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Field Manual

No. 25-4 FM 25-4

Washington, DC, 10 September 1984


Table of Contents

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

* This publication supersedes FM 105-5, 31 December 1973.

The US Army must be prepared to fight and achieve victory in combat
operations conducted anywhere in the world. Moreover, the Army must be
prepared to conduct military operations in support of national policy objec-
tives through tactical engagements and logistical support at any level of
intensity within the spectrum of conflict. It must be ready for war in deserts,
arctic regions, jungles, and mountains, as well as in urban areas. It must be
ready to defeat modern and well-equipped armies, as well as small, lightly
equipped irregular forces. Training exercises help achieve the high level of
readiness needed to defeat the enemy.
Training exercises provide an excellent environment for the simultaneous
performance of multiechelon responsibilities to evaluate and to sustain the
skills of soldiers, leaders, teams, staffs, and units. Exercises simulate battle
conditions to train leaders, staffs, and units in their wartime missions. They
also train leaders for mission-unique conditions and for applying the best
tactics to the unit mission, enemy, terrain, and troops available (METT).
Some exercises employ minimal troop support in providing commanders
and staffs realistic practice in executing wartime missions. Other exercises
combine complete units, including those from other services and nations in
order to train critical teamwork and coordination skills.
This manual provides commanders, staffs, and exercise planners with
doctrine, guidance, and examples for planning, conducting, and controlling
training exercises.
FM 25-4, which is one of the 25-series of training manuals, covers the con-
duct of training exercises. Beginning with fundamental training theory,
this manual discusses how to determine training needs and how to plan for
and conduct the appropriate exercises. It concludes with sample scenarios
for exercises.
This manual is written for commanders, staffs, and exercise planners
primarily at battalion level and above. It applies to both Active and Reserve
Component units. The concepts described herein, however, are applicable at
any level. It applies to combat arms, combat support, and combat service
support units.
The proponent of this publication is the US Army Training Board. Submit
changes for improving this publication on DA Form 2028 (Recommended
Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forward it to the President,
US Army Training Board, ATIC-TBT, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5170.
Unless otherwise stated, whenever The masculine or feminine gender is
used, both are intended.

Training Management and Training Exercises

Commanders are responsible for all organi- planners must know the unit missions, goals,
zational training. They evaluate soldier and and objectives and the guidance from higher
unit proficiency. They identify the training headquarters. They evaluate unit and soldier
objectives and provide the necessary training proficiency and obtain feedback from recent
guidance. They ensure that the training is unit training activities. Commanders add
supported with the needed resources and that their knowledge and experience to this basic
it is properly planned and conducted. They information and develop training programs
then conduct and evaluate the training and that specifically address unit and soldier
obtain feedback. training requirements.
Training management is the continuous RESOURCES
process commanders use to develop unit Training plans specify training events or
training programs. The goal of training activities that require resources and support.
management is the best combination of To implement those plans, resource actions—
resources, materials, guidance, and time to
meet specific training requirements. The Identify.
training management functions depicted in Program.
Figure 1 apply equally to training exercises
and to all training conducted in a unit. All Coordinate.
management functions in the process take Obtain.
place at the same time. Training manage- Provide the training support necessary.
ment and its applications are explained in
detail in FM 25-2. Training events and activities identified
during the planning phase provide input for
the assessment of resources required to
conduct effective training. Feedback on how
well current and past training was supported
with resources is also essential input in
preparation of the resource assessment.

TRAINING MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
TRAINING EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
PLANNING Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Planning for training requires input from Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
several sources. Commanders and their

FM 25-4
Training Management and Training Exercises/Chapter 1

During long-range planning, commanders training programs that implement the best
and their staffs identify and request mix of individual, leader, and collective
resources that require long lead times. During training.
short-range planning, they identify and Training in units follows the hierarchy in
coordinate resources requiring shorter lead Figure 2, which FM 25-1 and FM 25-2 discuss
times. In the near-term planning period, they in detail. FM 25-3 assists leaders and trainers
make final arrangements and provide to conduct training at company level and
resources to units. below. Collective training involves the upper
four levels of the hierarchy. The training
TRAINING exercises described in this manual also apply
to these levels but concentrate on unit and
Training can be as simple as performance- combined arms and services proficiency.
oriented training on a soldiers manual task.
It can also be as complex as a field training
exercise (FTX) using MILES and opposing
forces (OPFORs). The training phase
requires guidance with appropriate resources
based on long-range, short-range, and near-
term plans. FM 25-3 provides directions and
examples for the conduct of training.
Evaluation is a continuous process. Com-
manders continually evaluate planning and
resource actions to ensure that they meet unit
needs and comply with guidance from higher
headquarters. Higher headquarters evaluate
their own planning and resource actions, as
well as those of subordinate units to make PURPOSES
sure that they are mutually supporting and The diversity of organizations, equipment,
focus on the unit mission. Commanders at all and environment inherent in air-land battles
echelons evaluate how leaders and soldiers presents a major challenge to commanders.
perform. Based upon their evaluations, com- They must train soldiers and leaders who can
manders provide feedback to the chain of effectively integrate the unit’s weapon
command, to the trainers, and to those being systems and doctrine to defeat an enemy that
trained. may be numerically superior. Training exer-
cises are an effective way to build the team-
work necessary to meet this challenge. All
TRAINING EXERCISES training exercises—
Training in units develops and sustains Sustain and reinforce individual and
those individual and collective skills that collective skills.
soldiers and units (including squads, crews, Develop and sustain command and control
and sections) need to accomplish their skills of commanders and their staffs.
missions. To help soldiers’ and leaders learn
and sustain their skills, commanders develop Support multiechelon training.

FM 25-4
Chapter 1/Training Management and Training Exercises

Individual and Collective Skills

Training exercises combine individual the battlefield. Commanders must be com-
skills, leader skills, drills, and weapon petent in their command and control tasks.
systems proficiency. Training exercises Battle staffs must be proficient in executing
reinforce and sustain proficiency in indi- staff planning responsibilities to achieve full
vidual and collective skills in units. In integration of supporting arms and services.
addition, exercises provide training on collec- Training that enhances these skills should
tive tasks found in Army Training and receive emphasis at battalion level and
Evaluation Programs (ARTEPs) and above. The three categories of command and
integrate all elements of the combined arms control training are battle staff training,
team. ARTEP tasks are modified as required survivability training, and combined arms
to accommodate each unit’s METT. and services training.
Command and Control Skills Battle Staff Training. Battle staff training
allows commanders and their staffs to fight
Command and control training sustains air-land battles in diverse command post
skill proficiency for leaders, staffs, and indi- configurations under realistic combat
vidual soldiers. It reinforces common skills conditions as smoothly functioning teams.
and those particular to duty positions. It This training is vital to command and control
trains each echelon to respond to the needs of of units. It develops the proficiency of indi-
higher, lower, adjacent, and attached vidual staff members and molds them into
combat, combat support (CS), and combat trained teams that can effectively manage
service support (CSS) units. Responding to and coordinate all systems to support the
subordinate units is particularly important. command’s mission. Such training requires
Inexperienced commanders and staffs tend that individual staff members know the
to orient themselves to respond upward and unit’s tactical SOPs (TSOPs) thoroughly. The
overlook the needs of subordinate units. One TSOPs must be updated as appropriate to
of the prime purposes of training exercises is address changes in unit operations. Battle
to teach leaders to orient on the needs of staff training relies heavily on simulations
subordinate units in a sequence of timely since they are often the only way to present
troop-leading steps that allow units to many air-land battle situations and tasks to
execute the mission properly. enable the commander to train his staff.
Doctrine and training support materials Survivability Training. Survivability
for command and control training include training ensures proficiency during intense
such items as scenarios, simulation models, and continuous combat. It ensures that indi-
and recommended task lists. The unit can vidual soldiers and teams can operate effec-
adapt these materials to address its unique tively in a variety of situations. It involves
METT assessment. Command and control those routine tasks that units must perform
training packages prepared by proponent well to ensure their survival. Examples
service schools support MOS cross training include—
and train-up and sustainment training.
These packages are for each echelon of the Operations in nuclear, biological, or
command, including combat support and chemical (NBC) environments.
combat service support. Operations in hostile electronic warfare
To win air-land battles, all elements of the (EW) environments.
combined arms and services team must be Operations using various command post
integrated and need to function effectively on (CP) configurations.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Operations required to feed, arm, fuel, and A single level of command and control first
maintain the units’ command and control attains proficiency through battle staff
elements. training and survivability training. Battle
Procedures for succession of command. simulations are an important means
currently available for commanders and
Limited visibility operations. staffs to practice combined arms integration.
Activation of alternate communication Once technical proficiency by the battle staff
methods. has been achieved, it should be integrated
with supporting, supported, and adjacent
Activation of alternate command posts. units in full-scale exercises against a target
The hand-off between command posts array or OPFOR that realistically represents
(tactical CP to main CP). the enemy. Although the battlefield cannot
be replicated completely, it should be repre-
Passive air defense. sented accurately to include electronic
Local security, to include calls for indirect warfare, sensor, and electronic intelligence
fire and close air support. targeting. Training aids such as emitters,
transponders, jammers, and OPFOR vehicles
Most survivability tasks are detailed in to represent the enemy formations allow the
SOPs and provide standardization within a commander to train the unit to operate under
unit. Thus, they can be practiced prior to exer- combat conditions.
cises. There is often no effective substitute,
however, for full-scale exercises using all
assigned equipment and personnel in a PHASES
simulated combat environment to assess unit
survivability proficiency in an environment Training exercises contain three phases:
that simultaneously employs all systems to preexercise, execution, and postexercise. The
full capacity. preexercise phase covers planning and
preparation. It ends with the start of the
Combined Arms and Services Training. Pro- execution phase (STARTEX). The execution
ficiency in combined arms and services phase begins at STARTEX and concludes
training is required for units, staffs, and with the end of the exercise (ENDEX). During
commanders to fight and win air-land the execution phase, player units participate
battles. Examples of systems required to be in the exercise, which is controlled and
integrated into training are— evaluated according to plans developed
Fire support. during the preexercise. The postexercise
phase, beginning at ENDEX, covers reviews
Intelligence. and reports. All training events and exercises
Electronic warfare. should conclude with after-action reviews
(AARs). These reviews provide training as
Airspace management. substantive as the activity itself. In AARs,
Air defense artillery. commanders determine accomplishment of
exercise objectives based on input from
Ground maneuver. staffs, controllers, evaluators, umpires, and
Antiarmor. OPFORs, as appropriate. Participants
Combat support. should be. encouraged to discuss what
happened and why. They should be
Combat service support. encouraged to suggest solutions and offer

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

recommendations. To overcome short- significant training event. Appendix G

comings, exercise participants can make a contains additional information on AARs.
valuable contribution to training evaluation As soon after ENDEX as possible and prior
efforts by gathering information and to leaving the exercise area, controllers,
analyzing the critical lessons learned. These umpires, and evaluators conduct an exit
lessons become essential elements of briefing for those players with whom they
information (EEI) for commanders and were closely associated during the execution
trainers in the ongoing training manage- phase. As soon after ENDEX as possible, the
ment process. AARs must be conducted exercise director prepares a formal after-
periodically during the exercise to gain action report for the unit commander. This
maximum training benefit. report, which is distributed through the chain
of command, is based on input from
AARs should be used at every echelon, and controllers, umpires, and evaluators. These
they should occur as often as necessary to reports and the AARs that precede them sum-
ensure that participants learn from the marize the exercise. Commanders use them
training conducted. If the exercise divides both to observe and evaluate staffs, leaders,
into deployment, attack, and defense, for and soldiers and to plan future training. The
example, an AAR should be conducted after best use of these evaluations is to apply
each phase. If significant events, such as a lessons learned to training within the near
movement to initial positions and a term (two through six weeks), rather than to
deliberate river crossing, occur in a phase, an file for review prior to the execution of the
AAR should likewise be held after each next major exercise.

Exercise Planning

During the planning phase of training tives should be specific, relevant, realistically
management, commanders at each echelon obtainable, measurable, and supportive of
determine the need for training exercises and exercise goals. Exercise objectives should be
identify the types they will use. The need for organized into functional areas to highlight
an exercise is based upon— activities that need improvement. Properly
Higher headquarters’ analysis of stated objectives provide players, controllers,
subordinate unit proficiency. umpires, and evaluators with a solid basis for
conducting their evaluation and AARs.
Higher headquarters’ issuance of the When the exercise objectives are established,
missions, goals, objectives, and guidance. the type of exercise to be conducted can be
Commanders’ evaluations of unit and selected.
soldier proficiency.
Higher headquarters employ the exercise CONTENTS
planning steps explained in this chapter
when directing subordinate units to par- ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
ticipate in training exercises. Subordinate
units also employ applicable planning steps SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
based on information and orders received
from higher headquarters. When com- CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
manders direct internal exercises, they must Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
ensure that the exercises meet unit training Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
needs and objectives. Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Commanders must first analyze soldier, Battle Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
leader, and unit training proficiency. Then Situational Training Exercises . . . . . 11
they select a particular type of training exer- PREEXERCISE PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
cise. A training analysis must first establish
the training requirements and the priorities Preparing an Exercise Directive . . . 12
for unit training programs, as described in Assigning Responsibilities . . . . . . 13
FM 25-2. This analysis also determines the Planning Milestones . . . . . . . . . . . 15
training objectives, which are based on the Conducting Research . . . . . . . . . . . 16
individual and collective skills that need Preparing a Supporting Plan
initial or sustainment training. In so doing, Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
the analysis must consider the three cate- Preparing an Outline Plan . . . . . . . . 17
gories of command and control training: Conducting a Reconnaissance . . . . 18
Completing the Exercise
Support Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Battle staff training. Preparing the Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Survivability training. Preparing an Operation Plan . . . . . 29
Publishing the Letter of Instruction . 29
Combined arms training. Preparing a Contingency Plan . . . . 29
One or more of these categories must be Preparing the Terrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
included in the unit training objectives and Conducting a Rehearsal . . . . . . . . . . . 31
integrated in the exercise. The exercise objec-

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

An exercise must never be conducted training categories for each echelon of

simply for its own sake. It must always help command.
to attain training objectives, which are tied to Map exercises (MAPEXs) are employed to
the unit mission. teach staff planning and coordination, as
well as preparation of estimates and
operations orders. They are not conducted
below battalion level. Commanders employ
SELECTION tactical exercises without troops (TEWTs) to
teach the effective use of terrain to subor-
Once the initial analysis is completed, com- dinate leaders. TEWTs involve specific
manders determine the type of exercises to be tactical problems, employing unite and
conducted. Comparing the objectives with weapon systems. Command post exercises
the kind of training that each exercise (CPXs) are effective in training members of
provides, they identify the proper exercise, staffs, command posts, and communications
within resource constraints, that can best systems above company level. FTXs provide
meet the objectives. Table 1 shows the exer- realistic survivability ‘and combined arms
cises that best fit the command and control training for the total force. Battle staff

FM 25-4
Exercise Planning/Chapter2

sustainment training does occur in FTXs. some of the systems and objectives that can
However, to preclude the delays and be trained effectively. The “X” indicates the
inefficient use of troop-leading time that exercise which best affords realistic training
normally occur in the preliminary training of in the employment of the system or attain-
the staff, they should not be selected solely for ment of the objective indicated. For example,
this purpose. Battle staff skills should be the training objective “Staff procedures” is
sharpened through CPXs, TEWTs, and shown only for the MAPEX, CPX, and
MAPEXs prior to an FTX. command field exercise (CFX) since they are
Table 2 aids in selecting the appropriate the most effective ways to train those
exercise. It shows training exercises and objectives.

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

The planning phase must recognize Reduce the number of units in the exercise.
the value of flexibility and the necessity for Use a MAPEX or a CPX in place of an FTX.
being thorough. Planners must plan for
alternate types of exercises in case weather or Conduct the exercise at a lower echelon.
other constraints prohibit the originally Range facilities in the continental United
scheduled exercise. For example, if a brigade States (CONUS) usually limit LFXs to
needs an FTX but there is a chance of funds company team level. The exception is the
being reduced or the possibility of excessive National Training Center (NTC) at Fort
maneuver damage, contingency plans for a Irwin, California. At the NTC, resources
CFX or CPX should be prepared and distances permit LFXs at battalion task
concurrently. force level. Except for scaled range training,
Exercises must be flexible. They should range limitations also restrict fire coordi-
allow subordinate commanders the freedom nation exercises (FCXs) to small units. Battle
to innovate within the framework of new or staff training during FCXs is generally
existing doctrine, tactics, techniques, and limited to—
operating procedures. They should not follow Fire support coordination.
rigid timetables that inhibit training and
learning. Instead, they should establish Fire control.
schedules that provide sufficient time to Preparation and issuance of plans and
correct mistakes and ensure learning and orders.
AARs at all levels.
When exercises use privately owned land,
RESOURCES planners must also consider maneuver
damage control.
Once a headquarters decides to conduct a
training exercise, the needed resources must Support
be identified and procedures begun to obtain
them, in accordance with the training Training exercises require support. Some
management procedures described in FM exercises consume large quantities of
25-2. The general steps below must be taken allocated resources such as fuel, spare parts,
before beginning detailed work. They flying hours, and maneuver area time. The
indicate whether the exercise can meet the planners must ensure that the exercises can
training objectives. If any area appears be conducted within the resource levels and
inadequate, the commander must decide that the training received justifies the
whether to proceed or consider an alternate resources expended.
training activity. Commanders and staffs ensure that
internal and external support equipment is
Facilities and Land sufficient. For example, communications and
Planners must consider the environment transportation for players, controllers,
for the exercise and the impact of weather. If umpires, and evaluators must be adequate.
inadequate land or facilities will seriously Player units, including HQs, should use only
degrade training, planners may have to alter organic transportation, communications,
the exercises. For example, if an FTX has and TOE equipment. Doing so teaches them
been selected but the available training areas to employ the full capabilities of the unit.
are not large enough to allow unit tactics to be They should not rely on outside assistance to
realistically played, the planners may— replace systems that are not mission capable

FM 25-4
Exercise Planning/Chapter 2

or to beef up the authorized strength of the They save training time.

staff. Controller, umpire, and evaluator They reduce preexercise and postexercise
equipment must not come from player units. requirements.
Time They are flexible and easily tailored to
The time allocated for each exercise must unique training objectives.
permit appropriate troop-leading steps to be They can present situations (nuclear,
exercised, as well as develop tactical situa- chemical, tactical air) that cannot be repro-
tions that lead to logical and sound tactical duced in other training environments
employment of player units. The time should because of safety or expense.
also be allocated for conducting complete Battle simulations encourage multiechelon
logistical support of tactical operations, as training. Higher and lower echelons can be
well as for an appropriate AAR. exercised simultaneously with a minimum
PARTICIPANTS expenditure of valuable training resources.
Simulations can portray joint service opera-
Planners must consider whether or not tions involving the Air Force, Navy, and
units or groups of individuals to be trained Marines, as well as the combined elements of
are of the proper size or strength to benefit other nations. Battle simulations can also
from the type of exercise selected. For portray various equipment mixes or degraded
example, the soldiers of a tank platoon con- operations, allowing commanders and staffs
sisting of two-man tank crews can be to exercise back-up systems and procedures.
expected to gain very little from an LFX. Per- Battle simulations provide realistic cues
sonnel shortages might also cause com- and feedback to the command as a result of
manders to conduct CFXs rather than FTXs. decisions made by higher, lower, and
adjacent units. Each command group
BATTLE SIMULATIONS executes and subsequently modifies its plans,
Battle simulations, both manual and based on the situation. Simulations force
computer-supported or computer-assisted, command groups to adjust plans, organi-
provide effective training in many battle zations, assets, and firepower to cope with
staff skills. Battle simulations can be used changing battlefield situations. They may
with virtually any scenario. They are readily also force adjustments in command post
adapted to specific local conditions and unit configurations and procedures to deal effec-
missions. tively with unforeseen situations.
Simulations will not correct all command
and control training problems or substitute Battle simulations can create unique
for field training. If properly used, they can mixtures of organizations, equipment,
provide a readily acceptable means for exer- missions, and operational situations. They
cising significant elements of the command do this while realistically portraying the unit
and control system. METT. Questions and comments about battle
Battle simulations have the following simulations ma be addressed to Deputy
characteristics: Commandant, Command and General Staff
They are relatively inexpensive. College, ATTN: ATSL-SWN, Fort Leaven-
worth, KS 66027; AUTOVON 552-4612/2442,
They do not require large training areas. Commercial (913) 684-4612/2442.

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

Tactical engagement simulations such as and situational training exercises should use
MILES add significant realism to field exer- MILES for training. Because MILES is the
cises. They do so by confronting leaders and most realistic training short of actual
soldiers with realistic simulations of direct combat, it should be approached with
fire weapon systems in a training environ- detailed planning that keeps the training
ment. Only units that have demonstrated objectives clearly in mind. For details on the
high levels of proficiency during battle drill planning and use of MILES, see TC 25-6.

FM 25-4
Exercise Planning/Chapter 2

The use of situational training exercises to perform a specific mission. FM 25-3
(STXs) should be considered in the develop- explains the STX concept. STXs can facilitate
ment of an exercise. They teach the “best” or training through the application of
preferred way to accomplish a task and area standardized tactical formations and
standard way in which a task should be employment. Thus, they should be considered
executed. They are developed by the service in planning and preparing for an exercise,
schools to teach the doctrinally preferred way whenever appropriate.

The preexercise is usually the longest of the The training objectives and the echelon at
three exercise phases. For large exercises, which the exercise is to be conducted deter-
such as the FTX portion of Redeployment of mine how complex these steps will become.
Forces to Germany (REFORGER), this phase For example, at battalion level there may be
can take longer than a year. The preexercise little or no need to conduct detailed research
phase develops all the support plans that or to write a planning schedule. Much of the
govern the execution and postexercise planning can take place during training
phases. meetings. However, at division level,
Planning begins immediately after the research and written planning schedules are
decision has been made to conduct an exer- necessary. They can be the key to a successful
cise. The planning steps listed below are used exercise.
to prepare for an exercise. Specific exercises PREPARING AN EXERCISE
may omit some. These steps are generally DIRECTIVE
sequential; however, some may be performed
simultaneously. The headquarters requesting or conducting
the exercise issues an exercise directive. It
Preparing an exercise directive. starts the development process.
Assigning responsibilities for planning. Before preparing the exercise directive, the
Conducting research. exercise planner carefully considers the
purpose of the exercise, the objectives stated
Preparing a supporting plan schedule. or implied by the commander, and guidance
Preparing an outline plan. from higher headquarters. The objectives are
the basis for planning and developing the
Conducting a reconnaissance. exercise directive. An exercise directive will—
Completing the exercise support plans. Name the exercise director and provide for
Preparing the scenario. a staff. These personnel will plan the
Preparing and issuing the operations plan exercise.
(OPLAN). Specify what type of exercise to conduct
Publishing the letter of instruction (LOI). and state its specific training objectives.
Preparing the terrain. Indicate the time frame for the exercise, its
physical location, and the duration of its
Conducting a rehearsal. execution phase. The location, time, and

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

duration must be consistent with the type operations. It should also include area and
of exercise selected, the participating units, background studies pertinent to the
and the training objectives. exercise site.
Prescribe the type and number of par-
Identify the type and quantity of special Planning and conducting a large exercise
equipment required. requires the same attention to detail as an
Provide additional information such as actual combat operation. The exercise
funding, environment, and any pertinent director and designated staff are responsible
assumptions. Funding data should specify for planning and conducting the exercise to
both fund citations and fund limitations. meet the training objectives stated in the
Environmental information should exercise directive. See Figure 3 for a summary
describe the strategic setting to be played of planning staff duties and coordination.
during the exercise. It should describe the Normally, the planning staff G3/S3 acts as
type of exercise envisaged such as general the principal coordinator for the exercise
or limited warfare or internal defense director.

FM 25-4
Exercise Planning/Chapter 2

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

Developed early in the process, milestones and include such actions as establishing
will ensure full and timely completion of the budget requirements and acquiring
planning effort. Typical milestones for a maneuver land permits. Exercises that
brigade-size FTX are shown in Table 4. The
planning milestones to support a large involve Reserve Component units also
division exercise would be more extensive require extra planning and preparation time.

FM 25-4
Exercise Planning/Chapter 2

New missions spawn new tactical doctrine. exercises developed by proponent service
In turn, the new doctrine generates require- schools. Use of the models may save con-
ments for improved weapon systems, siderable planning time by providing
equipment, and organizations. Thus, exercise examples and format guides. Planners
planners must be thoroughly familiar with should consider battle simulation kits,
doctrine, TOES, and equipment requirements available through training and audiovisual
prior to development of training exercises. support centers (TASCs) or training resource
Exercise planners must conduct appropriate assistance centers (TRACs). They should
research to update controllers and par- consult after-action reports and lessons
ticipants prior to STARTEX. The intelligence learned from previous exercises. Planners
staff provides the information for making the should also consult administrative
OPFOR and the combat environment references. These ensure that the exercise
realistic. Realism maintains the planning is consistent with policy governing
participants’ interest and enthusiasm. the safety and welfare of the participants.
Such research identifies appropriate and Post and garrison regulations, range
available training support or training regulations, and unit SOPs are always
support materials. Up-to-date training pertinent and should be reviewed prior to the
support may come from Reserve Component publication of exercise plans.
activities such as maneuver area commands PREPARING A SUPPORTING PLAN
(MACs) or maneuver training commands
(MTCs). These organizations develop and SCHEDULE
conduct exercises for Reserve Component Training exercises must have complete,
units. Planners may request model training workable supporting plans. Exercises may

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

fail to accomplish all intended training objec- planning staff G3 prepares a planning
tives if planners overlook guidance essential schedule that calls for detailed supporting
for conducting them. The supporting plan plans. The first step in preparing this
schedule lists all the major plans required for schedule is to determine the data that will be
the exercise. It also designates the staff used as a basis for the exercise. Using
officer responsible for each plan and the time backward planning as described in FM 25-2,
when it must be submitted for the com- the G3 sets completion dates for each sup-
mander’s approval. The amount of time porting plan based on its required publication
required to produce the plan will vary with date. The schedule allows for timely planning
the experience of the planning staff. and detailed coordination between appro-
For a battalion-level exercise, the S3 priate staff agencies.
prepares a planning schedule. It may be PREPARING AN OUTLINE PLAN
nothing more than a brief written set of mile-
stones which identifies the tasks to be The outline plan is the framework used to
trained. At corps and division levels, the build the scenario—the story of the exercise.

FM 25-4
Exercise Planning/Chapter 2

The procedures for developing the outline Planners must select locations for OPFOR
plan depend on the size of the unit involved. activities or positions where specific actions
In small-unit exercises at company and bat- are to take place. They conduct intelligence
talion levels, the reconnaissance phase and preparation of the battlefield (IPB) for each
the outline planning considerations are phase of the exercise, using US and potential
normally combined. For large-unit exercises, adversary doctrinal templates. Next, they
these two phases are separated. Nonetheless, select locations for roadblocks, road guards,
exercise directors and staffs take the same and control points. Then they determine the
actions in preparing outline plans for large- overall scheme of the operation by
unit and small-unit exercises. visualizing the employment of the parent
unit two command levels higher than the par-
CONDUCTING A RECONNAISSANCE ticipating unit. For battalion exercises, they
Planners should make the most efficient must visualize the employment of the entire
use of land allocated for exercises. They
should first study updated maps of the areas In selecting the locations, planners must
with updated aerial photographs, if remember that they are limited to the areas
available. They should analyze the land to designated for the exercise. In special cases
determine its military features, including where the exercise may use land not owned by
observation and fields of fire, cover and the military, they must get approval to use
concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and such land and consider environmental
avenues of approach. For example, if an exer- impact during initial planning.
cise starts with the mission “deliberate
attack,” the planners should first select the Plans must be developed that fully use the
final objective. They then plan backward, terrain but do not abuse it. The use of legs, as
choosing a possible assault position, a line of illustrated in Figure 6, is one method of
departure, an assembly area, and other ensuring that terrain does not suffer from
control features normally used in the attack. excessive maneuver damage.

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

Second, planners reconnoiter the ground to The planners then move through the
verify the tentative plan prepared from maps remaining portion of the area and determine
and aerial photographs. Ground reconnais- the most realistic locations for other planned
sance should consider such points as— events. The planners should change the
The use of chemical agents and decontami- original plan as necessary. Then they submit
nation requirements. it to the directing authority for approval
before making any further plans. If the map
The impact of tactical engagement and aerial photographic reconnaissance has
simulations. been thorough, the original plan may require
The effect of low visibility operations. only minor changes.
Maneuver damage and safety.
The impact of the equipment such as the COMPLETING THE EXERCISE
M1 tank as compared to wheeled vehicles. SUPPORT PLANS
A ground reconnaissance validates the For the training exercise to run smoothly
plan backward from the objective. It verifies and accomplish its objectives, written
that the plan is appropriate for the partici- support plans must contain practical
pating units. At the objective, the planners guidance for the exercise participants. The
critically examine the terrain, as would an plans discussed in this section are distributed
enemy commander, to determine the most to the appropriate controllers, umpires,
realistic locations for scheduled activities. evaluators; OPFORS, and players.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Intelligence Plans
The planning staff G2 prepares the intel- Counterintelligence, guerrilla activities,
ligence plan in coordination with the enemy propaganda, counterpropaganda, and
planning staff G3 and the chief controller. intelligence activities in rear areas are also
The plan should provide for— portrayed. Planners first determine what
OPFOR units to portray OPFOR tactics. systems the player units have for collecting
this information. The types of intelligence
Realistic input of combat information. portrayed by the OPFOR must be varied
Timely introduction of information into the enough to exercise all the intelligence
exercise intelligence. collecting agencies of the player unit.
Before writing an intelligence plan, the G2
studies the directive and the scenario. In The NBC attack capabilities of the OPFOR
coordination with the G3 and designated are developed in enough detail to require the
OPFOR commander, the G2 prepares a series player units to interpret the information
of OPFOR situations. These will guide the gathered. Plans should be made for early
exercise in a scenario that reflects the tactical dissemination of—
doctrine, capability, and vulnerability of the Meteorological data.
selected adversary. The G2 then reconnoiters
the terrain to ensure that the OPFOR situa- Recent OPFOR NBC activities.
tions are feasible. The intelligence plan and Intelligence bulletins on OPFOR
its support documents must be carefully equipment.
coordinated with the control plan and the
operations plan. Unusual diseases.
Other pertinent information.
OPFOR Situation. This portion of the plan Whenever possible, OPFOR capabilities
covers the various enemy situations that should be represented by replicating actual
must be portrayed by the OPFOR. To clarify intelligence targets for friendly units to
it, planners prepare a situation overlay for detect. This not only refers to combat-
each phase. Given the OPFOR situations and electronic warfare intelligence (CEWI)
overlays, the OPFOR commander makes a activities, but applies across the board for all
detailed plan of operations for the required systems. It is essential that exercises
tasks. This plan includes simulating OPFOR duplicate the tasks, conditions, and
units that are not physically portrayed. standards that must be mastered to fight air-
The play of intelligence sources and land battles in a realistic environment.
agencies is described. These include— Situations are developed for disseminating
Aerial surveillance and reconnaissance. electronic warfare support measures (ESM)
information, current OPFOR electronic
Surveillance devices. warfare order of battle (OB), and recent
Patrols. OPFOR electronic warfare activities.
OPFOR tactical deception (TD) and counter-
Signal intelligence. deception activities are standard parts of
Electronic intelligence. exercise scenarios. They are necessary for
Prisoners of war. realism. The TD story must be plausible,
complete, and consistent with previous,
Technical intelligence. current, and anticipated OPFOR activity.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

Intelligence information released to OPFOR conduct during the exercise. This

friendly forces must depict both the TD and includes actions taken with prisoners of
the true exercise activities of the OPFOR, war (PWs) and as PWs.
though not necessarily at the same time. Appendix C is a detailed discussion of the
There should be enough information in both OPFOR, its use, and the training it requires.
categories so that friendly forces will have
difficulty in reaching a quick decision about
the OPFOR. Information for bringing the Intelligence Information Distribution. This
play back to the intended path must also be plan provides the scheme of intelligence play
ready in the event that friendly forces accept before and during the tactical play of the
the initial OPFOR TD activity as the true exercise. It includes the information to be
picture. OPFOR counterdeception activities released, guidelines on how to release it, and a
should be realistic and inhibit friendly schedule for its distribution. The intelligence
development of TD activities. Planners information released falls into two
always distinguish between exercise and categories:
actual security and intelligence measures. What the unit receives automatically
through command channels.
Directive to OPFOR Commander. The
planning staff G2 prepares a directive What the unit receives only when it takes
outlining the OPFOR commander’s respon- the proper action to obtain it.
sibilities. It cites the training objectives, The most realistic method of starting intel-
announces the exercise dates, and specifies ligence play in large-unit exercises is for the
the suspense date for the OPFOR com- next higher tactical headquarters to dis-
mander’s operation plan. The directive also seminate intelligence to the participating
defines the command relationship between unit early in the exercise. Disseminating area
the OPFOR commander and the exercise analysis and intelligence summaries and
director or chief controller. reports provides the necessary background to
Special Instructions to the OPFOR. These initiate intelligence play. The OPFOR plan
instructions are an enclosure to the OPFOR and situation and the intelligence informa-
commander’s directive and outline matters of tion distribution scheme are carefully coordi-
interest to the entire OPFOR unit. At a nated to ensure synchronization. They also
minimum, these instructions cover— introduce events designed to see how the
friendly force will react to air-land battles.
The composition and identity of the The reactions of friendly units become key
OPFOR. points of discussion for the AAR.
OPFOR uniforms and equipment.
Provisions for an orientation of OPFOR Control Plans
key personnel. Control plans provide instructions for con-
Guidance for conducting OPFOR training. trolling and evaluating the exercise and
Preexercise training area allocation. organizing the control group. To build a
control group, the planning staff G3 prepares
A rehearsal schedule for OPFORs. the control plan based on the exercise
Rehearsals may be MAPEXs, terrain scenario and appropriate. references. Instruc-
walks, CPXs, FTXS, or a combination of tions for the control group must conform to
these. the scenario and the intelligence plan. The

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

success of the exercise depends largely on Funding authorization and source of

how thorough these plans are and how well supply.
they are executed. Controller rules.
Safety Instructions. The effort to attain Guidance concerning the use of civilians
maximum realism may cause hazardous con- (or military personnel disguised as
ditions and situations to arise. These hazards civilians) in exercise play, their identi-
could have an adverse effect on the progress fication, and treatment.
of the exercise, as well as on the individual Guidance for civil-military relationships.
participants and the local civilian com- The plan must be closely coordinated with
munities. To minimize accidents and injuries, the exercise G5 and the public and unit
planners must prepare and issue specific information programs and activities. Addi-
safety instructions to all units well in tionally, it will include procedures for iden-
advance of the exercise. The control per- tifying and treating civilians who reside in
sonnel in the exercise area are responsible for or near the exercise area but who do not
implementing these instructions. This in no participate.
way, however, lessens the command respon-
sibility within the player units for issuing,
clarifying, and enforcing safety rules. Safety Umpires, personnel, vehicles, and installa-
instructions include— tions participating in combined land exer-
cises with other nations must be marked in
Objectives and responsibilities. accordance with NATO Standardization
Accident causes and preventive measures. Agreement (STANAG) 2100, Edition 5.
Accident reporting. Spot reports, as well as
formal accident reporting and investi- Controller, Umpire, and Evaluator Assign-
gative procedures, are prescribed. ments. Controllers, umpires, and evaluators
Because current equipment is very mobile, are essential for the effective and efficient
command instructions must emphasize its operation of training exercises. Controllers
safe operation during training exercises and ensure that events occur at the appropriate
under administrative conditions during day, times and places according to the exercise
night, and reduced visibility. scenario and schedule of events. Controllers
represent all headquarters and units not
Uniform Markings, Color Control, and Exer- physically present as players. Evaluators
cise Rules. This portion of the control plan observe the activities of players and player
prescribes— units to determine whether they perform
tasks to predetermined standards.
Uniform markings for OPFOR, controller, Evaluators provide input to the AARs.
evaluator, umpire, and observer personnel. Umpires determine the outcome of battle
Markings for vehicles, aircraft, and engagements and the effects of fires,
equipment. obstacles, and support activities. They report
Pyrotechnics, munitions, and lasers per- the results both to player units and the
mitted in the exercise and instructions for control organization. The planning staff G1
their use. coordinates with appropriate staff members
to recommend sources of personnel and selec-
Flag-signaling devices allowed and tion criteria to the exercise director. Members
instructions for their use. of the control group should be taken from
FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

nonplaying units because playing units A detailed orientation to the exercise,

should be at full strength. During any one including the training objectives, the
exercise, controller, evaluator, and umpire methods for attaining the objectives, the
duties are normally assigned to separate indi- scenario, and the supporting plans.
viduals. However, the exercise director may A detailed reconnaissance of the exercise
have to assign two or more of these functions area.
to the same person due to shortages of
qualified personnel. Schooling that emphasizes duties, use of
Each controller, evaluator, and umpire is control equipment, map reading, and
assigned to a specific section for the duration tactics.
of the exercise. The chief controller deter- Rehearsals or MAPEXs to ensure complete
mines these specific assignments based on understanding of the exercise.
the scope of the exercise and the available Orientation on the conduct of the AAR.
personnel and required equipment. If
possible, personnel assigned as evaluators Appendix E describes controller, evaluator,
should have experience in the position being and umpire training.
evaluated. Whenever feasible, commanders
should evaluate commanders. For a descrip- Controller Reports. The chief controller
tion of the duties of umpires, controllers, and prepares a guide for reports. It lists required
evaluators, refer to specific exercises in reports, provides the format for those reports,
Chapter 3 and to Appendix E. and designates special areas of interest for
Controller, Umpire, and Evaluator Com- evaluation during each part of the exercise.
munication and Transportation. To control
and coordinate exercises, good communica-
tions are essential. A large-unit FTX may Administrative and Logistics
operate over extended distances and require Plans
highly mobile controllers, umpires, and
evaluators. In such a case, obstacles to con- The administrative and logistics plan
tinuous and efficient communication are provides for actual combat service support of
numerous. The G4, the special security officer the exercises. The planning staff G4 coordi-
(SSO), and the signal officer assist the nates with the G1, G5, and appropriate
planning staff G3 to coordinate communi- special staff officers regarding CSS. The G4
cation and transportation needs. Since the determines the availability of essential
player units require their organic communi- supplies and maintenance support and plans
cation equipment and vehicles during the for medical evacuation and traffic control.
exercise, the G3, G4, and signal officer should The administrative and logistics plan must
acquire this equipment from other sources. match the scenario and operation plan. It
contains instructions for the realistic play of
Schedule of Controller, Umpire, and CSS for both OPFOR and friendly units. It
Evaluator Training. Controllers, umpires, also provides for the concurrent training of
and evaluators must be trained to execute the CSS elements involved. Logistic support
their assignments. The amount of training must conform to the logistic policies of the
depends on the backgrounds and experience exercise. The planning staff G4 coordinates
of these individuals as well as the scale of the closely with the G1 and G5 to prepare the
exercise. The schedule provides for— plan, which covers all phases of the exercise.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Appendixes to the administrative and Training and orientation of troops, claims

logistics plan pertaining to CSS must— personnel, and repair teams.
Establish a list of mandatory supply items Restrictions, limitations, and precautions
to be brought to the exercise area by to be observed. These include rules
supporting troops. governing vehicle travel, use of airstrips
Describe the procedures for obtaining and and railroads, communications, command
maintaining training supplies. post sites, and wire and cable laying.
Establish available supply rates for all The organization and duties of maneuver
types of munitions. damage control teams.
Determine logistics requirements
. for Participation of umpire and control
special items such as decontamination personnel.
materials, fog oil, and NBC simulators. Preexercise reports, spot damage reports,
Planners estimate the required types and player and support unit location reports,
quantities of these various supply items early and postexercise repair reports.
in the planning phase to ensure that the If possible, aerial and other photographs of
appendixes will contain all this information. the exercise area should be made prior to and
immediately after the exercise. They will
assist with cleanup and resolution of
Movement Plan maneuver damage claims.
The number of player units, OPFOR, and
control personnel involved in a large-unit Civil-Military Operations
field exercise requires the planning staff G4 Plan
to prepare a detailed movement plan. This
plan coordinates transportation assets and The CMO plan, prepared by the planning
controls traffic. When the exercise is staff G5, establishes the scope and objectives
conducted off military controlled land, this of CMO play in the exercise. It may cover the
plan must be coordinated with appropriate employment of civil affairs units and staffs
civil authorities. Failure to do so may result in during the exercise, as well as those portions
military and civilian traffic problems that of the PSYOP plan consolidating PSYOP
could interfere with the exercise time activities in support of the civil affairs plan.
Emergency or Readiness
Maneuver Damage Control Measures Plan
Plan Since forces involved in an exercise may be
The maneuver damage control plan is required for actual operations, an emergency
closely related to the claims plan described deployment plan is prepared. Multiple and
later in this chapter. The maneuver damage secure notification means are provided for
control plan prescribes— this purpose. The planning staff G3 prepares
General policies. this plan.
Responsibilities of commanders and units. A situation may require implementation of
operation or alert plans and warrant the
Areas of responsibility. immediate termination of the exercise. If so,

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

the exercise director transmits in the clear a concise as possible considering the amount of
duly authenticated, preselected code word. In information to be covered. At a minimum,
turn, the code word is transmitted by each AARs include commanders and staff. If
player and control echelon taking part in the possible, they include participating soldiers.
exercise, and the exercise is terminated. All Players discuss their reasons for taking
communication circuits are cleared for emer- actions. Controllers, umpires, and evaluators
gency traffic. Circuits out of action due to make their observations. The OPFOR should
exercise play are restored immediately. give its view of the exercise. In scheduling
Planners make careful distinctions AARs, planners should consider the physical
between exercise instructions and the actual condition of the soldiers and the locations of
instructions for an operation or alert plan. units. They also need to consider the time
Before leaving their garrisons, all units are needed to collect, collate, and evaluate reports
told the locations and availability of live from controllers, evaluators, umpires, and
ammunition in case play is terminated and OPFORs. For larger scale exercises, the G3
execution of a contingency plan is ordered. should schedule multiechelon AARs, as
Live ammunition to be carried during the described in Appendix G.
exercise is loaded according to local SOP.
Coordinating and arranging for convoy
routes from the exercise location to Information Plan
deployment positions must occur during the The planning staff information officer
planning phase. If the exercise area is an coordinates with all staff sections to prepare
unreasonable distance from the planned a public information plan that will develop
deployment position, contingency plans public support of the Army’s mission. The
must be developed prior to the exercise. scope and objectives of the exercise determine
the extent of this plan. In the interest of sound
public relations, the exercise director should
Orientation and After-Action prepare the local population for any unusual
Review Plan or inconvenient situations that may arise.
The planning staff G3 prepares this plan. It All exercises have certain security,
contains detailed instructions for orientation political, and public relations implications.
before the exercise and for the AAR. Planners weigh these implications carefully
The preexercise orientation is essential to and formulate a basic concept for publicity
for each exercise. They determine a suitable
ensure that all personnel start with the same press release date in advance. It takes into
information and carry out their duties with consideration the requirements for security,
interest and enthusiasm. The orientation public relations, and items of international
develops an understanding of the training and political interest. They weigh the release
objectives and how to attain them. Key per- of detailed information concerning the
sonnel are designated to attend the orien- nature and location of the exercise and the
tation to ensure that player units receive the participating forces in relation to security
necessary information. A briefing schedule is and political implications. Invitations to the
published and a rehearsal conducted. press are prepared by information officers
AARs occur as soon as practicable and cleared by SSOs. The invitations may
following major events, exercise phases, or request that the exercise be given no publicity
ENDEX. Effective AARs are as brief and until a predetermined date.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

When publicity is not desired, planners The procedure for obtaining claims
establish policies for handling press releases.
inquiries. The information plan also provides Off-limits areas.
Initial releases announcing the exercise. Comptroller Plan
The extent of hometown press releases. For funding purposes, large field exercises
Radio, television, and other news media normally require the assignment of a
coverage. comptroller to the planning staff. Comp-
The extent of press coverage and the invita- troller activities in support of the exercise
tions to be issued. include—
Support of news media representatives. Preparing the comptroller plan.
Briefings to be given and courtesies to be Monitoring the exercise expenditures.
extended. Advising the planning staff on financial
Unit orientation. matters.
Exercise news publications or other news
features. Records and Reports Plan
The planning staff G3 formulates a plan for
required records and reports based on the
Claims Plan exercise director’s guidance. At a minimum,
When a large-unit field exercise uses it requires an AAR upon completion of the
privately owned land, buildings, or exercise. The plan designates the com-
equipment, the planning staff G4 must manders who must conduct AARs and
prepare a claims plan. This plan is prepared prescribes the format, number of copies, and
in coordination with the G1, staff judge suspense date for after-action reports. All
advocate, engineer officer, G5, and G3. The reports are tabulated to show the—
plan designates—
Proper title.
A claims officer, who is appointed early to Basic references.
execute the leases for the property required.
The same officer is responsible for settling Submitting unit.
any claims arising from the exercise. Time interval covered.
The amount of land, equipment, or building Suspense date.
space required.
A rental procedure, to include the length of
time that facilities or land will be required. Number of copies required.
The limitations imposed on the use of all Method of transmission.
leased property.
The means for issuing these instructions to PREPARING THE SCENARIO
all units. Once the exercise director has approved the
A means of processing claims. outline plan, the planning staff G3 and G2,

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

with other staff participation, complete the specific conditions. Examples include opera-
scenario. Scenarios are stories for training tions in a chemical environment, deliberate
exercises. They list the events that lead up to river-crossing operations, and military opera-
the points requiring player units to execute tions on urbanized terrain (MOUT). Con-
their operation orders (OPORDs) and thus trolled-play scenarios are best supported by
begin the exercises. These lists include the schedules of events that ensure the timely
facts necessary to place player units in the insertion of incidents.
desired tactical settings prior to STARTEX.
Scenarios guide umpire, controller, and
evaluator personnel so that the exercise will Free-play scenarios are best used when the
progress according to predetermined plans. exercise objective is to integrate systems,
Although scenarios are normally in survivability, and battle staff training in the
narrative form, overlay scenarios may be most realistic, full-threat environment
used for small exercises with limited objec- possible. Free-play scenarios can use battle
tives. Scenarios portray a series of tactical simulations such as Pegasus, First Battle, or
situations. They are supported by OPLANs to CAMMS.
include the annexes and overlays necessary
to meet the command objectives. Scenarios contain the following elements:
Each free-play scenario presents an initial A general situation that provides the par-
situation and provides sufficient detail and ticipants with the background information
guidance so the player can prepare an normally available in a combat situation.
OPLAN, annexes, and overlays. After An initial situation that starts the action
STARTEX, higher headquarters and the by the player unit and causes the com-
player commander control the activities, mander to issue orders committing unite.
based on METT and a realistic enemy. Using A subsequent situation that continues the
this type of scenario, a player is free, within exercise and causes controllers, umpires,
doctrine and the higher unit OPORD, to and evaluators to maintain control. It
initiate activity. Each controlled-play includes all major events necessary to
scenario presents detailed situations and accomplish the exercise objectives within
events created to accomplish a specific exer- the allotted time.
cise objective. It is normally keyed to a rigid
schedule of events with a predetermined
message release list. Considerable guidance is required from
player unit commanders regarding the pace
The two scenarios differ in purpose. Free- of the exercise. The scenario developers must
play scenarios allow commanders maximum plan thoroughly to balance the number and
latitude in executing missions. Conversely, types of requirements placed on the players
controlled-play scenarios cause commanders and the time allocated to complete them. The
to take specific actions in response to pre- planners must not attempt to do too much in
determined events. too little time. It is better to conduct a few
events to standard and have time for con-
Controlled-play scenarios are best used ducting good AARs and for repeating any
when exercise objectives are to train on events as necessary, rather than to attempt
specific battle staff, survivability, or more events than can be executed using the
combined arms and services tasks under appropriate troop-leading procedures.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

General Situation
At a minimum, the general situation does not comply with higher headquarters’
includes— directives or if execution of the order would
A general statement describing the events create a serious safety hazard, the order
that precipitated the current situation should be returned for correction.
causing the commitment of US forces. The initial situation should cause the
The strategic and tactical situation, to G2/S2 to begin IPB. Through careful
include friendly forces two echelons higher. analysis of the terrain, avenues of approach,
and adversary doctrinal templating, the
A description of the OPFOR situation, to player unit can determine the most
include the disposition of their forces two dangerous avenue of approach and the most
echelons higher. likely enemy configuration. At STARTEX,
An analysis of the area of operations. the player unit should have sufficient enemy
intelligence information as would
In developing the general situation, realistically be available in wartime. This
planners should establish the troop list of the information should be provided through
next higher echelon and the time frame for player channels to the lowest level to ensure a
the execution phase of the exercise. Adjust- consistent portrayal of the enemy situation.
ments can be made as the training and Failure to disseminate intelligence to subor-
support situations change; however, major dinate units should be addressed in the AAR.
revisions should be avoided.
Subsequent Situations
Initial Situation
Exercise planners develop the subsequent
The initial situation places the player unit situations by creating a list of events that—
in a tactical situation before STARTEX. If a
preexercise phase is used to prepare an Ensures a logical flow for the exercise.
OPLAN, the prepared OPLAN is converted to Obtains a realistic time estimate for the
an OPORD at, or prior to, STARTEX by a entire exercise.
fragmentary order (FRAGO). However, if a Ensures all training objectives are
preexercise phase is not used, an OPLAN is achieved.
developed during the initial phase. It
provides the basis for subsequent operations. Events are concise written statements of
The requirements for the initial situation will tactical activities. Planners list them in
depend on when the player OPLAN is chronological order and estimate when they
developed. In any case, the controllers should will occur. They may cross reference events
review the OPLAN for format and content, and their scheduled times by arranging both
since the preparation, dissemination, and in column format. Such a list will help the
supervision of plans, orders, and estimates exercise flow to a logical conclusion. Once
are normally prime objectives of any exercise. they prepare the list of events, planners
The annotated OPORD shown as an annex in develop corresponding incidents with
FM 101-5 should be used as a model format. execution times, if appropriate, that provide
The OPORD causes the player to execute controllers, umpires, evaluators, and
the mission assigned by higher head- OPFORs with a way of realistically
quarters. The OPORD clearly expresses the presenting each event to the player. The list
way the player unit commander visualizes should indicate—
the flow of the battle. If the player’s OPORD Where each event or incident takes place.
FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

Who is involved in each. purpose of evaluating or testing multiple

How each is initiated. units under like conditions.
The events, incidents, and additional PUBLISHING THE LETTER
information become a schedule of events and OF INSTRUCTION
an enclosure to the scenario. The enclosure is
an abbreviated publication arranged chrono- The LOI provides exercise information to
logically in column format. It provides a all participants. It may include references to
ready index to the time, place, soldiers or information such as the maneuver damage
units involved, and the activity planned for a plan or the safety SOP, already published in
given situation. It also estimates the time other sources.
required to conduct the exercise, including The LOI is prepared in a format that is easy
the time for troop orientation before to use and provides all the necessary informa-
STARTEX and for an AAR after each exer- tion. If the exercise is very large or complex,
cise phase or at ENDEX. Planners should annexes to the LOI may address specific
adjust this time estimate after the exercise is subjects.
rehearsed. For free-play scenarios, the
schedule of events will be much less detailed The first draft of the LOI is published far
than for a controlled-play scenario. Items on enough in advance of STARTEX to allow all
the schedule of events cause specific actions concerned agencies, major subordinate com-
or reactions by the players within or among mands, and special staff members to respond
various systems. The schedule of events and submit comments. The final version of
should provide sufficient information to the LOI is published only when these
allow follow-up and observations by con- comments have been considered and
troller and umpire personnel. These events, incorporated. At division level, planning
actions, and reactions become topics of dis- should start at least 60 days prior to
cussion in the AAR. STARTEX. For exercises above division, a
minimum of 30 additional days should be
allowed for each echelon.
PREPARING AN OPERATION Those who plan and participate in exer-
PLAN cises must be kept well informed throughout
The exercise scenario is the basis for the the planning process. The LOI should not be
OPLAN. The OPLAN is the responsibility of used as the sole method of providing informa-
the planning staff G3. However, all members tion. Briefings, updates, fact sheets, or in-
of he planning staff must share in process reviews (IPRs) may also be used, as
developing the OPLAN to produce the appropriate or whenever important changes
various supporting annexes and overlays occur that will influence the exercise
that it requires. development.
The complexity of the OPLAN may vary
with the scope of the exercise. For example, PREPARING A
the OPLAN for a battalion-level exercise may CONTINGENCY PLAN
be issued as a verbal order. Warning orders The planning staff G3 is responsible for
and FRAGOs to initiate, continue, change, or preparing the contingency plan. It stipulates
halt operations are often prepared in advance what actions are to be taken in the event of
in support of exercises conducted for the adverse weather, actual war, or other factors

FM 25-4
Exercise Planning/Chapter 2


limiting exercise. If the plan calls for an alter- Preparation of the terrain may be neces-
nate exercise, then the planning process for it sary to provide a realistic environment, to
must be given the same consideration as the protect the terrain from excessive maneuver
original exercise, including the appropriate damage, and to ensure troop safety while
support plan. employing high-mobility systems. For

FM 25-4
Chapter 2/Exercise Planning

example, in a live-fire exercise, electronically As a final check on planning, the exercise is
or mechanically controlled targets may be in- rehearsed. This rehearsal does not include
stalled in foxholes or bunkers to represent the players. It occurs far enough in advance of
OPFOR. Dug-in, remotely controlled machine the exercise for planners to correct errors and
gun simulators may represent OPFOR fire adjust the schedule. Controllers, umpires,
from the objective. Barbed wire obstacles on evaluators, and OPFORs should rehearse so
the objective, demolition pits along the routes that they are all thoroughly familiar with
of approach, enemy fighting positions, and their duties. For large exercises, it is critical to
simulated gun emplacements can all add rehearse communications. The agency or
realism. Safety devices to facilitate control individual who originally directed the exer-
and safe operation should be installed when- cise should be represented at the rehearsal in
ever demolitions or live-fire exercises are order to make necessary changes and to
incorporated in the training exercise. approve the exercise.

Conduct of Training Exercises

The training exercises described in this resources. They select the specific training
chapter provide the preferred methods to exercise that will best attain their objectives
teach, sustain, and reinforce individual and and expend the fewest resources.
collective skills. They provide training
methods to develop, sustain, and evaluate COMMAND AND CONTROL
command and control skills. They are essen- PROFICIENCY
tial team-building tools, inasmuch as they
teach the employment of the internal and In order to conduct successful maneuvers
external systems necessary to coordinate and or FTXs at battalion level and above, com-
integrate combined arms and services team- manders and their staffs must already be pro-
work in order to fight and win air-land ficient in fundamental command and control
battles. skills. The exercises described in this chapter
train staffs to issue orders in a timely
Training exercises are a vital part of the sequence so that the available combat power
spectrum of training. Commanders use them can be committed at the right place and time.
to train individual, leader, and collective Exercises allow commanders to train their
skills in battle staff, survivability, and com- staffs—
bined arms and services training. Com-
manders select a particular training exercise To prepare orders to maneuver or move
or combination of exercises based on specific units.
training objectives and on available To plan and coordinate fire support.

INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Command and Control Proficiency . . . . 32 COMMAND FIELD EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Active Involvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...33 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Autonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
MAP EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...35 LIVE-FIRE EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...35 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...37 Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...66
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...40
Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...41 DEPLOYMENT EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
COMMAND POST EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 JOINT TRAINING EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...44 COMBINED TRAINING EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . 71
Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...47
FIELD TRAINING EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...53

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

To integrate all supporting systems. The commander teaches his staff to operate
Engineer barrier plans, for example, must without him. Inasmuch as he can seldom be
be coordinated with final protecting fires. at the TOC except to receive a periodic update
Battalion battle positions and natural during periods of reduced activity, the com-
obstacles must be tied to engineer tank obsta- mander uses a series of exercises to train the
cles. Where appropriate, exercises should use staff. He ensures they are capable of
automated data information and automated continuous operations by insisting upon
data processing (ADP) systems to teach designation and observance of working
operators to support staff requirements. shifts. The next war is unlikely to be a short
Moreover, scenarios should be intense war. Consequently, the commander must
enough to stretch ADP systems in providing teach the staff to make operations routine,
timely information. allowing personnel to be rested and alert for
their tour of duty. To avoid a break in duty
personnel thoroughly abreast of the tactical
ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT situation, officer and NCO shifts should not
Commanders must caution their staffs to coincide.
recognize that reality is the basis for decision
making. Operations centers, current situa- The commander should receive an update
tion maps, and ADP printouts are not reality. briefing from the staff upon his return to the
They are no more accurate than the fragmen- TOC. This practice requires the staff to main-
tary information fed into the tactical opera- tain an estimate of the situation, which is
tions center (TOC). Decision making must continually updated during the course of
ultimately rely upon the commander’s judg- their duties. TOC operators brief their
ment based upon his personal observation of replacements when relieved at the end of
the battlefield. The purpose of the staff their tour of duty. The update briefing for the
training through simulations, TEWTs, and commander normally takes one of two forms:
ultimately major exercises is to teach unit a formal briefing attended by the senior shift
teamwork and the proper preparation of personnel or individual updates for the com-
estimates and orders in support of the mander at each staff section.
The well-trained staff assists the com- The commander uses the update to ensure
mander in recognizing the critical actions his estimate of the situation is current, to
unfolding on the battlefield. The commander evaluate the staff estimate, and to train the
positions himself behind the main effort to staff. Normally the commander, who has
encourage his soldiers, to see the battle observed the major actions of the unit and
develop, and to be in position to make the visited his subordinate commanders, will
critical decisions that will determine the out- have more current information than does his
come of the battle. The staff members take the staff. The staff update will often show that
commander’s decisions and use their com- subordinate units have failed to report essen-
munications and their teamwork to make tial information that SOP requires them to
maximum combat power available to imple- report. This experience teaches the staff to
ment his decisions. Exercises teach the unit insist upon prompt and continuous reporting.
to achieve this vital teamwork that enables During the update briefing, the commander
the commander to translate his decisions into coaches the staff on the proper formulation of
actions that produce a decisive advantage at estimates, a disciplined thought process
the critical period of the battle. developed over time.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Through the conduct of austere exercises, Mastery of troop-leading procedures allows

the commander trains his commanders and subordinates adequate time to issue warning
the staff so that they are prepared to perform orders, to conduct reconnaissance, and to
their duties during maneuvers or the conduct prepare and issue timely orders. Such
of combat operations. During a MAPEX or mastery is a key training objective of the com-
CPX, the commander can observe individual mander. This objective can be achieved only
staff sections and critique specific actions, through practice. The time for mistakes and
such as— omissions is during training exercises that
Posting situation maps. do not involve troops. The AAR should high-
light this important dimension of command
Using radio telephone procedures. and control, upon which successful opera-
Preparing estimates and orders. tions are predicated. Once the commander’s
concept of operations is provided to his com-
Exchanging information within the staff. manders and detailed orders are published, a
Arranging the TOC to facilitate shared understanding of operations is estab-
coordination. lished. It can become the basis for verbal
FRAGOs to adjust to the changing tactical
The commander must emphasize situation. The compression of time in the
coordination and information flow since they troop-leading steps for the use of a FRAGO is
are essential to an efficient operation. He made possible by the previous employment of
must insist that information be disseminated full troop-leading steps. These ensure a com-
down the chain, as well as to higher and adja- mon understanding of the enemy, mission
cent units. Each echelon can become a filter and friendly situation, current control
of essential information unless the staff measures, and detailed reconnaissance (map
continually works at information sharing. or ground) of the operational area. The team-
Recognition that the staff serves the lower work of a trained staff facilitates this process.
units, as well as the commander, is a Staff proficiency and teamwork are
profound concept—a mark of professional developed over time through the exercises
staff organization. discussed in this chapter.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

MAPEXs are low-cost, low-overhead train- should include NBC play, both defensive and
ing exercises that portray military situations offensive, to demonstrate and prepare partici-
on maps and overlays that may be supple- pants for the physical and psychological
mented with, or replaced by, terrain models effects of continuous NBC operations. They
and sand tables. MAPEXs allow com- portray exercise administrative and logis-
manders to train their staffs to perform essen- tical situations realistically to integrate all
tial integrating and control functions to sup- aspects of the battle. They portray EW
port their decisions under simulated wartime realistically to allow participants to achieve
conditions. MAPEXs may be employed by proficiency in working through jamming and
commanders to train the staffs at any in exercising appropriate countermeasures.
echelon— Controllers must consider how the informa-
To function as effective teams. tion they input affects player staff sections
under actual battle conditions. These inputs
To exchange information. should make players aware of the tactical
To prepare estimates. and logistical situations, both friendly and
To give appraisals. enemy, as well as of the impact of the civilian
situation upon tactical operations. The
To make recommendations and decisions. control group must render prompt and logical
To prepare plans. rulings for all tactical and logistical situa-
tions that arise. When player and enemy
To issue orders. forces make contact, controllers allow the
To be proficient in integration of all branch situation to develop until a tactical ruling is
elements of the teams. indicated or required. The control group
assesses casualties and damage and
MAPEXs are suitable for command and announces engagement results. The
control training from battalion through corps company players use this information to
levels. They are especially useful for multi- paint the battlefield picture to battalion head-
echelon staff training when commanders quarters. Since MAPEXs are training vehi-
want to involve the minimum number of cles, players, and controllers must not reveal
soldiers while fully exercising staff proce- information unavailable in a real situation.
dures and techniques at multiple echelons.
MAPEXs are relatively inexpensive. Their MAPEXs require the controllers to avoid
scenarios derive from event schedules or from influencing exercise play artificially since
battle simulations, depending upon the doing so creates other artificial situations
resources available. later. Controllers should not interfere with
player personnel even though they may be
MAPEXs can provide survivability train- allowed free access to player facilities so they
ing through the practice of continuous opera- can perform their assigned duties. Con-
tions, operations in a mission-oriented protec- trollers should provide their insights and sug-
tion posture (MOPP) 4 environment passing gestions during periodic AARs to assist
control to alternate operations centers and players in maximizing lessons learned
jump CPs, as well as practice in operation in a through the exercise.
dispersed posture.
Characteristics Personnel
MAPEXs should attempt to portray the The player personnel for MAPEXs should
battlefield as realistically as possible. They include representatives from all elements of

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

the combat team or task force. MAPEXs command echelons represented by members
require control teams to regulate the exercise of the control group. The control group repre-
and cause play to flow to a logical conclusion. sents all persons and units except those
The chief controller supervises the entire specifically represented by the player units.
controller facility and acts as the director of
controller personnel. The assistant chief con- Equipment and Facilities
troller acts as the chief battle map (terrain
model) controller. He is responsible for the MAPEXs require on] y minimal equipment.
battle portrayal on the map, to include battle It may consist of the following:
damage assessment. The assistant battle
map controllers ensure that players report to Exercise maps sufficient in number to meet
higher headquarters only what they could the demands of the exercise objectives. Ter-
observe in an actual tactical situation. They rain models or sand tables that are exact
ensure that maneuver, fire support, CS, and replicas of the maps may be used in
CSS functions are realistically portrayed by conjunction with the maps or alone. If they
both friendly personnel and threat con- are used, they should be large enough to
trollers. They also arbitrate all points of allow all player and controller personnel to
disagreement concerning battle map play. observe and to perform as assigned.
General purpose items such as office sup-
The threat controllers ensure that enemy plies, overlay production material,
actions are portrayed according to threat message and journal logs, report forms,
doctrine and the exercise order of battle. They unit SOPs, and appropriate reference
begin the exercise by displaying the initial materials.
threat situation prepared by the exercise
planning group. They continue exercise play Simple point-to-point wire communications
by interacting with the player commanders to permit simulation of communication
and by continually presenting realistic situa- links to be practiced during the exercise. If
tions using threat tactics. The damage radio or wire links are employed in an
assessment controllers assess personnel and operational environment, players should
equipment loss and determine when not be permitted to make face-to-face
damaged equipment and wounded personnel communication with other players.
can be returned to action. Controllers must Requiring little communications equip-
not usurp player functions. For example, ment and a minimum number of support
medical personnel of the player unit should personnel, MAPEXs may be conducted in
be required to determine when or if wounded permanent or temporary locations. Planners
personnel can return to the battle. must provide buildings or tents large enough
The number of control personnel required to house both player and control functions.
depends upon the size of the player organiza- The work area should be relatively
tion and the scope of the exercise scenario. If uncrowded. Planners must make provisions
a simulation drives the MAPEX, the instruc- for security, visitor reception and briefing,
tions contained in the simulation package food service, and vehicle parking, as appro-
will provide guidance for developing con- priate. If the MAPEX is conducted away from
troller manning tables. the unit’s cantonment area, planners must
arrange transportation and medical support.
Both controller and player personnel must If the MAPEX is to last longer than one day,
understand the specific job positions and they must arrange for billeting.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

Prior to selecting the MAPEX training player unit commander and selected unit
mode, commanders must ensure that staff personnel should be briefed on the exercise.
members and leaders are familiar with the The commander of the player unit uses the
individual skills of their duty positions and MAPEX LOI as the basis for providing exer-
the collective skills of their staff section or cise information to subordinates. The
command group. Full proficiency is not planning staff also uses the LOI to brief con-
required for participation, inasmuch as the trollers, umpires, and evaluators.
purpose of the MAPEX is to build proficiency. Normally 24 to 48 hours before STARTEX,
Planners must consider the planning steps the controllers train the players in the
discussed in Chapter 2. Commanders and conduct of the MAPEX. Players who receive
staffs at battalion level plan and conduct battlefield information directly from con-
MAPEXs for their own units. At higher trollers must have additional training on how
echelons, planning staffs and controller to translate it into usable and recognizable
teams plan, prepare, conduct, and review the formats. These formats include spot reports,
exercise. Once the objectives, scope, troop list, situation reports, NBC reports, shell reports,
exercise area, and outline are approved, the and others.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Controller and player training prior to a Information flow.

MAPEX involves the following: In-progress and after-action reviews.
Purpose and scope.
Controller duties.
Training objectives. Execution
Participating units. The LOI for the MAPEX will include
Enemy situation. instructions for moving to the exercise site, if
Control organization. appropriate. Time must be set aside and
personnel assigned prior to STARTEX to
Communications plan. install any necessary point-to-point wire com-
Casualty and damage assessment. munications, to set up the player and
controller TOC, and to prepare maps, sand
Time delays in message transmission. tables, or terrain models.
Controller records and reports. Prior to STARTEX, the chief controller
Intelligence play. gives the player commander a commander’s
update briefing. This briefing includes any
War-game procedures. changes to the LOI not already announced or

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

any items requiring reiteration. The chief sets the stage for the remainder of the exer-
controller may assume the role of the player cise and imparts realism. The chief con-
unit’s higher commander, unless the com- troller, acting as the higher commander, con-
mander elects to play this role himself in the verts the exercise OPLAN to an OPORD and
training of his subordinates. At this point, announces that staff members are available
the chief controller is briefed by controllers for coordination with their player counter-
representing staff members. This briefing parts. This normally constitutes STARTEX.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

The brigade-level MAPEX functions as Allow the threat controllers to explain their
follows: battle plans, battle outcomes, and strength
The players are presented with a general at ENDEX. An assessment of future threat
and a special situation. capabilities should also be presented.
The players react to the situation and Appendix G contains a complete discussion
provide information and reports to higher, of the AAR and after-action reports.
lower, and adjacent units, as appropriate.
The control group, in its role as higher TACTICAL EXERCISES
headquarters, evaluates the player orders
for mission accomplishment, fights its WITHOUT TROOPS
portion of the air-land battles, and
responds to player requests for support, as
appropriate. At the same time, company DESCRIPTION
commanders gather around the battle map TEWTs are low-cost, low-overhead exer-
and fight the battle according to battalion cises conducted in the field on actual terrain
orders. suitable for training units for specific mis-
The results of battle board actions are sions. Using few support troops, TEWTs are
relayed to the player battalion head- used by commanders to train subordinate
quarters in the form of reports and leaders and battle staffs at any echelon—
requests. These portray the battle and To analyze terrain.
create new situations requiring additional
player actions or reactions. Battalion To employ units according to terrain
TOCs, in turn, feed information, reports, analysis.
and requests to the brigade. To emplace weapon systems to best support
The players react to the new situations as the unit’s mission.
they normally would in combat. This forces To plan conduct of the unit mission.
the brigade and battalions to alter battle To coach subordinates on the best use of ter-
plans, issue FRAGOs. and place demands
on CS and CSS units. rain and proper employment of all combat
arms (CA), CS, and CSS assets.
This process continues until the MAPEX
ends. Unit personnel participate in a TEWT as
members of small groups. The commander or
his S3 orients them on the terrain, pointing
out prominent features and their importance
Postexercise to the exercise. The commander then-presents
At ENDEX, the chief controller holds an the special situation—an extension of the
immediate AAR so that all players and general situation that was issued in advance
controllers gain the maximum training of the TEWT—followed by the initial require-
benefit from the exercise. At a minimum, the ment. Group members then solve each
AAR should– requirement individually and prepare to
present their solutions. Next, the group
Provide an opportunity for the players and discusses individual solutions and develops a
controllers to exchange information, ideas, group solution. The commander critiques the
and lessons learned. group and presents his solution. Discussion

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

of individual solutions generates interest and Mobilization planning.

understanding of tactics and optimum use of Amphibious operations.
the terrain. By allowing group leaders to
explain unit dispositions for a given opera- Combat and field trains establishment and
tion, TEWTs create a favorable environment operations.
for a professionally challenging and informa- Intelligence-gathering techniques.
tive class on subjects that impact directly
upon the unit mission.
Equipment and Facilities
Characteristics Equipment required for a TEWT depends
For a successful TEWT, the commander on the amount of time to be spent on the
must select the proper terrain and reconnoiter exercise and the objectives of the exercise.
it. This process is vital since the TEWT TEWTs are always conducted in the field on
teaches tactics by using actual terrain. The terrain suitable for training the units to per-
general area is selected from a map recon- form in specific missions.
naissance and then followed up with an on-
the-ground reconnaissance. Sites preselected
should be appropriate for the training objec- PHASES
tives and flexible enough to portray more
than one practical solution. The various loca- Preexercise
tions selected for specific events during the Prior to selecting the TEWT training mode,
reconnaissance become training sites for commanders determine whether subordinate
specific situations. The time schedule identi- leaders and staff members are proficient in
fies these locations by six-digit grid the individual and leader skills their duty
coordinates. positions require. Although a TEWT may be
the best way to teach tactical principles on
Personnel the ground, it does not emphasize time and
distance factors and their significance for
The personnel participating in a TEWT are effective troop-leading procedures. Before
subordinate commanders, leaders, and staffs conducting other exercises with soldiers,
selected by the unit commander. commanders should recognize these limita-
Commanders or S3s from direct support tions and provide appropriate emphasis to
organizations may supply advice on situa- ensure that participants recognize how
tions concerning their own specialties. Based important time, distance, and light condi-
on their participation, the TEWT can provide tions are to actual operations. Planners must
combat team training. The participants from consider the planning steps discussed in
supporting organizations should be con- Chapter 2.
sulted during the preparation of the exercise
and be available during its execution. The exercise directive for a TEWT can be as
simple as a warning order from the com-
The procedures involved in the TEWT can mander that states—
also be applied to achieve battle staff and
combined arms training in— Why the TEWT is being conducted.
MOUT. Who will participate.
Deployment planning. What equipment is required.
FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

When and where the TEWT will be Doing so is particularly important if the solu-
conducted. tions will become the bases for subsequent
What the special instructions are. situations and requirements.
Plans for a TEWT are normally formatted Once the commander approves the tactical
problems and solutions, a scenario is
by the unit staff and should include the developed. The scenario includes a general
tasking of assistant trainers, if required. situation, initial situation and requirement,
Research for a TEWT consists of— subsequent situations and requirements, and
Reviewing missions, weapons capabilities, a time schedule. The general situation
and tactics. describes the friendly and enemy units
Reviewing appropriate laws, regulations, involved, their locations on the ground, and
and SOPs pertinent to the use of a parti- the significant activities for the previous 24
cular piece of land. hours. Subsequent situations and require-
ments are derived from the training
During the preliminary reconnaissance of objectives.
the terrain, the planners— The time schedule should indicate the esti-
Walk the terrain, making a careful mated time needed for presenting each situa-
inspection of the entire area to ensure that tion and requirement at each training site.
the military aspects of the terrain are fully The schedule helps ensure that no one spends
appreciated. The commander normally too much time on any one requirement or at
makes this reconnaissance and selects any one location. Figure 3-5 shows a time
teaching points that support his mission, schedule for a single training objective
as well as his training objectives. covered at two different locations.
Take notes at each training site concerning Once the time schedule is developed, the
the problem to be presented and its scenario is checked to ensure that it fits the
solution. terrain selected. During this check all likely
Select the initial rendezvous point for all responses to situations and requirements
personnel. should be war-gamed.
Choose vehicle parking areas, if required. Narratives covering the subsequent
Confirm routes and movement times from situations should create a realistic battlefield
vehicle parking areas to each training site picture. They should be as short as possible,
and between training sites. be compatible with the exercise, and contain
only the information players need to weigh
Select an area for meals, if necessary. relevant factors and produce an acceptable
If the TEWT is to be conducted off a solution. Narratives should cover the
military reservation, planners must contact composition of forces and the air situation.
landowners to get permission to use the land. Participants are expected to know the TOE
and weapon capabilities; consequently, the
After the first reconnaissance, planners problem is normally in the form of orders and
prepare a draft of the exercise with situation appropriate graphics. Short verbal orders to
narratives for each requirement and solution. introduce new situations will not only save
They may have to visit each training site time, but also give subordinate commanders
several times to finalize details of the situa- and staffs practice in working from verbal
tion and to check the proposed solutions. orders.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

The LOI includes— written in the five-paragraph field order

Administrative instructions (mess, format with annexes, as appropriate. It con-
transportation, medical). tains information developed from the general
and initial situations and the first
Maneuver damage procedures. requirement.
Actual time and duration of the TEWT.
Training objectives.
For a battalion-level TEWT, the battalion
Personnel to be trained. commander begins at the first training site
Preexercise training requirements. by explaining the purpose of the exercise and
the tasks to be covered. The commander then
The OPORD for the TEWT should be issued presents the general situation, the initial
at least 24 hours prior to STARTEX. It is situation, and the first requirement.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

After giving the first requirement, the Presents a solution and the reasons for it.
Guides a discussion of all solutions for the
Allows time for players to develop requirement and explains the preferred
solutions. solution.
Selects one leader to present a solution. Gives instructions and time limits for
Selects other leaders to present their proceeding to the next training site.
Guides a discussion of the various This procedure occurs at all subsequent
solutions. training sites until the TEWT is completed.


Inasmuch as the TEWT is a formal part of DESCRIPTION
the officer development program of the unit, CPXs are medium-cost, medium-overhead
the lessons learned should provide a founda- training exercises that may be conducted at
tion for subsequent instruction. Materials garrison locations or in the field. In garrison,
compiled during preparation and conduct of
the TEWT may be retained for reference on CPXs are expanded MAPEXs using tactical
future TEWTs. Some service schools offer communications systems and personnel in a
additional information and examples of command post environment. Normal battle-
TEWTs through their catalogs of instruc- field distances between the CPs are usually
tional materials. Planners should consult reduced, and CPs do not need to exercise all
these catalogs to determine the suitability tactical communications.
and availability of appropriate supporting The most effective CPXs are conducted in
materials. the field. In field operations, time and
FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

distance should realistically reflect AirLand NBC warning and reporting; reconnais-
Battle doctrine. Operations should be con- sance; and MOPP, logistical, decontami-
tinuous and use all organic and supporting nation, and smoke operations. Administra-
communications equipment. Commanders tive and logistical situations are portrayed
practice combined arms integration and and played realistically so that player com-
tactical emplacement and displacement of manders and staffs realize their effects on all
CPs. Each headquarters should practice aspects of the battle. EW should be portrayed
survivability operations such as dispersion, to show how important it is to all elements
camouflage, and security. and how it hinders commanders and staff
officers who are not prepared for it.
Commanders use CPXs to train
subordinate leaders and staffs at all
echelons— Controllers should avoid influencing
exercise play artificially since doing so
To function as effective teams and build creates other artificial situations later. When
cohesion. inputting information, controllers consider
which player staff section would be most
To exchange information. affected under actual battle conditions.
To prepare estimates. Inputs should make the player personnel
To give appraisals. aware of the tactical and logistical situations
and cause player action. Field CPXs should
To prepare plans. force the player units at all echelons to
To issue orders. emplace and displace their TOC. TOC
displacement teaches the units to use tactical
To reconnoiter, select, and tactically and main CPs, to perform continuous opera-
occupy CP locations. tions and reconnaissance, and to set up
To establish and employ communications. organic and supporting communications
systems. It also provides realistic time and
To displace headquarters and command distance experience.

CPXs also provide commanders with The control group renders prompt and
valuable training experiences in planning logical rulings for all tactical and logistical
and executing CS and CSS activities. Troops situations that arise during exercise play.
other than headquarters and communica- When player and threat forces make contact,
tions personnel are normally represented by controllers allow the situation to develop
controllers. CPXs may be driven either by until a tactical ruling is indicated or required.
master schedules of events or battle Rulings are based on results obtained from
war-gaming, based on player-directed
simulations. actions. The control group assesses
casualties and damage and announces
engagement rulings. The company players
Characteristics use this information to paint the battlefield
Successful CPXs are conducted under picture to the battalion headquarters.
battlefield conditions. To validate staff and Controllers are allowed free access to player
unit procedures, tactical exercises integrate facilities to perform their assigned duties, but
nuclear and chemical weapons employment; they do not interfere with player personnel.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

In addition to the commander, staff, and The service support controller supervises
subordinate commanders and staffs of the the activities of the service support staff con-
player units, CPXs require controllers and trollers. They prepare orders, request
evaluators. The controllers, directed by the information, and act on requests and
chief controller, manage the exercise and messages from players.
cause play to flow to a logical conclusion. The OPFOR controllers are responsible for
evaluators observe player activities to deter- enemy actions according to threat doctrine
mine if tasks are performed to preestablished and order of battle. They show the initial
standards at each echelon. The number of threat situation prepared by the exercise
evaluators and their qualifications depend on planning group. They also interact with the
the scope of the exercise and the tasks or player company commanders. and
procedures to be evaluated. If an external continually present them with realistic situa-
evaluation has been directed, the chief tions using threat tactics.
evaluator will form evaluator teams.
It is essential that both controller and Damage assessment controllers assess
player personnel understand the specific job personnel and equipment losses and deter-
positions and command echelons represented mine when damaged equipment and
by the control group. The control group repre- wounded personnel can be returned to the
sents all persons and units except the job player for use in the CPX. They do not circum-
positions and functions specifically repre- vent actions taken by the players. For
sented by the player units. example, medical personnel in the exercise
determine when wounded personnel can be
returned to action.
The exercise control center (ECC) functions Player personnel include the company
as the player unit higher headquarters. One commanders, XOs, and FIST chiefs from the
of the functions of the ECC is to monitor the battalions. They execute the battalion
player actions, situations, and plans. ECC OPORD and fight the battle according to
personnel also— orders received. Since the exercise is a
Maintain controllers’ battle maps. training vehicle for the battalion, they do not
Portray the threat force. reveal information unavailable in a real
Insert incidents and messages.
Assess equipment and personnel losses. Equipment and Facilities
The chief controller is in charge of the ECC The equipment required for a CPX consists
and all subordinate controllers, umpires, and of—
evaluators. Additionally, the chief controller Communications equipment to replicate
acts as the higher commander. Staff the higher headquarters of the player unit.
controllers act as the higher HQ staff. In
support of the chief controller, they fight the General purpose items such as office sup-
air-land battles. They prepare orders, request plies, overlay production material,
information, and receive and act on reports message and journal logs, report forms,
and requests from the players. The assistant unit SOPs, and appropriate reference
chief controller acts as the chief controller material.
when necessary and performs as the higher Equipment required to replicate the TOC of
HQ chief of staff for the player units. the player units’ higher headquarters if the

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

CPX is to be conducted in a field Prepackaged battle simulations.

environment. Additional communications.
Appropriate military references (field Additional map coverage.
manuals, training circulars).
Maneuver area clearances.
Equipment necessary- to identify
participants and provide security for the Billeting.
TOC (ID badges, signs). Medical support.
CPXs conducted in garrison require Food service.
separate buildings or tents large enough to
house the control team and player units. The Sample division CPX controller facility
available space should be adequate for the configurations and relationships are shown
unit’s TOC. Provisions should be made for in the following diagrams. These can be
security, visitor reception and briefing, tailored or augmented for use in CPXs con-
feeding, and vehicle parking. If the exercises ducted at other echelons. These diagrams do
are conducted away from the unit’s not portray specific vehicles or buildings.
immediate cantonment area, transportation They are presented to show the personnel,
and medical support must also be arranged. elements, and equipment required and their
Exercises lasting longer than one day require physical relationships. Controller and player
billeting arrangements. relationships are as shown. The division
For CPXs conducted in the field, maneuver command structure extending through the
areas must be large enough for player head- brigade, division artillery (DIVARTY), and
quarters to disperse realistically. The control division support command (DISCOM) to the
headquarters will ensure good radio and/or battalions should function as it would in a
wire communications with player units and tactical situation. These echelons inject
subordinate control elements. The control realism by forcing units to respond to higher
headquarters should be located to obtain the and lower unit needs.
best possible communications and to facili- PHASES
tate travel to and from player headquarters.
Facilities to support the control headquarters Preexercise
must also be planned. They provide— Prior to selecting the CPX training mode,
Security. the commander should determine whether
the personnel chosen to participate are profi-
Visitor reception and briefing. cient in the individual and collective skills
Food service. required by their duty positions and assigned
Medical aid. units. Planners must consider the steps listed
in Chapter 2.
Maintenance. Sufficient time must be allocated to allow
Hygiene. for thorough planning and preparation. The
The amount of outside support required for size and length of the exercise impacts on the
the control organization depends on the scope time required for these functions.
and duration of the exercise. Assistance from Normally 24 to 48 hours before STARTEX,
outside agencies may be required in the the controllers train the players in the
following areas: conduct of the CPX. Players who receive

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

battlefield information directly from con- and recognizable formats. These formats
trollers must be given additional training on include spot reports, situation reports, NBC
how to convert that information into usable reports, shell reports, and others.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

For controller and player training prior to a the exercise site, if appropriate. Time must be
CPX, planners should consider the following set aside and personnel assigned prior
subjects, as appropriate: STARTEX to install necessary communica-
Purpose and scope of the exercise. tions equipment, set up the controller TOC,
and prepare maps.
Training objectives.
Maneuver area rights and restrictions. Execution
Participating units. Immediately prior to STARTEX, the chief
controller and staff give the player com-
Enemy situation. mander and staff a commander’s update
Control organization. briefing. Included in this briefing are any
changes to the LOI which have not already
Communications plan for the exercise. been announced or any items requiring
Controller duties. reiteration. When this portion of the briefing
is completed, the chief controller assumes the
Casualty and damage assessment. role of the players’ higher commander and is
Use of time delays in message briefed by controllers, who represent the
transmission. staff. This briefing sets the stage for the exer-
Controller records and reports. cise and imparts realism to it. At this point
the chief controller, in the role of higher com-
Intelligence play. mander, first converts the exercise OPLAN to
War-game procedures. an OPORD. Then he announces that the staff
is available for coordination with player
Information flow. counterparts. This is normally STARTEX.
Controller communications check. The division-level CPX functions as
Controller reconnaissance of exercise area. follows:
After-action reviews. The players are presented with a general
and a special situation.
A CPX at the battalion level is normally
conceived, planned, and conducted by the The players react to the situation and pro-
commander and his staff. At higher echelons, vide information and reports, as appro-
planning staffs and controller teams are priate, to higher, lower, and adjacent units.
normally formed to plan, prepare, conduct, The control group, in its role as the corps,
and review the exercise. The commander evaluates the player orders for mission
directing the CPX first approves the objec- accomplishment, fights its own portion of
tives, scope, troop list, exercise area, and the air-land battle, and responds to player
outline plan of the CPX. Then the player unit requests for support, as appropriate. At the
commander and selected personnel should be same time, company commanders
briefed by the controllers. gathered around the battle map in each
The planning staff completes the exercise brigade battle facility fight the battle
LOI and sends it to the player unit for use in according to battalion orders. The results of
planning for the exercise. The planning staff engagements are relayed to the player
also uses the LOI to brief controllers, headquarters as reports and requests that
umpires, and evaluators. The LOI for the combine to create new situations and
CPX includes instructions for movement to continue to portray the battle.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

The players react to the new situations as Following the division-level AAR,
they would in combat. This forces bat- individual sessions may be held for func-
talions to alter battle plans, issue FRAGOs, tional areas: intelligence, maneuver, fire sup-
and place demands on CS and CSS units. port, logistics, and communications. These
The process continues until the CPX is discuss the action and interaction of each
terminated. staff function in detail. Appendix G contains
a complete description of the AAR and after-
Postexercise action report.
At ENDEX, the chief controller holds an FIELD TRAINING
immediate AAR for all players and con-
trollers, in order to gain the maximum EXERCISES
training benefit from the exercise. At a
minimum, the AAR— DESCRIPTION
Provides an opportunity for the players FTXs are high-cost, high-overhead
and controllers to exchange information, exercises conducted under simulated combat
ideas, and lessons learned. conditions in the field. They exercise com-
Allows the threat controllers to explain mand and control of all echelons in battle
their battle plans, battle outcomes, and functions—intelligence, combat support,
strength at ENDEX. An assessment of combat service support, maneuver, com-
future threat capabilities is also presented. munications—against an actual or simulated
Exercises conducted at brigade level and OPFOR. They are conducted in a realistic
above offer an excellent opportunity to environment using the full combined arms
conduct a multiechelon AAR. For example, a teams. They provide both intersystems and
division CPX AAR could involve the intrasystems training to fight air-land
following: battles, using all unit personnel and equip-
ment. FTXs must include all attached units.
A battalion-level AAR conducted by FTXs provide the most realistic environ-
battalion controllers for the battalion com- ment of all training exercises. FTXs allow
mander, staff, company commanders, and participants to appreciate real time and
threat controllers from the brigade battle distance factors. FTXs involve several
facility. tactical situations in which one or more units
A brigade-level AAR conducted by the participate. They may require movement and
battle facility controller for the brigade communications over long distances. FTXs
commander and staff, battalion com- do not use live fire. However, they may use a
manders, and controllers from the brigade TES such as MILES to assess losses realisti-
battle facility. cally. TC 25-6 provides details regarding
A division-level AAR conducted by the MILES employment.
exercise director for the division com- FTXs are used to train the commander,
mander, staff, major subordinate com- staff, and subordinate units—
manders, and selected staff members. Con- To move and/or maneuver units
trollers from the ECC and selected con- realistically.
trollers from the brigade battle facilities
participate in the AAR according to the To employ organic weapon systems
agenda. effectivey.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

To build teamwork and cohesion. FTX controllers, umpires, or evaluators

To plan and coordinate supporting fires. must consider how players will be affected by
the information they input. These inputs
To plan and coordinate logistical activities should make the players aware of the tactical
to support tactical operations. and logistical situations. The inputs present
situations and requirements that will cause
FTXs are the only exercises that fully players to act.
integrate the total force in a realistic combat
environment. They involve combat, CS, and Controllers must not influence play
CSS units to include battle staff, surviv- artificially. The control group must render
ability, and combined arms training. FTXs prompt and logical rulings in all tactical and
encompass battle drills, crew drills, situa- logistical situations that arise. When the
tional training exercises, and other types of players and OPFOR controllers make
training to reinforce individual and collective contact, the control group allows the situa-
task integration. tion to develop until a tactical ruling is indi-
cated or required. The control group assesses
casualties and damage. It announces rulings
Characteristics in a manner that provides as much realism as
possible. These rulings are based on observa-
FTXs are executed under battlefield tion of the player units, as well as on results
conditions. They provide opportunities to from war-gaming, player-directed actions.
practice both offensive and defensive opera- Controllers have free access to player facili-
tions. Thus, they enhance the ability of ties so they can perform their assigned duties.
soldiers and leaders to fight and survive on However, they do not interfere with the
an integrated battlefield. Such training players.
builds teamwork under conditions likely to
prevail in time of war and impresses players,
commanders, and staffs with the magnitude Personnel
and scope of planning and operations.
Player unit personnel perform their
FTXs portray administrative and logistical assigned functions and duties. Controllers
situations realistically so that player guide the exercise through OPFOR actions.
commanders and staffs experience their To do so they create tactical situations which
impact on all aspects of the battle. FTXs achieve exercise objectives and cause the
should also integrate E W and NBC warfare play to flow to a logical conclusion.
into exercise play. Doing so familiarizes com- Evaluators observe player and OPFOR unit
manders and staffs with the capabilities, activities and determine whether tasks are
availability, and employment doctrine of EW performed to predetermined standards.
and NBC assets. When properly employed, Umpires determine the results of battle
EW assets become a combat multiplier that engagements, fires and obstacles, and
extends a unit’s tactical capability. They support activities. They report the results to
provide commanders with nonlethal means, players, evaluators, and controllers.
which can accomplish desired results and OPFORs replicate enemy forces in the appro-
conserve combat capability. PW play should priate size and strength to portray the threat
be realistic. Trained personnel should act as activities realistically at specific times and
PWs so that interrogators and capturing places on the battlefield. The number of
units get realistic training. controller, umpire, evaluator, and OPFOR

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

personnel that will be required depends upon Additional communications capability.

the size of the player organization and the Additional map coverage.
objectives of the exercise.
Maneuver area clearances.
Equipment and Facilities Billeting.
The equipment required for an FTX Medical service.
consists of— Food service.
Communications equipment that will
portray the higher headquarters of the
player unit. PHASES
General purpose items such as office Preexercise
supplies, overlay production materials,
message and journal logs, report forms, Prior to selecting the FTX training mode,
unit SOPs, and appropriate reference commanders must determine that subordi-
materials. nate commanders, leaders, and soldiers are
Equipment that player units at all echelons proficient in the individual, leader, and
need to operate in the field for a sustained collective skills required by their duty
period. positions. Commanders will also ensure that
all squads, platoons, and companies have
Appropriate military reference materials. attained basic proficiency in appropriate
The exercise area should be large enough to ARTEP tasks and missions. This must be
allow realistic dispersion of all player units done to obtain the appropriate training
according to AirLand Battle doctrine. See TC benefit from maneuvering tactical units
25-1 for guidance in determining space while conducting a battalion-or brigade-level
requirements. The site for the control head- FTX. Planners must consider the steps
quarters should ensure good communica- discussed in Chapter 2.
tions. The control headquarters should be Normally within 72 hours before
located where it will support the exercise and STARTEX, the planners of the excercise
allow for easy travel to and from player head- train the controllers and umpires. Controller,
quarters. Facilities in support of the control evaluator, OPFOR, and umpire training for
headquarters include— an FTX involves some or all of the following:
Security. Purpose and scope.
Visitor reception and briefing. Training objectives.
Food service. Maneuver area rights and restrictions.
Medical service. Participating units.
Maintenance. Enemy situation.
Hygiene facilities. OPFOR organization.
The amount of outside support required will Rules of engagement.
also depend on the scope and duration of the Communications plan.
exercise. Assistance from outside agencies
may be required in the following areas: Controller duties.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Casualty and damage assessment. coordination with their player counterparts.

Controller records and reports. This normally constitutes STARTEX.
Intelligence play. The battalion FTX functions as follows:
Information flow. Player units with their respective
evaluators and umpires, controller
Controller communications checks. elements, and OPFOR personnel with their
Controller reconnaissance of exercise. controllers and umpires move to initial
field positions for STARTEX. They receive
After-action review. an orientation on administrative require-
The chief controller first trains his staff in ments and exercise objectives. The general
supporting umpires/controllers. Then the and initial situations are issued to players.
controllers brief the player unit commanders OPFOR personnel are briefed separately
and selected personnel on the exercise. and in a different location. They execute
their role in the FTX, using predesignated
Execution incidents from the schedule of events to
The LOI should include instructions for trigger player actions.
moving to the exercise site. Time should be set Players fight the battle according to the
aside and personnel assigned prior to initial OPORD. OPFOR actions are used to
STARTEX to install the necessary controller build intelligence estimates, which require
communications equipment, to set up the players’ staffs to make estimates and com-
controller TOC, and to prepare maps and manders to issue guidance and make
overlays. decisions. FRAGOs are issued as needed in
The controller manning tables for a order to continue the battle.
division FTX in Appendix D can be used as Players provide reports to higher
guidelines for manning the ECC. Manning headquarters, request support, and allocate
tables should be modified to fit the echelon at or apply combat power, as appropriate.
which the FTX is being conducted. For Umpires determine the results of maneuver
example, battalion ECCs need fewer engagements and the effects of fire support.
personnel than division ECCs, and their They assess losses accordingly.
functions are narrower. Controllers guide battle play in order to
Immediately prior to STARTEX, the chief accomplish the exercise objectives and to
controller and controller staff give the player keep the exercise within the limits
commander and staff a commander’s update prescribed by the scenario.
briefing. This briefing includes any changes Evaluators judge units and soldiers
to the LOI not already announced or items according to established standards in
that require reiteration. Then the chief ARTEPs and soldiers manuals.
controller assumes the role of the players’ This process continues until the FTX ends.
higher commander. He is briefed by the con- The player commander in coordination
trollers, who represent the staff. This briefing with the chief controller should monitor the
sets the stage for the exercise and imparts attainment of the exercise objectives. If
realism. At this time, the chief controller, as necessary, the exercise may be halted to
the higher commander, converts the exercise reorient either the OPFOR or the player
OPLAN to an OPORD. He then announces units in order to accomplish the exercise
that the command staff is available for objectives.
FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

All unit leaders and controllers must stress Appendix G contains a full description of the
safety. They ensure that all participants AAR and after-action reports.
follow the established procedures for
preventing injuries and keeping incidents COMMAND FIELD EXERCISES
caused by carelessness or overly aggressive
personnel from interrupting the exercise. DESCRIPTION
These include—
CFXs lie on a scale between CPXs and
Stand-off distances between troops and FTXs. Available resources-money, time,
vehicles to prevent physical contact. personnel, equipment—determine where
CFXs fall on the scale. CFXs can also be used
Safety procedures for firing blanks and as backups for FTXs in the event that
using pyrotechnics. maneuver damage or other factors such as
Search procedures for captured personnel. changes in the weather prohibit the planned
Procedures for returning captured
personnel to their own units as quickly as
possible so the soldiers can continue FTX
Safety procedures to halt all exercise
Safety requirements for vehicle movement
at night or in limited visibility.
FTXs must be thoroughly planned and
executed, or extensive maneuver damage can
result. Great care must be taken to prevent
water pollution or damage to roads, fields,
crops, trees, animals, or man-made
At ENDEX, the chief controller holds an
immediate AAR for all players and con- The CFX is an FTX with reduced combat
trollers in order to obtain the maximum unit and vehicle density, but with full
training benefit from the exercise. This AAR command and control, CS, and CSS
will— elements. For example, the platoon leader in
his combat vehicle represents the entire
Provide an opportunity for the players and platoon. The battery headquarters, the fire
controllers to exchange information, ideas, direction center (FDC), and the base piece
and lessons learned. represent the artillery firing battery. The
Allow the OPFOR controllers to explain CFX allows the full-up employment of certain
their battle plans, the battle results, and assets such as the signal battalion, the CEWI
their strength at ENDEX. They should also battalion, and the target acquisition battery
present an assessment of future OPFOR (TAB). CFXs are not simply scaled-down
capabilities. FTXs. They are, in fact, excellent vehicles for
FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

training commanders and staffs with certain mode, commanders should determine if
full-up systems to gather information, to subordinate commanders, leaders, and
provide communication links, and to develop soldiers are proficient in the individual,
intelligence. CFXs provide real-time leader, and collective skills required by their
operations over actual distances with appro- duty positions. Preliminary training through
priate logistical support. They are driven by TEWTs, MAPEXs, and CPXs can ensure that
schedules of events or by controlled OPFORs participants are sufficiently trained to justify
operating under the exercise director. the use of the CFX. Planners must consider
the steps discussed in Chapter 2. The com-
Characteristics plexity of each step depends upon the desires
CFXs are less expensive than FTXs. Yet of the commander directing the exercise and
they provide equal training value for training the echelon at which the exercise is con-
of the staff. They may be the single best way ducted. Planning and preparation must be
to train intersystems linkages for full-up inte- thorough. The size and length of the exercise
gration of all brigade and above assets. Com- impacts on the time required for preparation.
manders should use CFXs to sharpen unit Normally within 72 hours before
skills in such areas as— STARTEX, the controllers train the players
Fire support. in the conduct of the CFX. Controller,
Resupply procedures. evaluator, OPFOR, and umpire training is
similar to the training requirements in
Rear area combat operations (RACO). preparation for an FTX. The chief controller
COSCOM interface. trains his umpires and controllers. Then they
brief the player unit commanders and
CEWI collection interpretation. and selected personnel on the exercise. The
dissemination procedures. planning staff completes the LOI and sends it
Personnel to the players for preparing for the exercise.
The planning staff also uses the LOI to brief
Personnel requirements are similar to controllers, umpires, OPFORs, and
those in the FTX with fewer con- evaluators.
trollers/umpires needed at lower levels.
Equipment and Facilities
Control requirements are approximately
Because CFXs use fewer soldiers than the same as for an FTX. Additional control
FTXs, they need less logistical support. The input is required when more realism is added
support should be sufficient for the personnel and more systems integrated. Moreover,
and equipment actually employed. The additional controller input will be required to
maneuver area required for a CFX is the same simulate enemy activity, EW, or fire support
as for an FTX at the same echelon. However, as troop participation decreases.
because the CFX uses fewer vehicles,
maneuver damage is considerably less. Basic umpire functions in a CFX are the
same as those required in an FTX, as
PHASES described in Appendix D. Umpires base their
Preexercise decisions on the orders and actions of player
unit commanders, as understood and
CFXs follow the same planning steps as executed by the lowest echelon player head-
FTXs. Prior to selecting the CFX training quarters. Umpires visualize how the units

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

would actually be employed based on the A face-to-face exchange between company
detailed plans and orders of the participating umpires and their player counterparts is
units. required at the conclusion of each engage-
ment. The CFX is executed and an AAR is
Umpires are even more critical to conducted, as previously described for the
successful CFXs than to FTXs. They must see FTX.
the concept of the exercise through the eyes of
unit commanders. They must make decisions
critical to exercise control and unit evalua-
tion. They must be present when company LIVE-FIRE EXERCISES
OPLANs, OPORDs, and FRAGOs are issued.
They must observe each platoon leader brief a DESCRIPTION
simulated platoon to ensure that they have LFXs are high-cost, resource-intensive
detailed pictures of unit deployment when exercises in which player units move or
they meet with OPFOR umpires to determine maneuver and employ organic and sup-
the results of unit engagements. porting weapon systems using full-service
ammunition with attendant integration of all
Once platoon leaders have had sufficient CA, CS, and CSS.
time to simulate deployment, they should
walk over the terrain with the umpires or The extensive range and ammunition
evaluators and explain the deployment. In requirements for LFXs usually limit them to
turn, umpires must be able to explain the platoon and company team levels. Conse-
disposition and maneuver of their player quently, unit and weapon systems integra-
units to the OPFOR umpires, so that they can tion at the company team level is the
work together to resolve the outcome of each principal focus of the exercise.
engagement accurately and professionally. LFXs can provide maximum training
This coordination takes place before the benefits through multiple iterations. These
OPFOR and friendly units make contact. To iterations, each including an AAR, normally
do so, player and OPFOR umpires, who know occur in the following sequence:
unit disposition and activities in detail,
should meet at a vantage point to umpire the 1. A dry run conducted to review the unit
ensuing action. SOP and battle drills.
2. An AAR to discuss actions on this dry
Platoon umpires stay with their units and run.
maintain radio contact with their company
umpires. The company umpires assess 3. A second run with a reduced amount of
damage and casualties and consider reports ammunition to show the complexities of
from platoon umpires as fire and maneuver fire and maneuver coordination.
take place on the battlefield. Platoon umpires 4. An AAR to discuss actions on this
relay the decisions of the company umpires to second run.
the unit commanders. When platoons or com- 5. A third run with full ammunition to rein-
panies do not physically participate, the force previous training and to build
umpires and their player counterparts confidence.
exchange plans, developments, and directed
actions to war-game engagements and assess 6. An AAR to discuss actions on the third
the outcome of the action. run.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

7. A fourth iteration, preferably with priate time in the scenario. Administrative

ammunition, conducted at night or personnel assist the range OIC and chief
during limited visibility. safety officer in operating radios and tele-
8. Other iterations using ammunition phones and in tabulating scores. Medical
saved by crews/units to sustain and personnel and a litter-carrying vehicle
attain proficiency for new or unqualified stand by.
crews/units. Equipment and Facilities
Characteristics Player units are expected to have assigned
TOE equipment on hand. LFXs are con-
LFXs are executed under simulated battle- ducted according to local range regulations
field conditions. They are employed by com- and SOPs. Target arrays should adequately
manders to train integration of fire and display the appearance and characteristics of
maneuver or movement against a realistic the threat force targets. Communications
target array. They train squads, crews, and equipment must be available for range opera-
sections to employ their weapons in a tactical tions (according to the range SOP) and for
environment. They permit evaluation of controller/evaluator personnel.
tactical employment and precise measure-
ment of the effectiveness of fire employed Transportation, food service, ammunition,
against target arrays. and administrative support for the LFXs are
dictated by the level and scope of the exercise.
Personnel LFXs for maneuver elements also require the
following materials:
LFXs require commanders, leaders, and
soldiers from the participating units. They Target engagement chart.
also require controllers, evaluators, umpires, Target description chart.
and range support personnel. The control
team, developed by the chief controller, Target maps.
manages the exercise and causes exercise Demolition pit map.
play to flow to a logical conclusion.
Fire support plan.
Evaluators and umpires observe the Ammunition amounts, by type.
activities of the players and player units to
assess the results of fires and determine The target engagement chart describes the
whether tasks are performed to standard. manner and sequence in which targets will be
Range support personnel include an officer in displayed. It keys the target display to events
charge (OIC) and a chief safety officer. An from the scenario. Before the LFX starts,
ammunition detail is necessary to handle, controller personnel must receive instruc-
secure, and account for ammunition. A guard tions from range personnel on using the
detail controls traffic adjacent to and enter- scenario, chart, and target system.
ing the range. If targets are left in place
overnight, additional guards are required. A The target map is normally in strip map
target detail checks targets after each unit format and shows where each target, by
run. Demolition personnel emplace and number, is located on the range. The
detonate the explosives in demolition pits. demolition pit map shows the location of each
Moving target operators, if applicable, acti- demolition pit on the range, displaying its
vate the appropriate targets at the appro- number.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

Fire support information details the points and the weapons and ammunition to
weapons and ammunition that can be fired be fired from them must be developed and
and specifies when they can be fired. It pro- approved by range control. Information con-
vides special instructions to the players and cerning ammunition requirements must be
controllers. Approved overlays of all firing provided.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Before selecting the LFX training mode, player unit commander and selected
commanders must ensure that subordinate personnel, such as controllers, umpires, and
commanders, leaders, and soldiers are profi- evaluators, must be briefed on the exercise.
cient in the individual and collective skills The company commander uses the exercise
required for maneuvering or moving and for LOI as a basis for providing instructions to
employing weapons and weapon systems in subordinates.
tactical environments. Planners must Before the unit occupies the range, each
consider the steps discussed in Chapter 2. OIC, controller, umpire, and evaluator must
Scenarios for LFXs differ from those be briefed by range control personnel.
described in Chapter 2 because of the specific Briefings are scheduled with range control
control measures dictated by safety require- operations and conducted at least 24 hours
ments. Scenarios are normally modified to fit before STARTEX. These briefings include a
the range on which the LFX is conducted. terrain walk of the entire range area. It
Scenarios should precisely define the familiarizes evaluators and safety personnel
sequence of events in terms of the types of with all the safety requirements.
targets and the time that specific target Controller, evaluator, and umpire training
arrays are displayed. for an LFX include the following:
Scenarios must be flexible enough to allow Purpose and scope.
the commander and other leaders to decide
how to use the terrain. They must also be Training objectives.
extensive enough to facilitate training and Range regulations and restrictions.
evaluation of unit tasks executed in
accordance with the commander’s concept Participating units.
for the operation, which is formulated Enemy situation and its relationship to the
through a METT assessment. They must be target array.
varied enough to allow leaders to engage the
proper targets with the right weapons at the Control measures.
appropriate times. Sample scenarios for Communications plan.
defense and offense in a platoon LFX are Controller duties.
shown in Figures 22 and 23. More detailed
scenarios are available from the commanders Casualty and damage assessment.
of local live-fire complexes. The battalion Controller, evaluator, and umpire records
commander and company commanders and reports.
normally plan LFXs, and battle simulations
are not used. Intelligence play.
The OPORD issued to the player unit for an Safety during live fire.
LFX is in the form of a standard five- Medical treatment and evacuation
paragraph field order. It contains enough procedures.
detail to ensure that the player unit deploys
properly to begin the exercise and to allow the Execution
LFX to flow smoothly. The unit moves to and tactically occupies
The commander directing the LFX an assembly area. The assembly area may be
approves its objectives, scope, troop list, task force size with other teams depicted as
exercise area, and outline plan. Then the notional units. At this time, live ammunition

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

is issued but not loaded in weapons. MILES Weapons employment.

should be integrated into the exercise when
range or resource limitations prevent live fire Communication of orders and directives.
for certain weapon systems such as the Combined arms integration.
Dragon, TOW, or HELLFIRE.
Final briefings occur at the task force
command post in the vicinity. The task force
commander and staff brief the team
commander and selected key personnel on FIRE COORDINATION
the immediate enemy situation. They also EXERCISES
give any last minute administrative and
safety instructions. Leaders conduct a
reconnaissance under the supervision of the FCXs are medium-cost, reduced-scale
range OIC. The team commander prepares exercises that can be conducted at platoon,
plans and gives a briefing to the task force company/team, and battalion/task force
commander and staff. The team commander levels. The purpose of FCXs is to exercise the
then briefs his subordinates. command and control skills of the leadership
The team conducts a tactical move to the of the unit through the integration of all
attack position, which is close to the line of organic weapon systems, as well as indirect
departure/line of contact (LD/LC). here the and supporting fires. Subcaliber devices are
live ammunition is loaded in the weapons, substituted for service ammunition to permit
and the safeties are locked. The controller fire planning and simulated employment of
gives the order to begin the attack. Once the all weapon systems available to support the
team is across the LD/LC, it may begin live commander in the execution of his assigned
firing. The exercise then continues until the mission. FCXs should stress target acquisi-
scenario is completed. tion. FCXs present target arrays and target
information to player units, placing
After the exercise, participants clear all commanders and leaders in realistic battle-
weapons, and controllers immediately collect field situations. Targets controlled mechani-
all the live ammunition. Safety personnel cally and electronically appear at the appro-
check and clear all weapons before the unit priate places and times according to the
moves off the range. The company returns scenario. Commanders employ FCXs to train
tactically to the assembly area where it subordinate leaders to integrate and
receives an AAR. distribute direct and indirect fire systems so
that the optimum weapons engage the
Postexercise targets at optimum ranges as they become
The chief controller and commander vulnerable to engagement.
conduct the AAR. It should include range FCXs should be fast moving, with several
control personnel and evaluators who lead a weapon systems engaging multiple targets
discussion of the unit’s performance in simultaneously as targets enter optimum
relation to— engagement ranges. FCXs should challenge
Troop-leading procedures. the skills of commanders, subordinate
Maneuver. leaders, crews of direct fire weapons, FDC
personnel and forward observers. They facili-
Close support. tate training in the effective use of organic

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

weapon systems, employment of supporting deployment such as the emergency

weapon systems, and target acquisition deployment readiness exercise (EDRE); or if
systems. FCXs require players to react to time is available, they use time-phased
fluid battlefield situations by promptly deployment with AARs built in. Deployment
applying supporting and organic fires involves a complex matrix of SOPs that are
against changing target arrays. very time-critical and sequential, both hour-
Note: TC 25-4-1 should be used as a study guide by-hour and day-by-day. They may be
prior to participation in FCXs. conducted as stand-alone exercises or as
parts of CPXs or FTXs.
Commanders vary the scope and
DEPLOYMENT EXERCISES complexity of DEPEXs based on resources,
time, and training objectives. One option is a
Deployment exercises (DEPEXs) provide full-scale exercise. In it, units actually move
training for individual soldiers, units, and deployable equipment to staging areas and
support agencies in the tasks and procedures load equipment and personnel aboard air,
for deploying from home stations or installa- rail, or sea transport. At the other extreme, no
tions to areas of hostilities. Practicing these equipment is moved. Personnel report to
tasks and procedures ensures that— designated locations for coordination and for
any necessary activities short of moving
Soldiers have properly secured and equipment. Deployment procedures are also
accounted for military equipment and exercised with facilities that simulate deploy-
personal property in case of actual ment processing agencies. For example,
deployment. medical personnel and transportation
Soldiers have their personal and family stations as required by the scenario may set
affairs in order. up in a large gymnasium. Designated
Soldiers are qualified in the minimum personnel representing the deploying unit
essential combat skills such as weapon and participating agencies report to the
qualification and NBC proficiency. proper station to coordinate activities. In
such environments, DEPEXs are conducted
Unit alert and recall plans are current and like MAPEXs, using scenarios, maps, and
adequate. appropriate sketches.
Unit equipment disposition plans and
loading plans are current and accurate.
Unit SOPs for movement to the embarka-
tion point and from the debarkation point
to the mission site are current and Joint training exercises (JTXs) involve two
adequate. or more services of the US armed forces. A
JTX at brigade level and higher may be a—
Units, higher headquarters, installation,
and supporting agencies such as mainte- MAPEX.
nance, logistics, and transportation have CPX.
current and adequate staff and support CFX.
functions for deployment.
DEPEXs are conducted under simulated FTX.
emergency conditions. They use immediate DEPEX.

FM 25-4
Chapter 3/Conduct of Training Exercises

The planning steps for JTXs are similar to The following considerations are essential
those employed in preparation for the to the success of JTXs. They must receive
conduct of other types of exercises. The detailed attention during the planning,
planning staff includes representatives from execution, and evaluation phases:
all the services involved. Each service must
have adequate time to plan, staff, and Command and control relationships.
approve its exercise support plans. Special Interoperability of weapon and support
accountability arrangements may be systems.
required for logistics support to accommodate
the elements of each service. For example, if Communication and electronics
the Army provides all the fuel, it must compatibility and procedures.
establish an accounting system for the fuel Map compatibility.
consumed by other services.
Administrative and logistics arrange-
In preexercise training, participants ments.
review each service’s tactical SOP and joint
training regulations. Umpires study the During the planning phase, services must be
capabilities of the various weapon systems advised of AAR procedures and the necessity
used by each service. They prepare for their participation. Representatives from
appropriate effects tables to assess weapon each service must actively participate in the
effects and battle casualties. AAR.


Combined training exercises (CTXs) equipment and methods of operations.
involve armed forces from two or more Interoperability allows multinational armed
nations. CTXs may be in the form of any of forces to work smoothly and effectively
the training exercises previously described. together.
The planning steps for CTXs are the same as
those discussed in Chapter 2. The following considerations are vital to
successful CTXs and must receive detailed
Language differences among participants attention during the planning process:
must be addressed and practical steps taken
to ensure effective two-way communication. Common objectives. Multinational armed
CTX planners must also consider differences forces participating in a CTX must agree
in doctrine, organization, logistics, and upon training objectives.
customs. The unified commander of the Command and control relationships. CTXs
multinational armed forces involved in a should exercise the wartime operational
CTX must establish an exercise planning command structure as established by
group to ensure these matters are considered. international agreement.
This group must include planning staff
representatives from all the armed forces Standing operating procedures. For
elements involved. The group’s primary goal effective operations, the nations involved
throughout the planning, execution, and will exchange SOPs and translations of
evaluation phases is interoperability of both commonly used terms.

FM 25-4
Conduct of Training Exercises/Chapter 3

Coordination. Because boundaries between Liaison. Liaison teams must be bilingual

multinational armed forces are parti- and know the organization, procedures,
cularly vulnerable, areas adjacent to them and equipment of the armed forces with
require detailed coordination. Operational which they will be operating.
procedures must be established to ensure Plans and orders. Commanders must take
mutually supporting and responsive differences in tactics, terminology,
employment of all direct and indirect fire to graphics, and language into consideration
include close air support (CAS). when issuing orders. Personal contact
Communications. Communications among commanders and liaison teams is
equipment and language training must necessary to ensure mutually agreed upon
permit interoperability in the nets of the and supporting actions during the exercise.
armed forces elements involved. During the planning phase, all national
Language. Interpreter-translators will be armed forces must be advised of AAR proce-
required in key positions to allow dures and the necessity for their participa-
commanders to communicate effectively tion. Representatives from each- national
with adjacent, supporting, and supported force should participate actively in the AAR.

Scenario Example
The defense of Western Europe is a early days of a general war in Central
fundamental US national security objective. Europe. To provide the foundation for both
This sample exercise scenario for a notional the exercise scenario and the schedule of
corps in the Central Army Group (CENTAG) events, exercise planners develop a scenario
in Europe portrays corps actions during the outline.

FM 25-4
Scenario Example/Appendix A

During general alerts or wartime, national command (OPCOM) of the Allied Command,
forces in NATO are placed under operational Europe (ACE). Each nation is responsible for

FM 25-4
Appendix A/Scenario Example

its own combat service support; therefore, the

US theater army (TA) commander will retain
command and control of US CSS forces in the
communications zone (COMMZ). The
resulting NATO command structure is
shown below.

FM 25-4
Scenario Example/Appendix A

The nations of Europe are generally point of a complete diplomatic breakdown.
divided into two camps: the western-aligned Charges of an unprecedented Soviet arms
nations that comprise NATO; the Soviet buildup and charges of Soviet violations of
Union and its satellite regimes that make up arms control agreements by NATO were
the Warsaw Pact. Germany is similarly answered by strident propaganda attacks by
divided, with the Federal Republic of communist controlled news media. This
Germany aligned with NATO, and the propaganda further deteriorated confidence
German Democratic Republic (GDR) aligned and increased tensions.
with the Warsaw Pact. Germany is vital to Both the Warsaw Pact and NATO forces
the interests of both NATO and Soviet efforts have fully mobilized. The general disposition
to expand their spheres of influence. of forces and threat attack plans are shown in
Three months ago, relations between Figures 24 and 25. Initial enemy air
NATO and the USSR deteriorated to the superiority is assumed.

FM 25-4
Appendix A/Scenario Example

In the past several years, relations between between the Western Allies and the enemy
NATO nations and the enemy in Central were suspended. By E-73, provocative Soviet
Europe steadily deteriorated over the issue of maneuver exercises along the eastern border
the reunification of Germany. In early 19—, of the Federal Republic of Germany had
most negotiations and diplomatic relations increased. Intelligence reports indicated a

FM 25-4
Scenario Example/Appendix A

massive buildup, especially in the central international border. From north to south,
region of Germany. By E-60, the NATO secre- CENTAG forces consisted of the 9th (GE),
tary general authorized the European allied 12th (US), 10th (US), and 4th (GE) Corps.
commander to declare a low-level alert. All
national units permanently assigned under The enemy continued to build up combat
Allied Command Europe were reinforced, units and began to pre-position ammunition
and all nonessential US dependents were and fuel at supply points along the inter-
ordered to CONUS. The commander in chief, national border. Upgraded active duty CS
United States Army, Europe (CINCUSAREUR), and CSS units were deployed from CONUS.
requested early shipment of replacement A COMMZ was established under a TA com-
combat vehicles, as well as buildup of mander to support the 10th (US) and 12th
ammunition, spare parts, and high priority (US) Corps. Recently activated Reserve Com-
Class IX assemblies from CONUS. ponent units were deployed from CONUS by
In response to a continued enemy buildup, air and surface transportation and began
NATO declared a mid-level alert on E-37 and arriving in the theater at E-10.
a high-level alert one week later (E-30), when Allied forces continued making defensive
all NATO nations began mobilization. On
the same day, the US declared a state of preparations in sectors, and at E-7 all
national emergency and ordered selected CENTAG corps implemented their OPLANS.
units of the Ready and Standby Reserves to In the 10th (US) Corps sector, OPLAN 1-82
active duty. The president ordered the deploy- became OPORD 1-82. It placed the 201st
ment of forces to Germany. During the Armored Cavalry Regiment and the 313th
mobilization period, a limited number of Separate Mechanized Brigade in a covering
active personnel and combat and combat force mission under the deputy corps com-
support units began deploying to Europe by mander. The 20th Infantry Division, the 54th
air. Merchant ships were engaged to Mechanized Division, the 124th Separate
transport equipment and other supplies to Infantry Brigade, the 25th Armored Division,
Europe to reinforce deployed US units. and the 230th Separate Armored Brigade
were ordered to defend the MBA in the corps
The Soviet Union ignored repeated sector. The 312th Separate Mechanized
attempts to negotiate; therefore, NATO Division was given a primary RACO mission
nations continued to strengthen their in the corps rear. The 171st Air Cavalry
defenses in Central Europe. As NATO’s Combat Brigade was placed in reserve.
defense posture improved rapidly, the
chances of an enemy daring raid diminished POMCUS was issued, and residual was
until it was no longer considered a realistic placed in the supply system. All PWRMs were
threat. The primary threat appeared to be a issued by E-Day. PWRMs remaining at E-
major offensive operation against NATO Day were treated as GS supply items reported
forces, as indicated by continued enemy air accordingly.
buildup and ground force deployment. On E-
25, several US Air Force fighter, fighter Intelligence reports indicated enemy force
bomber, and reconnaissance squadrons began concentrations were nearing final prepara-
deploying to Germany. tion for a major offensive operation. Three
combined arms armies and one tank army
On E-14, the 10th (US) and 12th (US) Corps were identified massing near the inter-
units were deployed to positions along the national border.

FM 25-4
Appendix A/Scenario Example

FM 25-4
Scenario Development/Appendix A

CS and CSS in Exercises
Support functions respond to the needs of system within which CS and CSS units
the supported units. Figure 30 depicts the operate.

The tactical situation creates the needs to the resources available for responding to
which the system responds. Consequently, these needs. For notional units, planners
the tactical situation drives the support control both the needs and the resources. In
system. The response is the way in which CS preparing for training, planners should
and CSS fill the needs. It is determined by the employ the principles in this manual to
resources available. In wartime, the needs are conduct CS and CSS training exercises.
created by what happens on the battlefield: This appendix discusses specific
equipment may be lost or damaged, considerations for planning, controlling,
personnel may be killed or wounded. umpiring, and evaluating the following
However, in peacetime exercises, planners functions:
determine the tactical situation and the
resources available in order to meet the Health services.
objectives. Military police.
In training exercises, CS and CSS units Personnel and administration.
support actual units or notional units. Actual Transportation.
units generate their own needs. However, to
meet the exercise objectives, planners control Maintenance.

FM 25-4
CS and CSS in Exercises/Appendix B


Exercise play should include health or wounded patients in reports, messages, or
services support operations, involving both other written or oral communications to
nonmedical units and supporting Army assist in CPX play. It is not necessary to move
Medical Department (AMEDD) organiza- these patients. Casualties are those lost to
tions. As far as possible, AMEDD units and their organizations because of death,
personnel should provide realistic support in wounds, injuries, or disease. The differences
exercises. They use moulaged casualties to among actual, simulated, and constructive
train medical units in the transport, triage, casualties are similar to those described for
and care of the wounded. patients. In exercises, all patients and
The terms patient and casualty are precise casualties should have one of these
designations that ensure proper care of designations.
actual patients and proper use of actual Actual health services support must
resources. Patients are sick, injured, or integrate with simulated and constructive
wounded personnel receiving medical care or exercise play. However, actual support
treatment. Actual patients are those who are should not replace simulated or constructive
really sick, injured, or wounded. They need play unless it is furnished under the combat
actual medical care. Simulated patients are conditions. For example, a combat support
not really sick, injured, or wounded. They are hospital (CSH) providing only area sick call
tagged or otherwise identified (with or with- support for an exercise is not accomplishing
out cosmetic makeup) to simulate actual its major CSS mission. See Table 9 for the
patients for training or evaluation purposes. types of health services support operations
They must be physically moved or cared for to that should be performed by different levels
meet training or evaluation requirements. of AMEDD and non-AMEDD units in field
Constructive patients represent sick, injured, exercises.

FM 25-4
Appendix B/CS and CSS in Exercises

Exercise directors must ensure that cise play should generate casualties. This
AMEDD planners include actual, simulated, procedure ensures that AMEDD training
and constructive health services support objectives are met. It also ensures that player
requirements early in preexercise planning. units operate with realistic combat losses.
AMEDD training objectives should integrate Detailed instructions issued to controllers,
with other exercise objectives. Detailed umpires, and player units specify how to
guidance is contained in the 8-series AMEDD release simulated casualties into the treat-
ARTEPs. ment and evacuation system. Procedures
Planners must identify all the necessary must also provide for the timely return of
resources such as— personnel to units upon their release from
medical channels. Normally, exercised to
Funds. accomplish this. AMEDD units are not
Personnel. responsible for returning patients to their
Casualties should simulate only those
Supplies. injuries or diseases that could be found in the
Transportation. area of operations under the conditions estab-
lished for the exercise. To determine the
Some of the required health services battle and nonbattle casualties for each exer-
personnel for exercises may be temporarily cise, planners consider—
assigned to fixed installation medical
facilities. Agreements between AMEDD TOE Units involved.
units and the local medical activity/medical Troop population and density.
center (MEDDAC/MEDCEN) should specify
the release procedures for TOE unit personnel Enemy forces.
in on-the-job training or directed support Type of combat.
programs. Agreements should specify proce-
dures for obtaining controller, umpire, and Weather.
evaluator personnel. Local agreements Terrain.
should also provide adequate time to request The available resources may limit the
and obtain release of personnel from their simulated casualties. To meet the training
parent units. When local assets cannot objectives, varying numbers of casualties are
provide actual, simulated, and constructive necessary.
health services assistance, requests should
go through appropriate command channels. Medical planning should provide realistic
To support the training objectives of most situations and events for AMEDD units. It
AMEDD treatment and evacuation units, should provide enough information so that
realistic simulated casualty or patient play is participating units can respond realistically.
necessary. Exercise planners must determine Medical units practice survivability opera-
the source of casualties and patients, for tions and operate 24 hours a day.
example, by assessing player units or by For FTXs, units attached to the medical
using casualty or patient pools. In exercises headquarters in peacetime or scheduled for
that involve only medical or other support attachment in contingency operations may
units, pools are usually necessary to provide comprise only a portion of the organization.
the required volume of patients or casualties. Other units must be added, as needed.
In large exercises, assessments during exer- ARTEP 8-112 contains guidance.

FM 25-4
CS and CSS in Exercises/Appendix B


Detailed requirements to support specific cient personnel. The appropriate 8-series
AMEDD units are contained in appropriate 8- ARTEPs recommend numbers of personnel
series ARTEPs. To determine the personnel for specific units. Driver/radio telephone
and equipment for large-unit exercises, operator (RATELO) personnel with vehicles
planners analyze— are required to support the AMEDD con-
The objectives of the exercise. trollers, umpires, evaluators, and patients.
The quantity, types, and locations of player When simulated patients and casualties
units. are in treatment facilities during meal hours,
the facilities will feed them. Class X clothing
The timing of exercise events. is required for simulated patients, parti-
Control and evaluation functions may be cularly those who will be moulaged.
combined or separated, depending on the
exercise. Sufficient qualified personnel must CONTROL
be available to play all nonparticipating Exercise plans must specify detailed
agencies with which the unit would normally control procedures for actual casualties and
coordinate and communicate. Many patients. Actual medical support is normally
professional specialties in AMEDD units the responsibility of the participating units.
cannot be adequately evaluated. Controllers Provisions are made for—
must be experienced and knowledgeable
enough to initiate actions for, and respond to, Sick call and outpatient care.
player units. Control personnel have to Emergency care.
moulage simulated patients and instruct Ground and air evacuation, as appropriate.
them in their roles. Simulated casualty pools
that generate patient play must have suffi- Hospitalization.

FM 25-4
Appendix B/CS and CSS in Exercises

Care for personnel unable to return to their turn it in to AMEDD controllers on a

units but not requiring hospitalization. prearranged schedule. Controllers should
Medical supply and maintenance support. compare the collected Parts A and B at least
once daily. Doing so ensures that assessed
. . to support the above casualties are being released into, and
functions. properly moved through, the medical system.
Casualty tags identify simulated Controllers should bring major problem
casualties, place them into training exercises, areas to the attention of player units for cor-
and trace their movement through the rective action.
medical treatment and evacuation system. If Standard moulage aids are relatively
simulated casualties result from assess- simple and increase visual impact, Patients
ments, controllers must be briefed and issued must be briefed on behavior, signs, and
the simulated casualty tags with Part A com- symptoms. Then they can add realism to the
pleted. Often the assessors are not AMEDD exercise play.
personnel. They may be controllers for other Exercises with MILES should use the
participating units. When players are tagged, casualty procedures in TC 25-8. Controllers
Part B of the tag should be completed, for such exercises will be issued packages of
separated, and turned in to AMEDD MILES casualty tags (GTA 8-11-5). The tags
controllers on a prearranged schedule, are issued concurrently with MILES devices.
normally at least once a day. Part A should Unlike the casualty tags described above, the
remain affixed to the simulated casualty MILES casualty tags have predetermined
until released from medical channels. The wound diagnoses by percentage of various
last medical treatment or evacuation unit types of casualties. The controller will
seeing the casualty should keep Part A and randomly issue one tag to each player prior to

FM 25-4
CS and CSS in Exercises/Appendix B

STARTEX. Players will place the tags in Being picked up at simulated aid stations
their pockets without reading them. If a or other field sites by evacuation units.
player’s MILES equipment is activated, the Walking into a facility.
controllers read the card to assess the
casualty. If the scenarios require that casualties be
If a casualty pool is used, medical controller evacuated after receiving initial treatment,
personnel should moulage and brief the each must have a DD Form 1380 to reflect
patients, attach a casualty tag and/or DD treatment received.
Form 1380 (Field Medical Card), and coordi- Non-AMEDD controllers must ensure that
nate their insertion in exercise play. released patients return to their units accord-
Simulated casualties can be introduced into ing to established exercise procedures. If they
play by— do not receive casualty information through
Being transported to the treatment facility normal communications, controllers
by ground or air ambulances or other portraying a unit’s higher headquarters or a
vehicles. subordinate unit should request it from

FM 25-4
Appendix B/CS and CSS in Exercises

player units. These controllers should also requires that the military police be given
respond realistically to requests from partici- every opportunity to experience situations as
pating units. close to actual combat conditions as possible.
Detailed procedures for evaluating and For example, military police play a vital role
maintaining records of medical exercise in RACO. Planning of military police
activities are found in appropriate 8-series missions for RACO should be exercised in
ARTEPs and FM 8-23. Also, see TC 25-6 for accordance with current doctrine. The condi-
instructions on MILES-supported exercises. tions needed to employ military police
realistically are best met by including them
DA Pamphlet 310-12 describes a wide range in exercises conducted by major head-
of available simulation training aids. quarters. Military police can receive excellent
Planners should also consider other locally training in planning for, and assisting with,
constructed aids. Some applicable the movement of units to and from the
nonstandard aids may be available through training areas.
the MEDDAC/MEDCEN. They may be justi-
fied for purchase and use within a command. PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT
Improvised medical training aids are as
varied as imagination and resources allow. Military police planners develop their
plans to best support the concept of the
MILITARY POLICE exercise. Planning factors that affect
military police employment include—
Number, types, and missions of units in the
Military police (MP) units participate in MP element’s area of operation.
exercises to provide realism. These units Specific missions and the type of support
provide combat, CS, and CSS to the required of the MP element.
commander. Table 10 summarizes MP
missions and operations and identifies the Quantity, quality, and types of vehicles
military police TOE units responsible for and equipment available to the MP
each. element.
Environmental conditions within the area
PLANS of operations.
Military police planning considerations Width, depth, size, and location of built-up
are applicable to actual tactical situations, as areas.
well as to the planning and conduct of
training exercises. Wherever feasible, mili- Attitudes and needs of the inhabitants.
tary police participate in the planning so that Requirements for augmentation by MP
their training needs can be incorporated in elements.
the exercise. Tasks in the MP ARTEP should
be included in the exercise scenario. Addi- Enemy capabilities in the rear area.
tional military police tasks dictated by local Political or psychological activities
missions or circumstances may also be directed against US forces.
included. Planners should keep in mind the
size and actual capabilities of the military The military police controller, umpire, or
police unit being employed. The wide evaluator checks to ensure that MP unit com-
spectrum of possible military police missions manders establish mission priorities in the

CS and CSS in Exercises/Appendix B

Appendix B/CS and CSS in Exercises

light of available troops and provide for 24- Military police planners
consider aviation
hour area coverage. Once these determina- employment and support in the following
tions have been made. the formula below, as missions:
well as the directions’ found in ARs 310-31,
310-49, and 570-2, may be used. Command and control, especially for
extending communications capabilities.
Military police planners will consider
special equipment, facilities, and transporta- Security.
tion. MP units, can provide the majority of
their equipment needs. Special missions Overwatch of extended LOC, including
require augmentation. Such missions may convoy cover, location of congestion,
involve— interruption of the MSR, and in-transit
Support of river-crossing forces. security.
Security of ports and harbors. Movement of MP elements to unblock a
threat obstruction and to relieve congestion
Security of permanent stations. on road networks.
Handling unusual numbers of PWs or
military prisoners. Timely coordination with supported head-
quarters and subordinate military police
Riot or civil disorder control. elements.
Security for extended lines of communica-
tion (LOC) under enemy observation and Evacuation of selected PWs for special
fire. protection or interrogation.

FM 25-4
CS and CSS in Exercises/Appendix B

Contingency planning must include Tactical administration service operations.

implementing instructions to undertake all Promotions/reductions.
types of operational support, including—
Other P&A functions may be performed in
Rear area protection. combat. However, these are the critical ones
Security of critical installations. that must be performed by each echelon.
They differ from echelon to echelon. For
Security of LOC. example, at battalion level, personnel
Reaction to major disaster situations (area information will be detailed. At corps level, it
damage control). will be summarized. Tactical SOPs and plans
should include procedures and requirements
Reaction to installation security plans. to ensure that the system supports each
Reaction to civil disturbance and riot echelon.
control missions.
Implementation of nuclear accident/inci- PLANS
dent control plans. For successful exercises, P&A planning
Conduct of joint operations. must occur early. It must—
Establish objectives.
Determine which functions will be played
PERSONNEL AND and plan to exercise them thoroughly.
ADMINISTRATION Coordinate with scenario developers to
ensure that the play will exercise the
OPERATIONS selected objectives.
Personnel and administation (P&A) In multiechelon exercises, P&A elements at
functions are heavily loaded with peacetime all levels must coordinate to ensure that cur-
requirements. During wartime, only a few of rent SOPs and plans are sufficient. In exer-
these functions become more important or cises without higher and lower echelons,
create a heavier work load than during peace- controllers must be provided proper informa-
time. Training exercises must focus on these tion to create exercise realism. A number of
critical wartime functions at each echelon. functions require support from other
Critical functions include— organizations. If a player element does not
provide this support, a controller must
Personnel strength accounting. provide it to ensure that the units are fully
Personnel information system (auto- exercised. For example, the division AG
mated/manual) operations. company (replacement detachment) needs
transportation support from the supply and
Replacement requirements and transportation (S&T) battalion to move
requisitions. replacements. If the replacement system is
Replacement processing/operations. not being exercised, movement requirements
Casualty reporting. must still be submitted so that the transporta-
tion element can exercise.
Military awards. Exercises should involve both P&A func-
Postal operations. tional and tactical responsibilities. For

FM 25-4
Appendix B/CS and CSS in Exercises

example, the division AG company should procedures. The personnel controller is the
also perform rear area security and rear area key to this function. He should have the TOE
damage control in the division support area. and Standard Installation/Division Person-
The maneuver battalion’s personnel nel System (SIDPERS) rosters to verify losses
administration center (PAC) should perform by MOS and grade. The personnel controller
the same function in the brigade trains area. ensures that personnel and other staff
elements coordinate properly especially
PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT when exercise action increases. ARTEPs and
12-series field manuals cover P&A elements.
The personnel selected for the exercise
must be those who would normally perform TRANSPORTATION
during combat operations. The exercise objec-
tives and the P&A functions to be played OPERATIONS
determine the actual number of participants. Exercise play should include realistic
Only equipment authorized by the TOE transportation requirements for partici-
should be used. Blank forms and appropriate pating units. Transportation planners
references required by field SOPs should be consider—
The types of transportation operations and
CONTROL the modes of transportation to be exercised.
See Table 11 for an example.
Exercise play drives P&A activities. For The levels of transportation to be exercised.
example, as personnel losses are declared,
these losses are translated into MOSs and The integration of transportation play into
reported in accordance with established exercises.

FM 25-4
CS and CSS in Exercises/Appendix B

Planning steps identify basic transporta- does this planning. The operative level
tion levels—strategic, coordinative, and involves unit missions. Each unit performs
operative. The steps then relate these to the its function:
transportation command structure. The Discharging containers from ships.
strategic level involves high-level, long-range
planning. It is done by the assistant chief of Clearing terminals by truck, water, rail,
staff for-transportation at theater army HQ and air.
or by the senior transportation command in a Performing intermediate aviation
theater. The coordinative level integrates maintenance.
movement. Normally, the movement control
center or the senior transportation command Providing training for troops.

FM 25-4
Appendix B/CS and CSS in Exercises

PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT overhaul, and rebuilding, are performed at

Exercise planners assign tasks at the maintenance levels higher than DS.
correct transportation level—strategic, Nonetheless, exercise planners should
coordinative, or operative. Planners use the consider giving all functions some play.
applicable ARTEP to suggest support The exercise scenario should include the
requirements for various transportation exer- applicable tasks shown in the appropriate
cises, as well as the framework for the desired ARTEP. It should also include tasks that are
standards and control. not part of the daily maintenance mission.
Exercises should be as close as possible to
MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS actual combat. For example, the supply func-
tion should train in conjunction with mainte-
By virtue of their missions, maintenance nance. Doing so is important because most
units perform daily many of the functions maintenance supply actions will have an
they can expect to perform under field condi- effect on Class IV supply. Similarly, the
tions. At the DS level, these include— materiel management center (MMC) should
Inspecting. train to find additional sources of repair
parts, such as adjacent maintenance units
Testing. and equipment that can be cannibalized.
Classifying. Accurate and timely readiness reporting is
absolutely essential. Effective communica-
Supplying repair parts. tions nets are also vital. If radio silence is
Cannibalizing. imposed, couriers must be used. Likewise, as
maintenance support teams (MSTs) are sent
Controlling exchange. forward, they should train to satisfy both the
Repairing. supported and supporting units. Response
Modifying materiels. times may be critical, both for equipment
repair and MST survivability. MSTs may be
These are prime candidates for exercise transported by airlift to the equipment or
play. Some functions, notably reclamation, provided armored maintenance vehicles.

Opposing Forces

OPFOR units are trained and equipped to Presently, the collective sustainment
confront US units with realistic opponents training in units further refines the tactical
that look like and fight like potential skills taught in service schools. However,
adversaries. Such realism enhances training such training usually derives from friendly-
exercises. Well-equipped OPFOR units are on-friendly force engagements. Given such
skilled in the tactics and techniques of a training, US forces would have to develop
potential adversary. They not only add innovative ways to fight an actual enemy
realism to training exercises, but generate during the initial stages of a war. However,
player enthusiasm. Soldiers learn the poten- under current operational concepts, a period
tial adversary’s tactics, doctrine, and weapon of adaptation is no longer acceptable. All
systems that they could successfully exploit units should train for future battles by exer-
in air-land battles. OPFOR units encourage— cising as much as possible against realistic,
Effective intelligence-gathering uncooperative, and competitive OPFORs
procedures. that use threat doctrine, tactics, weapon
systems, and fortifications. Knowing how a
Electronic warfare techniques. potential adversary is likely to perform on the
Operations security measures. battlefield, US soldiers and units can take
advantage of enemy characteristics and
Deception measures. weaknesses from the very start.
Unconventional warfare techniques.

Successful OPFOR employment relies on relationship fosters intelligence support to
support from unit commanders and staffs. the overall unit training goal of combat readi-
Exept for the NTC, the Army has no ness. The G3 also monitors unit scenarios. He
authorized manpower allocations for OPFOR ensures that they are properly designed and
maneuver units. Therefore, corps and controlled and that they allow the OPFOR to
division training programs must use unit create a realistic environment.
assets to depict OPFOR tactics and opera- Units in the division or corps should be
tional principles. The G3 manages the trained, on a rotating basis, to perform as an
OPFOR program. The G3 staff section uses OPFOR element for training exercises and
the available expertise within the G2 section ARTEP evaluations.
to help manage the program. This staff

Full-scale employment of OPFORs personnel. For reporting purposes, one
demands extensive resources. Thus, OPFOR OPFOR soldier normally represents three
participation may be scaled down to reduce enemy soldiers. One tank normally repre-
costs. The size of the OPFOR usually depends sents a tank platoon. The ratio between the
on the unit’s ability to provide supporting OPFOR and the notional enemy it represents

FM 25-4
Appendix C/Opposing Forces

is flexible. The chief controller of the exercise When a colored version is for uniforms, flags,
must establish the ratio, based on available and staff papers, the star and circle will be
OPFOR training time, equipment, and gold and the background red. These emblems
personnel. However, the ratio must always be can be obtained from TASCs.
realistic. When using MILES with an
OPFOR, refer to TC 25-6. Some additional TRAINING
considerations when using OPFOR units in a
training exercise include— Ideally, each division should have a small,
permanent cadre to assist in OPFOR
Free play or controlled play scenarios. training. This cadre should train the OPFOR
The exercise training objectives. maneuver unit to execute the OPFOR portion
of exercises quickly and professionally. It
The personnel, equipment, and facilities should provide divisionwide classroom
available. instruction pertaining to Soviet and North
The scheme of maneuver. Korean military forces. See FM 30-102 and
FM 34-71.
The fire support plan.
The US Army Forces Command
The type, strength, composition, and (FORSCOM) Red Thrust element, located at
training status of the OPFOR unit. Fort Hood, Texas, has prepared training
The available maneuver space within the packages to teach tank and motorized rifle
area of operations. companies and battalions throughout the
The weapon systems to be employed. Army how to portray authentic Soviet and
North Korean tactics. Both Soviet and North
Korean formations are relatively easy to
EQUIPMENT learn. To save fuel, OPFOR units can practice
them with ¼-ton trucks instead of tracked
Modified US vehicles can suggest the vehicles. Considerations to keep in mind
appearances and silhouettes of threat combat when using OPFORS are—
equipment. Vehicle and equipment modifica-
tion kits and soldier uniforms can be obtained The general tendency of an OPFOR to
from TASCs. Likewise, foreign material and revert to US tactics once it begins to
equipment for training can and should bean maneuver against an actual US force.
important part of the total OPFOR program. The tendency of OPFOR commanders to
Foreign equipment in displays and in typical use the best of both Soviet and US tactics.
strongpoints can enhance realism in Doing so should be avoided because any-
individual, leader, and collective training. thing less than authentic Soviet and North
AR 350-2 outlines the training objectives and Korean tactics degrades the training of
explains how to obtain and maintain foreign both the player unit and the OPFOR
equipment. element.
The OPFOR emblem identifies OPFOR PLANNING
equipment and personnel. It is also used on
OPFOR training literature and materials. The exercise directive provides initial
When the emblem is superimposed on planning guidance such as—
OPFOR-designed equipment, the star is The size of the OPFOR element required.
black and the circle red. The background
remains the original color of the equipment. The player units that will participate.

FM 25-4
Opposing Forces/Appendix C

The equipment available. To establish operational headquarters.

The constraints (physical, financial) or To reorganize units for OPFOR
other limitations. employment.
The tactical doctrine or techniques to be To designate OPFOR identities for person-
emphasized. nel and to issue weapons, clothing,
The procurement of special supply items. markings, and documents, as needed.
The OPFOR training objectives and To construct necessary defensive positions
equipment. according to threat tactics.
The source of OPFOR equipment and To prepare the OPFOR OPLAN based on
personnel. the exercise scenario.
The OPFOR scenario is developed in the To plan and conduct appropriate
same manner as the player unit scenario to rehearsals in coordination with controller
facilitate player intelligence training. The personnel.
OPFOR scenario emphasizes the following: To schedule briefings for all OPFOR
Propaganda to enable all personnel to personnel on the nature of the exercise and
develop positive attitudes toward the their particular roles in the exercise.
exercise. Appropriate means may include
posters and leaflets, agent activities, and CONTROL
loudspeaker broadcasts.
Simulated nuclear-chemical operations. The exercise control plan details provisions
Tactical deception designed to strengthen for controlling OPFOR play. The type of
procedures for developing counter- scenario dictates the measures used for
deception activities. OPFOR control. Threat doctrinal control
measures and graphics control OPFOR ele-
Partisan, guerrilla, and counterintelli- ments during the exercise. Controllers and
gence agency operations to train all player umpires are designed to OPFOR units—
units in survivability operations. To evaluate actions.
The preexercise phase must provide To ensure realism.
sufficient time to allow for—
Training and converting a unit to OPFOR To assess loss and damage.
status, to include rehearsing the tactical To control activities.
plan. Detailed training for umpires and
Developing plans and orders, to include controllers in OPFOR organization, doctrine,
preparation of communication, air support, and tactics is the key to realistic control of
and fire support plans. exercise play. The corps or division OPFOR
Developing plans for OPFOR intelligence program manager or other personnel trained
activities. in OPFOR tactics and organization can
provide this training.
Once the OPFOR has been designated by The OPFOR commander has tactical and
the directive, the OPFOR commander and administrative control of the OPFOR and its
staff begin planning and training— attached units during the exercise. The

FM 25-4
Appendix C/Opposing Forces

OPFOR should rehearse planned tactical with the terrain and control measures to be
operations with the umpires and controllers. used and allows correction of faulty tactical
This enables all concerned to become familiar procedures.

Exercise Control

All training exercises require control. Some Troop lists from the notional higher and
such as TEWTs need only commanders. adjacent headquarters.
Others such as division- or corps-level CPXs Controllers should represent all higher,
or FTXs may require formal controller subordinate, adjacent, and supporting units
organizations responsible for conducting and staffs except those physically repre-
entire exercises. The control system for any sented. If First Battle drives a CPX, the chief
exercise should ensure that it follows its controller can use the organizer’s guide from
scenario and attains its objectives. The First Battle and the OPLAN troop list to
control system makes sure that each exercise assign controllers properly. For an FTX with
develops smoothly and provides meaningful, an OPFOR element and no higher head-
realistic training. quarters, OPLAN, or troop list available, the
chief controller must decide not only where to
ORGANIZATION place controllers, but whom they must
To control exercises, chief controllers must represent.
organize the staffs to use the available
personnel most effectively and beneficially. Each battle simulation includes a recom-
To do so, they prepare controller manning mended controller manning table along with
tables. the instructions. In many instances,
manpower restrictions will dictate modifica-
The composition of the control team tions to it. However, control organizations
depends upon— that are not familiar with the particular
The type of exercise and the echelon at simulation being used should follow the
which it is conducted. recommended control organization as closely
as possible. A control staff, a headquarters
The method, sometimes called the exercise together with umpires, and evaluators may
driver, that sustains the exercise and all be necessary.
causes it to flow to a logical conclusion. A
sequence of events, a battle simulation, an Controllers ensure that events take place at
OPFOR element, or a combination of these the right time and place per scenario and
may drive an exercise. schedule. They perform as all HQs and units

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

not present as players. Umpires determine quarters of the player unit. It will also be
outcomes of— responsible for the administration and
Engagements. logistics necessary to support the exercise.
Subordinate control centers, if used, and
Fires. umpire teams report to, and coordinate their
Obstacles. activities through, the ECC. ECC personnel
must also know control and umpire proce-
Support activities. dures thoroughly and interact as required
They report outcomes to players and with subordinate control centers. The chief
controllers. Evaluators observe activities to controllers or their designated representa-
determine whether tasks are performed to tives will coordinate all activities of the
standard. Ideally, one person should not control organization according to the
serve as controller, evaluator, and umpire guidance from the exercise director. All
during the same exercise. However, exercise training exercises have ECCs. Higher
directors may have to make dual assign- echelons require formal organizations.
ments if there is a shortage of qualified
personnel. A sample controller manning table for the
EXERCISE CONTROL CENTER ECC of a division-level FTX appears in Table
14. The suggested task organizations are
As the focal point for controlling each exer- austere. Actual controller requirements must
cise, the ECC will portray the higher head- be based on a mission analysis of the exercise

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

being conducted and permit sustained opera- ensures that all necessary intelligence
tions. Manning and equipment tables vary reports are issued and received per SOP
depending on the type of exercise. They are requirements.
based on the mission, the terrain, and the
troops available to support the operation. The FSE Officer
ECC must be organized to permit sustained The FSE officers represent the chief
artillery umpires at the EGG. They—
Chief Controller Brief the exercise director, chief controller,
The chief controller commands all exercise and staff.
controller personnel. He is responsible for Recommend actions to control the exercise.
informing the exercise director of player unit
locations, plans, and intentions. He advises Direct actions based on guidance from the
the exercise director about taking possible exercise director and chief controller.
actions through controller channels to influ- The FSE officers receive reports from the
ence the tactical situations. ECC staff fire support sections of the ACCs and
members aid the chief controller in these maintain current status reports on all field
duties. In the absence of a chief controller, a artillery player elements. The FSE officers
senior member of each shift of the operations ensure that map and status charts for EGG
section acts as ECC officer in charge. operations are properly posted. They pass
guidance and information to the subordinate
Operations Officer fire support controllers as required, and they
The operations officers are the primary maintain artillery unit status logs and staff
advisors to the chief controller for exercise journals.
planning and operations. The operations NBC Officer
section controls all notional units. It is
aggressive in seeking updated information The EGG NBC officers are responsible for
from the area coordination centers (ACCs) general supervision of the NBC control and
and the player unit’s highest headquarters. It umpire system. The NBC element coordi-
is responsible for— nates chemical release procedures and
Fighting its portions of air-land battles. chemical fire support plans. It maintains
liaison with area control center NBC
Disseminating changes to the highest personnel and brigade NBC umpire
player unit’s OPORD. personnel. Through reports submitted by
Issuing orders and directives. ACC personnel, the NBC element monitors
the effects of chemical or nuclear weapon
Planning on behalf of the player - -
unit’s systems in tactical play. It recommends
higher headquarters. chemical or nuclear courses of action to the
chief controller.
Intelligence Officer
The intelligence officers are the primary Engineer Officer
advisors to the chief controller on all OPFOR The EGG engineer officer is responsible for
matters. The EGG intelligence section briefing the exercise director and chief
controls all OPFOR units. It makes sure they controller concerning engineer activities. The
adhere to the OPFOR commander’s orders. It engineer officer also posts information about

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

current engineer operations on the map and nationals who visit control facilities or activi-
maintains all necessary logs. He directs ties. The G5 may collocate with the provost
engineers to comply with guidance received marshal section to assist in resolving
from the exercise director and chief incidents involving foreign nationals.
controller, and he coordinates with other
ECC staff sections, as required. Provost Marshal
ADA Officer The provost marshal advises the chief
controller on the status of all control
Using information from ACCs, the ECC personnel during the exercise. He advises the
ADA officer maintains status maps showing ECC personnel officers on matters involving
all units and their engagement zones. He policy violations. He maintains liaison with
reports all ADA position changes to the ECC safety officers and provides the required
operations section, and he reports all changes reports on accidents involving umpire
in ADA position and operational status to the personnel and equipment. The provost
ALO. In addition, the ADA officer maintains marshal maintains the umpire’s serious
the current and planned air defense situation incident reporting system and is the ECC
based on situation reports received from the point of contact with appropriate public
air defense umpires. agencies.
Air Liaison Officer Surgeon
The ECC air liaison officer assesses the The surgeon advises the chief controllers
bomb damage from sorties not controlled by on the health status of all personnel during
the forward air controller (FAC) and passes the exercise. He is responsible for operations
the BDA to the ACC, which in turn passes it of the casualty evacuation system.
on to the maneuver unit umpires for assess-
ment. The chief ECC ALO exercises opera- Visitor’s Bureau Officer
tional control over airborne umpires, ECC
ALO umpires, and other controllers of Air The ECC visitor’s bureau (VB) is
Force activities, as required. responsible for hosting visitors to the ECC, in
accordance with established itineraries. The
Aviation Officer OIC of the VB establishes and maintains
liaison/coordination with the secretary of the
The ECC aviation officer compiles and general staff. He keeps the chief controller
maintains all Army aviation-related data and staff advised of visitors and their status,
during the exercise. He briefs aviation- reporting their times of arrival and departure
related activities to the exercise director and to the VB. He meets and escorts visitors in the
chief controller. ECC area, as the headquarters commandant
directs, and he provides ground transporta-
Logistics and Civil Affairs Officers tion for visitors in the ECC area, as neces-
sary. The OIC also coordinates visits with
The ECC G4 aids in the coordination of US umpires or ACCs.
and local national agencies or citizens, as
required, concerning conflicts or maneuver
damage, linguistic support, and other civil AREA COORDINATION CENTER
affairs activities related to the control ACCs, when established, are subordinate
mission. The G5 assists in handling foreign to the ECC. ACCs remain in fixed locations.

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

They coordinate the administrative and The number of communications nets

logistical support that is not part of exercise established by each ACC will depend on the
play. In addition, ACCs monitor and record type and echelon of the exercise. Sufficient
maneuver damage. ACCs are normally estab- nets must be established to enable the ACC to
lished for division and higher echelon exer- function effectively. Some nets that can be
cises or when the geographic area is too large used are the—
for an ECC’s control radius. ACCs are Umpire command net.
normally composed of three elements:
A maneuver section. Administrative/logistical net.
A fire support section. Maneuver net.
An obstacle section. Fire support net.
For exercises above division or for special Obstacle net.
contingencies, they might add other sections Fire marker net.
such as air liaison or maneuver damage Whenever possible, each ACC spans a
control. geographical area that corresponds to the
ACCs must know— player unit boundaries. Thus, each ACC
The locations of all player and OPFOR should work with only one player, OPFOR,
units. and umpire/controller organization.
However, if terrain and communication
The locations of all emplaced obstacles. limitations make this ideal impossible, each
The general tactical situation. ACC must be prepared to act as a relay point
for other umpire/control elements. For divi-
ACCs use this information— sion-level exercises, ACC limits usually cor-
To coordinate the support, such as mainte- respond to brigade boundaries. ACCs then
nance, refueling, feeding, and administra- perform both their own functions and those of
tive information, for umpire teams and con- brigade umpire teams. All ACC sections
troller/evaluator personnel. assist area umpires and controllers in
resolving administrative and logistical
To coordinate emergency support that is problems.
not part of exercise play for all
To brief visitors to the exercise area. Maneuver Section
The maneuver section maintains the
locations and status of all player and OPFOR
Wire and/or radio communication units on the operations map. It places
connects each ACC with the ECC and with opposing maneuver umpires and controllers
each other. ACCs are administrative in direct communication with each other to
elements and do not control, umpire, or evalu- institute and/or evaluate planned activities.
ate. ACCs depend upon effective communica- This section consolidates umpire team
tion and timely reports from the umpire reports and keeps the ECC informed of the
teams operating within their areas of intentions of subordinate units. It coordi-
responsibility. When the need for ACCs has nates with adjacent ACCs and reports to the
been established, it is normal to field two or ECC on the status of flank units and on any
more of them. boundary problems.

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

Fire Support Section

The fire support section monitors all fire assists in controlling tactical obstacles and
support activities and communications, coordinates the placement of obstacle guards
serving as the control element for all support within the ACC area. It may divide its area
fires within the ACC radius. All fire support into subareas to simplify the dissemination
umpires are required to process their reports of information to tenant units. Breached
through this section to the ECC. During obstacles are logged on the obstacle status log
LFXs, this section may have to halt play for and removed from the obstacle map.
safety reasons. Repairing unit umpires report MSR and LOC
repairs, and ACC personnel post them in
Obstacle Section proper logs, remove them from the correct
The obstacle section provides current obstacle overlay, and report them to the ECC
information on obstacles to area umpires and G4. The obstacle section also ensures that all
controllers. It monitors conventional obsta- obstacles in the ACC area are properly
cles and damage to the MSR and to LOC for marked throughout the exercise. The obstacle
its assigned area. It should be staffed by should be marked by either the emplacing
experienced engineer personnel. Collateral unit umpire, the requesting unit umpire, or a
damage from conventional, chemical, or nearby resident umpire.
nuclear strikes that create obstacles must be
reported to this section. It assigns sequential A sample ACC organization for a brigade
target numbers to obstacles, and it reports area of operations during a division FTX is
their status, target numbers, and locations to shown in Table 15. The table is provided for
the ECC. It reports current obstacle informa- guidance. Exact manning will depend on the
tion to maneuver unit umpires by means of type of exercise, the echelon at which it is
updated obstacle overlays. This section conducted, and the geographic area.

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

The umpire teams evaluate engagements, Administrative Umpire. The administrative
fires, obstacles, encounters, and support umpires monitor the personnel replacement
activities, based on weapons effect tables, and casualty reporting system.
professional judgment, and a thorough
knowledge of the player unit’s disposition Intelligence Umpire. The intelligence
and scheme of maneuver. The teams inter- umpires monitor the performance of the
face with ACCs. They are especially active at brigade S2 section, to include the brigade
the battalion and lower levels of command intelligence net traffic and actions generated
where they may perform simultaneously as by that traffic.
controllers and evaluators.
The organizational tables that follow PW Umpire. The PW umpires control trained
depict umpire teams supporting a division PWs, coordinate their insertion in player
(brigade-slice) FTX. These tables depict the channels, and monitor the handling, pro-
most commonly required teams. Any unit in cessing, and evacuation of PWs in player
an exercise may require a corresponding channels. They accompany PWs from inser-
umpire team. tion to evacuation to the division PW collec-
tion point. They ensure that captured
OPFORs are repatriated and not processed as
Brigade Team PWs.

Brigade Chief Umpire. The brigade chief Operations umpire. The operations umpires
umpires are in charge of all brigade umpire monitor the brigade S3 section, maintain
teams in their sphere of control. They are the communications with the ECC or ACC, and
primary link between the ECC, ACC, and the gather and transmit SITREPs from battalion
player units. They provide liaison with player umpires.
units and ensure that ACCs and the ECC
receive frequent updates on unit locations, Logistical Umpire and Assistant. The
plans, and intentions. They coordinate with logistical umpires and assistants monitor all
OPFOR brigade umpires and assist in posi- supply expenditures and resupply activities.
tioning opposing battalion umpires. They They also monitor equipment loss reports
ensure that timely situation reports and weapon systems replacement operations
(SITREPs) are received and forwarded. in the brigade.
Medical Umpire. The medical umpires coordi-
The brigade chief umpires maintain nate the insertion of medical casualties and
current locations of player units and monitor monitor the casualty evacuation system of
player unit plans and intentions. They player units.
resolve conflicts among player umpires and
report them to the division chief umpires, NBC Umpire. The NBC umpires at brigade
when appropriate. The brigade chief umpires level ensure that NBC umpires in maneuver
also conduct AARs at the ends of exercises. units are informed of brigade NBC player
operations. They assist the maneuver unit
Assistant Brigade Chief Umpire. The NBC umpires in effecting umpire linkup
assistant brigade chief umpires represent the between firing units and targeted units. They
chief umpires in their absence and perform also inform the ECC and ACC of brigade
other duties that the chief umpires specify. NBC player operations.

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

Maintenance Umpire and Assistant. The umpire maneuver operations center. They
maintenance umpires and assistants maintain the operations map with the cur-
monitor all maintenance activities in the rent locations of battalion and subordinate
brigade. They ensure that recovery, repair, units. They maintain communication and
and replacement follow established proce- coordination with ACCs and subordinate
dures. They may accompany equipment company/scout platoon/attached unit
through the maintenance system to observe umpires such as the engineer platoon umpire.
player actions. They consolidate and transmit SITREPs
from subordinate unit umpires to the ACC,
Maneuver Battalion Team and they transmit required reports to the
appropriate ACCs. They provide target
Battalion Chief Umpire. The battalion chief information, when requested, through the
umpires are in charge of all battalion ACC maneuver section to the fire support sec-
umpires. They are the primary communica- tion, and they receive and relay information
tions link between the brigade team and the on opposing forces and obstacles from ACCs
player units, and they ensure that the brigade to concerned company/scout platoon
team and the ACC maneuver section are noti- umpires.
fied prior to entering or departing ACC areas.
The chief umpires make sure that the brigade NBC Umpire. The NBC umpires are the
team and the appropriate ACC maneuver primary contact for NBC actions and
section get updates whenever the battalion or information. They coordinate to ensure that
a subordinate company moves 2 to 3 ACC and higher and subordinate unit
kilometers or more, changes the direction of umpires are informed of any NBC hazards.
attack, or withdraws. They make sure that The NBC umpires monitor and evaluate NBC
timely SITREPs are transmitted to the ACC. protective measures and defensive actions.
They update the ACC frequently on player They ensure that the battalion and subordi-
plans and intentions. They place subordinate nate and attached units respond to NBC
company umpires in direct contact with their attacks. They assist and advise the opera-
counterparts in the OPFOR. They resolve tions/intelligence umpire on NBC matters,
player-umpire conflicts and report them to and they assess NBC casualties.
the brigade chief umpire, as necessary. They
conduct informal briefings at the ends of the Logistics Umpire. The logistics umpires
exercises and provide input for the AARs. monitor the battalion logistics activities.
They also monitor the equipment loss reports
Battalion Assistant Chief Umpire. The and weapon system replacement operations.
battalion assistant umpires take the place of
the chief umpires, in their absence. They Company Umpire. Normally, company
perform any other functions that the chief umpires go with the company commanders.
umpires direct. They ensure that team members are properly
positioned to observe player activities. They
Operations/Intelligence Umpire. The communicate or meet directly with the
operations/intelligence umpires are the opposing force unit umpires to exchange
primary contact between player unit umpires information, adjust engagements, assess all
and the umpire chain of command. As battle losses, and determine the outcome of
assistants to the battalion assistant engagements. They report the plans and
umpires/evaluators, they establish the intentions of player unit commanders, as well

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

as changes in unit location of more than 2 to 3 Administrative Umpire. The administrative

kilometers, to the battalion umpire teams. umpires have the same duties as the
They also report all obstacles that player administrative umpires for the brigade team.
units emplace, execute, or breach to the bat-
talion umpire team. The company umpires Redeye/Stinger Umpire. The Redeye/
emphasize safety and report any violations Stinger umpires monitor the tactical employ-
directly to the unit or through umpire ment of Redeyes and Stingers.
channels. They conduct informal briefings at
the end of the exercise and report maneuver
damage that exceeds the allowable Antitank Platoon Umpire. For infantry bat-
maximum. talions only, these umpires function like the
company maneuver umpires but have
specific responsibility for the antitank
Scout Platoon Umpire. The scout platoon platoon.
umpires monitor the activities of the scout
platoon. They ensure that information
regarding opposing force sightings and Division Artillery Team
imminent contact is relayed to the company
umpire. They must clear with the battalion Chief Artillery Umpire. The chief artillery
chief umpire/operations officer before umpire is in charge of all field artillery
directing the platoon’s withdrawal when it is umpires in the exercise sector. He is are
reduced to one-third TOE strength. responsible for the training, supervision,
placement, and welfare of umpires. The chief
umpire arbitrates conflicts; serves as contact
between players and umpires, as required;
Battalion Fire Support Umpire. The and ensures that all umpires adhere to estab-
battalion fire support umpires assess the lished procedures in performing their duties.
effects of hostile weapons. They monitor the
FSO’s fire planning and coordination.
Division Artillery Umpire. The division
artillery umpire team locates near the divi-
Company Fire Support Umpire. The sion artillery TOC. The division artillery
company fire support umpires assess the umpires monitor all counterfire missions,
effects of incoming hostile fire. They monitor serve as umpires for the division artillery,
FIST/FO fire planning and coordination, and evaluate the operations of the division
positioning, and calls for fire. They forward artillery units.
fire planning and other appropriate informa-
tion through umpire channels to the bat- FA Battalion Team. The FA battalion team
talion umpires. They mark indirect fires collocates with the player FDC operations
within their sectors. center. The team monitors all counterfire and
indirect fire missions, as required.
Mortar Platoon Umpire. The mortar platoon
umpires monitor platoon planning, coordina- Lance Battalion Team. The Lance battalion
tion, calls for fire, positioning, and interface team collocates with the player unit and
with the scheme of maneuver. monitors all missions.

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

Calvary Squadron Team

The squadron umpire team has the same same responsibilities as the field artillery
responsibilities as the maneuver battalion team. Intelligence and administra-
team. The howitzer battery team has the tive/logistics umpires may be added as

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

Air Defense Battalion Team

Battalion Umpire. The battalion umpires activities, keep abreast of unit intentions,
maintain the status and location of all units assess battle losses and casualties, and report
and report to the ACC, as appropriate. The current status to the battalion, umpires, as
battalion umpires are the relay points for required. The battery umpires also submit
information provided the player unit by the obstacle reports to battalion umpires.
ACC, especially obstacle information. They
monitor both tactical play and movement of Platoon Umpire. The platoon umpires
the battalion headquarters and headquarters monitor player movement, tactics and
battery. They assess battle loss and engage- engagements; and they report to the battery
ments, as required. umpires, as required. They assess battle
losses and casualties and report obstacles to
Battery Umpire. The battery umpires receive battery umpires. The platoon umpires
and act upon messages from the battalion provide aviation umpires with air defense
and platoon umpires. They monitor unit locations and operational status, as required.

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

Division Engineer
Battalion Umpire Team

Division Engineer Umpire. The division obstacle materiel management. They ensure
engineer umpires monitor operations of the that obstacles are marked and reported and
division engineer battalion headquarters and that obstacle guards are properly placed.
the division engineer section. They monitor
all engineer obstacle information and ensure Engineer Bridge Company Umpire. The
that reports on engineer obstacles are engineer bridge company umpires validate
transmitted to the ACC. the operations of an engineer company
equipped with mobile assault bridge (MAB),
Engineer Company Umpire. The engineer ribbon, and panel bridging. They ensure that
company umpires validate operations of the river-crossing operations are conducted in a
engineer company to include obstacle realistic manner and verify bridge construc-
emplacement, execution, breaching, and tion estimates during bridging operations
bridging operations. They monitor Class V with the ACC.

FM 25-4
Appendix D/Exercise Control

Aviation Control Team

Attack Helicopter Company Controller. The incoming fire missions upon receipt of reports
attack helicopter company controllers are in or retransmit reports to subordinate umpires
charge of the company umpire teams. They in the vicinity of the impact grid for their
keep the ACC informed of company and assessment.
forward arming and refueling point (FARP)
locations, receive engagement reports from Platoon Umpire. The platoon umpires fly
platoon umpires, and monitor current with and observe the deployment of the
company strength. They ensure that player-accompanied platoon. They assess
assessed aircraft are removed from operation losses from ground fire and ADA weapons,
for the prescribed time period, and they contact ground unit umpires through the
monitor selected ammunition expenditures ACC, provide a subjective loss evaluation of
and resupply, to include FARP interdiction. both air and ground elements, and submit
The company controllers mark and assess engagement reports to the company umpire.

FM 25-4
Exercise Control/Appendix D

Medical Control and Casualty Teams

Medical control and casualty teams record cate with the specific evacuation companies
and tag simulated casualties that medical that provide a simulated combat support
umpires have designated for evacuation hospital in the division support area.
through medical channels. They will collo-

Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators
Through the controllers, exercise directors units get the maximum training benefits.
monitor the play to ensure that the training Evaluating is separate and distinct from
objectives are accomplished. Controllers both controlling and umpiring. Evaluators
keep the play within the limits prescribed by determine proficiency, based on the training
the scenario. By arbitrating engagements objectives in soldiers manuals and ARTEPs,
and assessing losses, umpires help player by observing player activities.

At all echelons of command the controllers, Medical procedures.
umpires, and evaluators who monitor Environmental protection.
exercise play must be knowledgeable in the
performance of assigned duties. They must Procedures during player tactical
know the schedule of events that support the movement.
training objectives. Controllers, umpires, Procedures for umpiring obstacle
and evaluators receive formal training after encounters.
the LOI is published and prior to STARTEX.
The chief umpire, chief controller, chief Direct and indirect fire assessment.
evaluator, and their respective staffs conduct Procedures for controlling ADA, tactical
training sessions together or separately. air, and Army aviation.
Generally, preparation begins with team NBC operations.
leaders’ conferences. The chief controllers,
Preparation of reports.
umpires, and evaluators conduct conferences
with their player counterparts at each Procedures for multiechelon AARs.
echelon to acquaint them with the exercise Preparation also includes reconnaissance,
scenario and background information; the coordination, and communications. Prior to
missions, concepts, policies, and procedures STARTEX, controller, umpire, and evaluator
for controllers, umpires, and evaluators; the teams and supporting personnel should
organization, duties, and responsibilities for reconnoiter the exercise area and test the
controllers, umpires, and evaluators; and the communications equipment.
schedules for controllers and umpires.
Preparation includes further schooling for Evaluators should be selected with care
controllers, umpires, and evaluators. Con- and must be thoroughly knowledgeable in
ducted either concurrently or separately, the specific tasks to be evaluated. The senior
these schools familiarize personnel with— evaluator will instruct evaluator personnel
on evaluation objectives and be responsible
Duties, responsibilities, and procedures. for their training. The senior evaluator will
The exercise scenario and background also develop the evaluator manning table in
information. conjunction with the chief controller, taking
Administrative and logistics procedures. care to ensure that evaluators are properly
selected and assigned to positions they are
The exercise area, rules, and safety qualified to evaluate. Evaluators must also
requirements. be knowledgeable concerning—

FM 25-4
Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators/Appendix E

Player units’ TOE and TDAs. Appendix F for evaluating small arms
The personnel status of the player units. engagements.
The training of the player units to date.
The equipment status of the player units.
Player units’ SOPs.
Indirect fire control procedures require
Evaluators are responsible for positioning effective radio communications among
themselves where they can observe as many opposing unit umpires and fire direction
activities as possible. However, because it is centers. Fire support controllers must be
physically impossible to observe all activities aggressive in establishing and maintaining
during an exercise, they must make sound communications. They must be accurate and
judgments to determine which ones are more prompt in informing each other of changes in
important. This does not relieve the locations, maneuver control measures, fire
evaluator of the responsibility to evaluate the support coordination measures, and front-
other activities. To do that, evaluators must line traces.
rely on the reports received from other Dedicated fire support umpires are
means, including— assigned to each echelon from maneuver
Radio traffic. company headquarters to brigade head-
quarters, including FA units. The composi-
Pointed questions of other evaluators. tion of umpire teams for FA units depends
Message traffic. upon unit missions and exercise objectives.
Directed discussions with commanders Terrain and local situations may dictate
and staff. modifications to any manning table. Only
the planners at local levels can determine
Evaluators may also assist unit commanders modifications. Appendix D of this manual
who desire help in meeting training provides guidance and sample manning
objectives. Acting as trainers during the tables for control organizations. Umpires
exercise, they can show soldiers and leaders accompanying other forces must mark and
better ways to perform tasks or correct poor assess indirect fires on their units’ installa-
performance, if required. tions, as required.
Because no OPFOR live fire occurs during
PARTICULAR FUNCTIONS field exercises, targets that would normally
be located by counterfire radar, sound and
Control personnel must be able to monitor flash ranging, and crater analysis cannot be
and assess various kinds of exercise play: developed. The targeting assistance provided
direct fire, indirect fire, ADA, Army aviation, by CEWI units is also difficult to portray in
tactical air support, and engineer. exercises. Controllers or umpires can provide
necessary information for exercising target
DIRECT FIRE PLAY intelligence systems to provide battle staff,
survivability, and systems training. For
If the exercises use MILES, umpires must example, the umpire of the targeted unit can
be familiar with assessment procedures from receive the gun-target (GT) direction in each
TC 25-6. If simulation is used, umpires will indirect fire mission report from the FDC
assess casualties using the tables in umpire. If the targeted unit players can, in a
FM 25-4
Appendix E/Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators

practical manner, demonstrate to the player radar section located in the area. The
controller that they know how to perform player division artillery is responsible for
crater analysis correctly and have the equip- providing the communications link from the
ment to do it, the controller will provide the FA battalion umpire to the radar section. To
hostile GT direction to the player unit. The simulate radar detection error, the ECC
player unit must then get this information alters FA unit locations by no more than a
through correct channels to the counterfire 300-meter radial error.
center at player division artillery. The fire As constraints permit, umpires can use
support section of each ACC where indirect pyrotechnics, munitions, or other aids to add
fire systems are positioned will notify the realism. Upon notification of the mission, the
ECC fire support section of the identity and umpire with the targeted unit can use an
grid locations of OPFOR targets according to artillery simulator. A smoke grenade can
the schedule in Table 24. simulate chemical or smoke munitions.
Another way to create target intelligence is
to have the ECC for the support section Assessment
consolidate opposing force locations and,
according to percentages specified in Table For exercises such as CPXs that have no
34, relay a portion of them via telephone to actual OPFOR, umpires assess field artillery
division G2/G3 controllers. The G2/G3 and mortar effects, damage, and casualties
controllers place the locations in the player using the appropriate tables from Appendix
division all-source intelligence center (ASIC). F. For exercises such as FTXs that use an
The ECC fire support element relays the actual OPFOR, umpires with player and
remaining firing unit locations to each OPFOR units should determine the effects of
OPFOR DIVARTY controller by the fastest fires and assess damage and losses using the
and most secure means available. In order to appropriate tables from Appendix F. For
simulate radar acquisitions, the DIVARTY example, when an observer locates a target
controller sends relay locations to the FA bat- and calls for fire, the unit umpire gets the fire
talion umpire, who will provide them to the request information. The FDC umpire

FM 25-4
Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators/Appendix E

informs the company umpire of the impact for US forces will apply to both. When a unit
location, shell, fuze, number of volleys, and has fired its maximum daily expenditure or
observer target direction, rounded to the lost it through damage assessment, the
nearest 10 mils. This information passes umpire denies the unit permission to tire
from the friendly to the OPFOR umpire, who additional missions until it is resupplied.
assesses casualties and damage based on Table 35 approximates the ammunition
damage tables, accuracy of fire, and subjec- available daily, based on the unit’s on-board
tive judgment, as appropriate. The OPFOR basic load plus 2½ turn-arounds of its
controller provides damage and casualty organic resupply vehicles.
assessment to, the friendly controller, who
then provides it to the FO. The FO uses the AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY PLAY
assessment in submitting a surveillance
report if, in the controller’s judgment, the ter- Control
rain and weather allow observation. If the
OPFOR unit correctly conducts a crater Control of ADA play occurs at respective
analysis, the OPFOR controller will provide fire units and at ADA tactical headquarters.
the unit with a back azimuth upon which to The chief ADA controller manages play
base a shell report. If the exercise is so large through control channels. Operating
that it is difficult to identify opponents, the elements of the ADA control organization
umpire should get the call sign for the maintain continuous communications and
opposing umpires from the ACC. keep records of all key events and
Using Table 33, umpires assess personnel
losses and equipment damage caused by Each OPFOR maneuver battalion is
artillery and mortar fires. Simulated battle credited with the ADA array in Table 43. It is
losses of cargo carrying vehicles include the not necessary to simulate that array since all
loss of the cargo. The controller reduces or air defense play is based on tables. Threat
stops maneuver and/or delivery of fires, as capabilities to our rear areas are also
circumstances require, until the player unit simulated regardless of the actual mix of US
simulates resupply of destroyed cargo. In or allied weapons on the ground.
those firing units where weapon systems are Aircraft are so fast and air defense
assessed, the umpire adjusts the total rounds tracking systems so sophisticated that a fully
fired per mission based on the number of automated system is necessary for system-to-
volleys fired, multiplied by the total number system engagements. In order to generate
of operational tubes remaining. useful air defense play without ADP, control
In order to place realistic restrictions on the procedures define the flight route, the
number of fire missions that an indirect fire engagement technique of the aircraft, and
unit can deliver, umpires assigned to mortar the air defense array that they fly over. These
and field artillery units must maintain strict become the basis for assessments against the
and proper ammunition accountability, aircraft.
including simulated losses to counterfire as Lacking the capability for system-to-
described above. Maximum daily expendi- system engagements, ADA training uses
tures by type of firing unit and ammunition simulations. Such simulations include actual
are shown in Table 35. Unless OPFORs are tracking (radar and manual), simulated
designated and configured as threat units, firing, and ammunition resupply. Reports go
the maximum authorized expenditures listed through command channels to battalion

FM 25-4
Appendix E/Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators

level where the commanders informed of the array. Based on the number and type of
number of aircraft engaged, the number opposing ADA units, they use Tables 37, 38,
estimated to be hit, and the volume of and 39 to determine attrition. They enter the
ammunition expended. Although such figures on the line corresponding to the
reports are not used for assessments against opposing ADA array and the column cor-
aircraft, they exercise air defense systems responding to the number of aircraft flown.
and reporting channels. An ADA umpire The intersection of that row and column indi-
team is assigned to each ADA battalion cates the number of aircraft destroyed.
operations center. The teams monitor and
report ADA firing unit locations and are noti- USAF controllers receive the ADA losses
fied of suppression fires delivered against the and determine additional losses caused by
unit. opposing interceptors. They then assess
these losses based upon guidance from the
Assessment USAF controller at the ECC. The overall
attrition agreed upon by the ADA and USAF
When determining losses from ground fire, controllers will be given to the ASOC.
umpires consider all types of weapons that
engage the target, including surface-to-air ADA unit umpires operate at each ADA
missiles (SAMs), short-range air defense battalion and battery and at HAWK
(SHORAD) artillery, and small arms. To platoons. ADA unit umpires determine the
assess losses from simulated engagements success of individual aircraft engagements
by operational ADA units, umpires deter- based on the system kill probabilities shown
mine the validity of the engagement. For in Table 30 and the random number table at
HAWK units, this occurs in the battery Table 45. Chaparral/Vulcan (C/V), 40-
control center (BCC); for Nike Hercules units, millimeter, and Rapier engagements will be
it occurs in the director station trailer (DST); assessed at the battery operations center
for SHORAD units and small arms/auto- when the report is received from the platoon.
matic weapons, it occurs at the individual fire HAWK engagements will be assessed at
unit. Additional details on engagement battery level. ADA unit umpires pass air
procedures are found in FM 44-4. defense locations and HAWK operational
status reports to the ACC. Company or
Umpires determine the volume of fire battery umpires assess Redeye engagements
during the engagement. SAM units record using Table 41. They assess small arms
the number of simulated missile launches by engagements using Table 42.
a single fire unit. Vulcan and 40-millimeter
units record the length of time the weapons When ADA units are targeted by FA units,
simulate fire. the HAWK battalion controller or the C/V or
ADA and USAF controllers operate in the Rapier battery controller will be contacted by
ECC or the TOC. They maintain a situation the ACC. The ACC fire support section relays
map indicating current locations and status FA mission reports from the suppressing FA
of air defense assets. They receive aircraft unit umpires. HAWK battalion umpires or
flight data from the air support operations C/V or Rapier battery umpires determine if
center (ASOC) and determine aircraft any player elements were at the specified
attrition. grids when the missions were fired. If no
element was at the grid, no further action is
ADA controllers plot the anticipated required. For successful suppression
aircraft flight route over the opposing ADA missions, ADA umpires refer to Table 32 to

FM 25-4
Controllers, Umpires, end Evaluators/Appendix E

determine personnel and vehicle casualties. system, the event occurs for any number
They pass casualty figures to their player between 01 and 64 and fails for any number
counterparts by face-to-face contact. between 65 and 00.
When ADA units are targeted by air assets, To assess an engagement with a flight of
aerial umpires contact HAWK battalion four high-performance threat aircraft attack-
umpires over the player battalion operations ing at 2,000 feet and using electronic counter-
net and the C/V or Rapier battery umpires measures (ECM), an umpire considers the
over the battalion controller net. The aerial flight route. En route to the target, the air-
umpires determine vehicle and personnel craft fly through three overlapping HAWK
casualties. They pass the casualty figures to defenses and a Vulcan platoon that sur-
ADA umpires using the procedures outlined rounds the target. The umpire enters the
below. The ADA umpires pass casualty aircraft attrition table for high-performance
figures to their player counterparts face-to- aircraft with ECM (Table 37) for an array of
face. three HAWK platoons and one Vulcan
To use a random number table (see Table platoon. In a flight of four aircraft, three are
44), controllers enter it at any starting destroyed. The one surviving aircraft flies
point—for example, row 12, column 2. The through two HAWK defenses exiting the
number encountered is 15. They take addi- target. The umpire reenters the table for an
tional random numbers in order from this array of two HAWK platoons. For a flight of
starting point in any direction. When they one aircraft, none was destroyed. The umpire
reach the end of a row or column without reports that three aircraft were destroyed
having the required amount of random before reaching the target.
numbers, they proceed to the next row or To assess an engagement of a Chaparral
column until they get the desired quantity of platoon firing three missiles at a flight of
random numbers. The number 00 in the table high-performance aircraft, an umpire uses
means 100, not zero. Thus, if a system or the appropriate table. Table 40 shows the kill
event has 0.64 probability of success, it will probability of Chaparral against high-
succeed 64 times out of 100. When umpires performance aircraft as 0.16. The umpire
use the random number table to assess the enters the random number table (Table 44) at

FM 25-4
Appendix E/Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators

row 15, column 16, and reads down. The first For engagements between AH-1 attack
three numbers encountered are 54, 08, and 64. helicopters with TOWs against an OPFOR
The umpire determines that one missile was ADA array, an umpire is assigned to each
successful (08 versus 16) and reports that fact AH platoon. A rated pilot rides in the front
to the player battery TOC. seat of the OH-58 or in the back seat of the
For additional details on air defense player platoon OH-58 which accompanies
operations, exercise planners and umpires the AH platoon. The pilot must have access to
should consult FM 44-1, FM 44-3, FM 44-23, FM communications.
FM 44-90, and FM 44-95. To assess engagements with AHs, OPFOR
umpires monitor the number of engagements
ARMY AVIATION PLAY their ADA units accumulate against
Control helicopter elements, keeping cumulative
figures throughout the exercise. OPFOR
Army aviation control computes losses for company umpires coordinate with the
both aviation and OPFOR units during OPFOR battalion umpire to determine what
engagements and insertions. Engagements ADA assets, in addition to organic or
are confrontations between an attack heli- attached systems, are available to the
copter (AH) section, platoon, or company and company. With these cumulative figures and
an OPFOR unit for a 5-minute period. Inser- knowledge of available ADA assets, OPFOR
tions are troops or equipment delivered into umpires consult the helicopter-ADA assess-
landing zones by assault or combat support ment card (Table 26). They determine the line
aviation companies. Engagement outcomes number by indexing available ADA assets on
are based on attack positions, exposure the left of the card. They determine column
times, and OPFOR air defense assets. number by adding 1 to the total number of

FM 25-4
Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators/Appendix E

prior engagements that have accumulated actually flown. Once the assessment process
against the unit. They then transmit the line has been coordinated and computed by
and column number to the airborne umpire. aviation and OPFOR umpires, helicopter
Helicopter losses are the total losses for an units are allowed to perform the mission.
engagement (5-minute period). OPFOR con- Helicopter unit umpires will direct their units
trollers use line 8 for any ADA assets when to divert the losses back to their home bases,
OPFOR tactics and organizations are used. to a FARP site, or in the case of an air assault,
Controllers use this card when the OPFOR to the predesignated casualty holding area.
ground unit is attacked by helicopters or Aviation umpires should consider air-to-air
when an OPFOR ground unit occupies the engagements both in planning and
landing zone used for an insertion. OPFOR controlling field exercises. Because Army
ground unit controllers keep track of the aviation performs a wide range of missions
cumulative number of insertions and engage- with a wide variety of helicopters,
ments that have been conducted against standardized assessments are very difficult.
their units. For example, four engagements Range, weapons, and targets control air-to-
(20 minutes total time) have been conducted air and antihelicopter engagements. For
against an OPFOR ground unit since the example, rapid fire Gatling weapons are
start of the exercise. When the helicopter con- extremely effective at ranges less than 1,000
troller again makes contact with the OPFOR meters, but their effectiveness decreases
controller, the OPFOR controller sends the significantly as the range increases. At 1,000
helicopter controller line 8, column 5, because meters or less, machine guns or Gatling guns
this engagement is the fifth conducted are effective. At 1,000 to 1,800 meters, folding
against the unit. The helicopter controller fin aerial rockets or air-to-air missiles are
consults the ADA-helicopter assessment effective. At distances greater than 1,000
card and follows line 8 across to column 5 and meters, antitank guided missiles (ATGMs) or
finds the number 1 under column 5. This air-to-air missiles are effective.
means that one helicopter is lost during the
first 5 minutes. If the engagement lasts In addition to the weapon systems and how
longer than 5 minutes, the helicopter they relate to range, planners must consider
controller uses line 8, column 6. The number 1 other factors. Gatling guns have a high
under column 6 means that another heli- volume of fire and create devastating effects
copter is assessed during the second 5-minute on point targets at ranges under 1,000 meters.
period. The helicopter controller keeps going They require little time to lay on targets but
across the line for each additional 5-minute must hit targets directly to be effective.
period. After reaching column 10, he returns Rockets require relatively little time to lay on
to column 1. targets. However, firing aircraft must aim at
the targets, which requires maneuvering
When air assault, air cavalry, or attack time. The greatest advantage of rockets is
helicopter missions overfly OPFOR territory, their effectiveness without making a direct
the inbound and outbound flights are subject hit. Although ATGMs are long-range and
to casualty assessments. Helicopter unit accurate weapons, they require targets that
umpires should establish communications are stationary or moving very slowly. They
with OPFOR umpires along the intended are relatively ineffective against air-to-air
flight routes. Doing so determines losses targets including other helicopters. Air-to-air
inflicted on the way in and out of the mission missiles are effective from 500 meters to their
objective areas before the missions are individual maximum effective ranges.

FM 25-4
Appendix E/Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators

Aircraft must be maneuvered to aim the the Air Force organization fulfilling the
weapon. ASOC mission for the exercise.
Target presentation is the third factor to be
considered in an anti-helicopter con- Assessment
frontation. Does the target helicopter present
its flank or front? Is it hovering, flying nap- For all Air Force tactical air support sorties
of-the-earth (NOE), masked, flying contour, entering the exercise area airspace (close air
or attacking? Optimum hit and kill support, battlefield air interdiction, recon-
probability may occur when the target naissance), the ADA controller computes
helicopter presents its flank and is engaged attrition from ground-based ADA. The
as a point target at a range of less than 1,000 ASOC advises the ADA controller of
meters. As the presentation becomes frontal missions, times over targets (TOTs), target
and the range increases, the hit/kill coordinates or initial contact points based on
probability decreases proportionally. Given NATO procedures, and numbers of aircraft
all the possible factors, the professional involved. Using the attrition reports, the
judgment of qualified control personnel must ASOC advises’ the ADA controller of the
still remain primary in assessing results. number of sorties remaining.
Close Air Support. Forward air controllers
are also players. They control specific
TACTICAL AIR SUPPORT PLAY missions and supply BDA for them using
Control mutually agreed upon tables provided for the
For tactical air support during exercises, exercise. They also introduce BDAs into
the ECC should be manned by sufficient Air controller channels and transmit them via
Force TACP personnel and equipment to controller communications to targeted unit
maintain 24-hour duty and the Air Force umpires.
control net. Normally, Air Force controller The ASOC notifies FACs of the number of
functions are performed by the ALO attached aircraft for which BDA will be made. For
to the Army HQ that is given the mission to example, the message Four aircraft; score
establish control for the exercise. Each active three shows that ADA killed one aircraft.
ACC should be manned by sufficient TACP BDA reports only three aircraft are scored.
personnel to maintain and operate the Air All other ASOC transmissions to and from
Force control net as directed by the chief con- the FACs are standardized.
troller, and to receive/record BDA reports for After each mission, the FACs make the
airstrikes conducted within the ACC’s area BDAs using mutually agreed upon tables
of responsibility. On joint training exercises, and deliver the standard reports. In addition,
the appropriate Air Force headquarters will the FACs contact the ACC responsible for the
designate a chief controller for the exercise. area of the target coordinates and pass on
The Army controller organization should messages indicating the mission number,
man the ASOC with sufficient ADA TOT, target coordinates, BDA, and number
controller personnel and equipment to of aircraft in the area. The ACCs log these
maintain 24-hour duty and communications mission reports.
with the ECC. If the ASOC is not deployed to
the exercise area, ADA controllers must Battlefield Air Interdiction. The ASOC
establish communications to the ASOC or to notifies the Air Force controller in the ECC of

FM 25-4
Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators/Appendix E

all ground attack missions that will not be published by the higher headquarters con-
observed or for which a BDA by a FAC will ducting the exercise provides subordinate
not be made. The ASOC will provide mission commanders with EEI necessary to carry out
number, actual TOT, target coordinates, type the mission.
of attack (visual, radar, air support radar
team), target description, type/number of The engineer staff officer assigned to the
aircraft to score, and ordnance. The Air Force exercise planning staff writes the engineer
controller will determine what unit may have annex to the OPLAN. During planning,
been at the coordinates at the time of the major engineer elements participating in the
strike and initiate assessment procedures. exercise work with the engineer planner to
ensure that operations are adequate.
Reconnaissance. The ADA controller at the Umpires validate all simulated obstacles
ASOC will notify the ECC if a reconnais- with obstacle certificates. Upon partial or full
sance mission was unsuccessful due to completion of a simulated obstacle, the
OPFOR action. The G2/S2 air controller will umpire assigned to the emplacing unit fills in
prevent the appropriate reconnaissance and signs the certificate and gives it to the
mission reports from being used by player obstacle guard. Obstacles should be so con-
units. structed that encountering units have diffi-
For tactical air reconnaissance missions, culty in breaching or bypassing them. Attri-
the ASOC notifies the supported unit TACP tion will be enhanced if an obstacle is covered
of how many aircraft were lost before they by fire or if it coincides with a direct fire kill
reconnoitered the approved targets. The zone. The emplacing engineer unit umpire or,
TACP then notifies the designated or sup- in the case of reserve targets, the umpire with
ported unit umpire, as well as the appropriate the maneuver company guarding the
staff member of the supported unit. Unit obstacle reports completed obstacles to the
umpires should provide an appropriate ACC. Demolition obstacles are not effective
intelligence readout given the flight path of until execution, including detonation, is
the reconnaissance flight. reported to the ACC.
Umpires of units capable of delivering
Air Transport. For tactical air transport scatterable mines are informed of the mine-
missions, the ASOC notifies the supported field mission by the delivering unit. After the
unit TACP of how many air-craft were lost emplacement, the maneuver unit umpire
before they got to the drop or landing zones. submits a report to the ACC, completes the
The TACP then notifies the designated sup- obstacle certificate, and marks the obstacle.
ported unit controller, as well as the appro-
priate staff member of the supported unit. Atomic demolition munitions are used only
as obstacles and should be controlled as such.
Once an ADM squad has deployed, the team
umpire should ensure the proper delay for
ENGINEER PLAY transporting the munitions from the special
Control ammunition supply point (SASP) to the
target site. The team umpire should also
The planning sequence for engineer play in ensure that the squad is proficient in ADM
training exercises and for actual combat are procedures before validating the emplace-
identical. Exercise objectives determine the ment and detonation. After the simulated
scope of engineer operations. The OPLAN detonation, the team controller reports the
FM 25-4
Appendix E/Controllers, Umpires, and Evaluators

resulting obstacle to the ACC and marks the detectors should actually attempt to locate
obstacle with appropriate marking material. and neutralize the mines. The nature of an
Appendix F contains information concerning obstacle determines the time required to
ADM target analysis. See Figures 34 and 35 reduce or breach it. This time obtained from
for an obstacle certificate. Residual radiation the breaching requirements specified on the
casualties from ADM obstacles are not obstacle certificate. Appendix F provides the
normally assessed during combined arms time required for breaching and the casualty
exercises. assessment criteria for simulated minfields.
When an obstacle is covered by fire, the
Assessment encountering unit must suppress or eliminate
Upon entering an exercise area, the the source of fire and proceed with the breach-
maneuver battalion umpire receives obstacle ing requirements specified in the obstacle
information from the ACC. The maneuver certificate. Casualties from direct or indirect
unit empire is responsible for ensuring that fire will be determined by casualty assess-
the unit takes appropriate action when ment instructions.
encountering an obstacle. Units encoun- The exercise control organization provides
tering obstacles should actually perform all obstacle guards who have the same authority
steps of the breach possible. For example, as other exercise controllers. Obstacle guards
when a unit encounters a minefield, the enforce and ensure active compliance by all
leader must choose the breaching method. If participating troops encountering the
mine detectors are used, operators with obstacle.

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

Assessment and Computation Tables
The tables that follow were developed by probability (AVKP), umpires follow the
the Command and General Staff College for procedure below.
assessing such exercise effects as personnel
losses and equipment damage and for STEP 1
computing emplacement or deployment First, opposing umpires determine task
times. When battle simulations support an organization based only on the part of the
exercise, the tables from the simulations unit that is in contact. For instance, one
should be used. Other field manuals and armored platoon, two mechanized infantry
training circulars, such as FM 101-10-1, platoons, and two TOW sections may be
contain data and tables that should be used, opposing each other. Each of these elements
as appropriate, in the assessment procedures. has a kill potential in the following ranges:
Locally produced tables and procedures 1,000 meters, 1,000-2,000 meters, and 2,000
should be used judiciously. Within any exer- meters and beyond. At 500 meters or less,
cise, all participating elements must use the each can also inflict casualties. Umpires total
same tables. the kill potential of all elements for each
To determine armored vehicle kill range, using Table 27.

Opposing umpires then exchange their The umpires then adjust the AVKP they
accompanied unit AVKP. The totals above, received for posture, visibility conditions,
for instance, would be exchanged as follows: and the amount of indirect fire being used to
suppress the opposing forces. They adjust the
US to OPFOR 8/4/2/35 AVKP for these factors by referring to the
OPFOR to US 12/6/3/68 direct fire adjustment table (27).

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

Example 1
US forces are in defensive/prepared column and reads directly across to the
positions (2 to 8 hours). Heavy rain reduces Canalized Crossing Obstacle column where
visibility. The US is firing light suppression the AVKP increases to 10. This number
on OPFORs located 1,500 meters from US reflects the increased vulnerability for
positions. The AVKP US received from crossing an obstacle through a narrow
OPFOR is 12/6/3/58. By entering the adjust- breach. Other adjustments are made for
ment table at 6 (1,500 meters) and reading visibility and suppression. The adjusted
across, the umpire determines that the AVKP is assessed for each 55-minute period
posture adjustment is 3. The umpire then the US is moving through the breached
enters the visibility table at 3 and adjusts for obstacle.
rain. The AVKP is reduced to 2. Finally, the
umpire enters the suppression table at 2 and, STEP 4
reading across to light suppression, deter- From the above calculations, the umpires
mines an AVKP of 2. Thus, at a range of 1,500 determine that the OPFOR now has the
meters, the OPFOR has the potential to kill 2 capability to inflict 2 armored vehicle losses
US armored vehicles in each five minutes of per 5 minutes of engagement on the US forces
contact. and that the US can inflict 2 armored vehicle
losses per 5 minutes of engagement on the
Example 2 OPFOR.
The OPFOR is attacking 900 meters from When more than one unit opposes a single
US defensive positions. There is no night unit, umpires use the cumulative AVKP in
illumination, and heavy suppression is being assessing losses. For example, an umpire
fired on US positions. The AVKP that may receive AVKPs from two opposing
OPFOR received from US is 8/4/2/35. Enter- controllers:
ing the table at 8 and reading across, the
umpire would determine that there is no
target posture adjustment. The OPFOR is
moving or in open positions; the night
illumination adjustment is 4; the heavy sup-
pression adjustment is 2. Thus, at a range of
900 meters, the US has the potential to kill 2 The umpire then adjusts the cumulative
OPFOR armored vehicles in each five AVKP for target posture, illumination, and
minutes of contact. suppression. When a company is attacked by
two opposing companies, the AVKP is
divided and forwarded to each opposing con-
Example 3 troller. For example, a company in such a
The US is attacking and has breached a posture has an AVKP of 10/6/4/18. The
minefield 900 meters from the OPFOR. The umpire forwards an AVKP of 5/3/2/9 to each
US umpire takes the AVKP previously opposing controller.
received from the OPFOR controller—
8/4/2/35—and makes a special AVKP DIRECT FIRE TABLES
adjustment. Using the AVKP for 900 meters,
which is 8, the umpire enters the direct fire To determine the effects of direct fires,
adjustment table (27) in the Moving or Open umpires use the tables below, as appropriate.

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F


To determine the effects of indirect fires,
umpires apply the tables below, as

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

To determine the effects of ADA, umpires
apply the tables below, as appropriate.

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

1 4 4
FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

To determine the effects of obstacle
emplacement and breaching operations,
umpires apply the table below, as

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables


To determine the effects of NBC warfare,
umpires apply the tables below, as appro-

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

FM 25-4
Appendix F/Assessment and Computation Tables

FM 25-4
Assessment and Computation Tables/Appendix F

Postexercise Activities
Whether externally or internally Participants describe what happened in
evaluated, all training exercises have AARs. their own terms.
Normally, the formality and scope of the The discussions are outlined, prepared, and
AARs increase as the level and scope of the rehearsed.
training expand. For example, because
events occur so frequently and over such Thought-provoking questions are prepared
distances in a company-level field exercise, to stimulate discussion.
no single person can observe all the events, Analyses relate tactical events to
especially someone preoccupied with the subsequent results and training objectives.
overall unit mission. AARs pull together the
separate events. They integrate the experi- Alternate courses of action are discussed.
ences and observations of everyone involved Discussions avoid minor events that do not
in an atmosphere that promotes effective directly relate to the major training
learning. To be most effective, AARs should objectives.
be conducted during the exercise at logical
break points, as well as at the conclusion. Participants do not excuse inappropriate
actions. Instead, they examine why actions
AARs are not critiques in the traditional were taken and what alternatives were
sense. They do not merely judge success or available.
failure. Instead, they are professional dis-
cussions of training events. Trainers or Terrain models and training aids illustrate
controllers should not lecture participants on events. Participants relate their comments
what went wrong. Rather they guide to the model and move the markers for
discussions to ensure that important lessons units, vehicles, and personnel to show the
are openly discussed, preferably by the events. TV tape playbacks of key events
participants themselves. Soldiers who generate interest and discussions.
identify what went right and wrong learn Every element that participated in the exer-
much more than when lessons are dictated. cise is present at the AAR.
For effective AARs—
Training deficiencies surfaced during the
All controllers, umpires, and evaluators AAR are incorporated into the unit train-
must be trained in AAR techniques and ing schedule within two to six weeks of the
prepared to conduct AARs with subgroups. exercise.
The chief controller should debrief all
controllers and assistants prior to the AARs encourage discovery learning.
AARs. Soldiers learn best when they learn from each
other and from their leaders. Controllers,
Commanders and controllers should not umpires, and evaluators are there to guide
critique or lecture. They guide the dis- that learning. In this way, soldiers and junior
cussions by asking leading questions. They leaders get involved in their own professional
enter the discussion only to sustain the development and learn more in the process.
AAR, to get the discussion back on the right
track, or to bring out new points. Controllers, umpires, and evaluators must
Discussions do not embarrass leaders or provide comments to the units with which
soldiers but emphasize the positive. they work. AARs occur during the exercises
FM 25-4
Postexercise Activities/Appendix G

or as soon after them as practical. During umpires, evaluators, and OPFORs. They
lengthy exercises, they occur at predeter- must debrief the controllers immediately
mined times following significant activities. after ENDEX to determine what happened.
Controllers, umpires, and evaluators coordi- They must also debrief the OPFORs, which
nate with respective OPFOR and player com- as control elements, are in advantageous
manders to determine who will attend. The positions to observe player units.
chief controllers schedule ARRs in conveni-
ent locations, preferably quiet places pro- If the controllers know something occurred
tected from adverse weather, where the that they could not observe, they should ask a
soldiers can feel relatively comfortable. player unit member who was involved
Coffee and soup help create the proper exactly what happened, but not why or how.
atmosphere. Regardless of the echelon The why and how will be presented by the
conducting the exercise, the maximum player during the AAR. Figure 36 provides a
number of player personnel should attend an possible format they could use for making
AAR, down to and including the first-line detailed observations during exercises. By
NCO leaders and soldiers. Exercises at bat- collecting and recording the data from these
talion and above normally conduct separate working papers, chief controllers get the
AARs at each echelon. information needed to conduct AARs. After
gathering all the information, the chief
AARs cover both the strengths and the controllers review the exercises to determine
weaknesses associated with— the sequence of events and the cause and
Tactics. effect relationships for all significant activi-
ties. The chief controllers then coordinate the
Combined arms employment. AARs and outline an agenda. Table 57 shows
Command and control. a possible agenda for the AAR of a platoon-or
Communications. company-size maneuver unit in an offensive
role using TES.
Personnel and logistics support. CONDUCT
They encourage dialogue among controllers, Each AAR contains three major steps:
evaluators, umpires, and player unit person- A restatement of training objectives.
nel so that everyone will have the opportunity
to discuss the conduct of the exercise. AARs A discussion of all events and how they are
highlight lessons learned and alternative related, in order to bring out teaching
solutions. The chief controllers provide points.
agendas for the reviews. The agendas then A summary of the AAR and a recommenda-
become outlines for the formal after-action tion for subsequent training to correct
reports, which are written concurrently with weaknesses and sustain strengths.
or immediately after the exercise.
The chief controller briefly restates the
PREPARATION specific training objectives. The AAR
normally covers only the training objectives
In order to conduct AARs, chief controllers that the commander identified prior to the
must have a complete picture of what exercise. The chief controller then guides a
happened in the exercises. They base the discussion of events and their relationships
AARs on comments provided by controllers, by—

FM 25-4
Appendix G/Postexercise Activities

Asking leading questions that emphasize Bringing out important lessons learned.
the training objectives. Relating tactical events to subsequent
Having the unit members describe what results.
happened in their own words and from Exploring alternative courses of action
their own points of view. Key elements of that might have been more effective.
the AAR are the unit commander’s
visualization of the battle, the com- Avoiding detailed examination of events
mander’s concept, the actual events, and not directly related to major training
the reasons why they happened. objectives.

FM 25-4
Postexercise Activities/Appendix G

Diagrams or overlays help players visualize each one. Commanders of DS units (FA,
what happened during the exercise. For engineer) should attend the maneuver
example, the assembly area and the objective brigade (third-echelon) AAR and may wish to
could be shown first. As the AAR proceeds, schedule the DS unit AAR later.
routes of advance and engagement locations
can be shown later as the exercise events are First Echelon
As soon after ENDEX as possible, the
The chief controller concludes the AAR company umpire holds an AAR for the
with a quick summary. After the summary, company commander, leaders, and soldiers.
the chief controller privately discusses A maneuver company AAR will discuss—
individual and unit performance with unit
leaders. They discuss weaknesses honestly Engagements.
and candidly in order to improve per- Use of terrain.
formance. But like the whole AAR, this
portion should be positive and encourage Suppression of enemy weapons.
proud, confident units. Training objectives Coordination of fire and maneuver.
for subsequent exercises can derive from such
an analysis. Employment of antitank weapons.
Employment of other organic and sup-
ECHELONS porting weapon systems.
Most training exercises integrate several For example, during the FTX, antitank
systems such as maneuver, fire support, weapons engaged OPFOR units from defen-
intelligence, engineer, and maintenance sup- sive positions at the maximum range of 3,000
port. They are intersystem exercises. Others meters. The OPFOR dispersed instead of
train only one system, regardless of its com- entering a kill zone where Dragons could
plexity. They are intrasystem exercises. have been employed. The AAR discusses the
AARs are conducted either consecutively or pros and cons of this event and the tactical
concurrently at each echelon that took part in procedures. It explores what should have
the exercise. happened and what the results might have
For a division FTX, each echelon’s AAR During an FTX, elements of CSS units are
discusses items and events relating to the normally assigned to support maneuver units
exercise objectives, unit OPORD, and TSOP or areas. After ENDEX, members of CSS
as they affected the unit’s mission. CS units units attend the first-echelon AAR of the sup-
also conduct multiechelon AARs following ported maneuver unit. Those in forward
exercises or after major phases or events areas should remain in position and attend
during an exercise. FA, ADA, and combat the AAR of the maneuver unit being sup-
engineer units have special considerations ported. Those in rear areas such as field
that affect their AARs. CS units normally trains should attend the AAR conducted
provide elements, such as FIST and fire sup- there.
port sections, that associate and collocate
with maneuver units. These personnel should A first-echelon AAR should also be held at
attend both the maneuver unit AAR and the company level for CSS units. For example,
parent unit AAR. If one person cannot attend the maintenance company umpire should
both AARs, a representative should attend conduct an AAR for the commander, leaders,

FM 25-4
Appendix G/Postexercise Activities

and soldiers. This AAR must be delayed until Fire support coordination.
all members attending maneuver unit or Combat engineer support.
other AARs can arrive and until evaluator
observations are compiled. A maintenance Employment of antitank weapon systems.
company AAR will discuss— Communication support.
The capability to repair equipment as far Target acquisition systems.
forward as possible.
Staff coordination.
Provision of spare parts.
Administrative and logistical support.
Optimum use of available spare parts.
Integration and orchestration of all CA,
Communications. CS, and CSS elements.
Availability of proper tools. Probable results for alternate courses of
Response time to requests for repair. action.
Coordination procedures with supported For example, the AAR might discuss why the
units. battalion did not use combat engineer
support properly as a combat multiplier and
Tactical operations (rear area security) and how ineffective planning resulted in inade-
survival operations. quate preparation of the battlefield. The
It will also discuss how the contact team can lessons learned can apply to the next
get enough information from the unit exercise. The engineer officer who supported
requesting support so that supervisors send the battalion should be present to discuss the
the right personnel equipped with the right proper use of combat engineers.
tools forward to make repairs.
A maintenance battalion AAR will cover—
Second Echelon Systematic procedures for requesting spare
Second-echelon AARs are conducted only
after the first-echelon AARs are held and the Procedures for dispatching contact teams
necessary observations are recorded. Bat- to support maneuver units.
talion umpires conduct second-echelon Training shortcomings in specific
AARs. Battalion commanders, staffs, maintenance areas.
company commanders, and officers and non- Communication procedures.
commissioned officers down to platoon ser-
geants or the equivalent attend. At this Maintenance system operations with units
echelon, AARs are professional discussions above and below battalion level.
led by commanders and battalion umpires to The effect of terrain, weather, and intensity
examine what happened, why it happened, of combat on the demand for various types
and what alternatives should be used in of spare parts.
different tactical situations. A maneuver bat-
talion AAR might discuss— The effect of new weapon systems on
Organization for combat. maintenance procedures.
Concept of operation and scheme of Recovery and evacuation.
maneuver. Controlled substitution.

FM 25-4
Postexercise Activities/Appendix G

Maintenance collection points. Effects of enemy EW activity on friendly

Operational safety. operations.
Operational readiness plan. Integration and use of all CA, CS, and CSS
Mission essential maintenance only If the exercise were conducted in summer
(MEMO). under ideal conditions, the AAR could
Calibration. discuss how the same operation would be
Repair facility sites. conducted in winter on frozen ground and
with limited visibility. Under such condi-
For example, the AAR might discuss the tions, operation planning would have to
procedures for dispatching contact teams to consider—
perform forward area maintenance and how
a lack of organic transportation degraded Increased control measures.
responsiveness. The AAR addresses alter- Degraded air support.
nate means of transportation available to the Limitations on target acquisition.
battalion and procedures to obtain and use
them. If the unit SOP seems to be in error, the Effects of cold weather on troops and
discussion should focus on correcting and equipment.
validating it in the next similar exercise. The impact on logistical systems.

Third Echelon Third-echelon AARs conducted for the

Third-echelon AARs are conducted after DISCOM should be attended by the com-
the second-echelon AARs are completed, mander, staff, subordinate battalion com-
allowing enough time for compiling neces- manders and staff, and company com-
sary observations and examining lessons manders. Representatives from maneuver
learned at the battalion level. Brigade and combat support units (FA, engineer,
umpires conduct third-echelon AARs for the ADA) should also attend. These AARs should
commanders, staffs, and appropriate non- cover all aspects of CSS during the exercise
commissioned officers. Battalion com- and their impact on the tactical operation.
manders, their staffs, and company com- Topics for discussion include—
manders attend. AARs at this echelon are Medical support and casualty evacuation.
professional discussions of what happened
and why. However, third-echelon AARs Personnel and administrative support.
include— Supply system operations.
Operations under limited visibility. Maintenance procedures.
Tactical operations in an NBC Transportation.
The impact of new systems and doctrine on Ammunition hauling and stockpiling.
operations. The AAR discusses the time units actually
Intelligence preparation of the battlefield. spent supporting exercise requirements as
opposed to the time they spent on scenario
Tactical operations against different events. The AAR compares the training bene-
enemy actions. fits received from responding to actual situa-

FM 25-4
Appendix G/Postexercise Activities

Fourth Echelon
tions caused by the exercise to the benefits Fourth-echelon AARs bring together
from simulated situations. The lessons comments from all previous AARs and the
learned from this comparison allow planners exercise in general. The exercise director and
to schedule events for CSS units during future control staff conduct these AARs. Those
exercises. They also provide indicators of attending are division commanders and
what will actually be required in combat and staffs, along with the commanders and staffs
allow commanders to fine tune support of the DISCOM, the maneuver brigades, and
systems and procedures. their battalion commanders. Fourth-echelon

FM 25-4
Postexercise Activities/Appendix G

AARs focus on the exercise objectives and the one to two weeks. Exercise directors are
degree to which they were accomplished. responsible for producing this report.
They are professional discussions of the
effects of decisions made in response to The written after-action reports inform all
changes in the battlefield environment. They units about combat, CS, and CSS problems
discuss battle staff training, survivability encountered during the exercise. They docu-
operations, and the CA, CS, and CSS integra- ment strengths and weaknesses of opera-
tion necessary to fight and win air-land tions. They also include test results on new
battles. They discuss how new systems tactics, techniques, and equipment. Com-
impact on operations. manders and staffs should use them as input
for long- and short-range planning for train-
AFTER-ACTION REPORTS ing. The format and content of after-action
reports vary from one command to another.
Formal after-action reports should be Exercise LOIs should provide guidance for
submitted as soon after training exercises as the format. See Figure 37 for a sample after-
practical. Normally, this is no longer than action report.

AAFCE . . . . . . . . . . Allied Air Forces, ARTEP . . . . . . . . . . Army Training and
Central Europe Evaluation Program
AAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . after-action review ASA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aviation support activity
AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Active Component ASIC . . . . . . . . . . . all-source intelligence
ACC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . area coordination center center
ACCB . . . . . . . . . . . . air cavalry combat ASOC . . . . . . . . . . . . air support operations
brigade center
ACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allied Command, ATOM . . . . . . . . . . . . antitank guided missile
Europe ATLAS . . . . . . . . . . . A Tactical, Logistical,
ACR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . armored cavalry and Air Simulation
regiment AVKP . . . . . . . . . . . . armored vehicle kill
ADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . air defense artillery probability
ADM . . . . . . . . . . . . . atomic demolition AVLB . . . . . . . . . . . . armored vehicle
munition launched bridge
ADP . . . . . . . . . . . . ..automatic data
processing B
AFCENT . . . . . . . . . Allied Forces, Central
Europe BAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . battlefield air
AFNORTH . . . . . . . Allied Forces, Northern
Europe BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . battalion through corps
AFSOUTH . . . . . . . Allied Forces, Southern BCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . battery control center
Europe BDA bomb . . . . . . . damage assessment
AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . adjutant general bde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brigade
AH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . attack helicopter BE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Belgium
ALO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air liaison officer BENT . . . . . . . . . . . . before morning nautical
AMEND . . . . . . . . . . Army Medical
Department bn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . battalion
APC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . armored personnel BR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Britain
AR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Army regulation
ARTBASS . . . . . . . Army Training Battle C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . confidential
Simulation System CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combat arms

FM 25-4

CAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combined arms army CPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . command post exercise

cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . caliber CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combat support
CAMMS . . . . . . . . . . Computer-Assisted Map CSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combat support hospital.
Maneuver Simulation ctg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cartridge
CAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . close air support
CSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combat service support
CATTS . . . . . . . . . . . Combined Arms Tactical
Training Simulator CTX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combined training
CAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemical, biological,
and radiological C/V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chaparral/Vulcan
CBU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cluster bomb unit
cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . company commander D
CENTAG . . . . . . . . . Central Army Group,
Central Europe DA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of the Army
CEV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combat engineer vehicle DACCS . . . . . . . . . . Department of the Army
Command and Control
CEWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . combat electronic System
warfare intelligence
DAME . . . . . . . . . . . . division airspace
CFX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . combined field exercise management element
cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . caliber DA D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Defense
C/F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . command/fire DEPEX . . . . . . . . . . deployment exercise
CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . counterintelligence DISCO . . . . . . . . . division support
CINCUSAREUR . commander in chief,
United States Army div . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .division
Europe DIVARTY . . . . . . . division artillery
cml . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemical DMMC . . . . . . . . . . . division materiel
management center
CMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . civil-military DO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . direct support
DST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . director station trailer
co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . company DTG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . date-time group
COL . . . . . . . . . . . . . colonel
COMMA . . . . . . . . . . communications zone
CONUS . . . . . . . . . . continental United E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exercise (STARTEX)
States EAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . echelons above corps
COSCOM . . . . . . . . . corps support command ECC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exercise control center
CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . command post
ECM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . electronic counter-
CPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . captain measures
FM 25-4

EDRE . . . . . . . . . . . . emergency deployment FPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . final protective fire

readiness exercise FR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . France
EEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . essential elements of
information FRAGO . . . . . . . . . . fragmentary order
ENCOM . . . . . . . . . . Engineer Command FS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire support
ENDEX . . . . . . . . . . end of the exercise FSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire support coordinator
EPW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enemy prisoner of war
FSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire support element
E/TA . . . . . . . . . . . . . electronic target
acquisition FSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire support officer
ESM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . electronic warfare FSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire support section
support measures
FTX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . field training exercise
EUCOM . . . . . . . . . . European Command
EW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . electronic warfare

FA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . field artillery G1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . assistant chief of staff,
G1 personnel
FAAR . . . . . . . . . . . . forward area altering
area G2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . assistant chief of staff,
G2 intelligence
FAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forward air controller
G3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . assistant chief of staff,
FAR . . . . . . . . . . . . forward arming and G3 operations and
refueling point plans
FASCO . . . . . . . . . . forward area support G4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . assistant chief of staff,
coordinator G4 logistics
FCX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire coordination exercise G5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . assistant chief of staff,
FDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire direction center G5 civil affairs
FEBA . . . . . . . . . . . . forward edge of the GBU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . guided bomb unit
battle area GDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . German Democratic
lSG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . first sergeant Republic (East
FIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . fire support team
GE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Germany, Federal
FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . frequency modulated Republic of
FO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forward observor (West Germany)
FORSCOM . . . . . . . US Army Forces GELD . . . . . . . . . . . . ground laser
Command locator dectector

FM 25-4

GP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . general purpose LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . light antitank weapon
GS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . general support lb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pound
GT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..gun-target LC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .line of contact
GTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . graphic training aid LD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . line of departure
LFX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . live-fire exercise
LO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lines of communication
HAWK . . . . . . . . . . . homing-all-the-way LOI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . letter of instruction
LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lieutenant
HC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . high concentrate
LTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lieutenant colonel
HE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . high explosive
HELLFIRE . . . . . . Heliborne Laser Fire- M
and-Forget Missile
System m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meter
HQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .headquarters MAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . mobile assault bridge
HTF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . how-to-fight MAC . . . . . . . . . . . . .maneuver area
I MACE . . . . . . . . . . . . Military Air Cargo
Export System
ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . identification
MAJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .major
IPB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intelligence preparation
of the battlefield MAPEX . . . . . . . . . . map exercise
IPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . in-process review MBA . . . . . . . . . . . . .main battle area
MCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . movement control
MEDCEN . . . . . . . medical center
JCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Chiefs of Staff MEDCOM . . . . . . . . Medical Command
JTX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . joint training exercise MEDDAC . . . . . . . . medical activity
JVB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . joint visitor’s bureau MEMO . . . . . . . . . . . mission essential
maintenance only
K MEDMOD . . . . . . . . Medical Module
METT . . . . . . . . . . . mission, enemy,
KIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .killed inaction terrain, and troops
KT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kiloton available

FM 25-4

MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . military intelligence NCOIC . . . . . . . . . . . noncommissioned officer

in charge
MILES . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Integrated
Laser Engagement NL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Netherlands
System NOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nap-of-the-earth
MLB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . metallic link belt NORTHAG . . . . . . Northern Army Group,
mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . millimeter Central Europe
MMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . materiel management NTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Training
center Center
MOPP . . . . . . . . . . . . mission-oriented
protection posture
MOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . military occupational
specialty OB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . order of battle
MOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . military operations O/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on order
on urbanized terrain
OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . observation helicopter
MP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . military police
O/I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . operations/intelligence
MRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . multiple rocket launcher
OIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . officer in charge
MSG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . master sergeant
OP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . observation post
MSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . main supply route
OPCOM . . . . . . . . . . operational command
MST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maintenance support
team OPFOR . . . . . . . . . . opposing force
MTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maneuver training OPLAN . . . . . . . . . . operation plan
command OPORD . . . . . . . . . . operation order
MTOE . . . . . . . . . . . . modification table of OPSEC . . . . . . . . . . . operations security
organization and

NA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . not applicable P&A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . personnel and
NATO . . . . . . . . . . . . North Atlantic Treaty
Organization pam . . . . . . . . . . . . pamphlet
NBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nuclear, biological, PL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phase line
chemical PAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . personnel and
NCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noncommissioned officer administration center

FM 25-4

PAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . public affairs officer S4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . logistics officer

PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . point detonating fuze S5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . civil affairs officer
PERSCOM . . . . . . . Personnel Command
PFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . private first class SACEUR . . . . . . . . . supreme allied
commander, Europe
POMCUS . . . . . . . . pre-positioning of SAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . surafce-to-air missile
materiel configured
to unit sets SFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sergeant first class
PSYOP . . . . . . . . . . . psychological operations SGT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sergeant
PW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prisoner of war SASP . . . . . . . . . . . . . special ammunition
supply point
PWRM . . . . . . . . . . . pre-positioned war
reserve materiel SHORAD . . . . . . . . short-range air defense
SIDPERS . . . . . . . . Standard Installation
Division Personnel
R System
SITREP . . . . . . . . . . situation report
RACE . . . . . . . . . . . . rear area combat
operations SJA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . staff judge advocate
RATELO . . . . . . . . . radio telephone operator SOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . standing operating
RC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reserve Component
SP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . self-propelled
REALTRAIN . . . . realistic training
SP4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . specialist 4
REFORGER . . . . . redeployment of forces
to Germany SQT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skill qualification test
RG . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Reserve Guard SSG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . staff sergeant
SSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . specialty skill identifier
SSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . social security number
SSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . special security officer
S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . secret STANAG. . . . . . . . . standarization
S&T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . supply and agreement
transportation STARTEX . . . . . . . start of the exercise
S1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . adjutant STRAC . . . . . . . . . . . Standards in
S2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intelligence officer Training Commission
S3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . operations and training STX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . situational training
officer exercise

FM 25-4

t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ton TOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tube-launched, optically-
T&E . . . . . . . . . . . . . training and evaluation tracked, wire-guided
T&EO . . . . . . . . . . . training and evaluation
outline TPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . target practice tracer
TA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . theater army TRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . training resource
assistance center
TAACOM . . . . . . . . theater army area
command TRANSCOM . . . . . Transporation
TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . target acquisition
battery TSOP . . . . . . . . . . . . tactical standing
operating procedure
TACC . . . . . . . . . . . . tactical air control center
TACP . . . . . . . . . . . . tactical air control party
TACSIM . . . . . . . . . tactical simulation
TADS . . . . . . . . . . Target Alerting Data U
Display Set
U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unclassified
TALC . . . . . . . . . . . . training and audiovisual US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United States
support center
UK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United Kingdom
TC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . training circular USACAC . . . . . . . . . US Army Combined
TD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tactical deception Arms Center
TDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tables of distribution and USAF . . . . . . . . . . . . US Air Force
allowance USAREUR. . . . . . . US Army, Europe
TES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tactical engagement USATSC . . . . . . . . . US Army Training
simulation Support Command
TEWT . . . . . . . . . . . . tactical exercise without USSR . . . . . . . . . . . . Union of Soviet
troops Socialist Republics
TF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . task force
TNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trinitrotoluene
TOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tactical operations center
TOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . table(s) of organization VA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virginia
and equipment VB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . visitor’s bureau
TOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . time over target vs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . versus

FM 25-4

WIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wounded in action
WO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . warrant officer
WP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . white phosphorus

XO . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. executive officer

AR 310-31 Management Systems for Tables of
Organization and Equipment
AR 310-49 The Army Authorization Document
System (TAADS)
AR 570-2 Organization and Equipment Authori-
zation Tables: Personnel
FM 25-1 Training
FM 25-2 How to Manage Training in Units
FM 25-3 How to Conduct Training in Units
FM 30-102 Opposing Forces: Europe
FM 34-71 Opposing Forces Training Module:
North Korean Military Forces
FM 41-5 Joint Manual for Civil Affairs
FM 41-10 Civil Affairs Operations
FM 44-1 (HTF) US Army Air Defense Artillery Employ-
FM 44-3 (HTF) Air Defense Artillery Employment,
Chaparral/ Vulcan
FM 44-4 Operation and Training, Chaparral
FM 44-23 US Army Air Defense Artillery Employ-
ment, Redeye
FM 44-90 US Army Air Defense Artillery Employ-
ment, Hawk
FM 44-95 Air Defense Artillery Employment, Nike
FM 101-5 Staff Officer Field Manual: Staff
Organization and Procedures
FM 101-10-1 Staff Officer Field Manual: Organiza-
zational, Technical and Logistic Data
TC 25-1 Training Land: Unit Training Land
TC 25-3 Training Ammunition
TC 25-6 Tactical Engagement Simulation
Training with MILES
USATSC Bulletin 82-1 Battle Simulations
USACGSC 101-1 Organizational Data for the Army in the

FM 25-4

FM 25-4

FM 25-4

FM 25-4

FM 25-4

FM 25-4


By Order of the Secretary of the Army:


General, United States Army
Chief of Staff

Major General, United States Army
The Adjutant General

Active Army, ARNG, and USAR: To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-11B, Require-
ments for Operations of Army Forces in the Field (Qty rqr block no. 405) and Maneuver Control
(Qty rqr block no. 422).
Additional copies may be requisitioned from the US Army Adjutant General Publications Center,
2800 Eastern Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21220.
✩ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING 0FFlCE: 1992-281-486/43661
PIN: 056289-000