI resistance to weathering refer to undyed material
onl. By dywng, the useful fife of net materials can fee considerably extended
of

The dyeing of the netting


be carried out either by the netmaker

light absorbers.

tr

may

,'

RAW

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

23

or by the fisherman himself and various colours may be used. PE and PP


are difficult to dye by normal dyeing methods.
good protection for PA
nets against light can be obtained by dyeing with catechu without any addi-

PVAA nets, however, should not be treated with catechu or other types
of tannin because they may be damaged by these agents. Treatment with
coal tar, other coal derivates, bitumen, black varnish, or similar agents,
used to increase the stiffness, the sinking speed, the abrasion resistance, or
the knot stability of netting, may also increase the light resistance. Nets
treated with coal tar are about twice as heavy as untreated nets. Another
possibility of dyeing which can only be carried out by the fibre producers
consists in adding fine colour pigments to the polymer prior to extrusion
(see Figure 6). This "spin-dyeing" is preferably used for monofilaments and
film tapes made of PE and PP. It has the advantage that the colour is
incorporated in the fibre substance and cannot be washed out. (Pigments are
finely divided particles of colour of about 0.001 mm, which may be incorporated in the polymer before the filament is formed. They are not soluble
in the polymer.) The best protection of this kind against light, especially for
PP, is obtained by adding soot to the polymer. The high light-absorbing effect
of soot is demonstrated by the PP samples 5 and 7, as compared to the undyed
PP sample 3 (Figure 6). The PE samples 8 and 9 have obtained a good protection by green and orange pigments, while blue and orange pigments with
which the PP samples 4 and 6 were treated do not act as light absorbers but
have even a photocatalytic effect which accelerates the deteriorating effect of
sunlight. Although sunlight is generally said to be effective only on the surface,
diai.e. the outermost layers of a rope, orange pigmented ropes of 56
meter made of PP monofilaments lost almost 40 percent of their initial
tives.

mm

breaking strength during a two years outdoor exposure due to

this

photo-

catalytic effect (92a).

Weathering experiments can only show the differences

in the relevant

properties of the various kinds of fibres but tell little about the actual useful
life time of fishing nets in operation. This depends to a large extent on the

care of the fisherman himself. Under normal conditions there is no need to


expose fishing nets to sunlight. Synthetic net materials do not rot. Therefore
they do not need to be dried but can be stored also in wet condition. For
protection against sunlight they should always be covered. An exception is
stationary fishing gear which stands for a considerable time immediately
under or even partly above the water surface, such as some types of trapand box-nets, raft traps or stow nets. Such fishing gear should be dyed,
preferably black or, if they are not subject to strong mechanical forces or
tear, made of highly light resistant fibres like PVC.
In this connection it should be mentioned that sun radiation is partly
reflected by the water surface and is also absorbed in water* Even in absolutely
water in a depth of 1 m, only 47 percent of the sun radiation
dear and

wear and

pure

is still

to be found, but

the violet

and

are absolutely dear. Furthermore,


of the sunlight spectrum, which mainly causes

no natural waters

ultraviolet part

the deterioration of textiles,

suflfers

strongest absoiptionin water.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

24

very clear water, where a white disk may still be seen in a depth of 8 to 12 m,
and in 5
depth
only 20 percent of ultraviolet rays remain in a depth of 1
nothing is left. The deteriorating effect of sunlight is therefore much lower in

water than in
1.2.5.3

air.

Density

Density is the mass (weight) per unit volume. It is preferably expressed


3
grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm ). Fibre density (see Table 2a) may
influence the properties of fishing nets in the following ways
as

The lower fibre density, the smaller the weight of netting in water
as compared to the air-dry weight (see Table 2i). Consequently netting
made of fibres with densities below 1.00 g/cm 3 i.e. PE and PP, float
in water and therefore hold more weights (sinkers).
,

The sinking speed of

netting (without accessories) in water will


obviously increase with the density of the fibrous material it is made
of. Though the density of tar is lower than that of most fibres the
sinking speed of netting is increased by tarring. The function of the
tar is to exclude interfibre air by which a temporary buoyancy
decreasing sinking speed may be caused.

Tarred

Without treatment

cm/1 sec

6.5

4.5 cm/1 sec


7.0 cm/1 sec

7.3

cm/1 sec
cm/1 sec

9.0

cm/ 1

1.5

cm/1 sec

3.5

Polyamide (PA)
Polyvinyl alcohol

(PVAA)

Polyester (PES)
Polyvinyl chloride

(PVC)

Saran (PVD)

8.0 cm/1 sec


10.5

cm/1 sec

sec

These data refer to netting yarns of a diameter of about 2 to 3 mm.


Thinner netting yarns sink more slowly. The sinking speed is important
for some types of fishing gear, especially surrounding nets (purse
seines), which should sink as fast as possible and for such gear netting
material of high density would be advantageous.
Density and specific volume are inversely proportional. Consequently
the bulkincss of nets of equal weight increases with decreasing density
of the fibres they are made of as does the diameter of netting yarns
with equal weight per unit length or the runnage (metres per 1kg)

of the netting yarns of equal diameter.

L2.5A

The melting pofat

The meking point (Table 2c) may be used for fibre identification (see
The ^lining point (TaWc 2b) and the shrinkage should be taken into
L16).
"
dye-bath. The temperature

%^

is

4wwged by

hot treatnient and for

PVAA

the temperature

RAW

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

25

should be kept below 50C. Before dyeing nets, a dyeing

test

should be

carried out with a small sample of the netting to be treated, in order to find
out the eventual degree of shrinkage of the meshes.

IDENTIFICATION

.2.6

As shown

each of the synthetic fibre groups has well-defined


it from other groups. These may determine
its suitability for certain types of fishing gear and the fisherman should
therefore always know to which chemical group his net material belongs.
Unfortunately there are less visual differences between the various kinds of
synthetic fibres than there are in vegetable fibres and synthetic netting material
can therefore rarely be determined by its appearance alone. If the trade
name is known with certainty, one can find out the chemical group from
trade-name lists such as the one given in Table 1. If this is not the case,
several methods of identification may be applied. In the following, only
those are considered which can be carried out easily and without elaborate
techniques and apparatuses (with the exception of the determination of the
melting point). This excludes for practical reasons more elaborate methods
which require expensive equipment and/or specific expertise such as microscopic examination and micro-photographs, staining with special dyes or
characteristics

in

Table

2,

which distinguish

reagents, determination of fibre density, as well as infrared spectroscopy,


gas chromatography and differential thermal analysis. For further infor-

mation see Bibliography

.2.6.

(109), (3), (28), (127)

and

(130).

General remarks

For the methods of

identification described here, the following general

remarks and instructions apply:

To

avoid undue complication they are confined to the eight synthetic


groups mentioned in Tables 2, 3, and 4.

fibre

If ever possible, the reaction of the synthetic material to be identified


should be compared with the reactions to the same method of known
material

Not only one but

methods should be applied for confirFor each test a new sample of the material

several test

mation of the fibre identity.


to be tested must be used.

of one land <rf


any doubt that the material does not consist
combined
l.Z3)f several
a
(see
be
yarn
netting
but
may
only
be tested
should
spedteons from different parts of the netting yarn
If there is

fibre

separately.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

26

Finishing agents (pigments, colours, delustring and stabilizing agents,


adhesive substances, oil, starch, resin) used for dyeing, stiffening or
stabilizing the netting yarn, the netting, or its knots, may change
the test results to be expected from raw and unfinished materials.
They should therefore be removed from the specimen by a suitable,

simple treatment, taking appropriate care that the fibres are not
unduly damaged. For instance, boiling in distilled water will often

be
1.2.6.2

sufficient.

Water

test

It is advisable to start the identification with this test. In a short piece of


the netting yarn a simple overhand knot is tied. The piece is put into a vessel
filled with water. Air bubbles in the material must be squeezed out by hand

or Nekal BX)
under water. Preferably a wetting agent (e.g. 1 g/1 Lissapol
should be added to the water. The water test serves to classify the netting
material in two groups, i.e. those synthetic fibres which float in water (PE
and PP), and those which sink (all other kinds of synthetic fibres, see Table 2a:
fibre density).

.2.6.3

Visual inspection

Another preliminary sorting test is the visual identification of the type


of fibres. Since for netting yarns not all chemical groups are used in all fibre
types, there are some possibilities of deducing the synthetic material. PE, for
example, is not produced as continuous filaments and staple fibres, and so
far only PP is produced for fishing nets in the form of split fibres. Further
indications are given in 1.2.4.5 and in Table 2d.
1.2.6.4

Burning

test

For this test only a clean flame and eventually two forceps are needed.
The best source of flame is a Bunsen burner or, if a gas supply is not available,
an alcohol lamp, but even a cigarette lighter may be used. The following
should be observed: the reaction of the netting material near the flame, and
after removal from the flame, the smell of the gaseous products (smoke), and
the residue.

In the early days of the introduction of synthetic fibres into fishing the
test was very often used by fishermen as it is the simplest for distinguishing any synthetic fibres from cotton. Cotton and other vegetable
fibres, and also most of the man-made fibres made of regenerated cellulose,
bum rapidly in the flame and continue burning after removed from the
flameu They have afterglow, the smell of smoke is similar to that of burning
paper and tte reside consists of a small amount of fine ash. The synthetic
They shrink and melt in the flame,

burning

>

drips from the flame, mostly forming a bead or a hard,

RAW

MATERIALS

KR NETTING

27

11

L*

II
11!

1!

S*3

BW

a>

li lll

XS.E

00

IS

i*5
e

fe.-g
75^; c^
O.
'C

llffio

Illlil

l|l|i|l j^

ifjjifi'l*

iiaiihlu

lililii
3

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

28

Table 3 shows the reactions to the burning test of the different synthetic
by which they can be identified. It should be mentioned, however, that
in practice the differences are not always so clear as shown in the table. For
an accurate identification it will often be necessary to verify the results of the

fibres

burning

1.2.6.5

test

by the

solubility test

and/or the melting point

test.

Solubility test

This relatively simple chemical test does not require


in chemistry, provided that the safety precautions

any particular

common

skill

for chemical

when working with boiling reagents.


expensive or complicated equipment is needed. Required are: several
glass test tubes of about 25 ml capacity, a heat source (e.g. Bunsen burner
or alcohol lamp), a holder to hold the test tube into the flame, and the chemical
reagents quoted in Table 4. If an electric hot plate is used test tubes are useless and glass beakers of 50 to 100 ml in size and glass stirring rods are
laboratories are observed, especially

No

taken instead.

The

of the sample to be tested should be in as loose a form as


must be untwisted and the fibres cut
Coarse material, like split fibres, and
especially monofilaments, should be reduced to very small pieces. Small
samples of the material and 10 to 15 ml of the solvent should be put into the
test tube. Further directions for the application of the solubility test may be
taken from Table 4. The reagents quoted have been selected so that only one
reaction needs to be observed: soluble or not soluble.
In most cases it will not be necessary to conduct the test with all reagents
given in Table 4.
fibres

possible. Therefore, the netting yarn


into pieces of about 1 cm in length.

Polyamide (PA) fibres are soluble in the reagents (a) and (e). If it is
desirable to separate the two types from one another, (c) can be used, in
6.6.
6 is soluble but not
which

PA

PA

Polyester (PES)

fibres are

not soluble in

(a), (f)

and

(g).

Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) fibres are not soluble in (b)

and

(c).

Poiyvinyl chloride (PVC) (not after-chlorinated; see note (3) in Table 2)


is the only synthetic fibre here mentioned which is soluble in reagent (g)
at room temperature.

Saran (PVD)

may be

identified

by

its

solubility in (f)

and

(c).

Polyviayl alcbobol (PVAA) (after^treatcd with formaldehyde; see note (4)


in TaWe 2) is soluble in (a) but not in (e).

PE and PP cannot be distinguished from one another by a solubility test.


The burning test (Table 3) shows some differences in the reactions of these
two synthetics but they are not sufficiently characteristic for identification to
always be possible. Hie most reliable method to distinguish PE from PP is
to determine the melting point.

RAW

MATERIALS FOR NETTING

29

OO

OOO

0*2
g5

s1^

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

30

Device for Melting Point Determination ("Kofler Heizbank").


metal plate, on which the material to be tested is
laid. The temperature on the plate slidingly decreases from 264 degree Celsius at
one end to 50 degree Celsius at the other end.
ScT: scale of temperature. Length of the instrument: 40 cm.
Supplier: C. Reichert A.G., Wien (Vienna) XVII, Hernalser Hauptstrasse 219,

FIGURE

MP:

7.

electrically heated, special

Austria.

.2.6.6

Melting point

test

The melting points of the thermoplastic synthetic fibres are significantly


Table 2c). The determination of the melting point of an unknown net material is, therefore, a very reliable identification method.

different (see

Unfortunately the equipment needed is not quite simple, although the actual
with suitable equipment is easy to perform. The melting point test is
mentioned here, mainly because it enables one in a relatively simple manner
to determine whether a given net material, which floats in water, is PE or PP.
There are several devices available on the market for the melting point
test. One example, which is easy to operate and provides accurate results, is
test

shown

in Figure 7.

CHAPTER

NETTING YARNS
Construction of netting yarn

2.1

With regard to the construction, there are three main types of netting
yarn: twisted netting yarn, braided netting yarn, and netting yarn of knotless
netting. Before discussing them, some technical terms have to be defined.

2.1.1

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

The following terms and definitions are based on standards of the


International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It is said in these
standards: "For each individual country the only valid standard is the
national standard of that country." It is, however, usual that the ISO
Member Bodies accommodate their national standards to the ISO standards

and thus, little by little, an international uniformity will be reached which is


of great importance for the international trade and the exchange of information in industry and science. Therefore, where ISO standards already exist,
they should be used (52 to 68a).

2.1.1.1

Netting yarn

This is the standardized universal term (54) for all textile material which
suitable for the manufacture of netting for fishing nets, and which may be
directly knitted into netting by machine or by hand, without having to
is

single monofilament may also be a netting


yarn, if it is directly knitted into netting (see 1.2.4.3). Where the specification
of the type of a netting material is not essential the general term netting
yarn should always be used, as is being done in this manual.

undergo further process. Thus, a

2.1.1.2

Yarn

The tern yam (55) without any addition, is a geira^


all

types and structures of linear textile products. It is not used

m this maauaL

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

32

2.1.1.3

Single yarn (55)

Single yarn is the simplest continuous thread composed of fibres. With


regard to the fibre material one may distinguish: single spun yarn, single
filament yarn, single yarn made of monofilaments, and single split fibre

yarn (see

1.2.4).

Single yarns are the components of netting yarn.

Netting twine or folded yarn

2.1.1.4

Netting twine (see 2.1.1.1) or folded yarn means a netting yarn which
or more single yarns or monofilaments by only one twisting
operation. The term has formerly had the same meaning as nowadays the
term netting yarn. Other terms like net twine, fishnet twine, fishing twine
is

made of two

should not be used any more

2. 1

(54).

Cabled netting twine or cabled yarn

.5

a netting yarn which combines two or more netting twines by


This
one (or two) further twisting operations (54).
is

Braided netting twine

2.1.1.6

This is a netting yarn which

is

manufactured by braiding (or plaiting)

(54).

The terms mentioned in 2.1.1.4, 2.1.1.5 and 2.1.1.6 are used and defined in
an ISO standard particularly made for the fishing industry (54). In a new
ISO standard for the textile industries the term "twine" is eliminated. The
product obtained by one twisting operation is called "folded yarn** and not
"twine*'. Instead of "cabled netting twine"

used

the term "cabled yarn"

is

(55).

Twist

2.1.1.7

Twist is "the spiral disposition of the components" (129) of single yarn,


folded yarn, or netting yarn. As a numerical value the term indicates the
number of turns per unit of length ("amount of twist"), for instance, per
1 metre (t/m) or per 1 inch (t/i). In this manual only t/m is used.

The

2.1 .1 .8

direction

of twist

by the capital letters S and Z (52). "The product has


held in a vertical position, the spirals or helices formed
by the fibres or filaments around its axis incline in the same direction as the
central portion of the letter S/' "The product has Z twist if, when it is held
in a vertical position, the spirals or helices formed by the fibres or filaments
*roand its axil incline in the same direction as the central portion of the
This

S twist

tetter

is

if,

indicated

when

it is

Z/* (see Figure

8a).

NETTING YARNS

2.1.1.9

Coefficient

of twist or

"a measure of the

twist factor,

33

twist hardness of yarn, determined

by multiplying the turns per unit length by the square root of the count in a direct
is

system" (129). The formula for the Tex-system reads: a tex

= t/m x V T^nn*
lUlAs

(The terms "Tex system" and "tex" are defined in 2.2.). By means of the
coefficient of twist it is possible to compare the amount of twist of netting
yarns of different fineness and thus to find out
twist hardness.

2.1.1.10

if

there are differences in the

Braiding

This

is

the "process of interlacing three or more threads in such a way


and are laid together in diagonal formation" (129).

that they cross each other

This process is sometimes also known as "plaiting." The product of the


braiding process is the "braid" (braided netting yarn).

Strand

2.1.1.11

This is the (not standardized) term for one of the individual components
(129) of a twisted or braided netting yarn. In this manual it is only used for
the components of braids; the components of twisted netting yarn are
called single yarn or netting twine (folded yarn) respectively.

2.1.2

CONSTRUCTION OF TWISTED NETTING YARN

The following description of the construction of netting yarns (see


Figures 8 and 9 and Tables 5 and 6) is intended for the better understanding
of the user, but certainly not to give directions on how to manufacture
them. The different netting yarns used for the great variety of fishing gears
diameter.
cover a wide size range from less than 0.20
to about 6

mm

netting yarns such as are required for


trawlers are usually not twisted but braided.

Heavy

mm

bottom trawls of large

stern

The characteristics of a twisted netting yarn are determined by number


and fineness of the single yams and the way in which they are folded and
twisted together.

2.1.2.1

Single

yam

yam, made of staple fibres (spun yam, see L2.4.2), has to be


hard twisted because the thread obtains its strength by the twisting
together of the individual fibres only, i.e. the more the thread is twisted,
the higher the breaking strength. However, this is true only up to a certain
point, called the critical degree of twist. Any twisting beyond this point
would weaken the thread. Single yarns made of continuous filaments or
monofilaments (wires) are strongest if they are not twisted at all, but it is
Single

relatively

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

34

usual to twist also these types of single yarn to simplify the manufacture
of the final product and for better protection of the individual filaments
against damage.

Film tapes (e.g. made of PP) must be twisted to obtain the desired
fibrous character (see 1.2.4.4) except that they have been fibrillated mechanically after extrusion.
The various sizes of netting yarn are produced by combining single yarns
of different fineness and/or number. Examples are given in columns c and d
of Table 5, where the number of single yarns and their nominal and actual
fineness for the netting yarns in columns a and b, are indicated. (For the
designation of netting yarns and the definition of Rtex see 2.2). Single yarns
are not used in netting for fishing gear.

2. 1 .2.2

Netting twine or folded yarn

There are various ways of folding, plying or doubling single yarns. The
method to make a netting twine or folded yarn is to combine two
or more single yarns by only one twisting operation (see 2.1.1.4; Figure 8,
b; Figure 4c 2 ; Table 5 specimens nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 18). With the
exception of the finest netting yarn (Table 5, No. 1), they are all threefold
yarns. It is, however, possible to combine more than three single yarns to
such a simple netting twine. The twist direction may be S or Z. Monofilaments which are twisted together to form a netting yarn have the function
of single yarns. In Table 5, No. 18 and in Figure 8c are examples for netting
twines or folded yarns containing three monofilaments. There are also
netting twines made by one twisting operation which contain more than
three monofilaments. A particular example is given by No. 31 of Table 5.
Here four fine PA monofilaments are twisted together very loosely, to form
simplest

a folded yarn

2. 1 .2.3

suitable for gillnets (see also Section 3.6.2).

Cabled netting twine or cabled yarn

Most netting yarns used in netting for fishing gear are not of the simple
netting twine type just described, but are cabled netting twines, produced
in three steps: (1) Fibres are combined to form single yarns; (2) several
single yarns are twisted together to form a folded yarn or netting twine;
(3) several of these folded yarns or netting twines are twisted together by a

secondary twisting operation to form a cabled netting twine type.


Twisted netting yarns Are usually twisted alternatively in S and Z direction,
i.e. each successive twist is in the opposite direction to the
preceding one
(S/Z/S or Z/S/Z). Figure 8d shows a netting yam of the cabled netting
twwe type conaiting of three folded yams, each of which is composed of
four single yarns. The three folded yarns of the netting yarn in Figure 4a
yarns.

Other constructions

am given

M,l$rfaaPEiiettmg yarns

in

TaWc

except No.

18).

NETTING YARNS

35

Usually cabled netting twines are composed of three folded yarns and two
or four folded yarns are less common (e.g. Table 5, No. 28).
2.

.2.4

Cabled netting twine of higher order

By a further twisting operation cabled netting twines of the second order


are obtained (e.g. Table 5, Nos. 16 and 17). For these examples of netting
yarns four or six single yarns respectively are twisted to form a netting twine
(folded yarn), four of these are twisted into a cabled netting twine, and three
of these are once again twisted to obtain the final product.

directions of twist

fibres

monofilaments
single yarns

netting yarn

Z (orS)

folded yarns
(netting twines )
fi

netting yarn

Z(orS)
FIOUM

8.

bres

yarn
(cabled netting twine)

Construction of twisted netting yams.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

FIGURE 9,-Conftructioa of a complicated netttaf yarn (for


form of a cabled netting twine of the third

trawls) in the

order mamjfftctured in five misting operations.

NETTING YARNS

37

Figure 9 shows the very complicated construction of a cabled netting twine


of the third order manufactured in five successive twisting operations:
1

Single yarn

Netting twine (folded yarn);


Cabled netting twine of the 1st order;
Cabled netting twine of the 2nd order;
Cabled netting twine of the 3rd order.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Such complicated and heavy netting yarns

(see also Nos. 16 and 17 in Table 5)


used for heavy trawlnets. The reason why they are composed
of such a great number of fine single yarns is probably because heavier single
yarns are not available. Due to the four or five twisting operations and to
the high degree of twist necessary (see column f of Nos. 16 and 17, Table 5),
these constructions have many disadvantages as compared to the normal
cabled netting twines. The increase in weight is very high, the breaking
strength is comparatively low and the extensibility increases to an undesirable
extent. Due to the relatively high weight, the fineness of the single yams
are, for instance,

FIGURE

10,

Twist counter (twist

tester)

by which the

netting yarn, or folded yarn, or single yarn


parallel

N =
P

NC RC

is

twist in a known length of


until the components are

unwound

Netting yarn sample fastened between two clamps.


Pre-tension, applied to the specimen during testing.
to permit
Nonrotatable clamp, horizontally a4Justabte on a splint (S)
different lengths of specimens.
*^j
Rotatable damp, It is rotatable in either direction and directly connected
twist
number
and
twist
indicates
which
to a revolution counter (SC),

W - Wfeed for driving the rotatable clamp by hand (or by means of an


motor).
Length of the apparatus: about 100 cm.

electric

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

38

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NETTING YARNS

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NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

40

and the complicated production process, the price of such netting yams is
naturally higher than for normal netting yarns. Heavier single yarns would
enable a simpler and more economic production of heavy netting yarns
and at the same time provide better properties.
2.

.2.5

Amount of twist

The amount of
by Figure 10 (65).

twist

a twist counter as

shown

twist has a very great influence

on the

may be determined by

The amount of

breaking strength and the extensibility of netting yarns (see below).


In Table 5, column e, only the final twists in turns per one metre (t/m)
of netting yarns of different fineness are considered, but not the inner twist
of the folded yarns.
In general three degrees of twist are distinguished: soft, medium and
hard twist. In some cases it would be advantageous to use a fourth degree:
very hard. In Table 5 there are netting yarns of the same nominal fineness
but with a different degree of twist, e.g. Nos. 5 and 6; 7 and 8; 9 and 10;
11, 12 and 13; 14 and 15. Nos. 5, 7 and 14 have medium twist, Nos. 9 and
11 medium to hard twist, Nos. 6, 8, 10 and 12 hard twist and Nos. 13, 16
and 17 very hard twist. Column g demonstrates that the increase in weight,
due to twisting and folding, depends on the degree of twist as is represented
by the coefficients of twist in column f. With hard twisting, the difference
between the total tex (see 2.2.2.2) of the untwisted single yarns and the
actual Rtex of the finished netting yarn may be more than 30 percent. The
reduction in length (column h) is, of course, also dependent on the degree
of twist.
It is not possible to specify the three or four degrees of softness or hardness of a netting yarn by numerical values of t/m or a. They should rather
be considered with regard to the following factors:
fineness (diameter) of the netting yarn;
kind of fibre of which the netting yarn
purpose, which the netting shall serve;
relation between

is

made;

primary and secondary twist

in cabled netting twines.

The amount of twist needed to achieve a certain hardness of a netting


yarn depends primarily on its diameter. Fine netting yarns (e.g. first specimens
in Table 5) require much more turns per metre to reach the same effect of
twist or the same degree of hardness than heavy netting yarns (e.g. Table 5,
Nos. 14 and 15). This effect can be judged by the coefficient of twist in
connection with the pertinent t/m of various netting yarns (Table 5).
Table $ shows the calculated values of t/m for PA netting yarns of almost
all normal diameters assuming a coefficient of twist of a
150. Coefficients
of twist of approximately this value ait frequently used for PA netting yarns.
As already mentioned (see 1.2.5.3) the various kinds of synthetic fibres
differ in density. Consequently with equal mass per unit length the diameter
of netting yarns of different synthetic material increases with decreasing

NETTING YARNS

41

TABLE 6. NUMBER OF TURNS PER 1 METRE (T/M) AND RTEX VALUES (WEIGHT IN GRAMMES
OF 1000 m) OF NETTING YARNS WHICH ALL HAVE A COEFFICIENT OF THE FINAL TWIST <X = 150
Rtex

Rtex

t/m

Rtex

t/m

t/m

The amount of twist (t/m) depends on the diameter of the


netting yarn. Netting yarns of the same diameter for the same hardness
therefore require the same twist (t/m), independent of the kind of fibre
fibre density.

From this it follows that netting yarns of different synthetic


material (density) for the same hardness require different coefficients of
twist, because this factor is not related to the diameter but to the fineness
materials.

(twine number) of the netting yarn. With equal fineness PP netting yarns
will be thicker than corresponding PA netting yarns and, therefore, require

t/m and consequently a lower

less

coefficient

of

twist.

Most medium

size

PA

netting yarns of medium twist have a coefficient of twist of about 150 to


160, but finer netting yarns usually have lower and heavier netting yarns
higher coefficients of twist. The same medium twist for PP continuous

filament netting yarns is obtained by a coefficient of twist of about 130 to


140 and again the finer netting yarns have a lower and the heavier netting
yarns a higher coefficient of twist. As shown in Table 5 medium twisted

PE

netting yarns have a coefficient of twist between 100 and 110 which, in
addition to the low density of PE, is also due to the stiffness of the wiry
monofilaments as compared with the soft and flexible continuous filaments

of

PA

and PP above.
The desired level of twist of a

netting yarn naturally also depends on the


of
for
the
fishing gear for which it is to be used. Gillnets
requirements
type
bottom
a
soft
trawls, purse seines and many types of
need
twist;
usually
small fishing gear need a medium twist, and midwater trawls and various

a hard twist.
far only the final twist of netting yarns has been discussed. There is,
however, a relation in a cabled netting twine between the secondary or cable
twist of the final product and the primary or fold twist of the folded yarns
which may be expressed by the following formula:
lines

So

fold twist

cable twist

fold twist

. .

1Jt

or

v number of folded yarns


=

cable twist

x Vnumber of folded

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

42

This relation is important for obtaining a "twist-balanced" netting yarn,


which does not snarl or untwist or form into loops. There should be no
"twist liveliness" in the netting yarn. It is easier to produce twist-balanced
netting yarns from PP continuous filaments than from PA and PE contin-

uous filaments. Such

by a twist

PA and PE netting yarns therefore usually are stabilized

setting operation

which generally consists

in

a treatment in

saturated steam.

2.1.3

CONSTRUCTION OF BRAIDED NETTING YARNS

Braided netting yarns are produced by interlacing a number of strands


such a way that they cross each other in diagonal direction to the edge of
the fabric (see 2.1.1.10). These braids used for netting are actually in the
form of a tube and the size of the lumen depends on the kind of braiding.
The braiding machines have spindles (bobbins) which move in a serpentine
circle, with half the spindles in the right and the other half in the left direction.
Thus the strands of one set of spindles pass alternately over and under one
or more of the strands of the other set of spindles. Table 7 and several
figures show the three essential factors of construction
in

core;

number and kind of strands;


structure of the braid.
2.1.3.1

Core

This is the term for single yarns, folded yarns or monofilaments which do
not belong to the braided tube but fill out the space inside (lumen) the
braided tube (Figure 11). When a round cross-section of the final product is
desired (e.g. for lines) a relatively thick core is needed. If the core is supposed
to contribute to the breaking strength of a netting yarn, its extensibility
should be equivalent to that of the braided sheath. For this reason cores of
netting yarns made of continuous filaments mostly consist of single yarns

which are twisted to increase the extensibility. PE netting yarns are mostly
manufactured with cores which may consist of one up to more than 30
monofilaments. These monofilaments frequently are not twisted. When
testing the breaking strength of such braids it may happen that due to the
differences in extension, the core breaks already before the braided tube

has reached its maximum strength.


Table 7 gives netting yarns designated by Rtex-values with and without
core. Column e shows the increase in weight of the finished netting yarns
due to braidkig and adding of a core in percentage of the total weight of all
strands of the same unit length (1000m) in not braided condition, not
including tbc single yarns of the core. Naturally, a core adds considerably
to the weight If this core is very thick as in sample No. 11, the increase in
wtjgjit can amount to more than 50 percent

NETTING YARNS

11

43

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NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

44

braided netting twine

single yarns
number: 26

total

core with 2 single yarns

each strand with 3 single yarns

Rtex

FIGURE 11. Example of a braided netting yarn with core and 8 strands. Each
strand consists of 3 single yarns lying side by side.

As the core frequently does not contribute to the breaking strength to


the same degree as it increases the weight, for fishing nets braids without
core are preferable because they are also softer and, therefore, have a better
knot

stability.

do not render

Whereas twisted netting yarns from


sufficient initial

knot

PA

continuous filament

stability so that the netting has to be


heat-setting, such soft braided netting

treated with a bonding agent and/or


yarns without core usually provide sufficient resistance to knot slippage
without treatment. Coreless netting yarns have an oval cross-section.

2.1.3.2

The

Number of strands
total

number of strands of a braid depends on the number of

spindles of the machine on which the bobbins with the strands are mounted.
In Table 7 common constructions with 6, 8, 12 and 16 strands are represented.

Machines with a greater number of spindles (e.g. 20 or more) are preferably


used for making lines. Nowadays, the 16-strand construction is chosen for
heavy netting yams of codends of big trawl nets (see Figure 12 and Table 7,
Nos* 24 to 27).
strand may consist of a different number of twisted or not
twisted single yarns which usually aft not twisted into a folded yam but are
lying side by side. Examples for the different compositions of strands are
given in Table 7 column b. For example, the strands of netting yarns Nos. 8
to 11 contain only one single yarn; the strands of the netting yarn No. 27
consist of 8 singk yarns. No, 23 is a more complicated netting yarn, each
strand being a cabled netting twine consisting of two folded yarns. Hits type

NETTING YARNS

45

FIGURE

12.
16-strand braid, as frequently used for heavy trawl nets. The picks
or stitches lying side by side in a row have been hatched. The two marks
(x)
indicate where a certain strand reappears in the same row (see also
Figure 13,
"length of stitch").

is

comparable to the twisted netting yarns Nos. 16 and 17 of Table

also has the

same disadvantages:

and low breaking

2.

5,

and

great increase in weight, too high extension

strength.

Structure of the braid

.3.3

The structure of the braid

(i.e.

the

way of

interlacing the strands)

may

be one of the following:

one strand over one and under another;


one strand over one and under two others;
one strand over two and under two others.
all braids consisting of 6 and 8 strands are braided "over one and
under one", all braids with 12 and 16 strands are braided "over two and
under two" (see Figure 13). These two structures are most common for

In Table 7

netting yarns.

The

tightness, hardness or

compactness of the braid can be determined

by counting the number of visible picks (or stitches) in a row (see Figures 12
and 13b) per unit of length, e.g. 10cm (Table 7, column c), or 1 m. This
numerical value, however, cannot directly be used for comparing the tightness
of braids of different structures as the tightness depends to a great extent
upon the fineness and the number of strands. In Table 7 examples for the
interrelation between the fineness of the braid, the number of strands, the
number of stitches and the tightness (or hardness) are given. The distinction
between the various degrees of tightness by the terms "soft," "medium,*'
"hard" (column f, Table 7) is only subjective.
The influence of the structure (number of strands) upon the appearance
and the tightness of the braid may be seen from Figure 14. To facilitate the
comparison of the tightness one row of picks (or stitches) in each netting
yarn has been dye4 black.

46

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

FIGURE

13.

Most common constructions of braided

netting yarns.

"over one under one/'


(b) 16-strand braid "over two under two."
The arrows indicate the length of the spiral pitch which is caused by one complete
circle of the spindles. In the 8-strand braid (a) this
length extends over 4 picks (or
stitches) and in the 16-strand braid (b) over 8 picks in a row. Such a length is
designated by the technical term "length of stitch." The tightness (or hardness) of
the netting yarn may be specified by the number of picks (e.g. the hatched
picks)
in a row per unit length of the braid (see also Table 7, column
c).
The x-signs indicate where a certain strand reappears in the same row: in sample
"a" after 4 picks, in sample "b" after 8 picks.
The terms pitch, pick and stitch are taken from (45).
(a) 8-strand braid

2.1.4

NETTING YARN FROM KNOTLESS NETTING

This manual deals only with netting materials, i.e.


netting yarns, and
not with the manufacture and the properties of netting and
fishing nets.
With knotless netting, however, netting yarn and netting can
hardly be
discussed separately, because the final
netting yarn forming the bars of the
meshes and the joints, which correspond to the knots in knotted
netting,
are manufactured by the same machine in only one
working process. Therefore the following three main types of knotless
netting are briefly described:

Japanese twisted knotless netting


knotless Raschel netting
braided knotless netting.

Example* are given in Figure IS, but it should be pointed out that each of
these types can be made in various forms of which
oniy one for each type is
shown in the figure. For more information on knotlesi netting consult (12),

NETTING YARNS

FIGURE

14.

47

Braided netting yarns of different

construction.

R 2448 tex.
R 6496 tex.
R 3985 tex.
R 9821 tex.

(a) 6-strands, each of 4 single yarns;


(b) 8-strands, each of 4 single yarns;
(c) 12-strands, each of 2 single yarns;
(d) 1 6-strands, each of 5 single yarns;

2.1

Japanese twisted netting

This was invented in 1922. It came, however, into general use only in the
beginning of the fifties, in connection with the introduction of synthetic net

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING OEAR

48

FIGURE

15.

Examples for the construction of bars and joints of knotless

netting.

Japanese twisting technique.


(b) Raschel technique.
(c) Braiding technique.
(a)

(ace. to v. Brandt, A., 1965)

materials.

The bars of the meshes,

components of either

i.e.

the netting yarns, consist of two


which are twisted together by

single or folded yarns,

the netting machine. After the desired length of the bars is reached, the two
components of the one netting yarn (bar) are connected with the two
components of the neighbouring yam by interlacing one or several times,
thus forming the joints (see Figure 15a). The more the netting yarns are

connected with each other at the joints, the more the shape of the meshes
will change from the conventional rhombic into a hexagonal form. If the
components of the netting yarn are crossing only once, as shown in Figure
15a, the netting yarns run diagonally through the netting; if they are crossing
twice or more, the netting yarns describe zigzag lines.
2,1.4.2

Raschel netting

This has been known in the textile industry for a long time, e.g. for
curtains, but it was introduced into fishing only in the fifties* In the
construction of bars and joints much more variations arc possible than with

window

NETTING YARNS

49

Japanese twisted netting. One example is shown in Figure 15b. In the most
common form, a bar is composed of three threads, of which two are "laid-in"
or "swing" threads which are crossing each other, and one, the looped
thread which runs a more complicated winding path and, therefore, is much
longer than the other two. At regular intervals, the joints are formed by
interlacing the components of two neighbouring bars, thus forming the
meshes. The principle of joining is similar to that of twisted knotless netting,
but the construction of the joints in Raschel netting is more complicated,
as may be seen when comparing a and b in Figure 15. Similar to the Japanese
twisted netting, joints of different construction and of different length can
be made, and also the shape of the mesh becomes hexagonal with the increasing length of the joints. Usually all threads are of the same fibre material
and of the same fineness, but there are also combinations with components
of different fineness, or even of different fibre material. According to Japanese
experiments the combination of PA and PE continuous filament threads
seems to be advantageous for purse seines. For small mesh sizes the output
of Raschel machines is much greater than that of conventional (knotting)
netting machines, but with increasing mesh size a point is reached, where
knotted netting can be produced more economically. This is one of the
reasons why Raschel netting is preferably used in small meshed gears, like
purse seines, and much less in big meshed gears, like large trawl nets.
It is claimed that in comparison with Japanese twisted netting, Raschel
netting

is

easier to repair.

Braided netting

2.1.4.3

This is a recent development and has not yet been introduced into
fishing on an industrial scale (Figures 15c and 16). The bars (netting yarns)
are real braids consisting of three or four strands, which are braided together
with the strands of the neighbouring bars, thus forming the joint. All threads

run diagonally through the netting.


It is

possible that this type of knotless netting, which has given promising
a material for bottom trawlnets in deep-sea fishing will prove

results as

superior to the other types of knotless netting

2. 1 .4,4

The

(7).

Properties of knotless netting

and joint

in knotless netting
conventional
to
netting
commonly applied
yarns. Furthermore, the basic differences in the constructions of the three
not allow to
types and the variability within each type of knotless netting do
the
in
same way
of
knotless
netting
specify the properties of the netting yarns
as far conventional netting yarns. Therefore only some funeral tftpi^ks are

close connection between netting yarns

excludes a

made

number of the

tests

here.

Knotted netting has some principal disadvantages tor fishing nets.


The knots
Knotting causes a significant decrease of the breaking strength.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

50

n*o^^
(ace. to Ktust, 1972)

NETTING YARNS

51

protrude and are therefore more subject to abrasion, particularly in the lower
panels of bottom trawlnets. A substantial proportion of the length of the
netting yarn goes into the knots, thus increasing the weight but not the useful
area of the netting. This portion increases with decreasing meshsizc and

increasing diameter of the netting yarn (see below).


The following tabulation gives examples for the influence of the diameter of a netting yarn on the share of the knots in the total mass of knotted
netting, meshsize

about 50

mm extended (length of mesh), (54), (75).

Contrary to these unfavourable characteristics of knotted netting, knotless


netting is said to have several essential advantages which are mainly due to
the absence of knots:

same
and bulk are

for the

50%

is

area, knotless netting would be lighter;


greatly reduced (sometimes a decrease in

mass (weight)
mass of about

quoted);

due to the

lighter

and

less

bulky netting the gear

is

easier to handle;

production costs are lower due to the considerable saving of material


and the fact that higher priced folded yarns (netting yarns) are not
required. With small meshsize, the output of the Raschel machines is
very high (e.g. purse seines made of Raschel netting
30 per cent cheaper than with knotted netting);

may

be 25 to

knotless netting can have a lower towing resistance in water so that


either the towing speed or the gear size can be increased;

the abrasion resistance

is

with the same mass of

higher;
netting per unit area, the

me$h breaking

strength of knotless netting is higher;


knotless netting has a more constant and more accurate meshsize;
dirt dc^nc^ adhere so much to knotks netting which is easier cleaned

and more quickly

dried.

AV^^

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

52

For an exact evaluation of the above points, it must be kept in mind that the
term "knotless netting" covers a great variety of constructions which more or
less differ from each other so that a general uniformity of properties cannot
be expected. In some cases the advantages quoted may not be based on
sufficient experience in practical fishing. Some examples may illustrate this
rather confusing situation. In one set of experiments with a certain type of
Raschel netting and corresponding knotted netting no difference in towing

resistance could be observed (12). Another Japanese investigation resulted


in knotless netting having lower towing resistance than knotted netting (49).
Still other experiments with braided knotless netting in trawls resulted in
increased towing speed as compared with knotted netting (7).
In knotted netting the knots are the points of strongest abrasion. However, comparative tests with knotted and braided knotless netting in bottom

shown that the degree of abrasion in knotless netting is not


smaller but extends over the whole surface of the netting (7). Similar
experiences may have led the Japanese trawl fishery to use knotless twisted
netting on soft ground and to prefer knotted netting for rough ground and
trawls have

also for those parts of the trawls which are easily damaged such as lower
wings, lower belly and codend.
There is a similar trend in purse seining (e.g. in Japan and Norway), i.e.
to make the bulk of the net of knotless netting, but use knotted netting for

those parts which are subjected to stronger


bunt and selvedges.

stress

and wear and

tear,

such as

The

feasibility of the different kinds of knotless netting for fishing nets is


not thoroughly investigated and, furthermore, new developments of this
final judgement can therefore not be given
netting type can be expected.
yet but it can be stated that knotless netting offers advantages for certain
fishing gear such as trawls and purse seines and that it probably has more
extensive prospects for the future.
still

2.2

De^mrtion of netting ytrra

The fineness (or coarseness), also known as number or count, is one of


the most important characteristics of netting yarns, the clear and unmistakable specification of which is indispensable for purchasing, and as a
basis for testing, evaluation of properties and selection of netting yarns. The
designation of the fineness of a netting yarn commonly refers to either the
mass (weight) per unit length or the length per unit mass of a single yarn.
The tot 1$ * direct system indicating the so-called "linear density" or the

second method (length per unit mass) is an indirect system.


between mass and length and the
construction of the
-'netting yarn, but no other details such as the kind of
"titre"; the

Both

syateiiU cover only the relation


'

In texiik ajid fishing industries of the different countries numerous


designation or counting systems of the above types based on various measur-

NETTING YARNS

53

ing units have been in use or are, unfortunately, still in use. In addition there
are factory numbering systems which have little or no relation to the structure
of the netting yarn and are therefore useless without additional information.
In order to do away with this confusion and so facilitate international
trade and the exchange of information in techniques and science, the
Technical Committee Textiles of the International Organization for Stan-

dardization (ISO) proposed to introduce worldwide one universal direct


system based on metric units, which should be applicable to all kinds and
types of yarns and replace all the various other traditional numbering
systems. In view of the international nature of fishing, this proposal is of
great significance for fishing net materials and all efforts should be made to

promote

its

general acceptance.

THE TEX SYSTEM

2.2.1

The numbering system recommended by ISO is called the Tex system


(abbreviation Tt). "It expresses the linear density, that is to say the mass of
a certain length of a textile material. The system is decimal and employs
metric units. The basic unit is the "tex." The linear density in "tex" expresses
mass

the

in

grammes of one kilometre of yarn"


1

tex

g/1

(55), (58).

000 m.

The higher the tex value, the heavier the yarn. The number of the yarn is
indicated by the numerical value followed by the term tex, e.g. 23 tex

have the mass of 23 grammes.


designates a single yam, of which 1 000
In addition to this tex value the ISO standard provides also for multiples

and sub-multiples of this

unit:

=
decitex (dtex) =
kilotex (ktex) =

millitex (mtex)

The

tex values

mentioned so

milligramme per kilometre

decigramme per kilometre

kilogramme per kilometre

(58).

far refer to the single yarn only. The final


be designated by the resultant linear density,

product, the netting yarn, may


indicated by the symbol R, to be put before the numerical value. This Rtex
means the mass in gramme per 1 kilometre of the final product, either as
nominal value (see Table 5), or as actual value if it derives from the actual

determination of the mass per unit length of the specimen,


for the use of textile
technically complete designation of a netting yarn
industries is rather complicated because it comprises information about
number of single yarns and folded yarns as well as about amount and
direction of twist of each twisting operation (85). As an example, the
would be:
complete designation of a cabled netting twine

20tcxZ700 X2S400 x3Z200;)R132tex


The

figures TOO, 400,

200 indicate the twist

in turns

per metre

<t/ni),

StoCt

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

54

for fishing such comprehensiveness was considered exaggerated,


simplifying the designation of netting yarns (53).

ISO has

recommended

TEX SYSTEM FOR NETTING YARNS

2,2.2

In the relevant

ISO standard

for the designation of netting yarns for

fishing nets (53), the multiple and sub-multiples of the tex unit are omitted,
so that tex is the only unit throughout. Unfortunately, manufacturers of

and yarns frequently ignore this special standard of the fishing industry
and use the unit decitex. (In order to obtain the tex value, the numerical value
of decitex must be divided by 10.)
ISO further recommends two different methods of specifying netting

fibres

yarn:

A more complete designation for general


A brief designation for particular cases.
2.2.2.1

usage;

Complete designation

The complete

designation of a netting yarn would comprise:

tex value of single yarn

number of single yarns in the first fold


number of folded yarns in the finished product
Rtex value of the finished product
of the finished product

final twist direction

The

three characteristics are to be joined to each other by the multiplication sign ( x), while the Rtex- value is to be separated from the preceding
part by a semi-colon (;). The above designation refers to netting yarns in the
first

most common form of cabled netting twines (Figures. 17 and 8d). Examples
for the designation of this type as well as for other types of twisted netting
yams are:
Netting yarn in the form of a netting twine (Figure 8b)

23 tex

x3;R75texZ.

Netting yarn in the

23 tex
23 tot

form of a cabled netting twine

x 4 x 3; R 320 tex Z (Figure 8d) or


x 2 x 3; R 160 tex Z (Figure 17)

Netting yarn in the form of a cabled netting twine of the second


order (we 2.1.2.4)

23te*X4 X3 x3;RlO(texS,
In

recommended by ISO) which is frequently used by


and fishermen ^e number of single yarns and folded yarns it not

simplification (not

NETTING YARNS

55

quoted separately, but only the total number of single yarns. Accordingly
the examples for cabled netting twines above would read: 23 tex x 12;
320 tex Z and 23 tex x 6;
160 tex Z and the example for the cabled
1000 tex S.
netting twine of the second order 23 tex x 36;

This abbreviation in quoting the total number of components of netting


yarn has also been used in Tables 5, 10 and 12 of this manual, but it should
once again be stressed that this is not in accordance with ISO standards.

Another deviation from the standard which is also frequently used in


is found in Table 5, II, column a: The monofilaments composing the
netting yarns are specified by their diameters only and not by their tex values.
(In Table 13 the single PA monofilaments are specified by both).
practice

2.2.2.2

Brief designation

The brief designation consists in giving the resultant linear density


(Rtex) of the netting yarn only. This value includes the increase in mass per
unit length due to the twisting or braiding process and expresses the mass
of the finished product in grammes per one thousand metres. This value
should not be confounded with the sum of the tex values of the single yarns
composing the netting yarn which sometimes is called "total tex." For the
above example of a cabled netting twine
23 tex

x 4 x

the product of the single yarn tex x the number of single yarns (total tex)
tex is 320, owing to the increase in length and mass of the
is 276, but the
single yarns used up by the twisting processes.
In most practical cases the Rtex value given will not express the accurate
mass in grammes of one thousand metres of the finished product, but an

approximate nominal value, as for instance, the Rtex values in Tables 10,
1 1 and 12. For most practical purposes, such as purchase of netting materials,

nominal Rtex will be sufficient, but for certain specific purposes such as
the detailed analysis of netting yarn construction, the actual Rtex obtained
by exact determination of mass per unit length is required (see Tables 5 and
amount of twist or on the
7). This actual Rtex is greatly dependent on the
Several
of
braid
the
examples of twisted netting yarns
tightness
respectively.
made of PA continuous filaments are listed in Table 8 (85), demonstrating
this

that actual Rtex values increase with increasing coefficient of twist.

Particular cases where the brief designation of netting yarns apply are:
Heavy twisted netting yarns as used for large trawlnets. They should
be designated by Rtex followed by the symbol for the direction of the final
twist

of the finished product:

Examples:

R4000

tex

S
R
R 8350 tex S
5305 tex

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

56

cabled netting twine

single yarns
total

number:

(cabled yarn

Rtex Z
FIGURE

17.

Example

for the complete designation of a netting yarn of the

cabled netting twine type.

As a more

detailed designation

would prove very complicated, the same

brief designation should be used for all combined twisted netting yarns
consisting of different synthetic fibre components (see 1.2.3).

Since the complicated structure of braids does not allow a more detailed
designation which would at the same time be simple enough for use in
fine, heavy or comfishery, all types of braided netting yarns (Figure 1 1)
binedshould be designated by their Rtex-values only without any addition.

R790tex

Examples:

R4300tex

R
223 CONVENTIONAL

SYSTEMS

17500 tex

AND TEX SYSTEM

lit this manual only the four most important conventional numbering
systems and their conversion into the tex system will be discussed.

22.34

International titre

Since the introduction of synthetic continuous filaments for netting


international Titre expressed in Denier (abbreviation Td) was

NETTING YARNS

TABLE

57

8 THE INFLUENCE OF THE COEFFICIENT OF FINAL TWIST (a) ON THE RESULTANT


TEX VALUES (ACTUAL RTEX) OF PA CONTINUOUS FILAMENT NETTING YARNS

total tex

product of single yarn tex x number of single yarns; for coefficient of twist
see 2.1. 1.9.

and

is still

widely used. For instance, the term 210 den. indicating one very

common type of single yarn made of nylon is probably known


men around the world. The basic unit "Denier" of this direct
cates the weight in

grammes per
The conversion formula is:
tex

Example:

210 den

to

all fisher-

system indi-

9,000 metres of a filament or single yarn.

= 0.111 xTd

= 23 tex (see also Table 9).

Netmakers and fishermen often still use the single yarn number of 210 den,
wrong sense. For instance designations such as

in the

210/48, 210/60 or 210/160

are out of date, written in the wrong way and misleading. The international
a direct system like the tex system, and, therefore, the single yam
litre (210) and the number of single yams must be joined by the aultipJication sign (x) and not separated from each other by an oblique line (/),
which may be mistaken for a division sign. These designations are misleading
in column a of TaWe 5)
(such as the descriptions of the samples 5 to 13
not
composed of safcfi*
became heavier PA netting yarns are
of fine
of the titre 210 den., but of a smaller number of l*e*vi*r
titre is

gr^imm^

single yarns

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FHHINO GEAR

58

which usually are a multiple of 210 den.


In column d of Table 5 examples of the real structure of PA
netting yarns are given showing single yarns of
single yarns with higher litre,

(=

23

tex).

= Td 840 den. (210 x 4)


115 tex = Td 1050 den. (210 x 5)
138 tex = Td 1260 den. (210 x 6)
552 tex = Td 5040 den. (210 x 24)
92 tex

2.2.3.2

Metric number

The metric number system (Nm) is an indirect system. The numerical


indicates the length of a single yarn in metre per mass of one
value of
The
conversion formula into the tex system is:
kilogramme.

Nm

tex

Example:

2.2.3.3

Nm 20 =

1000

Nm

50 tex (see also column

2,

Table

9).

English cotton count

The English cotton count (Nec ) is also an indirect system. Its unit of length
840 yards (one hank), the unit of mass is 1 English pound (Ib). For instance,
Nec20, indicates a single yarn of 20 x 840 = 16 800 yds per 1 pound. The
conversion formula into the tex system is:
is

tex

Example: Nec20

2.2.3.4

590.5
-=r=

Nec

30 tex (see also column

3,

Table

9).

Runnage

The runnagc has been and still is generally used in addition to other
numbering systems such as metric number or English count. It is mostly
expressed in metres per one kilogramme (m/kg) or yards per one pound
(yds/Ib). The runnagc in m/kg is the reciprocal of Rtex. While the other
above-mentkwjed systems refer to the single yarns, the runnage refers to the
finished product (netting yarn),
Ttw conversion formula into the tex system

is:

NETTING YARNS

59

TABLE 9 EXAMPLES FOR THE CONVERSION FROM SOME CONVENTIONAL NUMBER SYSTEMS
INTO THE TEX SYSTEM

Td

m/kg

Mm =

International titre in denier;


Metric
Runnage in metres per one kilogramme,

number; Nec

English cotton count;

Columns 1, 2 and 3 give the designations for most of the single yarns commonly used for
netting yarns. Column 4 contains only a limited selection of the many sizes of netting
yarns, i.e. of the final products.

2.3

Properties of netting yarns

Such properties which are predominantly based on the characteristics of


the fibre material, e.g. endurance in water, resistance against weathering,
as well as structural
sinking speed, weight in water, melting point (1.2.5),
and
of
twist
tightness of braids
characteristics such as fineness, amount
of the most
The
discussed
been
description
have
following
already
(2.1.2)
is linked to this earfier toof
yarns
netting
important physical properties
formation and further elaborates with regard to the final products, fit
complemented by brief references to testing methods.

60

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

2.3.1

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

(Properties of netting yarns and testing methods.) The following definitions of terms are considered essential for proper understanding. Although

not

of them are used in this manual, the additional ones

all

useful for studying other literature

on the

may be found

subject.

Standard atmosphere

2.3. 1 . 1

The standard temperate atmosphere for testing is the atmosphere


specified for physical tests in dry condition of textile materials. It requires a
relative humidity of 65 percent
2 percent and a temperature of

20C2C.

In tropical and sub-tropical countries an alternative temperature of


is admissible (64), (129).

27C

2C

Tensile test

2.3.1.2

This

is

test to

measure the resistance of a material to the force tending


It is performed by a special tensile

to stretch the specimen in one direction.


testing

2.3.1 .3

machine

(2).

Tensile stress or tensile strength

(Both terms are used in technical

literature,

but not ever with equal

definition.)
(a) General: The resistance to deformation developed in a fibre, a yarn,
a netting yarn or a rope, subjected to tension in one direction, up to the
breaking point or any other point before rupture. The term is also used for
distinction from deformation by other forces as torsion, compression or
shear (2).
(b) The force per unit cross-sectional area of the unstrained specimen
2
expressed in kgf/mm (also termed true tensile strength). Because of the often
irregular shapes of textile fibres and the structure of the twisted and braided
netting yarns, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to determine the crosssectional area of the netting yarns. Therefore, for comparing the strengths
of different kinds of netting yarns, tenacity or breaking length should be
used (129, 2, 25, 78).
(c) The term "tensile strength" is also used with the same definition as

"breaking strength".
2.3.1.4

Tenacity

Breaking tenacity is the tensile stress (force) per unit linear density of the
unstrained specimen. U is calculated from the breaking strength and the
linear density. Expressed in gramme-force per lex (gf/tex) the numerical
values ase equivalent to the values of the breaking length in kilometer (see

NETTING YARNS

2.3.

61

Breaking strength or breaking load

.5

Breaking strength (also breaking load) is the maximum force applied to


a specimen in a tensile test carried to rupture. It is commonly expressed in
kilogramme-force (kgf). (In ISO standards both terms are used: "breaking
strength" and "breaking load". In this Manual preference is given to
"strength".) The breaking strength may be tested as dry yarn breaking
strength, wet yarn breaking strength, dry knot breaking strength, and wet
knot breaking strength (62), (68).

SI

2.3.1.6

units

offorce

new

international standards (ISO) the units are expressed in the


International Unit System (SI). The units of force are, e.g., newton (N),

In

decanewton (daN), or centinewton (cN).


kgf

0.98

daN;

daN

1.02 kgf.

For breaking strength decanewton (daN)


values in

daN

will

be approximately 2

is

preferably used.

The numerical

% lower than the values in kgf.

Knot breaking strength

2.3. 1 .7

This

the

is

maximum

force applied to a knotted specimen in a tensile test

carried to rupture (62).

Mesh

2.3. 1 .8

This

the

is

breaking strength

maximum

tensile test, until

Load at

2.3. 1 .9

force applied to a mesh, taken

one of the knots or joints breaks

from a

netting, in

(63).

rupture

This is the final force at the moment the specimen or the first component
of the specimen breaks, when or after the breaking strength has been reached.
The load at rupture is usually, but not always, identical with the breaking
strength (62).
2.3. 1.10

to

its

Breaking length

the calculated length of a specimen, the mass of which is equal


is numerically
breaking strength. Expressed in kilometres (km) it

This

is

equivalent to the tenacity in gf/tex (62),

2.3. LI

Nominal gauge

(2), (129).

length

the length of a specimen under specified pre-tension. fa tensifc


to nip of tto jaws of the
tests, for example, this length is measured from nip
the
in
machine
starting posftkm
holding devices of the tasting

This

is

W*

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

62

Prehension

2.3.1.12

This is the relatively low tension applied to straighten the specimen and
to establish the nominal gauge length. All measurements of length or
elongation should be carried out under a well-defined pre-tension (90).
Time-to-break

2.3. 1 . 1 3

This

is

the period measured in seconds from the moment a (generally


is applied to a specimen until the breaking strength is

increasing) tension

reached

(62), (68).

2.3.1.14

This

Extensibility
is

the property of a material to undergo extension or elongation

under the influence of a force


2.3. 1.15

(2).

Elongation (Extension)

the increase in length of a specimen during a tensile test (2.3.1.2)


of length, e.g. millimetres or centimetres (2). Permanent
expressed
(or irreversible) elongation is the part of the total increase in length which
remains after the removal of stress. Elastic (or reversible) elongation is the

This

is

in units

part of the total increase in length which

is

annulled again, either immediately

or after a longer period of removal of stress (129).


2.3. 1

Elongation percent

the increase in length of a specimen expressed in percentage of


the nominal gauge length (68), (90), (68a).

This

is

Elongation at the half knot breaking strength

2.3.1.17

This

is

the increase in length of a specimen at the half knot breaking

strength (90), (68a).

Load-elongation curve

2.3.1.18

This

a graphical representation, showing the relationship between the


dimension of the specimen in a tensile test in the direction of the
applied stress, and the magnitude of the applied stress (90).

change

is

in

23. 1 19
.

Tenstie hysteresis curve

This is a complex load-elongation curve, obtained from a specimen


which is subjected to a certain tension which is less than the breaking strength,

and then allowed


2,3.1,20

This

to relax without tension (2).

Elasticity
i*

it* original

the property of a material by virtue of which it tends to recover


length and shape after removal of the stress causing elongation (2).

NETTING YARNS

2.3.1.21

63

Toughness

This is the property by which a material can absorb work. Breaking


toughness is the actual work per unit mass of the specimen which is required
to break it. A quantitative measurement of the work can be obtained by
determining the area delineated by the respective load-elongation curve
(see 2.3.1.18), (2), (45), (25).
2.3.

Flexural stiffness

.22

This

the resistance of a specimen to lateral or bending deformation.

is

also be defined as the force required to cause a unit of bending


deflection (18).
It

may

Abrasion resistance

2.3. 1 .23

This

is

the resistance of a material or a specimen to wear of the whole or


surface. For testing it may be defined as

any part of it when rubbed against a

the ability of a material to withstand abrasion under defined testing condiwhich should be as similar as possible to the mechanical wear in

tions,

practical use (2), (18).


2.3.1.24

Shrinkage

Shrinkage (shrink) is the reduction in length of a specimen induced by


wetting or other treatment, e.g. setting. (Setting is the process of stabilizing
fibre material and netting yarns, generally by means of moist or dry heat)
(129).

Knot

2.3.1.25

stability

the ability of the knots in the netting to retain their original form
by resisting the inversion into another form without slip and also the loosening with resulting slip but without inversion (18).

This

2.3.2

is

TESTING OF NETTING YARNS

no doubt that fishermen should have a good knowledge of the


of
net materials in order to be able to select the most suitable
properties
of different fishing gear. The
netting yarn for the specific requirements
are
these
mostly specified are detra>
numerical values by which
properties
mined by tests carried out by the laboratories of fibre and netting yam
scientific textile
manufacturers, by special (public) testing institutions or by
a
certain
to
extent on the
results
or fishery institutes. Since the testing
depend
to obtain
standardized
be
to
have
these
testing methods and instruments,
There

is

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

64

comparable

results

not only within one country but also on an international

As

netting yarns differ in their construction and in the way they are
used from the material for most other textiles, and as the tests and the testing

level.

conditions should be as similar as possible to working conditions, ISO has


started to work out specific standards for the testing of netting yarns and

So far the following methods have been standardized


Determination of breaking load (strength) and knot breaking load of netting
yarns (62), Determination of mesh breaking load of netting (63), Determination of change in length after immersion in water (66), and Determination
of elongation of netting yarns (at half the knot breaking load) (68).
As there is no need for fishermen to know in detail the sometimes complinetting for fishery.

cated instruments and methods for testing, the following selective description
is meant to give not more than a general idea on how the most important
properties are being determined.

2.3.2.1

Breaking strength (also breaking load)

The breaking

determined by a special tensile testing machine


test sample (netting yarn) by applying an
it
force
until
breaks.
The
increasing
great number of different tensile testing
machines used in the various countries can be classified into three main types
strength

is

(dynamometer) which stretches the

Machines working with constant-rate-of-specimen-elongation


machines working with constant-rate-of-load, and
machines working with constant-rate-of-traverse, (62).

known and rather common pendulum machines belong to the latter


The
more modern but expensive electronic recording dynamometers
type.
are working with constant rate of elongation and are characterized by high
accuracy and versatile applicability. One example of this type is shown in
Figure 18, which gives some more details.
For testing knot breaking strength one of the weaver's knots (English
knots) (Figures 19a and b) should be tied in the netting yarn samples. These
are the only knots permitted by the ISO standard because they are most
common in fishing nets. There is, however, no strong reason why other
The

well

kinds of knots used in netting for fishing should not also be permitted for
testing, e.g. the square or reef knot (Japanese netting) or the double weaver's

knot (62), (89),


For determining the mesh breaking strength, the arrangement shown in
Figure 19c should be mod. His test requires that none of the loose ends of
the mesh slip hi the knots. If this cannot be avoided then the knot breaking
strength test alone should be employed* It has then to be taken into account
that the results of knot breaking strength tests and mesh breaking strength
tetts are not comparable and that the knot breaking strength tests always

NETTING YARNS

FIGURE

18.

65

Tensile testing machine with electronic force determination.

M = box of the electric motor driving the machine.

LC =

load

upper holding device is moved at constant speed. The force


electronic load cell.
netting yarn to be tested.

cell, available with various


ranges.
H = holding devices (damping heads, measuring
damps, grips). In the machine shown the
is

measured

by the

= circular indicator scale (dial) with main pointer and maximum pointer
which remains
at maximum load*
O = graph recorder stationary
with graph paper for recording load-elongation curve*
Sc

6
a

ir

IMitAjA. W>1rtW4
* swncn
ooaru.
-.1.

.B

HdghtVth

machine about 240 cm.

"

66

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

2.3.2.2

Elongation

The determination of

the change of length of a netting yarn caused by


is also carried out with a tensile testing

the application of a stressing force

machine (68a). The netting yarn sample without knot of a certain length is
fastened to the clamps of the machine, and extended under increasing force
until half of its respective knot breaking strength is reached. For elongation
tests,

preference should be given to machines with constant rate of elongation


electronic force meter and also autographic recorder for

and equipped with

the load-elongation curve. Such type of machine is indispensable for more


sophisticated elongation property tests such as elongation by permanent

and unloading (hysteresis effect) and determination of total elongation in relation to elastic and permanent elongation
under different conditions (90). A simple method of testing the elasticity
will be described hereafter.
loading, at repeated loading

FIGURE 19.-(a) and (b) The two forms of the weaver's knot (English knot)
recommended by ISO for testing the knot breaking strength of netting yarns,
Arrangement for testing the mesh breaking strength. The clamps of the
(c)
tensile testing

mesh
2.3*2.3

machine are replaced by pins of stainless material, over which the

b mounted.

Knot Mobility

(No international standard yet) One possibility for testing this property
to fasten only three of the four ends of the two netting yarns forming the
kaot in the clamps of a tensile testing machine as is shown in Figure 20.

is

NETTING YARNS

FIGURE

Knots which have not

20.

One

67

possibility

of testing

the knot stability. Only three of the four


ends of the weaver's knot are fastened in
the clamps.

under increasing force. The


as a measure of knotslip resistance. Slippage can be either continuous or interrupted as can be
observed very well when a load-elongation curve is recorded during testing.
Unlike a normal elongation curve, the curve of a slipping knot shows

amount of the

sufficient stability will slip

force at which slipping occurs

may serve

irregularities (spikes or teeth, see Figure 21).

Another similar

test

would be to

stretch a

mesh mounted over

the holding

devices which are used for mesh breaking strength test (see Figure 19c), There
are several other possibilities of testing knot stability which do not need to

be discussed here.

10

tt

12

IJ

14

tS

1$

r?

20

2)

22

FIGURE 21 .Load-elongation curve of a slipping weaver'* knot la this case the


starts to slip at a certain force and continues slipping In a jerking manner

knot

with increasing force.

2) 24

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

FIGURE 22. Apparatus for measuring the length of netting yarn, also used for
determining the change of length after immersion in water. The pre-tension
of the netting yarn
during measuring should correspond to the weight of 250
to be tested.

(ace. to Klust, 1968)

2.3.2

Change of length

in

water

The apparatus for measuring the length of netting yarn (Figure 22) should
be used. It should allow a measuring length of at least 100 cm and the free
application of a fixed pretension. The netting yarn sample with a marked
length of about 100 cm is measured on the apparatus first in dry condition
and then, after immersion in water for a fixed time, in wet condition (66).
This apparatus is also convenient for measurements of lengths for other
purposes, e.g. determination of the fineness of netting yarn.

2.3.2.5

Diameter
international standard yet)

(No
means of a

The diameter can be determined by

special gauge (Figure 23). Results of sufficient accuracy for


practical use are obtained with netting yarns of circular cross-section, but
not with very soft netting yarns (as wet netting yarns made of
staple

PA

fibre) or normally braided netting yarns without or with only a small core
(74). The diameter can be determined more accurately by optical measurement with a calibrate^ micrometer scale and a normal microscope. The
netting yarn sample is placed without any tension on the micrometer under
the microscope objective and the diameter read directly from the micrometer
calc. Other methods for measuring the diameter are described in (18).

NETTING YARNS

FIGURE

23.

Gauge

for measuring the diameter of

netting yarns.

The specimen
flat

is placed between the two circular


metal plates AI and AI- By pressing lightly on

key B the pointer is actuated and indicates the


diameter on the scale to the nearest 1/100 mm.
Height of the apparatus about 13 cm.

2.3.2.6

Flexural stiffness

Figure 24 illustrates a non-standardized testing method. It is applicable


made of continuous filaments or staple fibres, but the results
inaccurate when testing netting yarns of great
somewhat
become
may
to netting yarns

stiffness, e.g.

heavy netting yams made of split fibres or of wire-like monomethods are described in (IS).)

filaments. (Other

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

70

FIGURE 24. Apparatus for measuring


the flexural stiffness of netting yarns.

A piece of netting yarn 20 cm in length


the metal clamp 3 in such a
way that forms a loop. A light plastic

is fixed in

it

hooked into the loop. Water


dropped from a burette into the vessel
until the widest opening of the loop

vessel 2 is
is

A-B

has decreased to 5 mm. The weight


vessel plus the quantity of water
(cubic centimetres) give the measure in
grains of the nexural stniness (schema-

of the

Height of the apparatus about 95 cm.


(ace, to v.

Brandt, 9a)

NETTING YARNS

2.3.2.7

71

Abrasion resistance

Due to the complex and varying fishing conditions, it is virtually impossible to simulate in laboratory tests the real wear and tear fishing nets are
subjected to during fishing. Many methods and devices for testing the abrasion resistance of textiles have been developed. Since they differ in important
testing conditions such as the type of the abrasive material, e.g. shot-blasted

Dural cylinder, hardened carbide steel bar, oil-stone, carborundum bar,


emery paper, and the pressure or stress applied to the specimen during
not comparable. Unfortunately, it is not possible to
decide (nor generally agree) which of the proposed methods is the best.
more recent type of testing machine (Figure 25) comes relatively close to the
fishing conditions as it allows the testing of knots under water.
The measure for the abrasion resistance is the remaining knot breaking
testing, the results are

number of double frictions.


of this testing machine and method.

strength of the specimen after chafing by a certain

Figure 25 gives

2.3.3

full details

BREAKING STRENGTH AND KNOT BREAKING STRENGTH OF NETTING YARN

Tables 10 to 20 give a rather comprehensive review of the fineness


(number), the diameter, the dry breaking strength (straight) and the wet knot
breaking strength of netting yarns made of polyamide (PA) continuous
filament, twisted and braided, polyamide (PA) staple fibre, polyester (PES)
continuous filament, polypropylene (PP) continuous filament, twisted and
braided, polypropylene (PP) split fibre, polyethylene (PE) wire, twisted and
braided, polyvinyl alcohol (PVAA) staple fibre and of single polyamide (PA)
monofilaments. Netting yarns made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVD) are not represented because they are not of
importance for most fishing countries. For instance, in Europe only PA, PE,
PP and PES are used for fishing nets. The size range listed in Tables 10 to

20 covers the most common netting yarns so that the data may serve as a
useful guide for selecting suitable material for any type of fishing net.
When comparing the values of breaking strength tests of a netting yarn,

same netting yarn, wet, knotted,


ISO standard (62) the breaking
with two netting yarns while the dry,

dry, straight (unknottedj, with those of the


must be kept in mind that according to

it

strength wet knotted is actually tested


straight (unknotted) breaking strength refers to one netting yarn only. Consequently the test values for wet, knotted breaking strength are higher in spite
of the actual reduction of breaking strength of the netting yarn by knot and

two test values are not directly comparable. For more realistic comparison
the test values for wet knotted may be divided by two and these half values
have therefore been added in brackets in the last column of Tables 10 to 20.
the

2.3.3,1

Fineness

The fineness of the netting yarns in these tables is specified by the resultant
tex (fctex

g/lOOOm) and by the runnage

in m/kg.

These values fdftr to

NETTING MATERIALS

72

FIGURE

MPE =

W
S

WT
EP

CP

POT. FISHING

GEAR

Apparatus for testing the abrasion resistance.


Small cupboard (erecting table) containing the drive motor, the com-

25.

pressed air

pump and

the electric switching elements.

Weights which compensate the weight of the tank with water and exert a
pressure on the specimen during testing.
Gear with three drive pulleys of different size for selecting the required
abrasion speed.
Switches for compressed air pump and drive motor.
2 Counters, one for setting the total number of double frictions at
which testing is to be finished, and the other one for the continuous
counting of the number of abrasion movements.
Metal tank with water (for testing the wet abrasion resistance). The
tank, to the bottom of which the emery paper is attached, is moving
back and forth in one direction with a certain speed and repetition rate.

Emery paper of special graining.


Pneumatic ctampmg device with knotted netting yarn sample (K). The
damping device Is attached to a swivelling arm (SA) which is turned
cover to u idft during testing to such a way that the specimen touches the
emety paper in the tank. The damping device with the specimen can also
perform reciprocating motions but in opposite direction to the motions
of the tank containing the abrasive paper. The motion of the clamping
device can be stopped if charing in only one direction is desired.
id coasting tube of the compre^
, valve
'

tviiibk.)

Width o?the ar*fc aboot 90cm*

NETTING YARNS

TABLE

10.

TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF POLYAMIDE (PA) CONTINUOUS FILAMENTS

With regard to the description


Table

73

in

column "a" of heavier

netting yarns, see 2.2.3.1

and

5.

normal medium twist or tightness of braid respectively. Greater deviations


from these values may occur due to differences in the fineness and/or construction of the single yarns or to additional treatment of the final products.
The figures in Table 10 are particularly reliable for netting yarns of PA
continuous fiUunent with single yarns of 23 tex (= 210 denier) or a multiple
1 to 19). Common single yarns for PP continuous filament
190 denier) and for PES continuous filament
have' 21 tex (
250 denier) (Tables 14 and 15).
netting yarns 28 tex (
The complicated process for manufacturing fine continuous filaments
to a small number of
(muhifilarnents) has in general restricted this product

of

it

(e.g.

netting

Ncwu

yams

big chemical works. Moaofilaments

and split fibres,

especially

of PE and PP,

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

74

TABLE

12.

TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF POLYAMIDE (PA) STAPLE FIBRES

NETTING YARNS

75

require much less complicated and expensive processes and equipment and
are therefore produced by a very large number of smaller factories. Consequently the continuous filament materials produced by a few are much more
split fibres of PE and PP produced by
and other properties of single yarns and
netting yarns may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer due to

uniform than the monofilaments and

many. With the


finished

latter, fineness

differences in factors such as quality of the basic substance, pigments incorporated into the polymer for spin-dyeing (see 1.2.5.2), method and
machinery for extrusion, degree of drawing (stretching) the material during

manufacture, size and form of the cross-section of monofilaments or thickness


and width of the film tapes and, finally, details in the construction of the
final

product.
has to be mentioned that Rtex and runnage in Tables 10 to 20 are
rounded off average values and, therefore, the multiplication of Rtex by the
corresponding manage does not always exactly give the figure 1 000000.
It

NETTING MATERIALS FOR HOMING GEAR

TABLE 14. TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF POLYESTER (PES) CONTINUOUS FILAMENTS
With regard to the description in column "a" of heavier netting yarns see 2.2.3.1 and
Table

5.

2.3.3.2

Breaking strength of straight netting yarns

In the majority of tables published by netting manufacturers usually the


dry breaking strength of straight (unknotted) netting yarns is given. This
property is therefore also listed in Tables 10 to 20, although netting yarns
in fishing nets are not straight but tied in knots or other joints, and the netting
is operated in water and not in dry condition. Dry breaking strength of
straight netting yarns is therefore of rather limited significance in the case of
fishing nets, particularly as the strength of knots or joints is always considerably below the strength of the straight netting yarn.
For ropes made of vegetable and synthetic fibres international standards
(ISO) already exist from which the purchaser may take mass, breaking
strength and construction data for ropes of all practical diameters (56), (57),
(59), (60), (67). It is to be hoped that these ISO standards will lead to more
uniformity of constructions and properties of ropes, thus facilitating selection.
For netting yarns such international standards do not exist yet. The
values of breaking strength and knot breaking strength given in Tables 10
to 20 are therefore not standardized requirements but rounded off average
values based on tests of a large number of netting yarns of good quality from
various countries and manufacturer*. Since they are average and not peak
values it i* possible that some materials will be found better, but probably,

NETTING YARNS

77

TABLE

15.

TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP) CONTINUOUS FILAMENTS

TABLE

16.

BRAIDED NETTING YARNS MADE OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP) CONTINUOUS FILAMENTS

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

78

TABLE

TABLE

18.

17.

TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP) SPLIT FIBRES

TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF FOLDED POLYETHYLENE (PE) MONOFILAMENTS


(WIRES)

NETTING YARNS

79

BRAIDED NETTING YARNS MADE OF FOLDED POLYETHYLENE (PE) MONQFILAMENTS


(WIRES) FOR HEAVY TRAWLNETS

TABLE

19.

more

frequently, actual material will not reach these values, particularly as

regards heavy netting yarns.


PVAA material is represented here only as staple fibre netting yarns
(Table 20) because it is mainly used in this form and almost exclusively in

the Japanese fishery.


recent trend is that PVAA staple fibre is being
replaced by continuous filament which has a considerably higher breaking
strength. With the same kind of fibre material netting yarns of continuous
filament are always stronger than those of staple fibre.

TABLE

20.

TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVAA) STAPLE FIBRES

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

CDC

AS

FIGURE
(a)

26.

ABA

Types of knots:

Overhand knots, sometimes used for


used for making netting).

testing the

knot breaking strength (not

(b) Weaver's knots (English knots. Sheet Bends) are the most common knots for
making netting. They should therefore be used for testing the knot breaking

strength (sec also Figures 19a and b)*


Reef knots (Square knots) used in Japan for making netting.
(d) Double Weaver's knots used for netting in order to prevent knot slippage (61).

(c)

PVD (Saran), which are not listed in the


lower breaking strength than PVAA netting yarns. PVC,
which was utilized mainly because of its low price, is gradually disappearing
froan fisheries. It is being replaced mainly by PE mid PP which probably are
the cheapest fibres and have also better properties than PVC.
Netting

yams made of PVC and

tables have a

'

still

NETTING YARNS

FIGURE

27.

81

dirtct ion

Direction in knotted net-

ting.

(Twinewise or transverse
the direction parallel to the
general course of the netting yarn.
T-direction
direction)

is

N-direction (Normal direction) is the


direction at right angles to the general
course of the netting yarn.
(ace. to

ISO Standard 1974

(54))

PVD (Saran) is mainly used in mixed netting yarns, i.e. in combination


with other materials. Such netting yarns of dissimilar components mostly
consist of two kinds of fibres (see end of 1.2.3) and are meant to combine
the desirable properties of both materials. For instance, mixed nylon (PA)
and Saran (PVD) netting yarns combine the high breaking strength of nylon
with the high specific gravity of Saran resulting in an end product of reasqnable strength and high mass (sinking speed) which is of advantage e.g. for
purse seines and deep sea gillnets. The breaking strength of such combined
netting yarns lies in general between that of their components and depends
on the share of each kind of fibre in the final product
In Japan more than ten different mixed netting yarns are produced
representing about 5 percent of the total production of all synthetic nets (70).
2.3.3.3

Weaver's knot breaking strength

The values of the wet knot breaking strength in Tables

10 to 20 have been

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

82

obtained by tests with the weaver's knot (Figures 19a and b and 26b). The
two pieces of netting yarn in this knot each form a loop of which the simpler
one is hatched in Figures 19a and b and indicated by AB in Figure 26b. The
other somewhat more complicated loop is white in Figures 19a and b and
indicated by CD in Figure 26b. For the knot breaking strength tests presented
in Tables 10 to 20 the ends A and B of the knot were fixed in one clamp
of the tensile testing machine and the ends C and D in the other clamp.
This testing arrangement
in

is

considered to be particularly appropriate because

most common position of the netting yarn and the knots


fishing nets where the meshes are subjected to the main stress in N (normal)-

it is

closest to the

direction (Figure 27).

The performance of netting in a fishing gear does not only depend on the
strength of the netting yarn it is made of, but just as much on the construction
of the gear. Fishing gear which is subject to considerable stretch or pressure,
such as trawlnets or river stow nets, should be constructed in such a manner
is equally distributed over the largest possible netting area.
If in a badly constructed net a large share of the total stress is concentrated

that the stress

PVA (A I

staple

PE. monof.

PR
PR

split fibre

contfll,
PP, cont.fiU

PES, cont

mort than R 500 tx


under R 500 tex

fii.

PA. single monof,


PA. sinoU monof,
PA, stapU
PA, cont. fit,

PA. cant, fit,


PA. com tit..

mort

than

250

ttx

undr 250 Ux

mof+than R 4000 tx
R 1000 ttx to R 4000 ttx
undtr R I OOP ttx

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

dry, without knot

110

per c*nt.

Ftouw28.~4lel*tkKh^
iad wot, knotted of different land* of netting yam.
e judfnit tee 2.3.3 ad Tfcfeta ID to 20.

(btock)

120

130

140

ISO

NETTING YARNS

on a few meshes only

made of strong

(e.g.

bosom

83

quarters), they will break even

when

netting yarn.

The breaking strength of the weaver's knot tested in T (twinewisc or


transverse-direction (Figure 27) by fixing the ends
and
in one clamp
and the ends B and
in the other clamp of a tensile tester (Figure 26b)
will

mostly, but not always, be lower than in N-direction.


The different kinds of netting yarns react differently to knotting and
wetting. Also for this reason wet knot breaking strength tests are much more
significant for fishing gear than dry, straight (unknotted) breaking strength
tests. In Figure 28 the relationship between the dry, straight breaking strength
and the wet knotted breaking strength of netting yarns of different material
demonstrates the combined influences of knotting and of water. With PA

and PP continuous filament netting yarns and with single PA monofilaments


the loss in breaking strength by knotting depends somewhat on the fineness
(Rtex) of the netting yarn: the finer the netting yarn the lower the loss. The
high loss in strength with PVA(A) netting yarn is caused not only by knotting
but also by the effect of water. PE folded monofilament (wire) netting yarns
have a

relatively

low dry breaking

strength, but this disadvantage

is

partially

compensated by the fact that they are not affected by water and that their
loss in strength by knotting is lower and this material therefore comes out
best (140 percent) in this comparative test (see 2.3.3).
For practical purposes netting yarns should be selected according to the
absolute values of wet knot breaking strength listed in Tables 10 to 20. The
different reactions of the various net materials to knotting and wetting can
then be ignored.
In the codends of trawlnets and also in the selvedges of some other
fishing gears netting braided of double netting yarn is frequently used. An
example for the resulting knot is shown in Figure 33. This doubling of
netting yarn will mostly not give double the knot breaking strength. Examples
for some kinds of netting yarn are given in Table 21.

TABLE

21.

BREAKING STRENGTH WET KNOTTED OF DOUBLE NETTING YARNS IN PERCENTAGE


OF SINGLE NETTING YARN (100%)
Kinds of netting
Fibre

yam
Rtex

Breaking strength, wet, knotted

84

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

The edges of netting in fishing gear are also frequently strengthened by


meshes made of stronger netting yarn. The width of such selvedges varies
widely according to the purpose and they may be found on the lower edge
only, on both lower and upper edge, or all around a certain piece of netting.
In machine-manufactured netting sheets netting yarns with only small
differences in thickness can be directly combined during the braiding process.
Also complex selvedges consisting of several strips with increasing thickness

selvedge
FIGURE

29.
Netting with selvedge made of
thicker netting yam. The row of knots, marked by
man circka and by an arrow, consists of "mixed'*
knots which are made of one fine and one thicker

netting

yam.

NETTING YARNS

85

of netting yarn from the inside outwards can be machine braided. For
instance, some types of big trap nets have the bulk of the netting made of
nylon 23tex x 18 and a selvedge braided simultaneously consisting of three
each three meshes deep. The strips are of decreasing twine size, e.g.
23tex x 27, 23tex x 24 and 23tex x 21. Icelandic herring purse seines have
such selvedges of even up to 10 strips of different netting yarn size, e.g.
from 23tex x 144 down to 23tex x 15 (131).
strips,

Between strips of different netting yarn size there is one row of "mixed"
knots which are tied from a finer and a thicker netting yarn (Figure 29).
Table 22 gives examples for the knot breaking strength of such knots consisting of two different netting yarn sizes in percentage of the knot breaking
strength of the finer netting yarn. From this the following conclusions can
be drawn:
If two netting yarns of different fineness are combined in a weaver's
knot, the breaking strength of this "mixed" knot is always larger than
that of the finer of the two netting yarns only.

Mixed weaver's knots, the simple loop (AB) of which is made of the
thinner netting yarn and the more complicated loop (CD) of the
thicker one, are stronger than knots where AB consists of the thicker
and
of the thinner netting yarn.

CD

The

greater the differences in the fineness of the two netting yarns,


the greater the increase in the knot breaking strength, as compared
to that of the finer netting yarn (see Table 22, groups 6, 8, 9 and 10).

The mesh breaking

strength of

knotted netting which can be deter(see 2.3.2.1 and Figure 19c)


is 10 to 25 percent lower than the knot breaking strength (tested as shown
in Figures 19a and b) because the strength of a mesh is determined by the
weakest of its four knots.
all

mined only on meshes with non-slipping knots

2.3.3.4

Other knots

Of other knots used for fish netting the reef knot or square knot is used
only in Japan (Figure 26c).
The single weaver's knot is the most common knot type for fishing nets.
With netting yarn of a rough surface (vegetable fibres, synthetic staple
and split fibres), this knot will pro vide sufficient knot stability (resistance
to slippage). Netting yarns made of continuous filaments and monofilaments
have a very smooth surface, especially when twisted, and the knots therefore

fibres,

tend to dip which leads to meshes of unstable and unequal shape and size.
This is most undesirable for gillnets where the catch depends on a certain

"opening of mesh" (54) (see Figure 59). Knot stability is also necessary for
many other gears such as trawls to maintain the correct hanging of netting
to lines, a particular designed shape and the proper distribution of the
stress in the netting to prevent local overloading which may lead to damage.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

86

TABLE

22.

BREAKING STRENGTH OF WEAVER'S KNOTS MADE OF NETTING YARNS OF DIFFERENT


FINENESS (89)

Regarding the terms "Loop AB" and "Loop CD'* see Figure 26b. The first example in each
group gives the knot breaking strength of the finest netting yarn of the group (100%).
Fibre

Loop

AB

Loop

CD

Knot breaking

strength

in percent

knot slippage may cause additional wear of the netting yarns rubbing
against each other leading to reduced lifetime.
For these reasons manufacturers try to improve the resistance against

Finally,

knot slippage either ty suitable treatment of the netting or by using the


dofcbte weaver's knot (Figure 26d). This knot, which can be machine braided,

grvw the netting

sufficient

toot

stability

even with

difficult material

such

NETTING YARNS

as thick monofilaments.

Compared

87

to the normal single weaver's knot, the

double weaver's knot has the disadvantage of larger weight and bulkiness.
Some examples showing the differences of the knot weights (not of the
weight of the netting!) are given below:

An example

for the different dimensions of the

two types of knot

is

given

in Figure 30. With thin netting yarn and larger mesh size the differences in
mass and size of the knots will be of little significance for the netting and

can be ignored, but with increasing diameter of netting yarn and decreasing
meshsize, mass and bulk of the knots may need to be considered. If it is
at all possible to obtain sufficient knot stability by treatment of the netting,
the single weaver's knot should be given preference to the double knot. For

FIGURE

30.

Single weaver's knot


yarn.

made of the same netting

and double weaver's knot

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

g8

made of transparent PA single monofilaments, which owe their


high catching efficiency to their relative invisibility in water, the single knot
is less visible than the double knot.
In general, the breaking strength of a knot decreases with the angle into
which the loops of the netting yarns are forced by the knot and it increases
with the number of loops in the knot. Accordingly, the overhand knot and
the reef knot have a somewhat lower breaking strength than the single
weaver's knot and the double weaver's knot is the strongest.
fine gillncts

2.3.4

DIAMETER, RTEX, AND KNOT BREAKING STRENGTH

The

values of diameter given in Tables 10 to 20 refer only to twisted


most cases it will be impossible to measure accurately
with simple methods the diameter of braided netting yarns without core as
are commonly used for netting, because this material is rather soft and has
netting yarns. In

an irregular, non-circular cross-section. The diameters of braided netting


yarns (except braids with thick core) given by manufacturers are usually
nothing more than denotations of trade articles and frequently do not
correspond to the actual thickness. The same applies to the determination
of the diameter of the netting yarns in knotless netting of the Raschel and
the braided type (see 2.3.2.5).
The diameter values in the tables refer to dry netting yarns. In general
PA netting yarns become somewhat thinner in wet condition, whereas the
diameter of netting yarns made of PES, PE, PP and PVC (continuous
filament and monofilaments) remains practically unchanged. The diameter
of PVA(A) staple netting yarns increases in water by about 7 to 12 percent.
This indifference of netting yarns made of continuous filament and monofilament to water is one of the great advantages of synthetic as compared
with vegetable net materials which become considerably thicker by swelling.
The following average increases of diameter in water have been found,
expressed in percent of the initial dry diameter (74)
:

cotton netting yarn

hemp

netting yatn

+ 10 %
+20%

manila netting yarn

+ 33 %

sisal netting

+34%

yarn

In addition to the numerical diameter values given in column "d" of Table 10


and in Table 12, the photographs in Figures 31a and 31b give an impression
of the thickness of practically all common siies of twisted netting yarns made

lie diameter of netting yarn is a major factor for the resistance of


fishing gear to water flow and therefore also for the power required or the
fpeed obtained in towing a certain gear: the thinner the
the
netting

lower

tfce resistance,

low

resistance is in

yam

most instances also advantageous

89

NETTING YARNS

860
950
1030
1200
1280

U30
1570

2000
2800

ftouiw 3Ia.~Most common

sorts

of twisted

continuous filament netting yirm,

TMe 10, in natural stae.

PA

i Hated in

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

90

1800
2120

FIGURE

PA

3 lb.
Twisted
staple fibre netting
yarns, as listed in Table 12, in natural size.

for the catching efficiency because, due to reduced water stow or turbulences,
the frightening effect on fish will also be reduced.

When comparing different types of netting yarn, the Rtex values, being
the mass in grams of 1000 m, may serve as a relative measure for the mass of
netting. Lower Rtex, i.e. lower mass of the netting, may facilitate handling of
the gear. For the same kind of fibre lower Rtex usually means lower price,
since netting

and netting yarns are commonly sold on a mass

basis.

The most important practical property of net material is the wet knot
breaking strength (or mesh breaking strength or the breaking strength of the
joints in knotless netting) because

it

indicates the ability (and limitations) of

the netting for withstanding stress during fishing. Therefore, this property is
decisive for the selection of netting yarns, but it must always be considered
together with diameter and fineness (Rtex) which often are also of high
significance for the efficiency of fishing gear. The interrelationship between
these three properties for various kinds of net material are discussed below.

2.3.4. 1

Diameter and knot breaking strength

Apart from the construction of netting yarn, the relationship between


diameter and knot breaking strength is determined by two factors density
(specific gravity) and strength of the fibre material, (see Tables 2a and 2e
:

NETTING YARNS

91

and

1.2.5.3). With equal mass per unit of length, the diameter of the netting
yarn increases with decreasing density. With equal or almost equal fibre
strength, for a given knot breaking strength the netting yarn made of material
with lower density will be thicker. Finally, with approximately equal density
but different fibre strength, for equal knot breaking strength the netting yarn
made of the weaker fibres will be thicker. The differences in diameter of
netting yarns will obviously increase with the differences in one or both

factors.

For instance, in Figure 32 two pieces of netting with equal wet knot
breaking strength are compared: one is made of cotton fibres the other of PA
continuous filament. Though cotton has a greater density than PA (see
Table 2a), the cotton netting yarn is much thicker because of its inferior
fibre strength. The different size of the knots is particularly noteworthy.
The differences in knot size between the PE netting yarn and the two PA
netting yarns in Figure 33 are due to the accumulating effects of lower density
and inferior strength of the PE fibres, although the differences in strength
between PA and PE are much smaller than between PA and cotton (all three
knots were tightened by a force of 100 kgf).
A more precise comparison of the relationship between diameter and
wet knot breaking strength of different kinds of netting yarn is enabled to be
made by Figure 34 which shows graphically the average values listed in

PA

Cotton
FIGURE

32,

Netting samples of cotton and

PA

netting yarns of equal wet knot breaking strength.

'cont'fftf.

continuous filament

made of

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

92

-100mm

208mm 2

340mm 2

U6,5mm 2

FIGURE 33. Netting yarns with equal wet knot


breaking strength, made of:
(a)
(b)
(c)

PA continuous

monofilaments, braided;
PA continuous filaments, braided.

The diagram under


size

filaments, twisted;

PE

the photo shows the different

of the areas covered by the knots.

NETTING YARNS

93

Tables 10, 14, 1 5, 17, 18 and 20. The following numerical values were extracted
from the curves of this figure
:

Twnttd netting yarns mad*

of

Polyamide cool filaments

Polypropylene conl Moments


Polyethylene monofilaments (wires)
Polyit*r cont filaments

Potyamid*

2
3

tapl

Polypropylene

tibrt

split

fibres

(average values

Knot breaking load, wet


and Diameter

""so

to

FIGURE

TO

'

to

So" -ttoo

110

'

120

^0

-t- ISO

170

UO
Knt

-f

190

wet breaking (Md

f
I

200

ItO

210

'

220

2SO

230
2tO

(3)

(5)

290

270

2tO

kgf

34.
Relationship between wet knot breaking strength
twisted netting yarns made of different kinds of fibre.
(1)

2tO

and diameter of

Polyamide continuous filaments, (2) polypropylene continuous filaments*


filaments.
polyethylene monofilaments (wires), (4) polyester continuous
polyamidc staple fibres and polypropylene split fibres (average values).

300

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

With equal wet knot breaking strength, PP continuous filament netting yarns
are by 25 to 29 percent and PE folded monofilament netting yarns by 24 to 29
percent thicker than PA continuous filament netting yarns, whereas PES
continuous filament netting yarns are slightly (2 to 5 percent) thinner.

2.3.4.2

Wet knot breaking

and Rtex

strength

Even more significant is the relationship between wet knot breaking


strength and Rtex, which is shown for twisted netting yarns in Figure 35 and
by numerical values in Table 23a and for some heavy braided netting yarns
in

Table 23b (page

Twisted
1

120

2
3
A

98).

ntttrng yarns

made

of

Polyamide contm filomtnts


Polypropylene contm fllamtnts
Polyethylene monofllamtnti (wires)
Polyester contm filaments
Poly vinyl alcohol Staple fibres

Knot breaking load, wet


and
R tex

*
i

Braided FA netting yarns

Cotton netting yarns (single values

(average values

'

MO

600
700

1000

900

1400

ttOO

MOO

l00

WO

IfOO

t00

1700

2000

(00

2200
2100

2400
2300

2100
2500

3000

2800
2700

2WO

R ten

FIGURE 35.

Relationship between wet knot breaking strength and Rtex of twisted


netting yams made of different kinds of fibre. (1) polyamide continuous filaments,
(2) polypropyplene continuous filaments, (3) polyethylene monofilaments folded,
(4) polyester continuous filaments, (5) polyvinyl alcohol staple fibres.

NETTING YARNS

95

The relative netting yarn mass (Table 23a) needed to obtain a certain
equal knot breaking strength may be expressed approximately by the following ratio
:

PA

c.f.

100

and

PA

st.

200

PP

c.f.

110

PE mon.
120

PES

c.f.

130

PVAA

st.

300,

for the heavy braided netting yarns (Table 23b):

PA

c.f.

PP

c.f.

PE mon.

100

107

120.

In Figure 35 some average values of braided PA continuous filament netting


yarns are inserted to demonstrate that this is the strongest of all netting
materials dealt with in this manual. This is further supported by Figure 33

PA specimen forms a considerably smaller knot than the


specimen with equal knot breaking strength.

where the braided


twisted

2.3.4.3

PA

Diameter and mass

Manufacturers of PP and PE sometimes refer to the relationship between


diameter and mass of netting yarn (Rtex or runnage, respectively), which
is represented in Figure 36. With equal diameter the mass of netting yarn
obviously decreases or increases with the density of the fibre material of
which it is made. The following numerical examples are taken from the
curves of Figure 36
:

With equal diameter PP continuous filament netting yarns are about 30


percent lighter and PES continuous filament netting yarns more than 30
percent heavier in mass than PA continuous filament netting yarns. On the
other hand, PP netting yarns of the same diameter have about 30 to 37 percent lower breaking strength than PA netting yarns. Though the thickness
of netting yarns cannot be neglected for many fishing gear types, adequate
strength is mostly more important and consequently net material will more
often have to be selected according to the knot breaking strength and not
the diameter of netting yarns.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING OEAR

96

2.3.5

FLEXURAL

The

STIFFNESS

and
and Figure 24). The numerical
values in columns d and e of Table 24 give the mass in grammes which
is required to reduce the widest opening of a loop formed by a 20 cm piece
of netting yarn down to exactly 5 mm (Table 24 on page 100).
Netting yarns and netting made of soft continuous filament or staple
fibre are frequently treated with bonding agents which change the stiffness
flexural stiffness

bending deformation

is

the resistance of a netting yarn to lateral

(see 2.3.1.22, 2.3.2.6

of netting materials (see 2.3.5.7). Because of the great number of various


agents and concentrations used by manufacturers of netting materials or by
fishermen, it is not possible to clearly define their stiffening efficiency. The
following remarks, therefore, exclude treatment with agents but include
heat setting.

The examples of netting yarns of different fibre material and construction


Table 24 cover the common range of flexural stiffness found in practice.
This property depends on kind, basic form (see 1.2.4) and fineness of the
fibre material and on the construction and the thickness of the netting yarn.

in

2.3.5.1

The
flexible,

PA

PA

single monofilaments

monofilaments

single

to facilitate mechanical

stiffness increases

0.10 and 0.20

Table 24, Group I, are relatively


manufacture of netting. Their flexural

listed in

with increasing diameter. The finest monofilaments, e.g.


used for fine gillnets, have a very low stiffness. In water
PA monofilaments is reduced. They are then considerably

mm,

the stiffness of

all

softer than in dry condition.

2.3.5.2

PA

continuous filament netting yarns

Netting yarns made of PA continuous filament (Groups II and III in


Table 24) have a very low flexural stiffness unless treated with stiffening
agents. They are the softest materials used for fishing nets, especially when
braided and wet. Because of their extremely low stiffness, PA netting yarns
finer than Nos. 7 and 8 cannot accurately be tested any more by the method
used, especially when wet. The amount of twist influences the stiffness of
dry PA netting yarns. A higher coefficient of twist causes higher stiffness,

NETTING YARNS

Twisted netting yarns

made

97

of

Poly amide contin filaments

2
3

Polypropylene contin filaments


Polyester contin filaments

Polyamide staple fibres


Polyethylene monotilaments (average values)

900

700

SCO

MO

600

FIGURE

36.

1500

1300

1100

1000

1200

1400

2100

1900

1700

1600

1800

2000

2300
2500
2900
3)00
2700
2400
2tOO
2tOO
3000
3200
<

2200

'

Relationship between Rtex and diameter of twisted netting yarns

made of

different kinds of fibre. (1) polyamide continuous filaments, (2) polypropylene continuous filaments, (3) polyester continuous filaments, (4) polyamide
*
folded polyethylene monofilaments (average values).
staple fibres,

as can be seen by

comparing

e.g.

specimens 7 and

8,

or lOa and lOb, res-

PA

monopectively, but in wet condition these differences decrease. Like


filaments also all
netting yarns become considerably softer in wet

PA

condition.

Heat-setting makes the material somewhat stiffer, as can be seen by


comparing samples 9a and 9b, or lla and lib, respectively. The fineness
of the single continuous filaments composing the netting yarn has also a
remarkable influence on the stiffness. The braided specimen 15, consisting
of filaments of 2.2 tex, has about double the stiffness of specimens 12 to
14 which have almost equal Rtex but are made of the much finer filaments

of 0.68

tex.

PA folded monofilaments netting yarns


Netting yarns made of PA monofilaments (Group IV

2.3.5.3

of Table 24)
in stiffness is much
their
increase
and
materials
the
stiffest
to
netting
belong
more clearly related to increasing Rtex than with PA continuous filament
netting yarns.

The

stiffness

of

PA

netting yarns of comparable construction

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

98

TABLE

WET KNOT BREAKING STRENGTH

(KGF) AND CORRESPONDING RTEX VALUES OF


TWISTED NETTING YARNS MADE OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF FIBRE

23a.

Rtex values of netting yarns made of

kgf

PA

TABLE 23b.

c.f.

PA

PP

st.

PE mon.

c.f.

PES

c.f.

PVA

(A)

st.

WET KNOT BREAKING STRENGTH (KGF) AND CORRESPONDING RTEX VALUES OF


HEAVY BRAIDED NETTING YARNS MADE OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF FIBRE
Rtex values of netting yarns made of

kgf

PA

c.f.

PP

c.f.

PE mon.

NETTING YARNS

99

made of folded monofilaments of equal diameter and equal chemical structure


is directly proportional to Rtex, i.e. it is doubled when the Rtex is doubled
(see below).

No.

Rtex

Flex, stiffness

The fineness (thickness) of the single monofilaments composing the netting


yarn has an even greater influence than the Rtex, as can be seen by comparing
specimens 17, 18 and 19 which have almost equal Rtex. By doubling the
diameter of the monofilaments the stiffness value of the netting yarn increases
by a factor of about three.
Netting yarns of PE monofilaments have similar characteristics. For
diameter monofilaments is
instance, the specimen 46b made of 0.20
much stiffer than the even heavier specimen 46a which is made of 0.15
diameter monofilaments.
Manufacturers of netting yarn are therefore able to vary the stiffness of
netting yarns made of folded monofilaments (synthetic wires) and of split
fibres by varying the fineness (diameter) and the number of the individual
elementary threads. Another possibility of influencing the stiffness of this

mm

mm

coarse material available to the fibre producers consists in adding special


softening agents (plasticisers) of different efficiency and in different quantity
to the polymer during the manufacture of the monofilaments.

PES and PP

2.3.5.4

continuous filament netting yarns

Netting yarns made of PES continuous filaments (Group V) and PP


continuous filaments (Group VI) are somewhat stiffer than those made of
PA continuous filaments and, unlike PA, dry and wet stiffness are practically
with split fibres or
equal. By mixing the soft continuous filament material
monofilaments, an increase in stiffness can be obtained. There exists, of
course, a very great number of possibilities for variations in this type of
combined netting yarns. Some examples are given in Group VIII of Table 24.

2.3.5.5

Also

many

PP split fibre and PE folded monofilament netting yarns


with netting yarns made from PP split fibres or PE monofilaments
may be obtained according to diameter and
Some examples are given in Groups VII and IX,

variations in stiffness

kind of the components.

Both types of netting yarn belong to the


material used for fishing nets.

respectively.

stiffest

and hardest

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

100

TABLE

24.

FLEXURAL

The term "treated"

STIFFNESS OF NETTING

YARNS

indicates heat setting of the netting yarn.

NETTING YARNS

101

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

102

2.3.5.6

Vegetable fibre netting yarns

fibre netting yarns some


data are given in the following, referring to netting yarns with equal diameter.

For the comparison of synthetic and vegetable

In dry condition manila netting yarn is very stiff, similar to synthetic


folded monofilament netting yarn. In water all vegetable fibres swell and they
become softer. In netting yarns of simple construction (only one twisting
operation, see 2.1.1.4) and with a low amount of twists, the fibres can freely
expand and the stiffness of the netting yarn decreases as well. This is the
case with the manila and hemp netting yarns listed above. The cotton sample
is a cabled netting twine of the construction 50 tex x 15 x 3. Due to the
(single yarns and folded yarns) and
product, the swelling cotton fibres become tightly compressed
and the stiffness of this netting yarn in wet condition is consequently

hard twist of the components

relatively

of the

final

increased.

2.3.5.7

Stiffening agents

For

stiffening netting materials consisting of soft continuous filaments


or staple fibres a large variety of stiffening agents is available, mainly
produced by the chemical industry. The choice varies in different countries
and frequently new substitutes come up. Since it is not intended to go
deeper into this subject or to make an evaluation, in the following only a
few agents are discussed. Other products than the examples mentioned here
may be equally or even more effective and the selection for a specific purpose
will

depend mainly on

local availability

Some of the more common

and economic considerations.

stiffening agents are

Tar, such as coal-tar or wood-tar.

Other coal-derivates,

like

carbolineum.

"Black varnish" which mainly consists of pitch and benzene (benzol)


as a solvent or diluting agent in different concentration.
Bitumen, a natural or

artificial

derivate of mineral

oils.

NETTING YARNS

103

These four agents are mostly black and colour the netting accordingly.

Copper naphtenate

(e.g.

"Cuprinol") has a green colour.

Synthetic rubber solutions.


Synthetic resins.

Polyvinyl acetate emulsions.

Some
many

of these agents do not change the natural colour of the netting but
of them must be applied at rather high temperature.
For the application and selection of stiffening agents it must be taken
into account that they do not only influence the flexural stiffness but usually
also most other properties of netting material either in a favourable or an
unfavourable way.

Mass and diameter will always increase. Some agents, e.g. tar or black
varnish, improve the sinking speed, the resistance to light, the abrasion
resistance, the knot stability and even the wet knot breaking strength.
Furthermore, length or meshsize (shrinkage, e.g. due to hot application
of the agent), extensibility and colour may be changed. Therefore, it is
to first test the effect of unknown stiffening agents on the
various properties of the netting material with a small piece of netting before

recommended
the whole net

is

treated (see also 1.2.5.4).


what effects can occur.

The following examples

are

meant

to give an idea of

Netting

made of PP continuous

filament netting yarn:

Treated with

Immersion

in the agent

Temperature

coal-tar

black varnish

30 min
about 65C

30 min
about 30C

+130%

+64%

Increase in weight after 4 weeks


air-drying
Increase in wet knot breaking strength

Meshsize dry
Meshsize wet

+25 %

+24 %

unchanged

unchanged

-5.8%

-1.6%

Black varnish dries quicker than coal-tar. Both agents do not damage
the fibre substance of

percentage of phenol.

PP and PA

except tar that contains a substantial

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

104

Netting yarns

made of PA continuous filaments and PA staple fibres,


room temperature, not diluted and diluted

treated with black varnish at

with equal amount of benzene

PA
Immersion

in the

PA

cont.fil.

staple

not diluted

diluted

not diluted

diluted

20 min

20 min

20 min

20 min

agent

Increase in weight after

2 weeks air-drying
in length by

46%

treatment (dry)
Increase in wet knot

0.0%

21%

108%

about

Change

-1%

+ 14.3%

breaking strength
Decrease in extensibility
Flexural stiffness, un-

+17.2%

_IQO/
j.y /o

+11.4%

51

35/
J.J/Q

+16.3%
-0.06%
5-8

17

treated

Flexural stiffness, treated

__

65%

59

16-22

23-25

The main purposes of stiffening netting or netting yarns is to facilitate


and repair of fishing gears and to improve the knot

the handling, cleaning

of course, fishing gears for which high flexural stiffness


tine
undesirable, e.g.
gillnets, because their catching efficiency would be
affected.
stability.

There

are,

is

2.3.6

CHANGE

IN

LENGTH

IN

The amount of the change


(in water) is

WATER
between dry and wet
because of its possible effect on

in length of netting yarn

of practical interest

(66), (73), (91)

the meshsize. Different materials react differently to wetting and subsequent


drying. For the test results listed in Table 25, dry condition refers to standard

atmosphere. The direction of changes in length in normal water at room


temperature (about 20C) expressed in percent of the length in dry condition
(column b) is indicated by ( ) for shrinkage and (+) for lengthening.
Immersion in hot or boiling water, as may be required for dyeing or other
treatment of nets, will always cause a shrinkage, the amount of which
should be determined before treating larger amounts of netting or whole
gears (see also 1.2.5.4). The greatest part of the changes in length, also in
cold water, occurs within a few minutes after immersion. The length measurements were carried out with a pre-tension on the specimens corresponding
of the respective netting yarn. Such a pre-tension is
to the mass of 250
necessary to straighten the specimens, but it should be kept in mind that
even the comparatively low force used in these tests has already an influence
on the length because a great part of the changes in length caused by wetting
are not resistant even against this low force (see also 2.3.7).

NETTING YARNS

105

It may be mentioned that changes in meshsize are caused also by factors


other than water. For example, a shortening may be brought about by sand
or other particles penetrating the structure of the netting yarn during fishing

or by a heavy shock load (see below, Figure 58).

2.3.6.1

Netting yarns

made ofPES,

PE and PP

Netting yarns made of PES continuous filaments, PE folded monoPP continuous filaments and PP split fibres remain practically
unaffected by water and subsequent drying of the wet specimens has also no
significant influence on the length (Table 25, Nos. 30 to 45).
filaments,

2.3.6.2

PA

continuous filament netting yarns

PA

continuous filament netting yarns react differently in water. Most


either shrink or lengthen and only few types remain unchanged. The
extent of change in length depends on the construction and treatment. The
examples given in Table 25 are all PA netting yarns made of high tenacity
continuous filament yarns which were subjected to strong stretching during
manufacture.
Finer PA netting yarns with medium twist which have not been treated
by heat-setting (Nos. 1 to 6) shrink in water by about 2 percent. On the other
hand, hard twisted PA netting yarns (Nos. 7 to 12) will mostly lengthen
somewhat in water. The amount of lengthening increases with increasing
twist and if combined with a more complicated construction (Nos. 13 and
14) reaches up to about 5 percent.
Intensive heat-setting (Nos. 23 to 29) gives the material a high resistance
against dimensional changes in water. Untreated PA netting yarns of similar
type shrink by about 4 to 6 percent (Nos. 15 to 22). Intensive heat-

means that the specimens are very much stretched during the heating.
criterion of such "genuine" heat-setting is the decrease in mass per unit
length and in extensibility of the netting yarn, provided that the specimen
setting

has not been treated with a bonding or stiffening agent.


Immersion in boiling water only without a simultaneous strong stretching,
as is frequently employed by net manufacturers to stabilize the knots or to
adjust a certain meshsize, has the opposite effect of intensive heat setting,
i.e.

nettings or netting yarns shrink

and the mass per unit length and the

way lengthen in water


room temperature under a small pre-tension.
Compared to their length in wet condition, air-drying makes PA netting

extensibility increase. Netting yarns treated in this

of

yarns shrink, mostly by about 2 percent. Intensive heat-setting reduces


the differences between wet and redried condition. Repeated wetting and
drying has no significant effect on PA netting yarns in addition to the first
wetting and drying.

106

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

NETTING YARNS

TABLE 25

2.3.6.3

107

continued

Vegetable fibre netting yarns

Netting yarns of vegetable fibres always shrink in water. The following


average values can be quoted:
Material

Shrinkage

Cotton

Hemp, thin netting yarns


Hemp, heavy netting yarns

% of dry length

in

-6

to

up

to

-6

to

-3.5

Manila

-10
3

-8
to -6

Sisal netting yarns react similarly as manila netting yarns. After wetting,
netting yarns made of vegetable fibres regain only part of their original

length

upon

2.3.6.4

drying.

Change ofmeshsize

in

water

The changes in length of netting discussed above give an idea of the


reaction in water of the different kinds of netting yarns, but the numerical
values should not directly be applied to the change of meshsize.
for mesh opening shown in Table 26 were measured with a
gauge ("Scottish gauge," (17)) using a pressure of only 1 kgf through-

The values
special
out.

As
the

is

same

to be expected, the influence of water on the meshsize is in principle


as on the length of netting yarns (Table 25). There are none or only

small changes with PP and PE netting, only a small change with PA netting
yarns treated with intensive heat-setting, and comparatively
larger changes with netting made of untreated PA netting yarn.

made of netting

108

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

---*

PA
PA
PA

wetting

single monofi lament 0.15mm


single monofilament 0.20mm
cont. til. netting yarn R25t?x
,

Or* Drying

FIGURE 37. Changes in meshsize due to wetting


and drying of netting made of the finest PA material
as used for fine gillnets. The measurements were
taken with a special gauge for finest gillnets and
not with individual meshes but with a piece of
netting, five meshes long by five meshes deep. The
load of 1 kgf is applied as a pre-tension to all five
rows of meshes, 100 gf to each thread. The O-line
indicates the initial meshsize of the dry netting (80).

The reaction of very fine PA netting as used for light gillnets made of
monofilament and finest continuous filament netting yarn is illustrated in
Figure 37.

While for synthetic materials the differences in changes in length between


netting yarn and meshsize are small, they are rather high between netting
yarns and netting made of vegetable fibres. The swelling of the fibres causes
not only shrinkage but also a considerable increase in diameter of the netting
yarn (see 2.3.4). In addition to the shrinkage of the bars of the mesh, the
knots consequently become significantly thicker and thereby the mesh
opening is even more reduced. The effect of wetting on the meshsize of
manila netting is illustrated in Table 27. In this case the mesh opening was
measured with a special gauge recommended by the International Council
for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) for the accurate determination of the
mesh opening in trawl codends with a pressure of 4 kgf (17).
From Table 27 the following conclusions can be drawn. The thicker the
manila netting yarn, the more the mesh opening is reduced (swelling of
knots); the smaller the initial mesh opening, the higher the reduction in

NETTING YARNS

ro

o
-

*-<'

+1

r^

o
+

o
+1

109

+1

so
is
-f

r-

o
+

'

-f

os

oo

r^
is

1+1o

r-'

oo'

oo

os

77
r-;

s
?4

4
^^

jz

So

set

1~
sf

|.s

si

11 ii

1
i

CJ'

C2

Iio **a
52

cs
**

-5
t^

>v
II II
f II

iA

ne-

aoo
C C

| If
wo
t2

S
>.,

wo

Z3 2 32
22
3
O

*-

"

*-

o*^

P?

4^

uble

stretc

no

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

percent (size relation between bar and knot); with double braided manila
netting the mesh opening is reduced in size much more than with single
braided netting (size of knots).

TABLE

2.3.7

27.

CHANGES OF THE MESH OPENING OF MANILA NETTING

IN

WATER

(10), (11)

EXTENSIBILITY

Prior to the introduction of synthetic fibres into fishing, it was common


practice to judge a netting material only by its breaking strength. Today the
breaking strength alone is considered insufficient as criterion for the efficiency

and

suitability of a netting material because, with the higher requirements


for progressive fishing gear and the new synthetic materials which enable
a much wider range of choice to satisfy them, the extensibility has for many

purposes gained similar significance as the wet knot breaking strength. For
example, gillnets of different type usually require small to medium, bottom
trawls in general medium and rnidwater trawls high extensibility. The main
advantageous features of extensibility are the ability to absorb shock loads
and to better distribute the total load over the netting of a fishing gear.
The term "extensibility", meaning the ability of a netting material to
change its dimension under a tensile force, refers to a complex property

NETTING YARNS

which involves a considerable number of

111

different factors

and aspects

such as:

Amount

of elongation immediately after application of a specific

tension, e.g. the breaking strength, or the knot breaking strength. In


this case the specimen is loaded only once.

Reaction ot netting yarn to a gradually increasing force showing the


relationship between the magnitude of stress and the change in
length by means of a load-elongation curve (see 2.3.1.18), or by
determination of the elongation at different degrees of loading.
Influence of the kind of fibre and the construction and treatment of
the netting yarn

on

its

extensibility.

Reaction under sustained load over longer periods of time.


Elongation caused by a very high shock load.
Reaction of netting yarns to repeated loading and unloading (Hysteresis effect), with different forces and different periods of time (26a,
92a, 121).
Elasticity properties which include the total elongation, elastic
elongation, permanent elongation and the degree of elasticity under
different conditions of amount and duration of loading.

"Creep," especially for

PP and PE

material.

Properties of energy absorption (toughness).

Not all of these properties have yet been sufficiently investigated with regard
to netting material, partly because the testing of some of them requires
highly specialized equipment and techniques.
Apart from the magnitude of stress or pressure, the extensibility depends
on the capability to stretch of the fibre material, as well as the construction

and the after-treatment of the

final

product (netting yarn or netting).

TABLE 28. AVERAGE VALUES OF ELONGATION ( %) AT HALF WET KNOT BREAKING STRENGTH OF
NETTING YARNS OF HIGH TENACITY MATERIAL AND MEDIUM TWIST OR MEDIUM (NORMAL)
TIGHTNESS OF BRAID, n = NUMBER OF SORTS OF NETTING YARN TESTED

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

112

Elongation at half knot breaking strength

2.3.7.1

Manufacturers mostly quote the elongation at a specific force such as the


breaking strength of the straight netting yarn in dry condition. This is a condition which is of no relevance for fishing nets. Therefore, the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recommended to test and to
quote instead the elongation of netting yarn, dry or wet, at half the value
of the corresponding breaking strength of the weaver's knot (see 2.3.2.2 and
(90)). The data in Table 28 were measured in accordance with the above
ISO Standard (68a). The elongation is expressed in percent increase of the
length of the specimens. As regards the construction of the
netting yarns tested, it should be pointed out that the term "medium twist"
covers a relatively wide range of levels of twist. The elongation of netting
initial

yarns

is

twist

and

influenced significantly even by small increases or decreases of


this is the main reason for the deviation of the values from the

average (see

PP

split fibre,

maximum and minimum values). For PE monofilament and


the differences may also be partly due to the different texture of

the fibre material. Since most synthetic fibres are hydrophobic, in general
wet and dry elongation are nearly identical with the exception of PA which
can absorb sufficient moisture to affect not only the breaking strength but
also the elongation.

PA

in

wet condition

As shown by the following examples, the elongation of


is some percent higher than in dry condition (see also

Figure 47):

There are considerable differences

in the extensibility of netting yarns


different fibres (see average values in Table 28). Netting yarns
with still higher elongation like those made of
staple fibres, which are
not represented in Table 28, are dealt with below (see Figure 40).

made of

PA

The different vegetable fibre net materials provide a similar range of


wet elongation at half wet knot breaking strength. Manila netting yarns extend
by about 8 to 10 percent, hemp netting yarns by about 12 to 15 percent and
the thicker sorts of cotton netting yarn by 25 to 30 percent and more.
2.3.7.2

Load-elongation curves

The elongation value

at half wet

knot breaking strength, which rarely

NETTING YARNS

113

kgf

726864-

Continuous filament
60-

23 te

9;

R 240 ttx

2.

23

12,

R 320 ttx

3.

23 te

56'

5246-

44-

23 tt

S.

23 tt

18,

R 470 ttx

27,

R 650 ttx
R 1300

ttx

23 tt

48,

7.

23

60, R

1560 ttx

23 tt

96, R

2500

40
36

15/R 400 ttx

ttx

32-

28-

24--

20
16

12"
8-4

10

11

Elongation

12

in ptr

13

14

IS

16

17

18

19

20

21

23

ctnt

FIGURE 38. Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns (wet)


continuous filaments.

made of PA

occurs in fishing nets, does not suffice to give an adequate idea of the extenof netting materials. The practical aspects of the relationship
between stress and elongation can much better be judged by means of load-

sibility properties

elongation curves.
Figures 38 to 45 give examples of such curves for various kinds of netting
yarn. The increasing force expressed in kgf is plotted on the ordinate, and the
increasing elongation in percent on the absciss. The maximum force corre-

sponds to the half wet knot breaking strength of the respective netting yarn,
but the actual tests were conducted with individual netting yarns, unknotted,
in wet condition. All samples are of medium twist or braid. The curves were
recorded autographically by the testing device shown in Figure 18. Each
of Figures 38 to 45 refers to netting yarns of different fineness (different
Rtex values) made of one specific kind of fibre. All curves are drawn according to the same elongation scale to facilitate comparison, whereas the scale
of force is different according to the breaking strength range of the respective

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

114

kgf

264
252

240"
228216-

204-

Continuous filament
Polyamid* nttting yarns

192

9.

R 3000 ttx S

10

R 4100 ttx S

iao
168
156144

11.

R 4000 ttx S

12.

II

000 ttx S

--

132-

120"
108

96
84

72"
60
48
36

24
12

h8

10

Elongation

II

in

12

13

PA

IS

16

17

h-

18

19

20

21

22

2:

ptr ctnt

FIGURE
of

14

39.
Load-elongation curves of heavy twisted netting yarns (wet)
continuous filaments.

made

netting yarns. It should be emphasized that many types of fishing gear have
never to withstand great stress and that, even with large gear, net material

the majority of cases subjected during fishing only to relatively small


However, in rough weather or with large catches, and then in particular during certain phases of operation (e.g. hauling, course changes during
is in

forces.

towing or "fasteners"), the mechanical

stress on fishing gears such as


seines, trawls, liftnets, gillnets will largely exceed the normal values

and even past the breaking point leading to

purse

up

respectively high elongation.

to
It

therefore, advantageous to know the elongation of netting yarn over a


wider range of tension. This is provided by the load-elongation test curves
is,

which allow for the determination of the relationship between force and

NETTING YARNS

115

ss

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

116

41.
Load-elongation curves
of twisted netting yarns (wet) made of
PES continuous filaments.

FIGURE

PC

ester netting yorns

(braided

R 945 tex
R 1960 tex

R 2980 tex

R 3000 tex

R 3890 tex

234567
Elongation

FIGURE

in

per cent

42.
Load-elongation curves of
braided netting yarns (wet) made of
PES continuous filaments.

234 567
Elongation

in ptr

ctnt

elongation over the whole range or any section or for a specific value which
may be of particular interest.
For the following evaluation and discussion of the load-elongation
curves in Figures 38 to 45, section 2.3.7.1 should also be considered.
Each kind of fibre has not only a specific degree of elongation but also a
typical form of load-elongation curve which can be used to assist in the

NETTING YARNS

117

Polyethylene netting yarns


1

660 tex

1010 tex

3.

1350 tex

1640 tex

2010 tex

6.

3500

4160 tex

34

tex

10

Elongation

FIGURE

43.

11

in per

12

13

14

16

15

17

18

19

20

21

cent

Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns (wet)

made of PE

folded monofilaments.

As regards the amount of wet elongation,


main synthetic netting materials can be placed in the following order:

identification of fibre materials.

the

polyester, with the smallest degree of elongation

polypropylene;
polyethylene;
polyamide, with the highest elongation.

118

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

Continuous filament
yams

Polypropylene netting

R 210 tex
R 290 tex
R 520 tex

R 640 tex
5.

R 730

6.

tex

1190 tex

R 1UO
R

tex

1515 tex

R 3500

tex

Elongation

FIGURE

44.

8
in

10

11

12

13

15

per cent

Load-elongation curves of twisted


(wet) made of PP continuous

netting yarns
filaments.

Furthermore, two main types of load-elongation curves can be distinguished (Figures 38 to 45). The first type refers to netting yarns made of
PES (Figures 41 and 42), PE (Figure 43) and PP (Figure 44). It is an almost
straight line indicating that these materials have a comparatively strong
resistance against stretching. The other type refers to PA
(Figures 38 to 40)

and PVAA (Figure 45). These materials have relatively more elongation at
low loads than at higher loads. The curves therefore have a somewhat
parabolic form and are in general ''softer" or more yielding than the first
type.

With equal kinds of fibre, netting yarns made of staple fibres have not only
a lower breaking strength but also a considerably higher extensibility than

NETTING YARNS

119

U
Polyvfnyl alcohol (staple) ncttina yarns
12

10

1.

30

2.

30

30

301

30 t
30 t

6,

tx

9,

Ux

R 200
R 310
R
520
15,
18; R 620
24, R 830
30, R 1040

Ux
tx
tx
Ux

10

Elongation

FIGURE

PVAA

11

in

pr

12

13

14

IS

16

17

18

19

20

21

ctnt

45.
Load-elongation curves of twisted netting yarns
staple fibres.

(wet)

made of

made of continuous filaments. This is illustrated for PA by the


comparison of Figures 38 and 39 with Figure 40.
At equal loads the elongation of netting yarns naturally increases with
decreasing size or diameter, i.e. Rtex value. In other words the heavier
those

(thicker) the netting yarn, the

more

force (or load)

is

required to obtain

elongation.

The relationship between the amounts of force and elongation, and


between the force and the fineness of netting yarns is of great importance
for the efficiency of net materials for various fishing gear as well as for
international meshsize regulations and related measuring methods aiming
at the protection and management of fish stocks. For the latter elongation
at low loads is of particular interest. The respective tests (Figure 46 and

Table 29) were therefore started without any pre-tension and these loadelongation curves begin at zero load. Table 29 provides additional information to Figure 46, i.e. the values of gf per tex, percentage of knot breaking
strength, and percentage of elongation corresponding to the loads of 1,2,3,4,6,
8 and 10 kgf. It is important to note that the eight netting yarns differ considerably in fineness. As an example the following wet elongation values were
obtained for a force of 2 kgf (see Table 29).
1

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

PA,
PA,
PA,
PA.
PA,

R
R

242 Itex, hard twist

2513tex,

R
R

5808tex,

976tex,

medium

medium
medium

twist

twist

twist

6487tex, hard twist

PE, R6386tex, braided


PA, R11876tex, braided
PA, R17148tex, braided

6.7

% elongation

5.8% elongation

% elongation
% elongation
4.2 % elongation
0.9 % elongation
2. 3% elongation
.6 % elongation
3.0

2.2

The force of 2 kgf on a single netting yarn would be equivalent to the


of the mesh opening. This pressure
pressure of 4 kgf for the measurements

120

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

ge~
c w-2

ed
S JS
*-J=

Sfl

"8*8

till
2 2*3-5

NETTING YARNS

".

121

.1

u
o>
<

mrst-^i-o-^rofs
I
s
te

2?

'go
i
N
P
^
/^ c

<N

^ d O O

O*

"
a

li

11 i

,*

:!

O d O O

-.

ss

<N

*^

riddddddd

.OOOOOOO

^ d d d d d d d

lia

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

122

has been adopted for the calibrated pressure gauge which is recommended
by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) for all
studies requiring an accurate measurement of the mesh opening in the
codend of trawls (see also (17)).
This ICES Recommendation does not take into account the strong
dependence of elongation on the fineness and the consequent difference in
the influence of the measurement on the measured value for different yarns.

The pressure or

force applied to textile samples for the purpose of length


measurements should always be in comparable relation to their fineness
or their breaking strength. For mesh measurements in the codends of large
bottom trawls which are made of very heavy net materials, this pressure

should be relatively small,


netting yarn) only.

e.g. 0.1

gf per tex

(=

the weight of 100

of the

As already mentioned (section 2.3.7.1) dry and wet elongation of netting


made of PES, PE and PP are nearly identical. This applies also to the

yarns

materials. Similarly the form of


the load-elongation curves of dry PA netting yarns differ from those for
wet condition, as is the case for the elongation of this material. These differences occur mainly in the lowest range of loading, where the curves of
dry netting yarns, contrary to those for wet netting yarns, are inclining
towards the ordinate (the load axis) (Figure 47).

form of the load-elongation curves of these

comparison of net materials of different fineness or different


is required, it is advantageous to show in the load-elongation
curves the increasing test load as percentages of breaking strength or half wet
knot breaking strength (e.g. 5 percent, 10 percent, 20 percent ... up to 100
percent) rather than in actual kgf. Another possibility is to express the test
If direct

kind of fibre

loads in values of tenacity (gf/tex) or tensile stress (kgf/mm 2 (see 2.3.1.3b).


In Figure 48 the load is given in percentage of the wet breaking strength
(unknotted). To convey an idea of the elongation characteristics over the
full range different from the foregoing load-elongation curves (Figures 38

up to the full wet breaking strength of the


The curves give average values for several individual

to 47), those of Figure 48 reach


straight netting yarns.

netting yarns, and therefore allow a direct comparison of the extensibility


of different materials and kinds of netting yarn even with different fineness.
The curve of PP netting yarn would lie between that of PES (No. 1) and
that of PE (No. 2). Vegetable net materials are represented by cotton netting
yarn which has a high elongation in wet condition, particularly at low loads.
As regards the amount of elongation the load-elongation curves of wet
manila netting yarns are similar to those of PE but they have a "parabolic"
form with relatively high elongation at low load.

2.3.7.3

Toughness

Since the load represents a force and the elongation a movement caused
by this force, the product of load and elongation is the amount of work

NETTING YARNS

123

R
fi

>fiM U|

qo

>

<N

\i-

pDOl

OD

(O

<N

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

124

100
:5

90

Polyester cont.

fil

Polyethylene monot
3 Polyamide cont. fil.
2

4 Polyvinyt alcohol staple

Cotton

6 Polyamide staple

6 10

12

14

16

18

20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 *2 44 46 4* 50

Elongation

in per

cent

Load-elongation curves of wet netting yarns made of different kinds


of fibres. The curves arc average curves and reach up to the breaking strength of
the wet straight netting yarns.

FIGURE 48.

NETTING YARNS

125

involved in stretching the material. With reference to netting yarns this


work is commonly called "toughness". If both factors, strength and elongation, are high the material has a respectively high capability of doing work,
e.g. in terms of absorbing energy and to withstand shock loads. Such netting
material would therefore be particularly suitable for fishing gear which is
subjected to this type of mechanical stress or pressure. As already mentioned
(section 2.3.1.21), toughness may be quantitatively measured by planimetering the area under the load-elongation diagram. Examples are given
in Figure 49 for three main types of toughness with netting yarns of approximately the same fineness (about R 1300 tex). The PA netting yarn represents
a type of netting material with great strength and great elongation, the
PP netting yarn a type with great strength and small elongation, and the
PVA(A) netting yarn a type with small strength and great elongation. If the
amounts of strength and elongation are known, toughness can be calculated
by the formula
load x elongation x Q
Toughness
:

For designating the toughness of

20

K~B

netting yarns the elongation at half

o
Elongation

o
in

per cent

FIGURE 49. Characteristic examples for the toughness of wet netting yarns,
which are
represented by the hatched area under the load-elongation curves
drawn up to a force (F*) corresponding to the half wet knot breaking strength. All
1 300 tex. If
three netting yarns have approximately the same fineness of about
for these netting yarns the area of PA is taken as 100 percent, that of PP is 57 percent and that of PVA(A) 37 percent.

(a)

(b)
(c)

PA contin.

fil.

netting yarn with high strength

and high elongation.

PP contin. fil. netting yarn with high strength and low elongation.
PVA(A) staple fibre netting yarn with low strength and high elongation.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

126

Q is the quotient of the area


OAFk BO (see Figure 49).

the wet knot breaking strength should be chosen.


divided by the area of the rectangle
of
k

OF BO

The following numerical

PA
PA

values of

can be applied to wet netting yarns:

continuous filaments

0.33

0.36

staple fibres

PES continuous filaments


PP continuous filaments
PE monofilaments

0.48

PVA

0.35

staple fibres

0.47
0.54

It must be stressed that these values for Q refer to wet netting yarns with
normal twist and to load-elongation curves reaching up to the half wet
knot breaking strength. This applies also to the following values of average
relative toughness which are based on the load-elongation curves of Figures
38 to 45 (for reference PA continuous filament netting yarn is set at 100

percent).

PAcontin.

100%
110%

fil.

PA

staple fibre
PES contin. fil.

46%
76%

PPcontin. fil.
PEmonofil.

PVA(A)
The elongation

supplemented by information on

and repeated loading. This

This

35%

features discussed so far are not sufficient to fully char-

acterize this complicated property,

2.3.7.4

106%

staple fibre

and they may even be misleading if not


and the influence of sustained

elasticity

refers especially to polyethylene.

Elasticity

the property of a netting yarn to recover its original length after


the removal of a stretching force. Of the different possibilities of applying
stress to a material for actuating this property, the tensile stress only is
is

for instance, a netting yarn has a high elasticity, i.e. it


length completely or with only a small remaining portion
of irreversible elongation, it guarantees not only a constant meshsize but
also the conservation of its toughness. The more the elasticity decreases

discussed here.
regains

If,

its initial

by the first or by repeated applications of load, the more also the capacity
to perform work decreases. Netting yarns in which high elongation is coupled
with high elasticity can absorb severe shock loads like a spring. In returning
original length such highly elastic netting material is capable of doing
as was done in stretching it. This energy stored in the material
should be taken into account when handling stretched heavy nettings or

to

its

as

much work

ropes.

The values of

elasticity listed in

Table 30 and

illustrated in Figures

to 53 have been obtained by using the following simple testing

50

method:

NETTING YARNS

127

<v

"~*o

O)

>sC

7^

/t

ui

uoijoS uojg

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

128

0,15mm -16-8

medium

5 per cent

braid

20 per cent

cent

10 per

made

[Netting yarns
28

(220/m)

30 per cent

50 per cent

PE monofilamentsl

of

--------------------

__

26
24

B
0,15

mm

16

"

hard braid

5 per cent

...

8
(

315/m

10 per cent

20 per cent

30 per cent

50 per cent

FIGURE 51. Elasticity of braided PE netting yarns made of equal kind and
number of monofilaments but with different tightness of braid (A with 220
picks per 1 m, B with 315 picks per 1 m). Both types loaded for one hour with 5,

10, 20, 30 or 50 percent, respectively, of their breaking strength, wet, unknotted.


Elongation (percentage) measured
:

a
b

immediately after loading;

loaded for one hour;

= immediately after removal of load;


d = one hour after removal of load
e = permanent elongation.

Note the different amount and percentage of permanent elongation with regard
to the tightness of braid and the amount of load.

NETTING YARNS

Wet elongation

129

10

per cent

FIGURE 52. Load-elongation curves of braided PA and PP continuous filament


netting yarns, wet, with approximately the same wet knot breaking strength and
construction. The retrograde curves (with arrows) do not quite return to the
starting point after removal of the load.

piece of wet netting yarn, about 100 cm in length, is hung up and loaded
with a pre-tension of 0.25 g per tex at the lower end. A length of exactly
50 cm is marked and the specimen is then stressed by a certain load for a
certain period. Care should be taken that the twist cannot
change. The
specimen is kept wet by spraying it frequently with water. The length is
measured under pre-tension before application of the test load, immediately
after loading, when loaded for one hour (or more) and immediately after
removal of the load. The measurements after removal of the load are repeated
periodically under pre-tension until the readings are constant. During the
intervals between these measurements the specimen is kept in water. These
tests,

which can be carried out by anybody without complicated equipment,

give a reasonably good idea of the elongation and elasticity properties.


In most tests discussed here, the test load was equal to 30 percent of

the wet breaking strength of the straight netting yarn. This test load was
chosen at random. It is smaller than the half wet knot breaking strength
recommended for elongation tests, but well within the range frequently
occurring in fishing operations. The usual period of loading was one hour
which allows drawing of some conclusions on the influence of sustained
loadings.
For the evaluation of extensibility properties it must be distinguished
between the total elongation at the end of the loading period, the permanent
or irreversible elongation which is measured when the specimen has relaxed
after

removal of load and has regained equilibrium, and the

elastic

elongation

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

130

which is the calculated difference between total elongation and permanent


which means that the specimen
elongation. If permanent elongation is nil
has regained its original length the netting yarn is completely elastic and
degree of elasticity (Table 30) is 100 percent.
Normally twisted or braided netting yarns made of high tenacity PA and
PES continuous filaments have a high degree of elasticity and frequently
may be completely elastic, even when loaded for one hour with the relatively
heavy load of 30 percent of the breaking strength. However, due to the
differences in the amount of elongation, PA has greater values of actual
elastic elongation than PES. Compared to PA and PES, PP continuous filaits

FIGURE 53. Elasticity of dry PA and PP continuous filament netting yarns


loaded for 24 hours with 30 percent of tteir breaking strength, dry, unknotted.
Elongation in percentage:
a

b
c

d
e
f

= immediately after loading;


loaded for one
= loaded for threehour;
hours;
~ loaded for 24 hours;
= immediately after removal of load;
= one hour after removal of load;
permanent elongation, measured four days

after

removal of load.

NETTING YARNS

131

significantly smaller degree of elasticity. PP split


yarn may reach similar values as PA netting yarn (e.g. No. 17 in
Table 30) but because of the great variations in the quality of split fibre
products this statement cannot be generalized. The degree of elasticity of PE is
relatively low and similar to that of netting yarns of vegetable fibres. Comparison with the examples for manila (Figure 50) and for manila, hemp and
cotton (Table 30) demonstrate the superiority of synthetic over vegetable
fibres also with regard to elasticity. The extremely high total elongation and
permanent elongation of wet cotton netting yarn (No. 25 in Table 30) should
be noted.
None of the materials available for fishing nets is truly elastic in the

ment netting yarns have a

fibre netting

sense that it completely regains its orginal length immediately after the
removal of a load. This does not occur even when the load is removed

immediately after a certain amount of loading is reached. The load-elongation curves in Figure 52, drawn by the tensile tester, show that even then
a permanent elongation remains which is higher with PP than with PA,
though the latter had been much more extended. Elastic elongation comprises a share of immediate recovery and of delayed recovery so that the
time factor has to be taken into account. In Figures 50 and 51 the immediate
recovery is illustrated by the straight lines from b to c, and the delayed
recovery by the distances from c to d to e. In spite of the high total elongation
of PA, the extent of its immediate recovery is very great thus demonstrating
the good elastic property of this material. With netting yarns made of PP and,
above all, of PE and manila, the relationship between total elongation and
immediate recovery is much less favourable than with PA (see Figure 50).
In general, to attain the definite final length after removal of a load which
usually does not correspond to the initial length, a longer recovery period
of mostly some days is required. The duration of this period depends on
the kind of fibre, the construction of the netting yarn and the amount of load.
The magnitude of the load applied to a netting yarn has naturally the
same effect on the degree of elasticity as on the extent of elongation. This is
demonstrated by the example of two PE netting yarns in Figure 51 where
different loading (5, 10, 20, 30 or 50 percent of the breaking strength) causes
different total and permanent elongations. The calculated degrees of elasticity
for both netting yarns at the different levels of loading are as follows:

Load in percent
of breaking strength

As

Degree of
(medium)

elasticity

%)

(hard)

of netting yarns, hard


regards the influence of the construction

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING OEAR

132

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NETTING YARNS

q<sr-

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133

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

134

braiding and also hard twisting result in an increase of permanent elongation


which is not desirable for fishing nets. The amount of this increase depends
on the level of twist or tightness of braid respectively (see Figure 51 and
Table 30, No. 4, as compared with Nos 1-6). If high elongation is attempted
through very hard twisting or braiding, it must be considered that the
permanent elongation will increase and the toughness decrease more and

more with extended

use.

Medium twisted or braided netting yarns made of PA continuous filaments


obtain their final total elongation approximately 15 minutes after application
of load. Prolonged loading up to 24 hours does usually not change the
amount of elongation of PA any more (see Figure 53). In this regard PA
and PES continuous filaments differ favourably from PP and PE which
undergo a considerably higher additional stretching called "creep" or "cold
flow" when subjected to a comparatively heavy load for a longer period of
time. This is already noticeable within a loading period of only one hour,
as is clearly demonstrated by the steepness of the lines a to b in Figures 50
and 53, as compared to PA. In the latter figure it will be noted that, different
from PA, the creep of PP netting yarn increases with increasing period of
loading. PE netting yarns have a still greater creep than PP netting yarns.
The creep of PE material increases with load (see Figure 51) and also with
increasing temperature. It is of practical interest that the creep is a permanent
elongation which is not reversible after the release of stress. It is mainly for
this reason that PE netting yarns have a low degree of elasticity, as well as a
poor dimensional stability.

2.3.8

ABRASION RESISTANCE

Although abrasion resistance is certainly an important property of


netting materials, before the introduction of synthetic fibre fishermen did not
pay much attention to this property because fishing nets of vegetable fibres
were mostly destroyed by rotting rather than by abrasive wear.
Synthetic netting materials do not rot. Consequently the gradual decay
of synthetic fishing nets is mainly due to abrasion and the resistance to
abrasion is an important measure for the durability of this material and
thus for its operational and economic value. In general the smaller the fishery
the more significant is the investment in nets for its profitability and the more
essential therefore the use of nets with strong resistance against wear and
tear.

Among the great variety of fishing gears there are, of course, also types
such as fyke nets or trap nets used in stagnant water of lakes which are not
subject to considerable abrasive wear nor to strong stress. If made of synthetic fibres and protected against sunlight these nets may have a durability
lasting over decades. On the other hand there are others such as trawls
which are exposed to particularly intensive wear and tear. With knotted
netting the knots are primarily exposed to damage and trawler fishermen
know very well the symptoms of damage as demonstrated in Figure 54.

'

NETTING YARNS

FIGURE

54.

Knots damaged by abrasion

in the netting of a large

135

midwater

trawl operated by a stern trawler with chute.

During fishing and during handling on land and on board the nets come
into contact with abrasing surfaces of different kinds, ranging from polished
metal or wood, over unpolished or rusty metal, hauling rollers, mechanically
driven blocks, sharp edges, nails, bolt heads, rivets and others ashore or on
the vessel, to sand, gravel, shells, sponges, rocks and other obstacles in the
water. For instance the damage to the knots in the netting of a midwater
trawl (Figure 54) is mainly attributed to the chafing of the full net when

hauled up over the ramp of a stern trawler,


by the friction of fibres against each other as
can be observed with ropes, rarely occurs with the comparatively thin netting
yarns. Also the rubbing of netting yarns against one another in a netting is
it is

Internal abrasion, caused

of hardly any practical


2.3.8.

interest.

Criticism of testing methods

In view of the great practical importance of the abrasion resistance of


to which a net is
netting materials, it is very unfortunate that the abrasion
for laboratory
be
simulated
cannot
in
adequately
fishing
operations
subjected
tests. It has already been mentioned (section 2.3.2.7) that the present testing
methods differ not only in minor details but also in important features of the

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

136

testing machine and technique which have a significant influence on the


results such as different types and shape of abrasive material against which

the specimen is abraded and different movements, pressure or stress during


abrasion testing. The result of abrasion resistance tests is mostly expressed

by the number of frictions the specimen is subjected to. One method is to


chafe the netting yarn to the breaking point, and another to apply a certain
number of frictions and subsequently determine the remaining breaking
strength with a tensile strength tester.
Naturally testing methods differing to such a degree do not give comparable

and consequently data or statements found in technical literature


even be contradictory. This refers not only to the qualities of netting
yarn materials but also to the influence of netting yarn construction, i.e.
amount of twist or tightness of braid.
It is a further drawback that the results of abrasion resistance tests cannot
be specified by absolute numerical values as is possible for other properties
such as breaking strength, elongation, diameter, or fineness. The effect of the
number of frictions is dependent on the testing apparatus used and cannot
serve as direct absolute measure for the abrasion resistance of materials.
results

may

Therefore, relative values are commonly quoted, which refer to the qualities
of one sample or specimen with which the others are compared. Such
comparative tests are feasible only for groups of netting yarns of either the
same diameter, the same fineness, or the same breaking strength.
It has to be accepted that results of laboratory tests cannot be taken as
conclusive for judging the abrasion resistance of net materials and that the

FIGURE 55. Netting yarns made of manila (M) and of PA continuous h'laments
(P) after the same number of frictions in wet condition. The test of the breaking
strength showed a 62 percent loss for the manila netting yarn compared with only
19 percent loss for the
braided netting yarn.

PA

NETTING YARNS

137

test of this important property is actual endurance in commercial


However, in spite of these reservations certain general conclusions
can and have been drawn from laboratory tests which are confirmed by

only reliable

fishing.

practical experience.

2.3.8.2

Vegetable fibre netting materials

Netting yarns made of vegetable fibres such as cotton, flax, hemp,


manila, sisal, have in wet condition a considerably lower resistance to abrasion
than netting yarns made of synthetic continuous filaments or monofilaments.

Furthermore, the abrasion resistance decreases along with the loss in breaking
The following table gives examples for
made
of
and
in wet condition:
manila
netting yarns
hemp

strength caused by rotting in water.

the beginning of the fifties there was a large difference in price between
PA and the conventional vegetable fibre materials. In spite of this, PA
material was very quickly adopted by the commerical fisheries because of its
superiority in two important properties, i.e. rot-proofness and abrasion

At

Both properties together are the reason why, for instance, PA


bottom trawlnets have about ten times (or more) longer useful lifespan than
manila trawlnets. Figure 55 demonstrates the large difference in resistance
to abrasion of these two net materials.
resistance.

2.3.8.3

Synthetic netting materials

fibre material, netting yarns made of


of continuous filaments and the
made
those
to
staple fibre are inferior
latter are inferior to folded monofilament netting yarns. In general it can be
stated that the coarser the fibre the higher the resistance to abrasion.

For the same kind of synthetic

PA monofilaments or netting yarns made of monofilaments have a higher


abrasion resistance than comparable monofilaments (of the same diameter)

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

138

or monofilament netting yarns made of PP, PE or PVD, and the same applies
also to continuous filament netting yarns. According to some laboratory
investigations PP netting yarns were supposed to have similar or even better
abrasion resistance than PA netting yarns, but this could not be confirmed in

commercial

fishing.

longer than that of

The

PP

useful

(cont.

of PA (cont.
trawlnets.

life

fil.)

fil.)

trawlnets

is

considerably

With PE netting yarns the abrasion resistance varies due to the diversity
of this material. Netting yarns of the same fineness made of PE monofilaments
of different flexibility or brittleness may have a different abrasion resistance.
Tests with straight PE netting yarn may give much higher values than for
PA continuous filament netting yarn. However, when the firmly tightened

FIGURE

PA codline of a large bottom trawl.


condition; B to D: Different degrees of abrasion.

56.

A: New

Sample D seems to be completely destroyed, but


40 percent of its initial breaking strength.

testing

showed

that

it still

had

NETTING YARNS

139

FIGURE 57. Section of a river stow net with distorted meshes. The loose bars are
roughened by the water flow and their resistance to abrasion is diminished.

knots are tested (see Figure 25) usually PE will not be found superior and
corresponds with the experiences in trawl fishing.

this

12.

3 8 .4
.

Influence of treatment

and

construction

Treatment with tar or tar products increases the abrasion resistance


considerably and this effect can also be obtained by treatment with synthetic
resins. The amount of protection against abrasion is dependent on the
thickness of the coating and on the solubility of the agent in water. On the
influence of the construction of netting yarns on the abrasion resistance there
is no uniformity of opinions yet. It may, however, be stated here that in the
knots the resistance to abrasion increases with increasing twist up to a certain

which it decreases again. Braided netting yarn is in general more


resistant than twisted netting yarn. As regards knotless netting reference is
made to section 2.1.4.4.

limit after

2.3.8.5

Roughening of netting material

The gradual decay of


56,

an example of

are chafed, the

PA

more

the surface due to abrasion

the surface

is

illustrated

by

Fig.

The more the fibres of the rope


becomes roughened. The outside appearance

codline of a trawlnet.

140

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

FIGURE 58. Section of the codend of a large


bottom trawl which was caught in the propeller of
the vessel and overstretched. On release, part of
the single yarns and filaments sprang from the
netting yarn causing a considerable reduction of
the original mesh opening of 100
shown in each mesh.

mm to the values

(ace. to v.

Brandt)

NETTING YARNS

141

of a badly chafed rope or netting yarn may be misleading. For example, the
rope sample D (Figure 56) seems to be completely destroyed but it actually
still has 40 percent of the initial breaking strength.
The surface or structure of netting yarn may also be roughened by other
causes than abrasion. For instance, in river stow nets or trawls the distortion
of meshes leads to unequal length of bars. The loose bars flutter in the water
current and by this movement the structure of braided netting yarns is
loosened (Figure 57). The loops of single yarns and single filaments which

protrude from the netting yarns are much more subject to abrasion, and the
abrasion resistance and the breaking strength of the netting yarn is affected.
Another example is the section of a trawl codend which was caught in the
propeller of the vessel and suddenly stretched to such an extent that a considerable part of the fibres "sprang" from the netting yarn (Figure 58). This

damage caused a remarkable reduction in meshsize and had naturally also


other adverse effects, e.g. on the breaking strength and the abrasion resistance
of the netting.

CHAPTER

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR


Because of the great variety of types of fishing gear and fishing conditions
and their interrelation with geographic, nationalistic, economic, sociological
and other aspects, it is virtually impossible to give detailed and comprehensive instructions for the selection of netting materials. In general the
choice depends on the type and size of the fishing gear to be made, the species
of fish to be caught, the fishing ground and the fishing conditions under
which the gear is to be operated, the type, size and engine power of the
vessel, the type of operation and the auxiliaries employed as well as on the
habits and traditions of the fishermen and the local availability and price
of netting materials. The following guidelines on the selection of netting
materials, their proper specification for purchase and the more detailed
advice with regard to some important types of fishing gear are meant to
assist in taking best

3.1

advantage of given conditions.

General remarks

3.1.1

Natural (vegetable) fibre material is not considered here because it rots


and is therefore considered unfit for fishing gear. Because of their
superiority in this and also other respects, synthetic fibres are considered
in water

the only suitable textile raw materials for fishing nets.


3.1.2

Though some of the synthetic net materials have already reached a high
degree of perfection, the ideal material with properties satisfying all the
diverse and partly contradictory requirements of fishing does not exist.
The problem is therefore to select the best available material for a specific
purpose. The precondition for this is adequate knowledge of the properties
of the available materials and the essential requirements of the fishing gear
and method in question. Information on the properties of netting materials
is given in Chapter 2 of this Manual. The requirements of the gear and
method have to be determined on the basis of practical experience, preferably

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

complemented by rational experimentation of fishing


and netmakers.

143

technologists, fishermen

3.1.3

When new synthetic fibres are put on the market, manufacturers almost
always claim that these fibres are exceptionally well qualified for fishing
nets. This can safely be accepted in comparison with natural fibres for the
reason of rot-proofness alone. With the widespread availability of synthetic
materials, this is not sufficient and the question for the customer should
be whether the new material is techno/economically more efficient for the
gear to be made than other already existing synthetic materials and in
particular the most widely used and best known synthetic material in
fisheries, i.e. PA continuous filament (nylon). The arguments of manufacturers are not always based on exact testing and controlled experiments,
but are sometimes somewhat speculative. Some groups of synthetic fibres
have been introduced into fishery by means of energetic publicity campaigns
but, after some time of unfavourable practical experience, application has
decreased after the first boom or they have even disappeared. Manufacturers
advertising claims should be considered with caution.
3.1.4

The

actual selection of netting material will sometimes depend not so


technical suitability as on local availability and comparative price.

much on
The

price is particularly important for small fisheries where the expenses for
the nets often represent the major part of the total investment for fishing
equipment. The price of the netting material has also seriously to be considered for fisheries with a high wear and tear and/or a high risk of total
loss of gear, e.g. bottom trawling on rough grounds, and when the absolute
cost of the fishing gear is very high, e.g. large purse seines.

For such reasons the material actually used in fishing nets is not always
that which ought to be used from a technical point of view. This is probably
true also for some of the examples listed in Tables 31 to 33.
3.1.5

based on one
for
the
of
be
which
fishing gear
importance
particular
may
property only
under consideration (e.g. sinking speed for purse seines) but other important
If at all possible the choice of material should not be

properties should also duly be taken into account, such as high breaking
material will
strength which is desirable for most fishing gear. As rarely one
meet all main requirements, the best compromise must be sought.

3.2

and netting for purchase


Specification of netting yarn

When

net-trader or manufacturer netting yarn or


placing an order to a

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

144

netting must be clearly specified. Some of the specifications discussed below


can be expressed in different ways. Here the terms and definitions recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) are

preferred (54, 61). Comprehensive designations as recommended here may


not be always necessary but, if widely adopted, will facilitate exchange of

information between purchasers and suppliers of different nationalities and


avoid misunderstandings and inquiries.

3.2.1

NETTING YARN
Fibre

3.2.1.1

Kind and type of fibre


Examples:

made of PA continuous filaments (nylon multifilaments),


Netting yarn made of PVAA staple fibres,
Netting yarn made of PE folded monofilaments (wires),
Netting yarn made of PP split (film) fibres,
Single PA monofilament (not netting twine consisting of a number
Netting yarn

of fibres or monofilaments).

Trade names of fibres may be used


standing (see Table 1).

if

there

is

no

possibility of a

misunder-

Size

3.2.1.2

Size (fineness, number) of netting yarn, according to the tex system as


defined in section 2.2.2, either as complete designation or, if this is not
known, in a simplified manner but so that the fineness is unequivocally
specified:

Examples:
23 tex
23 tex

x 4 x 3,
x 12; or

310 tex; or

3 10 tex.

must be emphasized that the Rtex values

in Tables 10 to 20 refer to
twisted netting yarns; they are higher for hard twisted netting yarns.
Deviating from this standard, single monofilaments may also be designated
by the diameter in millimetres. Examples
It

medium

0.15

0.60

mm (for finest gillnets)


mm (for small fyke nets).

Nominal diameters of the most


tex values are listed in Table 13.

usual

PA

monofilaments and the respective

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

3.2.

1 .3

Twisted or braided netting yarn

Braided construction

3.2.

.4

145

more frequently used

is

for heavy netting yarns.

Degree of twist or of tightness of braid

Degree of twist or of tightness of braid soft, medium, hard, very (extra)


For example, soft twist is used for certain types of gillnets, medium
twist for bottom trawls, purse seines and most other gear
types, and hard
twist (or even very hard) for midwater trawls. By these terms the
degree of
:

hard.

twist

is

not exactly defined but they are sufficient for practical fishing purposes.
level of twist or the tightness of braid see

(For exact designation of the


2.1.1.9, 2.1.2.5,

3.2.1.5

and

Direction offinal

S or Z, as shown

3.2.1.6

2.1.3.3.)

in

wist

Figure 8a. In most cases this item can be neglected.

Core

For braided netting yarn

it

should be stated whether

it

should have a core

or not.

3.2.1.7

Weight

The weight (mass) of

the required quantities of netting yarn should be

stated in kilograms.

3.2.2

NETTING

As already mentioned, the term "netting" is defined by ISO as "a


meshed structure of indefinite shape and size" (54). Netting is also called
"webbing" or "web." The three terms are used to refer to the fabric knotted
into meshes only, without cordage and other accessories. If the netting has
been connected to ropes (hanging, mounting) and fitted with floats (corks),
sinkers (leads) and other accessories, it has become a complete fishing gear
and this finished product is customarily called "net", "fishing net" or
"fishing gear".
to
netting the netting yarn must also be specified according
In addition the following specifications should be given.

For ordering
3.1.2.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

146

3.2.2.

Knotted or knotless

If knotted netting is required, and the purchaser has a preference for a


particular type of knot, he should state this in his order.

Examples of the principle types of knots:


Weaver's knot, also called English knot or sheet bend (see 2.3.3.3
and Figure 26b);
Double weaver's knot (see 2.3.3.4 and Figure 26d);
Reef knot or square knot (see Figure 26c).

The single and double weaver's knots are made by most manufacturers,
while the reef knot is much less common and mechanically manufactured
only by few suppliers.
If knotless netting

is

required, the type should be stated (see 2.1.4),

Japanese twisted netting;


Raschel netting;
braided knotless netting.

Sometimes the additional

specification of the joints

a
a
b
c
FIGURE

59.

Length

may be

be

of

mesh

side

Length of mesh

Opening

of

mesh

Designation of size of mesh (54)

of mesh side
the distance between
two sequential knots or joints, measured from
centre to centre when the netting yarn between
those points is fully extended.
(b) length of mesh = the distance between the
centres of two opposite knots in the same mesh
when fully extended in the N-direction (see
Figure 27).
(c) opening of mesh = the inside distance between two opposite knots in the same mesh
when fully extended in the N-direction.
(a) length

desirable.

i.e.

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

3.2.2.2

147

Size of mesh

This should be indicated in millimetres according to one of the three

methods of measuring meshsize (Figure

59).

Examples:

mesh side 25 mm (bar)


mesh
50 mm (extended mesh)
of
mesh
48 mm (inside distance of the extended mesh).
opening
length of
length of

Buyer and seller should make sure that they are specifying the meshsize
the same way.

Where high accuracy of meshsize is required, e.g. for gillnets or for


trawls used on fishing grounds for which strict meshsize regulations apply,
the meshsize should be indicated as opening of mesh (inside distance),
measured

in

wet condition and under a

specific

low pressure or tension in

relation to the fineness of the netting yarn of which the netting is made,
e.g. corresponding to its weight per 100 m. For knotless netting "the opening
of mesh is the inside distance between the opposite joints in the same mesh

when

fully

3.2.2.3

extended along

its

longest possible axis" (54).

Size of netting

and depth) should preferably be specified by the


both the T- and N-directions (see Figure 27). The values

Size of netting (length

number of meshes

in

are joined by the multiplication sign x If the size of netting is indicated in


a unit of length (e.g. metre) in one or both directions, length must naturally
refer to fully extended netting.
.

Examples:

T x 100 N
1000 T x 5m
10m X200N.
1000

3.2.2.4

Selvedges

If special edge

meshes are required for joining or mounting purposes or


must separately be stated giving:

for reinforcement, this

fineness of the netting yarns to be used for selvedges,


single or double netting yarn,

side or sides of the netting

meshsize according to

which are to be furnished with selvedges,

3.2.2.2,

width of the selvedges in number of meshes.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

148

Direction of stretching

3.2.2.5

or T in which the netting is to be stretched


to be stated. Stretching and stabilizing are the
processes for tightening the knots and for conferring a permanent shape to
Direction of stretching

and

stabilized

may need

the netting by thermal and/or other means.


3 .2.2.6

After-treatment

If any special finishing process is required it should be specified,


dyeing with or without impregnation or other treatment.

Examples

Dyed

e.g.

green, blue, red or any other colour (to diminish the visibility

of gillnets);

dyed black or brown or any other colour

(to increase the resistance

against light, 1.2.5.2);

treatment with tar or other coal-derivatives (to increase sinking speed,


abrasion resistance and stiffness of purse seines, 2.3.5.7).
3.2.2.7

Type of gear

In order to enable the manufacturer to offer the most suitable netting,


the ultimate use of the netting, i.e. type and size of fishing gear and in

some

cases also size and/or

Anchoveta purse

Tuna purse

seine,

power of vessel, should be

seine,

900

indicated, e.g.

330 fm long, 45 fm deep, 80 ft vessel


38
vessel

m long, 80 m deep,

Cod bottom trawl, 1800 hp vessel


Two-boat herring bottom trawl, 2 x 1 50 hp
Sprat mid water trawl, 300 hp vessel
Two-boat mackerel mid water trawl, 2 X 600 hp
Salmon drift net, 100 GT vessel
Perch

gillnet,

m row boat

Eel fyke net.

3.3

Choice of netting material for bottom trawlnets

Bottom

trawls have particularly high demands on the netting material which


should primarily have high wet knot breaking strength, high extensibility,
small diameter and high abrasion resistance. The larger the nets and the

rougher the fishing conditions, the more care is needed for choosing the
material. The requirements for handling and operation on board must also
be taken into account. The following discussion of breaking strength,

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

149

and diameter is not restricted to bottom trawls but can


analogously be applied to other types of fishing gear.

extensibility

HIGH BREAKING STRENGTH

3.3.1.

Fibres of high quality provide reliability of operation. They enable a


and that means a reduction in the total mass

lighter netting yarn to be used

Lower mass

of net.

facilitates

handling during shooting and hauling

operations, may reduce the bulk (storing), and eventually also the price.
For the same breaking strength netting yarn made of strong fibres can be

thinner than those made of weaker fibres. The thinner the netting yarn, the
lower the resistance to water flow. For trawlnets lower towing resistance
allows either a reduction of towing power with consequent savings in fuel,
or increased towing speed, or the use of a larger net by which the catching

may be increased. Low water resistance usually means also reduced


water stow and turbulence which makes the net less perceptible to fish. In
efficiency

general lighter nets fish better.


For comparison of the wet knot breaking strength of the various kinds of
netting yarn in relation to the Rtex, reference is made to Table 23a and b,
and to Figure 35. PA continuous filament netting yarns have the highest

wet knot breaking strength, followed by PP, PE and PES, while PVAA,
and PVD are too poor in this respect to be eligible for bottom trawls.

3.3.2

HIGH

The

EXTENSIBILITY

PVC

AND TOUGHNESS

extensibility of the netting yarns used for trawl nets should be

High elongation combined with high elasticity and high wet


knot breaking strength result in a high toughness, which enables the net to
withstand rough treatment during fishing and to safely haul in larger catches.
For comparison of the elongation of various kinds of netting yarns Table 28
and Figure 48 refer. For netting yarns of soft and medium twist (not hard
order:
twist) wet elongation decreases in the following
relatively high.

PA

staple fibre (highest elongation)


staple fibre (similar to wet cotton netting yarn)

PVAA
PA

continuous filament (nylon multifilament)

PE

monofilament, folded

PP continuous filament
PP split (film) fibre
PES continuous filament

(lowest elongation).

In general the elongation of PA staple fibre netting yarns is considered


too high and that of medium twisted PP and PES netting yarns too low for
in Table 29 and
trawls. Examples for elasticity and for toughness are given
53.
49
to
Figures

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

150

3.3.3

SMALL DIAMETER

The significance of the wet knot breaking strength for the diameter of
netting yarns has already been discussed (see 3.3.1). The second factor
determining the diameter of netting yarns is the fibre density (specific gravity).
High density and high breaking strength both favour thin netting yarns. The
relationship for different materials (with different density) between diameter
and wet knot breaking strength is shown in Figure 34 and in the small table
in section 2.3.4.1 (page 93).
With the same wet knot breaking strength, PES continuous filament
netting yarns have the smallest diameter, immediately followed by those

made of PA continuous
filament,

PE

filament. Netting yarns made of PP continuous


folded monofilament and PP split fibre are significantly thicker

but they are surpassed in thickness by netting yarns made of


and even more by those made of PVAA staple fibre.
3 3.4

PA

staple fibre

HIGH ABRASION RESISTANCE

This property is of particular importance for bottom trawls because of


fishing gears they suffer the most wear and tear on the bottom during
towing as well as on board when being dragged over the rail or the ramp
all

of the trawler. With some reservation (section 2.3.8)

PA

it

can be stated that

As

regards the form of fibre,


netting yarns made of monofilaments are superior to those made of continuous filaments, and netting yarns made of staple fibres have the poorest
is

superior to

all

abrasion resistance.

other fibre materials.

The

influence of the

form of the

fibre is thus that certain

netting yarns made of PE monofilaments may have a better resistance to


wear and tear than netting yarns made of PA continuous filaments.

3.3.5

POLYAMIDE AND POLYETHYLENE

Netting yarns
filaments and

PE

these two fibres, PA in the form of continuous


form of monofilaments (wires), are at present most

made of
in the

common

for bottom trawls because, although not ideal, they have technical
and economic advantages when compared with the other available netting
materials.

3.3.5.1

Arguments

in

favour of polyamide

Netting yarns made of PA continuous filaments have all physical


properties required for trawls, certainly not in perfection, but still in a combination and to an extent as no other available material: highest wet knot
breaking strength, very favourable degree of extensibility coupled with high
small diameter and high abrasion resistance.
The columns "PAcf" and "PE mon." in Table 23a enable a comparison
of the Rtex (mass of 1000 m) of the two kinds of netting yarn. With the same

elasticity,

wet knot breaking strength and the same

length, netting yarns

made of

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

151

PE folded

monofilaments are about 20 percent heavier than PA cont. filament


PE netting yarns are also about 25 percent thicker than PA
netting yarns of the same wet knot breaking strength. For the thickness of the
knots the difference becomes even greater. In the case of the braided netting
yarns of Figure 33 the area covered by the knot of PE is about 130 percent
netting yarns.

larger than that of the

The mass of the

PA

knot.

and the thickness of the netting yarns are of great


importance for the handling of the trawl and for its towing resistance. In
net

both respects PA is superior to PE. Nets made of PA cont. filaments are


also less bulky than PE nets and therefore need less room for storage.
3.3.5.2

Arguments

in

favour of polyethylene

The lower

price is the main argument in favour of netting yarns made of


monofilaments and probably the main reason for the widely spread
use of this material for trawlnets. In most countries it belongs to the cheapest
of all synthetic fibre products. It has the additional advantage that it can be
manufactured by relatively simple and inexpensive processing techniques

PE folded

PA

suitable also for non-industrialized countries. In contrast to this,


and
PES continuous filaments belong to the most expensive fibres, and their
is restricted to highly developed chemical industries.
trawls are said to be easier to handle or to clean from rubbish

production

PE

and
so
not
much
do
become
because
entangled
primarily
spiny
they are
stiffer than PA trawls. This is also the reason why PE trawlnets do not
tend so much to catch on small obstructions on deck and to make turns
fish

during hauling as soft nylon trawls do. Treatment by stiffening agents (see
2.3.5.7) can reduce this drawback of PA but requires additional work and
costs. PE netting yarns do not change their length in water as PA netting
yarns do (see Tables 25 and 26). On rough ground the PE net may be less
subject to damage because of the low specific gravity of the PE fibre which
favours floating. The buoyancy of PE may also allow a reduction in the

number of

3.3.6

floats

and thus a respective reduction

in

drag.

SIZE OF NETTING YARNS

The size (fineness) of the netting yarn should be selected with particular
regard to the fishing conditions, the type of operation (e.g. side, stern or
fish to be caught, the meshpair trawling), the size of net and vessel, the
size and the position and function of the net section under consideration.
The relation between meshsize and strength of netting is not necessarily
is often in
directly proportional because the strength of the netting yarn
excess of the stress during towing in order to meet the higher strength
function and position
requirements for the handling on board. As regards the
smallest
the
of
in
meshsize, often are
in trawlnets, codends,
having
spite
made of the strongest netting yarn in the trawlnets to better withstand the
wear and tear on the bottom and on board under rough working conditions

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

152

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NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

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CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

155

and with heavy catches. The different parts of a trawl (e.g. top wings, lower
wings, square, belly, tunnel, flapper, codend) are naturally subjected to
different stress during fishing and have different meshsize. The
requirements
for netting yarn strength differ accordingly. The more the
strength of the
netting yarns is adjusted to these different requirements the more the number
of different sizes of netting yarns in a trawl will increase. A perfect
adjustment
of netting yarn sizes would result in the lightest net possible. For a number
of obvious practical reasons, most trawlnets are actually composed of
only
one to three sizes of netting yarn, particularly if constructed from machinemade netting. Table 31 gives examples of existing bottom trawlnets of
different type, size and construction which were selected from the technical
literature. It has to be cautioned that not all of the examples listed are
worthy
of imitation. The selection is also not representative for the extent to which
the materials are actually used in the fisheries of the world. Doubtless the
share of PE is actually much greater than shown. There are countries, like

PE monofilament netting yarn is the most


material for trawlnets. In some other countries PES, PP or
(the latter for small trawls only, and treated by tar) are preferred. PP should be
used in the form of split fibres (film tapes) or folded monofilaments. These
Canada, Iceland, Japan, where

common

PVAA

materials are low-priced and they have a higher breaking strength and lower
creep (higher elasticity) than PE.

3.4

Choice of netting material for midwater trawlnets

trawl is the most important gear for bulk fishing pelagic


species in the large free water area between the near bottom range of
the bottom trawl and the near surface range of gillnets and encircling nets

The midwater

purse seines). The success of this modern gear depends to a large extent
on the high quality synthetic net material.
(e.g.

3.4.1

REQUIREMENTS

Most of the properties required for bottom trawls (3.3) are also needed
for midwater trawls (also called "pelagic trawls" or "floating trawls"), but
midwater trawls have additional requirements which are basically due to
the reaction of the fish to be caught. From a bottom trawl fish can escape
only to the sides and upward, while with midwater trawls escape downwards,
which is for most fish the main direction of flight, is also possible. The

chances for the fish to escape a


better than with bottom trawls.
course, particularly serious with
herring, sardinella or mackerels.

midwater trawl are therefore considerably


This feature of midwater trawling is, of
active fish schools, such as non-spawning
is to prevent the fish getting

The problem

before

are

deep enough
they
seriously frightened by the approaching gear
in the net. This may be achieved by increasing the size of the net and by
best possible filtering efficiency to reduce water stow and disproviding

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

156

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CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

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NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

158

turbance. For a given towing power and towing speed, these measures
of highest
require largest possible meshsize and material for the netting yarns
possible breaking strength and toughness to obtain smallest possible diameter
for

minimum towing resistance.


KIND AND SIZE OF NETTING YARNS

3.4.2

For the above reasons the best material for mid water trawls is PA
continuous filaments. Compared to the material for bottom trawls the
netting yarns for midwater trawls, in spite of their larger dimensions and
partly larger meshsize, have to be finer. The inevitably lower breaking
strength has to be counter-balanced by selecting netting yarns with high
extensibility for absorbing shock loads due to movements of trawl and trawler
in heavy sea and for better distributions of unequal loads on the netting.
Extensibility can be increased by hard twist instead of medium twist for
the netting yarns. Some characteristics of such netting yarns are discussed
below. Examples for the actual choice of netting yarns are listed in Table 32.
The fine netting yarns needed for satisfactory catching efficiency of midwater
trawls are usually not able to withstand excessive forces on the net occurring
under rough weather conditions, sharp course changes, or during hauling
of large catches on board. This is particularly true for large stern trawlers
with a ramp which have to haul up the total catch in one go. Therefore such
a net, and particularly its codend part, must be strengthened by a framework
of strengthening ropes which takes part of the load. Most of these strengthening ropes must have similar elongation characteristics as the netting material
and should therefore also be made of PA. Usually the codend is covered
by one or two hauling bags with large meshes made of heavy netting yarns
which for large stern trawler nets reach R 18000 tex (double taken) or even
more. This material is not included in Table 32.
3.4.3

HARD TWISTED PA

NETTING YARNS

The information on

the properties of netting yarns (Chapter 2) refer


to
mainly
netting yarns of medium twist. The values in Table 10 and
Figures 38 and 39 are therefore not directly applicable to hard twisted PA
material. When considering hard twisted netting yarns made of PA continuous
filaments, it should be kept in mind that the level of twist has a strong
influence not only on the extensibility but also on other important properties.

The following changes of properties occur

The mass per

unit length (Rtex)

if

the twist level

is

is

increased

increased and the runnage

decreased;

The price for a given area of netting is


The stiffness or hardness is increased
The diameter is increased

increased;

The breaking strength (unknotted and knotted) is decreased;


The abrasion resistance may be increased to a certain degree;
The total elongation is increased, particularly at low loads.

is

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

159

The permanent elongation is increased and the degree of elasticity is


decreased. Decrease in breaking strength and elasticity and increase in mass
are disadvantages which have to be accepted if high extensibility is required.

The actual amount of the changes in these properties depends on the


degree of the coefficient of twist (see 2.1.1.9 and 2.1.2.5). There are no
standards for normal or hard twist. If the purchaser does not clearly state

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

'

1300

KOO

1500

1600

1700

1500

1900

2000
2100

R tex
of
FIGURE 60. Influence of the level of twist on the wet knot breaking strength
the same Rtex, hard
netting yarns made ot PA continuous filaments. With
twisted netting yarns have lower breaking strength than medium twisted netting

yams.

ft

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

160

the exact coefficient of twist desired, the decision is left to the manufacturer.
For hard twisted netting yarns made of PA continuous filaments it should

be higher than 200. (See

2.1.2.5).

3.4.3.1

Examples showing the influence of the level of twist on the fineness


(Rtex) are given in Tables 5 and 8. As already mentioned the Rtex values
of Table 10 are not applicable to hard twisted PA material.
3.4.3.2

Figure 60 illustrates the remarkable differences in the wet knot breaking


strength of medium and hard twisted PA netting yarn. With the same Rtex,
hard twisted netting yarns are weaker than medium twisted; with the same
wet knot breaking strength hard twisted netting yarns are heavier than

medium

twisted.

3.4.3.3

The increase of extensibility by hard twisting can be seen from the loadelongation curves of Figure 61. Similar comparisons, but for low loads only,
are given in Figure 46.

12

Wt
FIGURE

61.

16

10

20

alongotion in

22

pr

Load-elongation curves of

influence of the level of twist

on the

24

28

30

32

34

3ft

40

42

etnt

PA

netting yarns showing the great

extensibility.

(a) and (b) are cabled netting twines made of the same number of
single yarns with the same fineness, (a) is medium twisted and used for bottom
trawls; (b) is hard twisted and used for midwater trawls.

Specimens

Specimen (c) is not only very hard twisted but has also the construction of a
cabled netting twine of second order.

i4

46

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING OEAR

Whilst the elongation of

medium

161

twisted netting yarns at a tension corre-

sponding to the half wet knot breaking strength reaches on average approximately 22 percent, the elongation of hard twisted netting yarns will mostly
exceed 30 percent. Much higher elongation values may be obtained by further
increase of twist and/or by using complicated constructions (specimen c in
Figure 61 refers to the very hard twisted cabled netting twine of second
order, listed as number 16 in Table 5). However, it is doubtful whether such
excessive extensibility has technical advantages for midwater trawls. It should
also be recalled that hard twist and complicated construction reduce the
degree of elasticity (2.3.7.4).

3.5

Choice of netting material for purse seine nets

In terms of amount of catch the purse seine is the most important fishing
gear. Purse seines are particularly efficient for bulk fishing of schooling
pelagic fish such as anchoveta, capelin, sardine, sardinella, sprat, herring,
mackerel, horse mackerel, salmon, bonito, tuna. The fishing range extends

from the surface down

to about

50

struction of the net. Large purse seines

and contain more than 10 tons of

depth depending on size and conmay have a length of about 2000 m

netting.

They are the

largest

and most

expensive fishing gear.


3.5.1.

REQUIREMENTS

The requirements regarding the netting material are determined by the


operational characteristics of the gear as a surrounding net and by its comparatively enormous size. The main demands are great sinking speed, high
breaking strength, low resistance to water flow and, finally, low price. The
catching efficiency largely depends on the speed by which the fish school
can be encircled, the long net wall sinks down and the net can be closed
:

by pursing. For all three highest possible speed is desired to prevent active
from escaping and to reduce the influences of wind drift and
water current on the operation.
The sinking speed is influenced by the kind of netting material as well as
by the construction of the gear, including meshsize, hanging ratio of netting,
weight of leadline and also net impregnation. With regard to netting material,
high density (specific gravity) of fibre, smooth surface and small diam'eter
of netting yarn accelerate the sinking speed of the net and the latter two reduce
resistance to water flow.
fish schools

3.5.2

KIND AND

SIZE

OF NETTING YARN

It is impossible to find an optimum combination of all characteristics


As regards sinking
required for purse seines in one kind of netting material.
is made to section 1.2.5.3. PVD (Saran) has the highest
reference
speed,

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

162

specific gravity

and therefore the highest sinking speed, but the lowest

breaking strength and

Cheap

materials, like

is

therefore not suitable for larger purse seines.


or PP split fibre have sufficient

PE monofilament

breaking strength but low specific gravity so that they float in water and
cannot contribute to the sinking speed at all. Combination netting yarns
made of Saran
nylon ("Kyokurin", "Livlon") are produced in Japan
particularly for the use in purse seines and deep-sea gillnets. They are meant
to combine the high density of saran with the high breaking strength of
nylon, but they are not easily available in most countries outside Japan.
Netting yarns made of PVAA staple fibre are relatively cheap but, due to
their rough surface, have a low sinking speed and, above all, a low breaking

strength.

Considering the whole, the most suitable materials for purse seines are
probably netting yarns made of PA continuous filaments and of PES continuous filaments. PES has a reasonably high specific gravity and accordingly
a favourable sinking speed. PA has a lower specific gravity and sinking
speed but a higher breaking strength and therefore the smallest netting yarn
diameter. The sinking speed may be increased by dipping the net into tar
or similar products. The originally soft netting is stiffened by this process
which improves the handling characteristics and protection against light is

provided as well.
Table 33 gives examples of the sizes of (mainly PA) netting yarns used in
different types and sizes of purse seines. As with other fishing gear, the fineness of netting yarns in purse seines depends on the size of the gear, on the
position and function of the netting in the gear, on the meshsize and on the
species offish to be caught. Purse seines consist of a number of netting panels
or strips which may have different meshsize and are subjected to different
stress. Accordingly, several sizes of netting yarn are used. The main body of
the net is usually made of fine netting yarns. The landing bags or bunts,
in which the fish is concentrated ("dried up") after pursing and hauling
most of the net, are subject to much more stress and are therefore made of
heavier netting yarn. The same applies to the border strips or the selvedges
which at the same time usually are made of larger meshsize. A recommendable way to reduce mass, water resistance and cost of a purse seine is to
have the main body of the net with the exception of the bunt and eventually
the selvedges made of knotless netting (see 2.1.4).

3*6

Choice of netting material for

This simple type of fishing gear

gillnets

is

widely used in several types, such as

and also encircling net.


the
material,
loosely hung entangling nets may also be
regards netting
included in this group of gear. The introduction of high quality synthetic
netting materials has very much promoted the extended use of this gear

bottom

As

set net,

anchored floating

gillnet, drift net

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

163

type. This is due mainly to the considerably better catching efficiency which
in particular for transparent
is two to twelve times higher
monofilament as compared with the natural fibre material (e.g. cotton, flax, ramie)

PA

used before.
3.6.1

REQUIREMENTS

Gillnets belong to the passive fishing gears which are placed in the
of the moving fish or fish schools. Good catching efficiency requires

way

low
organ of the fish before
being gilled or entangled in the netting. Gillnets must be adjusted to the
behaviour of fish even better than trawls and purse seines.
Materials of gillnets should have lowest possible visibility in water,
particularly for daytime fishing in clear water. The netting yarns should also
be as fine and soft as possible to reduce the perceptibility by the side line
organ. Thinner netting yarn is also less visible. On the other hand, the
material should be strong enough to withstand the forces of the caught fish
in its fight for freedom. The material should, furthermore, have appropriate
extensibility and elasticity to hold the gilled or entangled fish securely while
the gear is in catching position and during hauling, but not so strongly that
the fish cannot easily be shaken or taken out of the net. Material with high
low-load elongation cannot meet this demand. As the size of the fish to be
caught by gilling depends on the meshsize, the netting should have good
knot stability and the meshsize should not be affected by water. The original
meshsize should be recovered after removal of loads or after the fish has
been taken out of the mesh.
perceptibility of the gear

by sight or the

KIND AND

NETTING YARNS

3.6.2

SIZE OF

lateral line

Some of the requirements listed above are contradictory. For instance,


due to their transparency and to the similarity of their light refractive index,
uncoloured PA single monofilaments are almost invisible in water but they
are reasonably soft only up to a diameter of about 0.20 to 0.25 mm. Such
fine monofilaments have naturally a rather low breaking strength which is
not sufficient for heavy duty gillnets. With increasing diameter the stiffness
increases considerably and the net becomes more and more bulky (see
Table 24 and 2.3.5), which is an operational disadvantage.
In order to combine the transparency and softness of the thin PA monofilaments with a higher strength, three to five very fine PA monofilaments are
twisted together by a very loose twist with only a few turns per metre (see
2.1.2.2) (ace. to Institut

f.

Fangtechnik, Hamburg, 1981).

PA

mm

monofilaments of a diameter of 0.17


each, form a
very loosely twisted twine of R 158 tex with a breaking strength of about
and a knot breaking elongation of 13 percent.
10 kgf, a diameter of 0.38
This folded PA monofilament yarn, corresponding to the construction shown
in Figure 8c, is much softer than a single monofilament of 0.4 or 0.45
diameter which would have approximately the same breaking strength.

Example: four

mm

mm

12

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

164

*>

s
Ul

II

"> G

gal

-a

'!I

x x

I
.x x

s?

<2J

O.

vx

g
o

<

S 8
X

f">

8
x P*

jn

a g

g|gg|

So

S<3T5t3<37!

x
4)

r>

rt

so

<<t

^>r>

P
. .

. .

M>

i^

^goo

g g

O O

0U

22

ZS

so

voxo

c S

<3o

^^ ^^^^^^ ^^
m

rT

x x x

x*
O X*
O ~^
*%

ej

^^

1 -

.1 .2 .1 .1

&

3 1
S 2

ft
Ji

^Si

2*3

S"S

2"

s s e a

a" s?

e
o

2S
n
**

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

ii

44)

:g

i*
CO

5
0)

f
II

X X

"*
2

x x

sfs

x
os

x x

X X X
g<^
m *-S

s:

oo"
*! ~
2-

,rfg

X X
0000

-3

;5

a"
~

X
rf

S"S
X X

*CO

X X x X x
rTof

"

XX XX

rirs* rf vo*

irT

o>

4>

DC

-I
e,
0>

f^>

*-

Bobzin

p:"

S'x^i

f*%

^i

ooV
-o

io"so

00 XX XX
"^ -^
vo "'

ax

"-'

1
a EZ

s a

x x

'S
o

165

O
sS

s
x

-3

XX a"J
^

"0*00

;xg
x x

oC

x x

XX

x x

<u

V s0

<U

x x
V

S R

2s

.=*

X X

5S

^^^S
o

^ m

.2
=

oo
"

22

OO OO OO

OO

OX

-4

1
f^

2
ON

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

166

PA

is the softest of all synthetic materials in wet


natural shiny white colour is far too visible in clear water.
It should be dyed just as other kinds of white material made of continuous
filaments or staple fibres (e.g. PES, PP, PVAA). Since there is no uniformity
of opinion and since the efficiency depends on the fishing conditions, the

continuous filament

condition, but

its

sought and eventually even on the time of the day and the year,
no recommendations on the selection of colour can be offered. Green, blue,
grey and brownish colours appear to be most common in present commercial

fish species

fisheries.

made of the very strong PA continuous filaments should


Hard and even medium twisted PA netting yarns are not

Netting yarns

have

soft twist.

recommended because of

their high elongation at low loads which is


undesirable for the function of gillnetting.
Because of the large variety of gillnets with regard to size, meshsize,
fish sought, operational patterns, fishing conditions, etc., it is not possible
to offer comprehensive recommendations for the selection of net materials.
Therefore only several characteristic examples are given. All Rtex values are

nominal and refer to non-dyed and non-treated netting yarns. By dyeing


and/or stiffening the Rtex values increase. The stronger netting yarns often
used for selvedges are not included.

Salmon

3.6.2.1

gillnets

Opening of mesh: 120


28tex x

12;

28 tex x 15;

mm to

160

mm

made of PES continuous

Netting yarns

(a)

made of PA continuous

(b) Netting yarns

filaments:

23 tex x 12; R 290 tex to R 310 tex


23 tex x 15; R 370 tex to R 390 tex
Single PA monofilaments (transparent)

(c)

filaments:

R 370 tex
R 460 tex

mm diameter; 330 tex


0.7 mm diameter; 480 tex

0.6

(d) Netting yarns

21 tex
21 tex
21 tex
3.6.2.2

x
x
x

made of PP continuous

filaments

R 285 tex
R 355 tex
18; R 420 tex

12;
15;

Codgillnets

Opening of mesh:

180mm

to

200mm. The same

sizes

of netting yarn

may be

used as for salmon.


For small cod, with mesh opening of
yarns may be used, for instance

110mm

to

120mm,

finer netting

PA continuous filament: 23 tex x 4; R 100 tex


PA single monofilament: 0.3 mm diameter, 90 tex.
PA folded monofilaments, loosely twisted: 0.17 mm x
X 4

(sec 3.6.2).

3 or 0.17

mm

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

Mackerel gillnets

3.6.2.3

Opening of mesh: 50

3.6.2.4

167

mm to

80

mm (and more)

PES

continuous filament: 28 tex x 6;

PA
PA

continuous filament: 23 tex

PP

continuous filament: 21 tex x 6;

monofilament 0.4

single

Gill (drift) nets for herring

Opening of mesh

for

mm

With regard

PA

such as

R
R

6;

180 tex
155 tex

to 0.45

mm diameter

140 tex

and sardine

herring: 55
sardine: 30

sufficient,

mm to 65 mm
mm to 50 mm

to breaking strength very fine netting yarns

would be

continuous filament: 23 tex x

2,

or 23 tex

PES continuous filament: 28 tex x 3


PP continuous filament: 21 tex x 3, or

21 tex

3,

or 23 tex

4;

4.

These fine and smooth netting yarns are, however, not fully suitable for
these "soft" fishes because they are too "sharp" or cutting and can damage
the gilled fish so that it may be decapitated when shaken out. For this reason
netting yarns for soft fish gillnets should have a larger diameter than required
for the breaking strength. The cotton netting yarns previously used for

herring drift nets had a diameter of 0.6 to 0.8

corresponds to

mm.

This approximately

PA

continuous filament: 23 tex x 12 (or x 15)


PES continuous filament: 28 tex x 12 (or x 15)
PP continuous filament: 21 tex x 9 (or x 12)

The degree of

not decisive for herring and sardine because


the
night and these species of fish do not rely so
mainly during
fishing
much on their visual sense as do the fishes mentioned below. Because of
visibility is

is

these specific requirements, netting material of low breaking strength and


staple fibre is well suited for herring or sardine
greater diameter such as
for
suitable
netting
staple are:
yarn size made of
Examples
gillnets.

PVAA

PVAA

Sardine gillnet

Herring
Herring

gillnet
gillnet

PVAA
PVAA
PVAA

30 tex x 4
30 tex
50 tex

x
x

15

preparation with stiffening agents is recommended for gillnets and


driftnets made of continuous filament or staple fibre material if the nets
are used for catching soft fish (see 2.3.5.7).
There is also a gillnet fishery for small herring (opening of mesh about
40mm) with nets made of transparent PA single monofilaments with

diameters from 0.15

mm to 0.30 mm.

NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

168

3.6.2.5

Very fine gillnets

Gillnets made of very fine netting materials are required for fish which
mainly rely on their visual sense, such as trout, coregones (Coregonus spp.),
brock, smelt (Osmerus spp.), roach (Rutilus sp.), bleak (Alburnus sp.), perch
(Perca spp.), ruff (Acerina sp.). Such gears are predominantly used in lakes
and coastal waters. Transparent single PA monofilaments are the most suitable
for such gillnets, for which low visibility is the main requirement.

Examples:
Coregone gillnets, opening of mesh between 36
smaller the mesh, the thinner the netting yarn):

PA single monofilament: 0.10mm, 11 tex


PA single monofilament: 0.12 mm, 16 tex
PA single monofilament: 0.15 mm, 23 tex
PA single monofilament: 0.18 mm, 30 tex
PA continuous filament netting yarn 8 tex x
:

PA
PA
Roach

continuous filament netting yarn: 23 tex

opening of mesh 52

continuous filament netting yarn

gillnets,

PA
PA

opening of mesh 40

monofilament:

(the

R25 tex
x 2; R50 tex
3

tex.

tex
tex

x 2; R50 tex
x 3; R75 tex
tex x 3; R45 tex

23 tex
23 tex
14

mm to 90 mm.

mm,
0.25 mm,

single monofilament: 0.20


single

mm

mm to 90 mm.

PA single monofilament: 0.20 mm, 44


PA single monofilament: 0.25 mm, 58
PA continuous filament netting yarn
PA continuous filament netting yarn

Perch

and 100

continuous filament netting yarn: 23 tex x 3; R75

gillnets,

PES

mm

44 tex
58 tex

For gillnets for pike (Esox spp.), pike-perch (Lucioperca sp.), perch,
and char (Salvelinus spp.) in Swedish lakes the following relations
between meshsize and diameter of the single PA monofilaments are
recommended:
trout,

CHOICE OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR FISHING GEAR

169

With regard

to the netting material, the inner walls of trammel nets have


similar requirements. The inner netting of a trammel net for flatfish may
consist of
diameter or of
single monofilament of 0.20 to 0.25

PA

mm

PA

continuous filament 23 tex x 3. The two outer walls with wide meshes may,
for instance, be made of PA continuous filament netting yarn 23 tex x 9.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

1.

2.
3.

4.

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Designation
American Society for Testing and Materials: Designation
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Methods for Identification of Fibres in Textiles, 1962.
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ASTM

1959.

6.

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7.

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geflochtener Netze in der


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19.

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21.
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1960.

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172

E. : Investigations on the strain of netting yam after repeated loading and


Intern. Council f.th.Explor. of
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DAHM,

CM

28.
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31.

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Alger, 1953.

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ZEI,

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FAO

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36.
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TD

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62.

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63.

ISO: Fishing Nets

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174

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:

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Fischereitechnik, XII, Nr. 58, 1971.


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z.

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1969.
94.
95.

LONSDALE, J.E.: Nylon in fishing nets. Mod. Fishing Gear of the World I, 30-33,
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