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# TP 04

## Maple et sries numriques

CPGE - Laayoune
Essaidi Ali
www.mathlaayoune.webs.com
MP1-2011-2012
Exercice 01 :
Calculer les sommes suivantes :
CN

1:

CN

>n

n=1

k = 2, 3, 4 ; 2 :

5:

>

n=1

CN

>

n C1

n=1

n K1

K1
n

CN

1
k = 1, 2, 3 ; 3 :
; 4:
n!
n=0

>

CN

> n 1n! ;

n=0

1
n C2 ... n C10

.
CN

6:

CN

CN

n=3
CN

n=0
CN

## > n C1 ; 10 : > arctan

n=0

n=3

in

n=1

sin n
n

k = 1, 2 ; 9 :

1
, 1, 2
2

.
O restart;
1
O Sum 2 , n = 1 ..CN
n

= sum

, n = 1 ..CN ;

n
N

> n1

n=1

O Sum

1
3

, n = 1 ..CN

= sum

= evalf sum

1
3

1 2

, n = 1 ..CN ; Sum

n
1
3

, n = 1 ..CN

n=1

1
3

> n1

(1.1)

= 3

, n = 1 ..CN

> n1

O Sum

, n = 1 ..CN

= 1.202056903

n=1

= sum

, n = 1 ..CN ;

n
N

> n1

K1

n=1

O Sum

1 4

90

n K1

, n = 1 ..CN

= sum

>

K1
n

= ln 2

n K1

, n = 1 ..CN

= sum

>

n K1

, n = 1 ..CN

= sum

, n = 1 ..CN ;

(1.5)

n K1

K1

, n = 1 ..CN ;

n
n K1

K1

Sum

n K1

K1

K1 n K 1
1 2
=

2
12
n

n=1

O Sum

(1.4)

n
N

K1

, n = 1 ..CN ;

n K1

K1

n=1

K1

(1.3)
n K1

O Sum

(1.2)

, n = 1 ..CN

= evalf sum

n
N

, n = 1 ..C

;
N

>

n=1

>

n=1

O Sum

n K1

K1

1
, n = 0 ..CN
n!

3
K1 n K 1
=
3
3
4
n

K1 n K 1
= 0.9015426772
n3

= sum

(1.6)

1
, n = 0 ..CN ;
n!
N

> n!1 =e

(1.7)

n=0

O Sum

1
, n = 1 ..CN
n\$n!
..CN

= evalf sum
N

= sum

1
1
, n = 1 ..CN ; Sum
, n=1
n\$n!
n\$n!

1
, n = 1 ..CN
n\$n!

n=1

## > n 1n! = 1.317902151 C0. I

(1.8)

n=1

1
, n = 1 ..CN
Product n Ck, k = 1 ..10
1
= sum
, n = 1 ..CN ;
product n Ck, k = 1 ..10

O Sum

>

n=1

1
32659200

10

? n Ck

(1.9)

k= 1

O Sum

, n = 3 ..CN

n K3\$n C2

= sum

, n = 3 ..CN ;

n K3\$n C2

> n K31 n C2 = 1

O Sum arctan

(1.10)

n=3

, n = 0 ..CN

n Cn C1
= evalf sum arctan

, n = 0 ..CN

n Cn C1

> arctan

n=0

1
n Cn C1
2

= 1.570796327

(1.11)

sin n
sin n
, n = 1 ..CN = sum
, n = 1 ..CN ;
n
n
sin n
sin n
Sum
, n = 1 ..CN = evalf sum
, n = 1 ..CN
n
n

O Sum

> sinn n

n=1

1
sin 1
arctan
2
1 Kcos 1

1
sin 1
arctan
2
K1 Ccos 1

> sinn n

= 1.070796327

(1.12)

n=1

O Sum

sin n

, n = 1 ..CN

= sum

n
N

, n = 1 ..CN ;

sin n

Sum

sin n

, n = 1 ..CN

= evalf sum

sin n
2

, n = 1 ..C

sin n
n=1
n2

>

1
1 2
1
polylog 2, e2 I C
K
polylog 2, eK2 I
4
12
4

=K

sin n
n=1
n2

>

O Sum

, n = 1 ..CN

= 1.070796327 C0. I
1

= sum

..CN

, n = 1 ..CN ; Sum

n C1

(1.13)

n C1
1

= evalf sum

, n=1

n C1

, n = 1 ..CN

1
2

n C1

n=1

1
2

## > n 1C1 = 1.076674048

exp I\$n

O Sum

, n = 1 ..CN

n
exp I\$n

Sum

(1.14)

n=1

= sum

exp I\$n

, n = 1 ..CN ;

n
, n = 1 ..CN

= evalf sum

exp I\$n

n
N

, n = 1 ..C

;
N

>

n=1

>

n=1

eI n

eI n
n

eI n

>

n=1

= K0.1941089351 C1.043982103 I

(1.15)

exp I\$n
exp I\$n
, n = 1 ..CN = sum
, n = 1 ..CN ;
n
n
exp I\$n
exp I\$n
Sum
, n = 1 ..CN = evalc sum
, n = 1 ..C
n
n

O Sum

;
N

eI n
= Kln 1 KeI
n
n=1

>

eI n
1
= K ln
2
n=1 n

>

O Sum

exp I\$n
2

1 Kcos 1

, n = 1 ..CN

Csin 1

= sum

CI arctan

exp I\$n
2

sin 1
1 Kcos 1

, n = 1 ..CN ;

(1.16)

Sum

exp I\$n

, n = 1 ..CN

exp I\$n

= evalf sum

n
N

, n = 1 ..C

;
N

eI n

>n

n=1

= polylog 2, eI

eI n
= 0.3241377401 C1.013959132 I
2
n=1 n

>

(1.17)

Exercice 02 :
Donner un dveloppement asymptotique des sommes :
n

1:

CN

>

k= 1

>k

; 2:

1
6:
; 7:
k= 1 k

>

k= n

CN

CN

3:

k= n

>2

4:

k= 1
CN

>

>

k K1

K1

>

k
; 8:
;
2
k = n C1 k
k = 1 k C1

9:

>

k= n

1
k K1

; 5:

>

k.

k= 1

1
2

k Ck C 1

> ln k Cn .

; 10 :

k= 1

O restart;
1
O Sum
, k = 1 ..n
k
n

>

k= 1

O Sum

= asympt sum

, k = 1 ..n , n, 1 ;

k
2

1
n

, k = n ..CN
5
k

1
2

1
2

= asympt sum

1
1
CO
n
n

, k = n ..CN , n, 5 ;

k
N

> k1

k= n

1
1
CO 5
4
4n
n

k K1

O Sum

K1
k

(2.1)

(2.2)
k K1

, k = n ..CN

= asympt sum

K1
k

, k = n ..CN , n,

2 ;
N

>

k= n

kK1

K1
k

1
=K
2

K1
n

CO

1
2
n

(2.3)

O Sum

, k = 1 ..n

= asympt sum

k K1

2\$

, k = 1 ..n , n,

2\$ k K1

1 ;
n

>2

k K1

k= 1

O Sum

k , k = 1 ..n
n

>

k= 1

O Sum

2
1
n

k =
3

1
, k = 1 ..n
k

3/2

k= 1

, k = n C1 ..N

(2.4)

k , k = 1 ..n , n, 1 ;
1
2

= asympt sum
CC

CO 1

1
n

C K

1
n

> 1k = ln n

= asympt sum

O Sum

1
24

1
1
CO
n
n

(2.5)

1
, k = 1 ..n , n, 5 ;
k

1
1
1
1
K
C
CO 5
2
4
2n
12 n
120 n
n

= asympt sum

(2.6)

, k = 1 ..n , n, 5 ;

k
N

1
1 2
1
1
1
1
=
K C
K
CO 5
2
2
3
6
n
k= n C1 k
2n
6n
n

>

O Sum

k
, k = 1 ..n
k C1

k
= n C1 Kln n
> k C1

KK

k= 1

O Sum

, k = n ..N

k
, k = 1 ..n , n, 5 ;
k C1

= asympt sum

(2.7)

3
13
1
119
1
C
K 3 C
CO 5
2
4
2n
12 n
n
120 n
n
1

= asympt sum

, k = n ..CN ,

k Ck C1

(2.8)

k Ck C1

n, 5 ;
N

> k Ck1 C1 = 1n C n1

k= n

1
I
2

1
I
2

1
12

1 CI 3

1
I
3

1
I 3
3

1
1
K
I
6
4

1
1
K I 3
3
3
n
2

1
1
C I 3
2
2

1
1
K
I
2
2

1
1
1
C
I 3 C
6
4
2
3 C

1
2

1
1
C
I 3
2
2

1
1
C
I
2
2

1
2

1
I
3

3
1
2

1
2

(2.9)

1
2

1
1
C
I 3
12
12

1
1
K
I
2
2

1
12

1
I
12

1
n4

1
I
3

1
12

1
I
3

1
I
2

3 C

1
12

K1 CI
1
8

1 CI
1
32

1
32

C
3

K1 CI

3
3

1
24

1
1
K
I
2
2
1
24

1
1
C
I 3
2
2

1 CI
1
120

K1 CI
3

1
120

C
2

1
12

1
2

1
n5

CO

## = asympt sum ln k Cn , k = 1 ..n , n, 5 ;

>ln k Cn

1
1
K
I 3
2
2

1
1
C
I
2
2

1 CI 3

O Sum ln k Cn , k = 1 ..n

1
1
K
I
2
2
2

K1 CI 3

1
1
C
I
2
2
1
8

= ln n K1 C2 ln 2

n Cln

k= 1

K1 K ln 2

Kln

K1

1
24 n

(2.10)

1
n3

CO

Exercice 03 :
Etudier la convergence des srie suivantes :
1:

>
>

n C3 n Kn ; 2 :

K1

>

n C1

n C2 ... n Cn

2n

3:

>

ln n
;
n!

4:

n K1
n ln
nC1

n! 3
;
3n !

>
6 : > sin

5:

n Cn C1
n C1

; 7:

3n
4 nK1

>

2 n C1

; 8:

2
n

> a C1 a C1 ... a C1 ;
9 : > ln ch 1 sin 1
n
n
; 10 : > sin n C 1 C 1 ; 11 : > cos n ln n
n
n K1
n
a

O restart;
O asympt

n C3 n Kn, n ;
(3 1)

1
1
CO 7
3
2n
n

(3.1)

O u d n/

n Ck

k=1

u n C1
, n = N ; is % ! 1 ;
u n

; limit

2 n

? n Ck

1
u := n/
2

k= 1

nn

4 eK1
false
O u d n/

ln n

; limit

u n C1

n!

, n = N ; is % ! 1 ;

u n
u := n/

(3.2)

ln n
n!

0
true
O asympt

K1 \$ n \$ln

n K1
, n, 2 ;
nC 1

K2 K1
O u d n/

n!

(3.3)

; limit

3\$ n !

1
CO
n

u n C1
u n

1
n

3/2

(3.4)

, n = N ; is % ! 1 ;

n!3
u := n/
3n !
1
27
true

(3.5)

n Cn C1
O S d asympt
\$, n, 5 ;
n C1

1
S := n C K 2 C 3 K 4 CO 5
n
n
n
n
n
O asympt

(3.6)

K1 \$ sin S Kn\$ , n, 2 ;
K1 n
1
CO 2
n
n

3\$n
O u d n/
4\$n K1

2\$n C 1

; limit

u n C1
u n

(3.7)

, n = N ; is % ! 1 ;

u := n/

3n
4 n K1
9
16
true

2 n C1

(3.8)

n2

O u d n/
product

; simplify

a C1 , k = 1 ..n

u n C1
u n

u := n/

an
n

? a C1

k= 1
2 n C1

a C1

Kn K 1

(3.9)

O S d solve a ! abs a C1 , a ;
1
1
S := RealRange Open
K
2
2
1
1
\$sin
n
n

O asympt ln cosh

5 , Open

1
1
C
2
2

(3.10)

,n ;

1
1
CO 6
4
2n
n
O asympt

(3.11)

1
1
C 2 , n, 2 ;
n
n
K1 n
1
CO 2
n
n

K1 \$sin

(3.12)

n
, n, 4 ;
n K1
1
1
1
CO 2
T := n C C
3 n
2
n

O T d asympt \$n \$ln

O asympt

(3.13)

K1 \$cos T Kn\$ , n, 4 ;
n
1 K1
1
K
CO 2
3
n
n

(3.14)

Exercice 04 :
Etudier la srie sin

n Cn C1 pour k 2 { 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 }.

O restart;
O k d 2; A d asympt
n ;

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

k := 2
A := n C
K1
O k d 3; A d asympt

1
3
1
C
CO 2
2
8 n
n
n 2

K1

9
K
128

CO

1
n3

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

(4.1)
n

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

n ;
k := 3
1
1
A := n C
CO 2
3 n
n
1
3
O k d 4; A d asympt

K1 n
1
CO 2
n
n

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

(4.2)
n

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

n ;
k := 4
A := n CO
O
O k d 5; A d asympt

1
n2

1
n2

(4.3)

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

n ;
k := 5
A := n CO
O
O k d 6; A d asympt

1
n3

1
n3

(4.4)

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

n ;
k := 6
A := n CO
O
O k d 7; A d asympt

1
n4

1
4
n

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

n ;
k := 7

(4.5)
n

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

A := n CO
O
O k d 8; A d asympt

1
n5

1
n5

(4.6)

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

n ;
k := 8
A := n CO
O
O k d 9; A d asympt

1
n6

1
n6

(4.7)

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

K1 \$sin A Kn\$ ,

n ;
k := 9
A := n CO
O
O k d 10; A d asympt

1
n7

1
n6

(4.8)

n Cn C1 \$, n, 2 ; asympt

K1 \$sin A Kn

\$ , n ;
k := 10
A := n CO
O

1
n8

1
6
n

(4.9)

Exercice 05 :
Dterminer les rels et pour que la srie
converge. Calculer, dans ce cas, sa somme.

>

n C n C1 C n C2

O restart;
O ud

n C\$ n C1 C \$ n C2 ;
u := n C n C1 C

n C2

(5.1)

O asympt u, n, 1 ;
(5.2)

1 C C
1
n
O S d solve

1 C C,

1
C
2

1
CO
n

3/2

1
n

(5.2)

1
\$ C , , ;
2
S := = K2, = 1

(5.3)

n K2

(5.4)

O assign S ;
O u;
O evalf sum u, n = 0 ..N

n C1 C n C2

;
K1.000000000

(5.5)

Exercice 06 :
Dterminer les rels a et b pour que la srie
convergente.

>cos

n Can Cbn

soit

O restart;
O u d \$

n Ca\$n Cb\$n ;
u := n3 Ca n2 Cb n

1/3

(6.1)

O v d asympt u, n, 2 ;
1
v := n C
aC
3
O w d asympt

1
1 2
bK
a
3
9
n

1
\$\$ a , a
3

(6.2)

O assign S ;
O a d a C3\$ k;

1
1 2
bK
a, b
3
9

1
1
b K a2
3
9

CO

1
2
n

(6.3)

S := a =

O solve

1
n2

K1 \$cos v K\$n , n, 2 ;
1
K1 n sin
a
1
3
n
w := K1 cos
a K
3
n

O S d solve cos

CO

3
2

a :=

3
C3 k
2

3
4

1 C2 k

(6.4)

(6.5)

;
b=

(6.6)

Exercice 07 :
Dterminer les rels a et b pour que la srie

>

n C1
n K2

- a 1C

b
n

soit

convergente.
O restart;
O ud

n C1
n K2

Ka\$ 1 C

b
;
n

u :=

n C1
n K2

Ka 1 C

b
n

(7.1)

O v d asympt u, n, 3 ;

O S d solve

3 3
e Ka b
2
1
3
v := e Ka C
CO 2
n
n
3 3
e3 Ka,
e Ka \$b , a, b ;
2
3
S := a = e3, b =
2

(7.2)

(7.3)

Exercice 08 :
Dterminer les rels a et b pour que la srie

>

1 n Ca
cos n n2 Cb

converge le plus

rapidement possible.
O restart;
O u d cos

1
n

n Ca

n Cb
u := cos

1
n

n2 Ca
n2 Cb

(8.1)

O v d asympt u, n, 7 ;
1
1
1
Ka Cb K
K Ka Cb b C
K a Kb b2 K
2
24
720
1
v :=
C
C
CO 7
2
4
6
n
n
n
n
O S d solve

1
1
Ka Cb,
K Ka Cb \$b , a, b
24
2
5
1
S := a = K , b =
12
12

(8.2)

;
(8.3)

O assign S ;
O asympt u, n, 7 ;
(8 4)

1
1
CO 7
6
480 n
n

(8.4)

Exercice 09 :
Dterminer les rels a,b,c,d et e pour que la srie

>

1 a\$n Cb\$n C c
sin n n5 Cd\$n3 C e\$n

## converge le plus rapidement possible.

O restart;
O u d sin

1
n

a\$n Cb\$n Cc
5

n Cd\$n Ce\$n
1
u := sin
n

;
K

a n4 Cb n2 Cc
n5 Cd n3 Ce n

O v d asympt u, n, 10 ;
1
1
K Kb Ca d
Kc Ca e K Kb Ca d d C
1 Ka
6
120
v :=
C
C
3
5
n
n
n
1
K Kb Ca d e K Kc Ca e Cd b Ka d2 d K
5040
C
7
n
1
K Kc Ca e Cd b Ka d2 e K e b K2 e a d Cd c Kd2 b Ca d3 d
362880
C
9
n
1
CO 10
n
O p d convert v, polynom ;
1
1
K Kb Ca d
Kc Ca e K Kb Ca d d C
1 Ka
6
120
p :=
C
C
3
5
n
n
n
1
K Kb Ca d e K Kc Ca e Cd b Ka d2 d K
5040
C
7
n
1
K Kc Ca e Cd b Ka d2 e K e b K2 e a d Cd c Kd2 b Ca d3 d
362880
C
n9
O E d coeffs p, n ;
1
1
E := 1 Ka, K Kb Ca d,
K Kc Ca e Cd b Ka d2 e K e b K2 e a d Cd c
6
362880
1
Kd2 b Ca d3 d, K Kb Ca d e K Kc Ca e Cd b Ka d2 d K
, Kc Ca e K
5040

(9.1)

(9.2)

(9.3)

(9.4)

1
120

Kb Ca d d C

O S d solve E, a, b, c, d, e ;
53
551
13
5
S := a = 1, b = K
,c=
,d=
,e=
396
166320
396
11088

(9.5)

O assign S ;
O asympt u, n, 12 ;
11
1
K
CO 12
11
457228800 n
n

(9.6)

Exercice 10 :
Soient a,b,c,d 2 = et on considre la srie

>

sin

Ksin

n Cb
n Cd
1. Donner une condition ncessaire et suffisante de convergence.
2. Dans ce cas, dterminer a, b, c et d pour que la srie converge le plus vite
possible.

O restart;
O u d sin

Ktan

n Cb

n Cd
a

u := sin

n Cb

Ktan

O v d asympt u, n, 2 ;
1
1
1
1
1 3
v := a Kc
C K a b K a3 C
c dK
c
n
2
6
2
3
O assign a = c ;
O asympt u, n, 3 ;
1
1 3
1
K c bK
c C
cd
2
2
2
C

1 3
c d
2

1
n

5/2

CO

1
n

3/2

1 3
c d
2

1
n

1
n

3/2

CO

1
2
n

1 3
3
1 5
3
c bC
c b2 K
c K
c d2
4
8
8
8

(10.2)

(10.3)

1
3
n

O p d convert %, polynom ;
1
1 3
1
1
p := K c b K
c C
cd
2
2
2
n
C

(10.1)

n Cd

3/2

1 3
3
1 5
3
2
2
c bC
cb K
c K
cd
4
8
8
8

(10.4)

5/2

## O E d seq coeff p, 1 / n ^ 2 * k C1 / 2 , k = 1 ..2 ;

1
1 3
1
1 3
3
1 5
3
1 3
2
2
E := K c b K
c C
c d,
c bC
cb K
c K
cd C
c d
2
2
2
4
8
8
8
2

(10.5)

O s d solve

E , b, c, d ;
s := b = b, c = 0, d = d , b = Kc2 Cd, c = c, d = d

O assign s 2 ;
O asympt u, n, 4 ; simplify % ;
1
1 3
1 2
1
1
cdK
c Cc
c K
d
2
2
2
2
n
1 3
K
c
2
K

1 2
1
3
c K
d K c
2
2
4

3/2

5
1 2
1
c
c K
d
8
2
2
1
CO 4
n

Kc2 Cd

1
30

3
1 3
1
c d2 C
c d K c5
8
2
8

C K

1 2
1
c K
d
2
2

5 3 2
1 5
13 7
1 3
c d C
c dK
c K
c
8
3
240
2

c7

1
n

Kc Cd

1 2
1
c K
d
2
2

3 3
c
8

(10.6)

1 2
1
c K
d
2
2

1
1
K30 O 4
n
n
3
n

1 5
c
24

5/2

5
c d3
16

1 2
1
c K d
2
2
1
n

Kc2 Cd

7/2

n3
(10.7)

Exercice 10 :
Soient a,b 2 =. Etudier la nature de la srie

>

2
sin n Can Cb

K1 .

O restart;
O u d \$ n2 Ca\$n Cb ;
n2 Ca n Cb

u :=

(11.1)

O v d asympt u, n, 2 ;
v := n C
O w d asympt

1
aC
2

1
1 2
bK
a
2
8
n

CO

1
n2

(11.2)

K1 \$sin v K\$n , n, 2 ;
1
K1 n cos
a
1
2
n
w := K1 sin
a C
2
n

1
1
b K a2
2
8

1
n2

CO

(11.3)

z := e

1
K1 n sin
a
2

CO

1
n2

K1 K

1
8

1
K1 n sin
a
2

cos

1
a K4 b Ca2
2
n

K1

(11.4)

O z d subs

1
K1 n sin
a
2

=1 , z ;
1
cos
a K4 b Ca2
1
2
z := K
8
n

K1

CO

1
n2

K1
na

(11.5)

Exercice 11 :

>

## Soit a > 0. Etudier la nature de la srie

arccos

O restart; assume x O 0 ;
O u d cosK1

3
Cx K ;
2
6
u := arccos

1
2

3 Cx~ K

O v d series u, x = 0, 3 ;
v := K2 x~K2
O subs x =

K1
na

(12.1)

3 x~2 CO x~3

(12.2)

,v ;
2 K1
na

K1

n 2

K1

CO

a 2

n 3

(12.3)

a 3

Exercice 12 :
Calculer l'exponentiel de chaqu'une des matrices suivantes et vrifier que det exp(A) =
exp( tr(A)) :
1 0 0
0 1 K1
0 2 K1

3 K2 0
K2 2

; B d K1 3 0 ; C d 0 0

0 K1 0

8 2 4

## O restart; with LinearAlgebra :

O A d Matrix 0 , 2 , K1 , 3 , K2 , 0 ,

K2 , 2 , 1
0 2 K1

A :=

3 K2
K2

;
(13.1)

O expA d MatrixExponential A ;

(13.2)

expA :=

1
3

1 C2 e6 eK4

1
2

K1 Ce6 eK4

1
3

2
5

e5 K1 eK4

1
5

10 e6 K9 e5 K1 eK4

1
10

5 e6 K6 e5 C1 eK4

3 C2 e5 eK4 K

2
5

K1 Ce6 eK4

1
15

1
15

e5 K1 eK4

(13.2)

1 C5 e6 C9 e5 eK4

## O simplify Determinant expA ; exp Trace A ;

eK1
1,0,0 ,

O B d Matrix

eK1
K1 , 3 , 0 , 8 , 2 , 4
1 0 0
B :=

(13.3)
;

K1 3 0

(13.4)

8 2 4
O expB d MatrixExponential B ;
e
expB :=

1 3
1
e C
e
2
2

e3

(13.5)

e3 K3 e C2 e4 K2 e3 C2 e4 e4
O simplify Determinant expB ; exp Trace B ;
e8
O C d Matrix

e8
0, 1,K1 , 0, 0, 1 , 0,K1, 0 ;
0 1 K1
C :=

0 K1

(13.6)

(13.7)

O expC d MatrixExponential C ;
1 sin 1 Kcos 1 C1 Kcos 1 C1 Ksin 1
expC :=

cos 1

sin 1

Ksin 1

cos 1

1
1
O

(13.8)

(13.9)

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