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Section A

(b) Organizational Development Models

Weisbords Model (The Six Box Model) - Developed by analyst Marvin Weisbord, the six-

box model is a generic framework and is intended for use across a wide variety of organizations.
It is based mainly on the fundamental techniques and paradigms of the field of organizational
2. Burke & Litwin Model (The Casual Model of Organizational Performance & Change)
The Burke & Litwin Model, suggests linkages that hypothesize how performance is affected by
internal and external factors.
3. Institutional and Organizational Model (IOA Model) - The IOA model aims to help an
organization define and improve its overall performance through analyzing its environment,
motivation, and capacity.

(d) The OD Process is based on the action research model which begins with an identified
problem or need for change. The process proceeds through assessment, planning of an
intervention, implementing the intervention, gathering data to evaluate the intervention, and

determining if satisfactory progress has been made or if there is need for further intervention. The
process is cyclical and ends when the desired developmental result is obtained.

The OD process begins when an organization recognizes that a problem exists which impacts the
mission or health of the organization and change is desired. It can also begin when leadership
has a vision of a better way and wants to improve the organization. An organization does not
always have to be in trouble to implement organization development activities

(e) Group dynamics refers to a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring
within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics). The
study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behavior, tracking the
spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence
and popularity of new ideas and technologies.
There are three types of groups that provide different levels of access for group participants.

Public Group - Any Scribd user can join and add documents to a public
Managed Public Group - While documents in a Managed Public Group are
visible to anyone, the group's administrator must approve new group members
before they can contribute documents to the group.
Private Group - A private group is visible only to the group administrator and
its members. The group's administrator must approve new group members before
they can contribute documents to the group.

(g) There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and
behavioral methods.
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various
methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or
verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts,
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various
methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion.



1.It's a short term process.
2.Refers to instruction in technical and mechanical problems
3.Targeted in most cases for non-managerial personnel
4.Specific job related purpose
1.It is a long term educational process.
2.Refers to philosophical and theoretical educational concepts
3.Managerial personnel
4.General knowledge purpose

Section B

2. Organizational development deals with improving a companys performance and individual

development of its employees. Each organization should be viewed as a coherent system
composed of separate parts. Organizational development as a process includes
methodologies and achievements in strategic planning, organizational design, leadership
development, coaching, diversity and balance between work and life.


In the late 1960s organizational development was implemented in organizations via
consultants, but was relatively unknown as a theory of practice and had no common
definition among its practitioners. Richard Beckhard, an authority on organizational
development and change management, defined organizational development as "an effort,
planned, organization-wide, and managed from the top, to increase organization
effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's processes,
using behavioral-science knowledge" (Beckhard 1969).


5. Positional Power
Legitimate power (sometimes called authority or formal power) is that which is derived from
the person's position in the organization. It exists because organizations find it advantageous
to assign certain powers to individuals so that they can do their jobs effectively. All managers
have some degree of legitimate power.

Personal Power
Expert power derives from having knowledge that is valued by the organization or individuals
with whom the person interacts. Expertise in a particular field or at problem solving or at
performing critical tasks are types of expert power.
Formal authority
The simplest form of power is that vested in the position of 'manager'. A manager
has subordinates who must do his or her bidding, only within legal and
organizational rules.
Use of organizational structure, rules and regulations
Organizations have hierarchies, departments, teams and other structures, often
each with its own rules as well as the rules that govern the action within the
organization as a whole.
Control of boundaries
The structures and groups of the organization are only so because they have
boundaries which people cross in order to access resources and meet people.
Control of technology
Technology is (or should be) an enabler, providing data, analysis, information,
access and other benefits. Those who control what technology is used by the
organization or who gets the latest computers and software has significant power,
and the person who used to be the 'IT Manager' may now be the 'Chief Information
Gender and the management of gender relations
In a balanced workplace, around half the people are men and half are women. In
practice, some women gravitate towards particular roles whilst men seek other work
Structural factors that define the stage of action
The 'stage of action' in organizations is set up by the organizational purpose, vision,
mission, strategy and other high-level shaping activities that lead to scenarios of
activity, from driving into new markets to struggling with organizational change.

6. These are a few of the questions that organizations and their leaders should be asking
as they attempt to navigate the business landscape in the first decade of the 21st century.
This paper has several objectives. (1) It will present a simple framework that can be used
to classify and organize change process models and will be used to describe a number of
models that have been proposed. (2) It will describe 11 change management models (3) it
will review these models with respect to the following themes:

Leadership of Change
Change and Business Strategy
Knowledge Management and Change
Lessons Learned from Practitioners and Researchers
Tools That Support and Enable the Change Process

The Role of the Individual in Organizational Change

Change Process Models

Models can be categorized as descriptive or prescriptive. Descriptive models attempt to
explain reality while prescriptive models attempt to lay out a set of principles to adopt or
a step by step approach to implementation. In the change literature there are examples of
both types of models.
Traditional Models
Two models have been classified as Traditional Descriptive. The first of these is the
classic model proposed by Lewin (1951) which argues that the process of change
involves three stages (1) unfreezing, (2) change and (3) refreezing.
Transitional Models
As we move from traditional models to the transitional models, the world view changes
from one in which some people at the top of the organization know the answers or
develop the vision and then they essentially push that change through the organization
to a different world view..

Scope of change management

This tutorial provides a summary of each of the main areas for change
management based on Prosci's research with more than 900 organizations in the
last 7 years.
The purpose of defining these change management areas is to ensure that there
is a common understanding among readers. Tools or components of change
management include:

Change management process

Readiness assessments
Communication and communication planning
Coaching and manager training for change management
Training and employee training development
Sponsor activities and sponsor roadmaps
Resistance management
Data collection, feedback analysis and corrective action
Celebrating and recognizing success

7. Organizational changes are activities of transformation or modification of something.

The main purpose of these types of activities is an improvement of business results.
Nobody would like to have changes if with that, the situation will become worse or there
will not be any improvements.

The organization is interactive with its environment. Changes in the environment affect
the organization, and the organization needs to adapt to that change. Organizational
changes are activity of differentiation or modification with the purpose to improve overall
business processes of the organization and to carry out adopting of organization with the
changes in the environment.

Organizational changesare not simply the journey from the point A to point B. Many
barriers will need to be passed in this process. One of the biggest barriers is resistance to
organizational change as an integral part of each process of changes. Managers should
have known that there will be always persons that will resist. Because of that, efficiency
and effectiveness of the process are in direct relation with these problems and
successfully dealing with it.
In each organization, there are four types of people accordingly to their response to

People that are initiators of changes.

People that accept changes.

People that are indifferent towards changes.

People that not accept changes.