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Problems on C.P.

M &PERT
Problem1:
An assemble is to be made from 2 parts x a d y. Botha parts must be turned a lathe. y must be
polished whereas x need not be polished. The sequence of actives, to gather with their predecessor
s given below.
Activity
Description
Predecessor activity
A
Open work order
B
Get Material for X
A
C
Get material for Y
A
D
Then X on lathe
B
E
Then y on lathe
B,C
F
Polish Y
E
G
Assemble x and y
D,F
H
Pack
G
Draw a net work diagram of activities for project.
Solution:

D
G

A
2

Dummy

H
7

F
3

5
E

Problem-2:
Listed in the table are the activities and sequencing necessary for a maintenance job on the heat
exchanging.

Activity
A
B

Description
Dismantle pipe connections
Dismantle heater, closure,
and floating front
Remove Tube Bundle
Clean bolts
Clean heater and floating
head front
Clean tube bundle
Clean shell
Replace tube bundle
Prepare shell pressure test
Prepare tube pressure test
And reassemble

C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

Predecessor
A
B
B
B
C
C
F,G
D,E,H
I

Draw a net work diagram of a activities for the projects.


Solution:

G
4

H
J

D
8

10

I
E
7

Problem-3: Listed in the table are activities and sequencing necessary for the completion of a
recruitment procedure for management trainees (t) in a firm.

Solution:
Activity
A
B

Description
Asking units for recruitments
Ascertaining
management
trains(MTs) requirement for
commercial function
Asserting MTs requirement
for
Account/finance
functions
Formulating
advertisement
for MT(commercial)
Calling applications from the
succedfull conditions passing
through the institute
Calling application s from the
successful conditions passing
through the institute of
chartered Accounts (ICA)
Releasing the advertisement
Completing
applications
received
Screening of applications
against advertisement
Screening of applications
received from ICA
Sending of personal forms
Issuing
interview/regret
letters
Preliminary interviews
Preliminary interviews of
outstanding candidates from
ICA
Final inter view

D
E

G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N

Draw a network of activities for the project.


Solution: the net work diagram for the given project.

Predecessor Activity
A

C
B

D,E
G
H
F
I,J
K
L
J

M,N

E
3

10

A
1

11

O
12

14

=25
=25

13

C
6

4
F

8
J

PROBLEMS ON CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM):


PROBLEM-1:
A project has the following times schedule
Activity 1-2 1-3 2-4 3-4 3-5 4-9 5-6 5-7 6-8
1
1
1
6
5
4
8
1
Time in 4
weeks

7-8
2

8-9
1

8-10
8

9-10
7

Construct CPM Network and compute.


I.
II.
III.

TE and TL for each event.


Float for each activity
Critical path and its duration.
SOLUTION:
The net work is constructed as given in diagram.
=4
12

=5
=13

=18
=18

4
1

1
1

3
=1
=1

=11
=16

9
6

10

5
6

=15
=15

=7
=7

8
7

8
=17
=17

FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=0

=1

{
}
} , i=2, 3

=15

} =MIN {17, 17} =17

} =Max {5, 2} =5

=11

}
} , J=9, 10

{
}
} , i=6, 7

}
} , J=6, 9

} =Min {7, 12} =12

{
} =Max {12, 17} =17

{
}
} , i=4, 8

=17

{
} =Max {10,18} =18

{
}
} , i=9, 8

=18

{
}
} , J=2, 3

} =Min {0,0} =0

} =Max {15, 25} =25


=25

I.

The tail event (


EVENT 1
0
0

CRITICAL PATH:

2
4
12

and head event ( ) computed on the network as follows

3
1
1

4
5
13

5
7
7

6
11
16

7
15
15

8
17
17

9
18
18

10
25
25

Activity Duration Earliest time


(i.j)
of time Starting
Finishing time
( )
(
)
( )
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)=(3)+(2)
1-2
1-3
2-4
3-4
3-5
4-9
5-6
5-7
6-8
7-8
8-9
8-10
9-10

4
1
1
1
6
5
4
8
1
2
1
8
7

0
4
1
1
5
7
7
11
15
17
17
18

1
5
2
7
10
11
15
12
17
18
25
25

Latest time
Starting

Finishing

(5)=(6)-(2)
8

(6)

float

(7)=(5)-(3)
8

12
11
13
13
12
18
16
15
17
17
18
0
0

10
12
12
6
13
12
7
16
15
17
8
8

Total
time
T-F=

10
8
12
5
8
5
0
5
0
0
9
10

CRITICAL PATH ACTIVITIES:


From the above table we observe that the activities 5-7, 7-8 and 8-9 are critical
activities as their total float is zero. Hence we have the following critical path.

5-7, 7-8 and 8-9

8+8+7=25

Problem-2: The following table gives activities of duration of construction project work.
1-2
ACTIVITY
DURATION 20

1-3
25

a) Draw the network for the project.


b) Find the critical path.

2-3
10

2-4
12

3-4
6

4-3
10

Solution:

=20
20

12

=36
=36

20
4

10
1

=46
=46

25

10
6
3
=30
=30

FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=0

=30

{
}
} , i=2, 3

{
} =Max {32, 36} =36

Activity Duration Earliest time


(i.j)
of time Starting
Finishing time
( )
(
)
( )
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)=(3)+(2)

{
}
} , J= 3,4

{
} =Min {20,14} =20

{
}
} , J=2, 3

Latest time
Starting

{
} =Min {0,5} =0

Finishing

(5)=(6)-(2)
(6)
1-2
20
0
20
0
20
1-3
25
0
25
5
30
2-3
10
20
30
20
30
2-4
12
20
32
24
36
3-4
6
30
36
30
36
4-5
10
36
46
36
46
From the above table we observe that the activities 1-2, 2-3, 3-4,
activities as their total float is 0. Hence we have the following critical path
1-2-3-4-5 with the total project duration is 46 days.

Total
time
T-F=

float

(7)=(5)-(3)
0
5
0
4
0
0
and4-5 are critical

Problem-3:
Find the critical path and calculate the slack time for each event for the following PERT
diagram.

4
2

9
3

8
1
4

Solution:
FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=0
{
J= 1
{
=

=1

{
}
} , i= 4,3
{
}
} , i=6, 7

} =Max {7, 11} =11


{
}
} , i=8, 5

=Min {12}
={

)} = {10} =10

={

)} = {11} =11

={

)} = {8} =8

=11
{

{
} =Max {10, 4} =10

{
}
} , J= 3,7

{
} =Min {2,3} =2

={

)} = {7} =7

={

)} = {7} =7

=11

{
} =Max {14, 15} =15
=15

{
} , J= 2, 3, 4
} =Min {5, 0, 6} =0

These values can be represented in the following network diagram.


=7

=11
=16

4
2

=2
=2

2
3

=10
=10

=1
=7

Activity Duration Earliest time


(i.j)
of time Starting
Finishing time
( )
(
)
( )
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)=(3)+(2)
2
2
1
4
5
8
3
5
1
4
3

=7
=8

1
4

5
8

1-2
1-3
1-4
2-6
3-7
3-5
4-5
5-9
6-8
7-8
8-9

=15
=15

=11
=12

0
0
0
2
2
2
1
10
6
7
11

2
2
1
6
7
10
4
15
7
11
14

Latest time
Starting

(5)=(6)-(2)
5
0
6
7
3
2
7
10
11
8
12

Finishing

(6)
7
2
7
11
8
10
10
15
12
12
15

Total
time
T-F=

float

(7)=(5)-(3)
5
0
6
5
1
0
6
0
5
1
1

[PERT]
In the net work analysis it is implicitly assumed that the time values are deterministic or
variations in time are insignificant. This assumption is valid in regular jobs such as
i.
Maintenance of machine.
ii.
Construction of a building or a power
iii.
Planning for production.
As these are done from time and various activities could be timed very well
However in reach projects or design of a gear box of a new machine various
Activities .are based on judgment. A reliable time estimate is difficult to get because the technologies
is changing the job? the pert approach taxes into account the uncertainties associated with in that
activity.
DEFINATIONS:
1. OPTIMISTIC TIME: the optimistic time is the shortcut possible time in which the activity can be
finished. It assumes that everything goes very well. This is denoted by
2. MOST LIKELY TIME; the most likely time is the estimate of the activity would take. This
assumes normal delays. If a graph is plotted in the time of completion and the frequency of
completion in that time period than the most likely time will represent the highest frequency of
a occurrence. This is denoted by .
3. PESIMISTIC TIME; the pessimistic time represents the longest time the activity could take if
everything goes wrong. As in optimistic estimate. This value may be such that value. This is
denoted by
These 3 types values are, shown in the following diagram in order to obtain these values; one could
use time values available similar jobs. But most of the time the estimator may not be so fortunate to
have this data. Secondary values are the functions of manpower, machines and supporting facility
.A better approaches would be to seek opinion of experts in the field keeping in views the resources
available, this estimate does not take into account such natural catastrophes as fire etc.
In pert calculation all values are used to attain the percent exportation value.
4.EXPECTED TIME; the expected time is average time an activity will take if it were to be
reported on large number of times and it is base on the assumption that the activity time follows
Bets distribution. This is given by the formula
=(

5. VARIANCE: the variance for the activity is given by the formula


*

Where
= the pessimistic time.

10

=the expected time.

Frequency

Most likely time

Pessimistic Time

Optimistic time

Time

Problem-1: for the project represented by the network diagram, find the earliest time and latest
times to reach each node given the following data.

TASK
LEAST TIME
GREATEST
TIME
MOST LIKELY
TIME

A B

D E

4
8

5
10

8 2
12 7

11 3

4
10

6
15

8 5
16 9

3
7

5
11

6
13

12 6

2
A

B
C

4
H

5
G

11

7
G

9
J

SOLUTION;
First we calculate the expected time

by the formula

=(

) as follows

Task

Optimistic
time(

Pessimistic
time(

Most likely time


(

Expected time
(

10

12

11

3.5

10

15

9.5

16

12

12

6.3

11

13

9.1

= 5.3
7.2
10.7

Now the earliest time expected time for each note are obtained by taking sum of the expected
times for all the activities leading to node i, when more than one activity leads to a node i, the
maximum of
is called.
FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=0
{
=0+5.3=5.3

{
=max {12.5,10.4} =12.5
{

{
=max {13,19.5} =19.5

={

={

}
2.5
{

{
=max {15.5,24.5} =24.5

{
} =Min {19.5,19.5} =2

={

{
=34.9

12

)} = 25.9

)} = 12.5

= 19.5
=25.8

{
}
} , J= 3,7

)} = 24.5

=32.5

{
}
} , J= 5,7

{
} =Min {10,12.5} =10

={
{
}
} , J= 2,4

)} = 7
{
} =Min {0,9} =0

TASK
LEAST TIME
GREATEST
TIME
MOST LIKELY
TIME
Estimation Time

4
8

5
10

8
12

2
7

4
10

6
15

8
16

5
9

3
7

5
11

6
13

11

12

5.3

7.2

10.7 3.5

9.5

12

6.3

9.2

These calculations are may be arranged in the following table.


SLACK(

NODE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

5.3
3.5
7.2
7
6.3
5
9.1
8.0

5.3
3.5
12.5
19.5
25.8
24.5
34.9
32.5

5.3
10.0
12.5
19.5
25.8
24.5
34.9
32.5

0
6.5
0
0
0
0
0
0

=5.3

2
A(5.3)

B(7.2)
=12.5
=12.5

C(10.4)
1

=34.9
=34.9

=25.8
=25.8

K(9.1)
6

E(7)

F=9.5
D(3.5)

H(6.3)
3
G(12)
=3.5
=10.0

13

7
I (5)

=19.5
=19.5

9
J(8)

=24.5
=24.5

=32.5
=32.5

PROBLEM-2: A project has the following characteristics


ACTIVITY
MOST
OPTEMESTI
TIME(a)
MOAST
PESSIMESTIC
TIME(b)
MOST LIKELY
TIME(m)

1-2

2-3

2-4

3-5

4-5

4-6

5-7

6-7

7-8

7-9

8-10

9-10

1.5

Construct a PERT network. Find critical path and variance for each event find the project
duration as 95% probability.
SOLUTION: Activity expected times & their variances are computed by the following formula
Expected time ( ) = (

). V=

Activity

4m

1-2

=2

4/9

2-3

1/9

2-4

12

4/9

3-5

16

1/9

4-5

12

4-6

20

4/9

5-7

20

1/9

6-7

28

1/9

7-8

16

4/9

7-9

24

6.16

1/9

8-10

1/9

9-10

20

=4
=8

14

=169/9
=169/9

9
5

10

=2
=2

=17
=17

2
2

4/9

5
=139/6
=139/6

1/9

=8
=12

2
4

3
=5
=5

6
6

8
=10
=10

=17
=127/6

FORWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

BACKWARD PASS CALUCLATION:

=0
{

=0+2=2

-2=
{

{
}
} , J= 8,9

{
}

=max {13,17} =17

,(

}
{

=max {21,

)} =Min {19.5,17} =17

={

)} = 10

={

)} = 12

={

)} = 5

{
}
} , J= 3,4

{
} =Min {6,2} =2

}=

The longest path is 1-2-4-6-7-9-10 can be traced. This is known as critical path.
PROBLEM ON PROJECT CRASHING:
The following table gives data on normal time, and cost crash time and cost for a project
Activity
Normal
Crash
Time (weeks)
Cost(Rs/-)
Time (weeks) Cost(Rs/-)
1-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
3-5
4-5
5-6
6-7
6-8
7-8

3
3
7
9
5
0
6
4
13
10
Indirect cost is 50/- per week.

15

300
30
420
720
250
0
320
400
780
1000

2
3
5
7
4
0
4
3
10
9

400
30
580
810
300
0
410
470
900
1200

Draw the network diagram for the project and identify the critical path.
What is the normal project duration associated cost?
Find out the total float associated with each activity.
Crash the relevant activities systematically and determine the optimal project completion
time cost.
Solution:

=10
=12

10

=12
=12

3
=3

3
3
=6
=7

16

=0

=18
=18

=22
=22

13

=32
=32

17