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sin(x)

Overview

Quick view of definitions and graphs of

trigonometric functions.

Introduction

Detailed explanation relating the basic

trigonometric functions to the right

triangle.

Multiple choice problems concerning introductory

trigonometry.

Common Angles in a Circle

Values in degrees and radians for several usual

angles from 0 to 360 degrees, (or

0 to 2Pi radians).

Point Definitions for Trig Functions

Definitions of trig functions based on an (x, y)

point on the terminal side of the

input angle to the function.

Degrees, Minutes, and Seconds

How to go back and forth between a decimal

number representation of an angles

measurement and a representation of the

measurement in degrees, minutes, and

seconds.

The Radian

Often in mathematics angles are measured in

radians rather than in degrees. This

section explains the radian and its relationship to the

degree.

Solvers

Right Triangle Solvers

SineThe Graph of the Sine Function

The Right Triangle and the Sine Function

Relative to angle A, this is

how the sides of a right

triangle would be labeled.

The sine of angle A equals the length of the

opposite side divided by the length of the

hypotenuse.

We could write:

sin(A) = opp / hyp

So, for example, if the length of the opposite side

was 6 and the length of the

hypotenuse was 10, then we would write:

sin(A) = 6 / 10

sin(A) = 0.6000

CosineThe Graph of the Cosine Function

The Right Triangle and the Cosine Function

Relative to angle A, this is

how the sides of a right

triangle would be labeled.

The cosine of angle A equals the length of the

adjacent side divided by the length of the

hypotenuse.

We could write:

cos(A) = adj / hyp

So, for example, if the length of the adjacent side

was 8 and the length of the

hypotenuse was 10, then we would write:

cos(A) = 8 / 10

cos(A) = 0.8000

TangentThe Graph of the Tangent Function

The Right Triangle and the Tangent Function

Relative to angle A, this is

how the sides of a right

triangle would be labeled.

The tangent of angle A equals the length of the

opposite side divided by the length of

the adjacent side.

We could write:

So, for example, if the length of the opposite side

was 6 and the length of the adjacent

side was 8, then we would write:

tan(A) = 6 / 8

tan(A) = 0.7500

CosecantThe Graph of the Cosecant Function

The Right Triangle and the Cosecant Function

Relative to angle A, this is

how the sides of a right

triangle would be labeled.

The cosecant of angle A equals the length of the

hypotenuse divided by the length of

the opposite side.

We could write:

csc(A) = hyp / opp

So, for example, if the length of the hypotenuse

was 10 and the length of the opposite

side was 6, then we would write:

csc(A) = 10 / 6

csc(A) = 1.6667

SecantThe Graph of the Secant Function

The Right Triangle and the Secant Function

how the sides of a right

triangle would be labeled.

The secant of angle A equals the length of the

hypotenuse divided by the length of the

adjacent side.

We could write:

sec(A) = hyp / adj

So, for example, if the length of the hypotenuse

was 10 and the length of the adjacent

side was 8, then we would write:

sec(A) = 10 / 8

sec(A) = 1.2500

CotangentThe Graph of the Cotangent Function

The Right Triangle and the Cotangent Function

Relative to angle A, this is

how the sides of a right

triangle would be labeled.

The cotangent of angle A equals the length of the

adjacent side divided by the length of

the opposite side.

We could write:

cot(A) = adj / opp

was 8 and the length of the opposite

side was 6, then we would write:

cot(A) = 8 / 6

cot(A) = 1.3333

Trigonometry and Right Triangles

First of all, think of a trigonometry function as you

would any general function. That is, a

value goes in and a value comes out. If that does not

seem quite clear, go see The

Definition of a Function and What is f(x)?

The names of the three primary trigonometry

functions are:

sine

cosine

tangent

These are abbreviated this way:

sine.....sin

cosine.....cos

tangent.....tan

So, instead of writing f(x) , we will write:

sin(x)

cos(x)

tan(x)

parentheses are dropped from the above

examples. Therefore, the notation will often look

like this:

sin x

cos x

tan x

In Zona Land we will keep the parentheses.

Now, as usual, the input value is x. This input value

usually represents an angle. For the

sine function, when the input value is 30 degrees, the

output value is 0.5. We would write

that statement this way:

0.5 = sin(30 )

Below is a listing of several popular input and output

values for the three main

trigonometry functions. You do not have work at

memorizing this table. After you use

trigonometry for a while, these values will be

remembered quite easily.

0.0000 = sin(0 ) 1.0000 = cos(0 ) 0.0000 = tan(0 )

0.5000 = sin(30 ) 0.8660 = cos(30 ) 0.5773 =

tan(30 )

0.7071 = sin(45 ) 0.7071 = cos(45 ) 1.000 = tan(45

)

tan(60 )

1.0000 = sin(90 ) 0.0000 = cos(90 ) +infinity =

tan(90 )

At this point our central issues will revolve around

these questions:

Where do these numbers come from?

What do these numbers mean?

Why, for example, is the cosine of 30 degrees equal

to 0.8660?

The input value for these trigonometric functions is

an angle. That angle could be

measured in degrees or radians. Here we will

consider only input angles measured in

degrees from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. This input

value appears within the parentheses

throughout the above table.

The output value for these trigonometric functions is

a pure number. That is, it has no

unit. This output value appears to the left of the

equal sign throughout the above table.

There are several ways to understand why a certain

input angle produces a certain output

value. At first, the most important manner of

understanding this is tied to right triangles.

degrees and 90 degrees can be

understood by considering this diagram:

We will be concerned angle A. Notice that the sides

of the triangle are labeled

appropriately opposite side and adjacent side

relative to angle A. The hypotenuse is

not considered opposite or adjacent to the angle A.

We will also be concerned with length of the three

sides. For this discussion we will call

the length of the opposite side simply the

opposite. Similarly, the other two lengths

will be called adjacent and hypotenuse.

The value for the sine of angle A is defined as the

value that you get when you divide the

opposite side by the hypotenuse. This can be written:

sin(A) = opposite / hypotenuse

Or simply:

sin(A) = opp / hyp

Or, even more simply:

sin(A) = o / h

Suppose we measure the lengths of the sides of this

triangle. Here are some realistic

values:

This would mean that:

= 0.5548

Or simply:

sin(A) = 0.5548

Now for the other two trig functions.

The value for the cosine of angle A is defined as the

value that you get when you divide

the adjacent side by the hypotenuse. This can be

written:

cos(A) = adjacent / hypotenuse

Or:

cos(A) = adj / hyp

Or:

cos(A) = a / h

Using the above measured triangle, this would mean

that:

cos(A) = adjacent / hypotenuse = 6.00 cm / 7.21 cm

= 0.8322

Or simply:

cos(A) = 0.8322

The value for the tangent of angle A is defined as the

value that you get when you divide

the opposite side by the adjacent side. This can be

written:

tan(A) = opposite / adjacent

Or:

tan(A) = opp / adj

Or:

tan(A) = o / a

Using the above measured triangle, this would mean

that:

tan(A) = opposite / adjacent = 4.00 cm / 6.00 cm =

0.6667

Or simply:

tan(A) = 0.6667

The angle A in the above triangle is actually very

close to 33.7 degrees. So, we would

say:

0.5548 = sin(33.7)

0.8322 = cos(33.7)

0.6667 = tan(33.7)

So, suppose that you wanted to know the

trigonometry values for 47.5 degrees? You

could carefully draw a right triangle using a ruler

and protractor that had an angle equal

to 47.5 degrees in the position of angle A. Then, you

could carefully measure the sides.

Lastly you could divide the appropriate sides to find

the values for the three trigonometric

functions. You would find that:

0.7373 = sin(47.5)

0.6755 = cos(47.5)

1.0913 = tan(47.5)

Someone has already done this, in a way, for all the

possible angles. All the input angles

and output values are listed in tables called trig

tables. They look like this:

Angle sin cos tan

0.0 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000

0.5 0.0087 0.9999 0.0087

1.0 0.0174 0.9998 0.0174

And so on...

These let you look up the trigonometric values for

any angle. Calculators and computers,

of course, will let you do the same.

Here is a demonstration that shows you these trig

calculations for several angles. Use the

slider to adjust the size of the angle. Notice how the

values are calculated for each trig

function depending upon the lengths of the sides of

the triangle.

Below is again the triangle from the above diagrams,

except now the other acute angle, B,

is marked. Also marked are the sides that are

adjacent and opposite to angle B.

sin(B) = opposite / hypotenuse = 6.00 cm / 7.21 cm

= 0.8322

cos(B) = adjacent / hypotenuse = 4.00 cm / 7.21 cm

= 0.5548

tan(B) = opposite / adjacent = 6.00 cm / 4.00 cm =

1.5000

If you look carefully you will notice that the sine of

angle B is the same value we

calculated above for the cosine of angle A. You

should also notice that the cosine of

angle B is equal to previous calculation for the sine

of angle A.

This is because the opposite side for angle B is the

adjacent side for angle A, and because

the adjacent side for angle B is the opposite side for

angle A.

This is demonstrated in the following diagram:

We could summarize this relationship this way:

sin(A) = As opposite / hypotenuse = 4.00 cm / 7.21

cm = 0.5548

cos(B) = Bs adjacent / hypotenuse = 4.00 cm / 7.21

cm = 0.5548

cos(A) = As adjacent / hypotenuse = 6.00 cm / 7.21

cm = 0.8322

cm = 0.8322

Now, angle A and B form a pair of complementary

angles. That is, their measurements

add up to 90 degrees. This is because the

measurement of the interior angles for any

triangle must sum to 180 degrees, and in this triangle

90 of those degrees are taken up by

the right angle, so that leaves 90 degrees remaining

from the total of 180 to be split up

between angle A and B.

So, here we notice that the sine of an angle is equal

to the cosine of its complement, and

that the cosine of an angle is equal to the sine of its

complement.

Also, we will take note of the relationship between

the tangents of the complementary

angles A and B. The tangent of angle A is equal to

the reciprocal, or inverse, of the

tangent of angle B, and, likewise, the tangent of

angle B is equal to the reciprocal of the

tangent of its complement, angle A. This is

summarized in the following table:

tan(A) = As opposite / As adjacent = 4.00 cm /

6.00 cm = 0.6667

cm = 1.5000

Here is an easy way to remember these relationships

for trig functions and the right

triangle. Just write down this mnemonic:

SOH - CAH - TOA

It is pronounced so - ka - toe - ah.

The SOH stands for Sine of an angle is Opposite

over Hypotenuse.

The CAH stands for Cosine of an angle is Adjacent

over Hypotenuse.

The TOA stands for Tangent of an angle is

Opposite over Adjacent.

What is f(x) ?

Common Angles Around a Circle

The circle below can be thought of as being divided

into angles that are integer multiples

of 30, 45, 60, and 90 degree angles. Click one of the

points on the circle to see the angle

and its measurement in both degrees and radians.

See notes below.

The angles marked on this circle represent common

angles that are often used in

introductory geometry and trigonometry problems.

click on the point. Then use this

applet to check your value.

All of the angles will be shown as arcs when they

are drawn. You should notice that all of

these angles are in standard position.

This Java applet will not print the value for pi as a

Greek letter. Instead, it is printed as

Pi. This, of course, approximately equals the value

3.14.

Trig Function Point Definitions

Quick Instructions:

The above applet starts with the sine function

active. Any of the six trigonometric

functions can be activated by choosing the

appropriate radio button at the top of

the applet.

The large square graph on the left is the (x, y)

coordinate plane. It extends from 10.0 to +10.0 along the x-axis and the y-axis.

The upper right rectangular graph shows the graph

of the currently active trig

function. For example, when the sine function is

active, this graph shows the

Horizontally, this graph has a domain

from 0 radians to 2pi radians with markers every

pi/2 radians. Vertically, the

range of this graph runs from -2.0 to +2.0 for the

sine and cosine functions, and it

runs from -5.0 to +5.0 for the tangent, cotangent,

secant and cosecant functions.

Vertical marking occur every unit distance.

The lower right rectangular area shows the

calculation for the currently active trig

function at the current (x, y) point on the left graph.

When the sine function radio button is selected,

click somewhere on the left (x, y)

graph. Notice:

o The (x, y) coordinates are presented above the

selected point.

o The angle whose terminal side goes through this

(x, y) point is drawn. Its

value is presented in the upper right corner of this (x,

y) graph.

o The relevant quantities necessary for the sine

calculation are drawn on the

graph, (the y distance and the radius in this case).

The values for these

representations.

o The upper right hand graph shows the current

function, i. e., the sine

function. The current input angle and the current

output value for this

function are presented.

o In the lower right rectangle of the applet the value

for the current trig

function at the current angle is calculated using the

the relevant quantities

from the (x, y) graph.

All values are rounded to two decimal places.

Certainly more precise values for

the trig functions are available elsewhere. This

applet, though, is not meant to be a

calculator. It is meant to demonstrate the

interrelationships of several

trigonometric concepts.

Try different (x, y) positions and different trig

functions.

Further Discussion:

This material explains the definitions of the six

trigonometric functions in terms of an (x,

angle. You should be familiar with:

The (x, y) coordinate plane.

How to find the distance from the origin to an (x,

y) point.

The graphs of the trig functions.

Angles in standard position.

Radian measure for angles.

The six trigonometric functions, (sine, cosine,

tangent, cotangent, secant and cosecant),

are usually thought to accept an angle as input and

output a pure number. For the

purposes of the definitions this angle is to be placed

in standard position. We will be

concerned with any (x, y) point located on the

terminal side of this angle. These

definitions are based on such an (x, y) point.

These definitions also use the distance from the

origin to the (x, y) point. This distance

will be referred to as r and can be calculated like

this:

The six definitions are:

sin(angle) = y/r

cos(angle) = x/r

tan(angle) = y/x (x not equal to zero)

sec(angle) = r/x (x not equal to zero)

cot(angle) = x/y (y not equal to zero)

So, for example, the point (5, 7) is on the terminal

side of an angle in standard position

which has a measure of about 0.95 radians (about 54

degrees):

The distance from the origin to the point (5, 7) can

be calculated this way (approximate

result given):

Therefore, the six trigonometric function values for

this angle can be calculated as

follows (approximate results given):

sin(0.95) = y/r = 7/8.6 = 0.81

cos(0.95) = x/r = 5/8.6 = 0.58

tan(0.95) = y/x = 7/5 = 1.4

csc(0.95) = r/y = 8.6/7 = 1.2

sec(0.95) = r/x = 8.6/5 = 1.7

cot(0.95) = x/y = 5/7 = 0.71

In all of the above calculations approximate results

were given. Of course, if you are

doing more careful and important work you would

use measurements and calculations of

higher significance.

functions are more powerful than the

right triangle definitions given in the introduction to

trigonometry section. The right

triangle definitions are only good for angles up to

pi/2 radians (90 degrees). These trig

definitions based upon an (x, y) point on the

terminal side of an angle are good for angles

of any measurement, positive or negative.

Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

There are several ways to measure the size of an

angle. One way is to use units of

degrees. (Radian measure is another way.)

In a complete circle there are three hundred and

sixty degrees.

An angle could have a measurement of 35.75

degrees. That is, the size of the angle in this

case would be thirty-five full degrees plus seventyfive hundredths, or three fourths, of an

additional degree. Notice that here we are expressing

the measurement as a decimal

number. Using decimal numbers like this one can

express angles to any precision - to

hundredths of a degree, to thousandths of a degree,

and so on.

one that subdivides a degree using a

system different than the decimal number example

given above. The degree is divided

into sixty parts called minutes. These minutes are

further divided into sixty parts called

seconds. The words minute and second used in this

context have no immediate

connection to how those words are usually used as

amounts of time.

In a full circle there are 360 degrees.

Each degree is split up into 60 parts, each part being

1/60 of a degree. These

parts are called minutes.

Each minute is split up into 60 parts, each part being

1/60 of a minute. These

parts are called seconds.

The size of an angle could be stated this way: 40

degrees, 20 minutes, 50 seconds.

There are symbols that are used when stating angles

using degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Those symbols are show in the following table.

Symbol for degree:

Symbol for minute:

Symbol for second:

seconds is usually written this way:

How could you state the above as an angle using

common decimal notation? The angle

would be this many degrees, (* means times.):

40 + (20 * 1/60) + (50 * 1/60 * 1/60)

That is, we have 40 full degrees, 20 minutes - each

1/60 of a degree, and 50 seconds each 1/60 of 1/60 of a degree.

Work that out and you will get a decimal number of

degrees. Its 40.34722...

Going the other way is a bit more difficult. Suppose

we start with 40.3472 degrees. Can

we express that in units of degrees, minutes, and

seconds?

Well, first of all there are definitely 40 degrees full

degrees. That leaves 0.3472 degrees.

So, how many minutes is 0.3472 degrees? Well, how

many times can 1/60 go into

0.3472? Heres the same question: What is 60 times

0.3472? Its 20.832. So, there are 20

complete minutes with 0.832 of a minute remaining.

How many seconds are in the last 0.832 minutes.

Well, how many times can 1/60 go into

almost 50 seconds.

So, weve figured that 40.3472 degrees is almost

exactly equal to 40 degrees, 20 minutes,

50 seconds.

(The only reason we fell a bit short of 50 seconds is

that we really used a slightly smaller

angle in this second half of the calculation

explanation. In the original angle, 40.34722...

degrees, the decimal repeats the last digit of 2

infinitely, so, the original angle is a bit

bigger than 40.3472.)

The Radian

The word radian describes a certain size of an angle.

In the Java animation below the blue

pie slice shape demonstrates an angle of one radian.

Notice that for an angle of one radian

the arc length along the edge of the circle is equal in

length to the radius. Read the details

below...

Usually, a person first learns how to measure the

size of an angle using degrees. There

are, of course, 360 degrees all the way around a

circle.

mathematical way of measuring angles.

Perhaps the degree was originally created as

approximately the angle which the Earth

goes through per day as it orbits the Sun, since there

are about 360 days in the year.

The radian is used much more than the degree in

higher mathematics for measuring

angles.

A radian is defined this way:

If you have a circle with an angle whose vertex is

at the center of that circle...

And if that angle is of such a size that the amount

of the circumference of the

circle which that angle intercepts has an arc length

equal to the length of the

radius...

Then that angle has a measurement of one radian.

Heres another way to say it:

A central angle to a circle has a size of one radian if

it subtends an arc length on the circle

equal in length to the radius.

In other words, if you could pick up the radius of a

certain circle like it were a plastic rod

then that bent radius length would

touch the sides of a central angle which had a

measurement of one radian. Look at the

following picture and then go back and look at the

animation.

One thing to understand about a radian is that it is

bigger than a degree. In fact:

1 radian = 57.2957 degrees

1 degree = 0.0174532 radians

The above values are to six significant figures,

truncated, not rounded. If you want to

know the exact size of the radian in terms of

degrees, take 360 and divide it by 2 times pi.

That number is how many degrees there are in a

radian.

What is the reasoning behind these values? It works

this way:

How many times can you trace an arc length equal to

the size of the radius as you move

around the circumference of a circle? Well, heres

the formula for the circumference of a

circle:

C is the circumference, and r is the radius.

circumference of a circle, or about 2 times

3.14, i.e., about 6.28, radii around the circumference

of a circle. Each one of these radius

lengths would designate one radian, so there are

about 6.28 radians in a full circle. The

following diagram shows this:

Therefore, there are 2 pi radians in a full circle.

We also know that there are 360 degrees in a circle.

So, there are 360 degrees per 2 pi radians. Dividing

360 by 2 pi give us the value of about

57.2957 degrees per radian. A radian is equal to

57.2957 degrees.

Also, by dividing 2 pi radians by 360 degrees we get

about 0.0174532 radians per degree.

A degree is equal to 0.0174532 radians.

In mathematics if you state the size of an angle as a

pure number, without the degree

unit marker after it, then the angle is taken to be in

radians. So, if the angle in question

is named A, and if someone were to write down:

A=4

Then that would mean that angle A has a

measurement of 4 radians and not 4 degrees.

Trigonometric Functions - Right Triangle Solvers

following right triangles.

In each of the above diagrams the acute angles of the

right triangle are named angle D

and angle E. The right angle is not named. The two

sides, or legs, of the triangle have

lengths named d and e. The length of the hypotenuse

is named f.

In each case you will be starting with known values

for two parts of the right triangle. For

example, in the first triangle you are starting with

known values for angle D and side

length d. You are to create these initial known

values.

In each case you are to find the other parts of the

right triangle. For example, in the first

triangle you are to find values for angle E and the

lengths of sides d and e and the length

of the hypotenuse f.

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